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(Affiliated To Thiruvalluvar University)

MCA SYLLABUS
(OLD)

The candidate’s performance in each paper is evaluated by a combination of continuous internal assessment and end-
semester examination. The maximum mark for the continuous internal assessment is 25 and for the end-semester
examination is 75,for each paper. The marks for the continuous internal assessment for each theory paper shall be carried out
by conducting three sessional examinations and the average of best two may be chosen for 20 marks, and the remaining 5
marks may be considered for assignment or seminar. Conducting two examinations shall carry out the continuous internal
assessment for the practical paper and the best one may be chosen. The faculty who is handling the paper should do the
evaluation for continuous internal assessment. The university will conduct the end-semester examination.

Two external examiners appointed by the university will evaluate the performance of the candidates into the end-semester
examination of the practical papers. The evaluation pattern for the end-semester practical examination is

• Record-book - 10 marks
• Examination - 65 marks

For mini-project the candidate should submit a report exceeding 25 pages in proper format similar to the final project
report at the time of examination. The demonstration of the work must be shown to the examiners and the candidate should
carry out the modification suggested by the examiners during examination.

The final project work can be either carried out in section of any industry/university/institute or in the institute when the
candidate is studying. The projects, which are developed in, study centers or training institutes will not be considered for the
course of study. For final project work, the guide (internal) evaluate the work for 25 marks based on the performance of the
candidates during the development of the project and the two external examiners will evaluate the project work as follows.

• Project report - 30 marks


• Viva-voce - 45 marks

The project work should be an individual one.

5.PASSING MINIMUM

1. A candidate shall be declared to have passed to have passed in each paper if he/she secures not less than 40% of
marks in university end-semester examination and also not less than 50% in aggregate of the total maximum marks.
2. A candidate who have passed in all papers and in the project work within the maximum period of five years reckoned
from the date of admission to the course is declared to have qualified for the degree.

6.LETTER GRADES & CLASSIFICATION

1. For each paper, a letter grade shall be assigned according to the percentage of marks. Each letter grade has a
corresponding grade weight.

% Of marks grade (expansion) weight

90 and above E(Excellent) 4

Between 75 and 89 D(Distinction) 3

Between 60 and 74 A(average) 2

Between 50 and 59 B(Below Average) 1

Less than 50 F(Failed) 0

The cumulative grade point average(CGPA) is calculated as

S gi ci
CGPA= -----------------
Total Credits

Where ci and gi are respectively the credit value and the grade weight. The precision of two decimals will be considered
in the CGPA.

During the development of the project and the two external examiners will evaluate the project work as follows:
Project Report - 30 marks
Viva-Voice - 45 marks

The project work should be an individual one.

PASSING MINIMUM
A Candidate shall be declared to have passed in each paper if he\she secures not less than 40% of marks in University end-
semester examination and also not less than 50% in aggregate of the total maximum marks.
A Candidate who have passed in all papers and in the project work within the maximum period of five years reckoned from
the data of admission to the course is declared to have qualified for the degree.

LETTER GRADES & CLASSIFICATION

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1.For each paper, a letter grade shall be assigned according to the percentage of Marks. Each letter grade has a
corresponding grade weight.

% Of marks Grade (Expansion) Weight

90 and above E (Excellent) 4

Between 75 and 89 D (Distinction) 3

Between 60 and 74 A (Average) 2

Between 50 and 59 B (Below Average) 1

Less than 50 F (Failed) 0

The cumulative grade point average (CGPA) is calculated as

S gi ci
CGPA= -----------------
Total Credits

Where ci and gi are respectively the credit value and the grade Weight. The precision of two decimals will be considered in
the CGPA.

The final classification is based on the CGPA as

CGPA Class
3.00 and above First class with Distinction
2.00 and 2.99 First class
Below 2.00 Second class

Only those candidates who have passed in all the papers including the practical and project work in the first appearance are
considered for the purpose of ranking.

PROCEDURE IN CASE FAILURE

If a candidate fails in a particular paper, other than project work, he\she may reappear for the University examination in the
paper in subsequent semesters and obtain passing minimum.

If the candidate fails in the project she\she should redo the project work in a subsequent semester and resubmit the project
report afresh for evaluation. The continuous internal assessment marks shall be freshly allotted in this case.

8 .ATTENDANCE

A candidate who has overall attendance of less than 75% in a semester is not eligible for attending end-semester
examination. However, it shall be open to the academic dean/principal to grant exemption if the Candidate posses more than
or equal to 65% and less than 75% of attendance for valid reasons artier paying required connation Fee by the candidate to
the university.

9. FORMAT FOR PREPARING PROJECT REPORT

9.1Arrangement of contents

1. Title page
2. Bona fide certificate
3.Acknowledgement
4.Table of contents
5.Abstract
6.Chapters of the report
7.References
8.Appendices, if any.

9.2 APPENDICES SHOULD BE NAMES AS

APPENDIX-A
APPENDIX-B

BINDING SPEFICATION

Report should be bound using flexible cover of thick white art paper. The spine for the bound volume should be of black
calico of 2 cms Width. The cover should be printed black letters.

9.4 MARGIN SPECIFICATION

Top : 4 cms
Bottom : 3 cms
Left : 4.5 cms
Top : 2.5 cms

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PAGE NUMBERING

All page numbers should be typed without punctuation on the bottom-center portion of the page. The preliminary pages
(table of contents and abstract) should be numbered in lower case roman literals. Pages of main text, starting with Chapter-1
should be consecutively numbered using Arabic numerals.

TITLE PAGE

TITLE OF THE PROJECT

A project Report
Submitted for the partial fulfillment for
The award of degree of

MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

By
STUDENT’S NAME
(Register Number)
Under the guidance of

GUIDE’S NAME
COLLEGE ADDRES
Month and year
CERTIFICATE
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the report entitled


TITLE OF THE PROJECT
Being submitted to the university of madras, Chennai
By
Mr./Ms. STUDENT; S NAME
For the partial fulfillment for the award of degree of
MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Does he carry out a bona fide record of work, under?
My guidance and supervision.

Date: Name and address of the guide.

Submitted for the viva-voce examination on ______________________ Examiners:

1.
2.
A.C Feb. 2000 ___________________-
UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS
DEGREE OF
MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS.
(M.C.A)
(SEMESTER SYSTEM)

PATTERN OF THERORY QUESTION PAPER

Time: 3 Hours Maximum Marks : 75

PART -A (5 * 5 = 25 Marks)
Five Questions – internal choice,
One question from each unit (either-or Type)

PART-B (5 * 10 = 50 Marks)

Eight questions – at least one question from each unit


but not more than two questions from one unit.
Out of eight questions FIVE shall be answered.

PATTERN OF PRACTICAL QUESTION PAPER


Time: 3 hours Maximum Marks: 75

One compulsory problem to be solved. The Board of Examination will set the Question Papers. For each practical batch, a
collection of question papers consisting of different questions shall be prepared. No more than three candidates should get the
same question in a batch.

REVISED SYLLABUS
PCA101 – MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR COMPUTER SCIENCE

Unit-1:
Propositions and Compound Propositions – Logical Operations – Truth tables - Tautologies and Contradictions – Logical
equivalence – Algebra of propositions – Conditional and biconditional statements –Arguments – Logical implications – Quantifiers
–Negation of Quantified statements – Basic counting principles – Factorial – Binomial coefficients – Permutations – Combinations
– Pigeonhole principle – Ordered and unordered partitions.

Unit-II:
Order and Inequalities – Mathematical induction – Division algorithm – divisibility – Euclidean. Algorithm – Fundamental theorem
of arithmetic – Congruence relation – Congruence equations – Semi groups – Groups – Subgroups – Normal subgroups –
Homomorphism – Rings – Integral domains – Fields- Polynomials over a field

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Unit-III:
Roots of equation: Graphical methods – Bisection methods – Fales-poisiton method – Fixed iteration – Newton-raphson method
Secant method – Multiple roots – System of nonlinear equations – Roots of polynomials. Conventional methods – Muller’s method
– Bairstow’s method.

Unit-IV:
Algebraic equations: Gauss elimination – Non-linear system of equations – Gauss-Jordan – LU Decomposition – Matrix inverse
Error analysis – Tridiagonal systems – Cholesky Decomposition – Gauss-Seidel.

Unit-V:
Differentiation and Integration: Trapezoidal rule – Simpson’s rule – Romberg integration – Gauss quadrature – Richardson
extrapolation – Derivatives and integrals for Data with Error.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


1. Seymour Lipschutz and marc Lipson – discrete mathematics – second edition – Tata McGraw Hill Edition-1999.
2. Steven C.Chopra and Raymond P.Canale – Numerical Methods for Engineers – Third Edition – McGraw Hill International
Edition – 1998.

PCA103 – INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

UNIT-1:
IT - an introduction – information systems - S/W and data – IT in Business, Industry, Home, at play, Education, Training,
Entertainment, Arts, Science, Engineering and Maths – Computers in Sliding - GPS – Types of Computers – Anatomy of a
Computer – Foundations modern IT – CPU –Memory – Buses – Communication with Peripherals.

UNIT-II:
I/O Devices – Inputting text and Graphics – Pointing devices – foundations of modern output – Display screens – Printers –
Foundations of Model storage – storage media – Increasing data storage capacities – The smart Card.

UNIT-III:
S/W Interfaces – Application programs – OS – document centric computing – S/W issues – Network computing – Editing
documents – Word processing – Features – Formatting documents – Desktop Publishing – Spreadsheet Applications – database
Applications – Queries – Internet Connectivities.

UNIT-IV:
Network Applications – Foundation of Modern Networks – LAN - WAN – Link between Networks – High Bandwidth connections
– Multimedia – Tools of Multimedia – Delivering Multimedia – Multimedia on the Web – Corporate Computing – Transaction
Processing – Management Control – Marketing – Advertising, Sales, Design, Production and Manufacturing – Business on the
Internet – Outside computing – Careers – Keeping Up to date.

UNIT-V
Programs – Concepts of Programming – Programming Techniques – Corporate Development – computers and Health – Viruses
Computer Crime – Cryptography – Business issue.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:

1. D.P Curtin, K.Foley, K.Sen and C.Morin, information Technology – The Breakin wave, TMH Edition – 1999.
2.Sawyer, Williams and Hutchinson, Using information Technology – Brief Version, McGraw Hill International edition – 1999.
3.Fundamentals of Information Technology, Alexis Leon & Mathews Leon-vikas Publishing House Pvt, Ltd. –1999.

PCA105 – PROGRAMMING IN C

UNIT-I:
Identifiers – Keywords – Data Types – Access Modifiers – Data Type Conversion – Operators – Conditional controls – Loop
Controls – input/output Operations.

UNIT-II:
Function Prototyping – Function Arguments – Actual vs. Formal Parameters – Pointers – Pointer Variables – Pointers Concepts in
Functions – Multiple Indirection.

UNIT-III:
Arrays – Accessing Array Elements – Pointers and Arrays – Arrays as Function Arguments – Function Returning Addresses
Dynamic Memory Allocation – Storage Classes.

UNIT-IV:
Structures – Unions – typedef – enum- Array of Structures – Pointers to Structure – Micros and Preprocessor.

UNIT-V:
Character I/O – String I/O – formatting input/output – File I/O – Error Handling during I/O – command line Arguments.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:

1.B.S Gottfried – Programming with c – Schanum’s Outline Series – Tata McGraw Hill Edition – 1997.
2. E.Balagurusamy – Programming in ANSI c – Second Edition – Tata McGraw Hill-1999.

PCA107 – DIGITAL COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS

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UNIT-I:
Number System – converting numbers from one base to another – Complements – Binary codes – Integrated circuits – Boolean
algebra – Properties of Boolean algebra – Boolean functions – canonical and Standard forms – Logic operations – Logic gates
Karnough Map up to 6 variables – Don’t Care Condition – Sum of Products and Products of sum simplification – Tabulation
Method.

UNIT-II:
Adder – Sub tractor – Code converter – Analyzing a Combinational circuit – Multilevel NAND and NOR circuits- Properties of
XOR and equivalence function – Binary Parallel Adder – Decimal Adder – Magnitude Comparator – Decoder – Multiplexes
ROM – PLA.

Unit – III:
Flip Flops – Triggering Of Flip-Flops – Analyzing A Sequential Circuit - State Reduction - Excitation Tables – Design Of
Sequential Circuits – Counters – Design With State Equation – Registers – Shift Registers – Ripple And Synchronous
Counters.

Unit – IV:
Memory Unit – Bus Organization – Scratch Pad Memory – ALU – Design Of ALU – Status Register – Effects Of Output
Carry – Design Of Shifter – Processor Unit – Microprocessing – Design Of Specific Arithmetic Circuits.

Unit – V:
Accumulator – Design Of Accumulator – Computer Configuration – Instructions And Data Formats – Instruction Sets –
Timing And Control – Execution Of Instruction – Design Of Computer – H/W Control – PLA Control And Microprogram
Control.

Books For Study:

M. Morris Mano – Digital Logic And Computer Design Phi – 1994


A.P. Malvino And D.P. Leach – Digital Principles And Applications – Fourth Edition – Tata Mcgraw Hill Edition – 1999.

PCA 109 – SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

Unit – I:
Project And Process – Project Management Concepts Software Process And Project Metrics.

Unit – II:
Software Project Planning – Risk Management Project Scheduling And Tracking – Software Quality Assurance.

Unit – III:
Software Configuration Management – System Engineering – Analysis Concepts And Principles.

Unit IV:
Analysis Modeling – Design Concepts And Principles – Design Methods.

Unit V:
Design For Real-Time Systems – Software Testing Methods – Software Testing Strategies – Technical Metrics For
Software.

Books For Study:


R.S. Pressman – Software Engineering – Fourth Edition – Mcgraw Hill International Edition – 1997.
Richard Fairely – Software Engineering – (Design, Reliability And Management) – Tata Mcgraw Hill Edition – 1963.
Practical – I: C Language

 Determining A Given Number Be Prime Or Not.


 Pascal’s Triangle.
 String Manipulation.
 Matrix Multiplication.
 Finding Determinant Of A Matrix.
 Finding Inverse Of A Matrix.
 Checking For Tautologies And Contradictions.
 Euclidean’s Algorithm For Finding GCD.
 Generating Permutation.
 Computing Combinations.
 Creating Database For Mailing Addresses And Related Operations. Use File Concepts.
 Creating Database For Mailing Addresses And Related Operations. Use Structures.
 Creating Database For Web Page Addresses And Related Operations. Use Pointers.
 File Processing.
 Finding Roots Of Equations: Bisection Method.
 Finding Roots Of Equations: Newton-Raphson Method.
 Finding Roots Of Equations: Secant Method.
 Solving Algebraic Equations: Gauss Elimination Method.
 Finding Roots Of Polynomials: Muller’s Method.
 Finding Roots Of Polynomials: Bairstow’s Method.

PCA102 – STATISTICAL METHODS

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Unit – I:
Sample Space – Events – Axiomatic Approach To Probability – Conditional Probability – Independent Events – Baye’s
Formula – Random Variables – Continuous And Discrete
Random Variables – Distribution Function Of A Random Variables, - Coefficient Of Variation, Moment Generation
Function – Chebyshev’s Inequality.

Unit – II:
Bivariate Distribution – Conditional And Marginal Distributions – Discrete Distributions – Discrete Uniform, Binomial
Poison And Geometric Distributions – Continuous Distributions – Uniform, Normal, Exponential And Gamma
Distributions.

Unit – III:
Correlation Coefficient – Rank Correlation Coefficient Of Determination – Linear Regression – Method Of Least Squares –
Fitting Of The Curve Of The Form Ax + B, Ax^2+Bx+C, Ab^X And Ax^B – Multiple And Partial Correlation (3 –
Variables Only).

Unit IV:
Concept Of Sampling – Methods Of Sampling – Simple Random Sampling – Systematic Sampling And Stratified Random
Sampling (Descriptions Only) – Concepts Of Sampling Distributions And Standard Error Point Estimation (Concepts Only)
– Interval Estimation Of Mean And Proportion. Tests Of Hypotheses – Critical Region – Two Types Of Errors – Level Of
Significance – Power Of The Test – Large Sample Tests For Mean And Proportion – Exact Tests Based On Norma, T, F
And Chi-Square Distributions.

Unit V:
Basic Principles Of Experimentation – Analysis Of Variance – One Way And Two Way Classifications – Computing
Randomized Design – Randomized Block Design – Time Series Analysis – Measurement Of Trend And Seasonal
Variations.

Note: No Derivations Required. Emphasis On Concepts And Applications.

Books For Study:

A.M.Mood, F.Graybil And Boes – Introduction To Mathematical Statistics- Mcgraw Hill – 1974>
K.S. Trivedi – Probability And Statistics With Reliability Queueing And Computer Science Applications – Prentice Hall
India – 1994.

PCA104 – MICROPROCESSORS

Units – 1:
Introduction To 8086 Assembly Language Programming – Development Steps – Construction - Writing Programs And
Development Tools – Standard Program Structures – Simple Programs – Jumps – While-Do - Repeat Until – Delay Loops.

Unit – II:
Strings – Procedures – Macros – Instruction Descriptions – Assembler Directives.

Unit – III:
8086 Microcomputer – Observing Bus Signals – Minimum Mode System – Troubleshooting – 8086 Interrupts – Interrupt
Applications – Programmable Timer/Counter – Interrupt Controller.

Unit – IV:
Parallel Ports – Handshaking – Interfacing Digital Devices – Analog Interfacing – Industrial Control.

Unit V:
DMA – Drams – Cache Memories – Co-Processors – Eda Tools – 80286,80386 And 80486 Microprocessors.

Books For Study:

Douglas V. Hall – Microprocessors And Interfacing – Programming And Hardware – Tmh – 1999.
K. Udaya Kumar And B.S. Umashankar – Advanced Microprocessors And Ibm-Pc Assembly Language Programming –
Tmh – 1998.

PCA106 - ACCOUNTING &FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

Unit-1:
Principles Of Accounting: Principles Of Double Entry – Journalising, Ledger – Posting And Preparation Of Trial Balance –
Preparation Of Trading Account, Profit And Loss Account And Balance Sheet Including Adjustments (SIMPLE
PROBLEMS ONLY).

Unit-II:
Analysis and Interpretation of Financial statements: Ratio Analysis - Uses of ratios in Interpreting the Final Accounts
(Trading A/c-Profit and Loss A/c and balance Sheet) - Final Accounts to Ratios as Well as Ratios to Final Accounts
Problems.

Unit-III:
Break-even Analysis and Marginal costing: Meaning of Variable cost and Fixed Cost - Cost-volume- Profit Analysis

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– Calculation of Break-even Point, Profit Planning, Sales Planning and other decision -making analysis involving Break-
even Analysis – Computer Accounting and Algorithm. (Differential Cost Analysis to be omitted).

Unit-IV:
Budget/Forecasting: Preparation of and Characteristics of functional Budgets - Production , Sales , Purchases , Cash
and Flexible Budgets.

Unit-V:
PROJECT APPRAISAL: Method of Capital investment decision making: Pay back Method, ARR Method –
Discounted Cash Flow – Methods including Net Present Value and IRR Method.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:

M.C. Shukla and T.S. Grewal - Advanced Accounts - New Delhi – S.Chand & Company-1991
S.C. Kuchhal – Financial Management - Chaitanya – allahabad – 1980.
N.L. Hingorani and A.R.Ramanathan – Management Accounting – Sultan Chand – New Delhi-1982.

PCA108 - OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING WITH C++

Unit-I:
Introduction to OOP- Overview of C++ - Classes – Structures - Union – Friend Functions - Friend Classes – Inline
functions – Constructors – Destructors – Static Members – Scope Resolution OperatorPassing Objects to functions -
Function returning object.

Unit-II:
Arrays - Pointers – this pointer - References – Dynamic memory Allocation – Function Overloading -Default arguments –
Overloading Constructors – Pointer to Functions – Ambiguity in function over
Loading.

Unit-III:
Operator Overloading – Member Operator Function- Friend Operator Function – Overloading some Special operators like
[ ] , ( ) , a and comma operator – Inheritance – Types of Inheritance – Protected Members – Virtual Base Class –
Ploymorphism – Virtual Functions – Pure virtual functions.

Unit-IV:
Class templates and generic classes – Function templates and generic functions – overloading a function Template –
Power of templates – Exception Handling – Derived class Exception - Overhandling generic Functions – Exception
handling Functions – terminates() unexpected() - Uncaught – exception().

Unit-V:
I/O Streams – formations I/O With ios class functions and manipulators – overloading << and >>. –File I/O – Name
spaces - conversion functions – Array based I/O – Standard Template Library (STL).

BOOKS FOR STUDY:

Herbert Schildt, C++ - The Complete Reference, Third Edition – Tata McGraw Hill –
1999.
J.P.Cohoon and J.W. Davidson, C++ Program Design – An Introduction to Programming and
Object – oriented Design – 2nd Edition – McGraw Hill-1999.

PCA110-DATA STRUCTURES

Unit-I:
Abstract Data Types – Asymptotic Notations – Complexity Analysis – Arrays – Representation of Arrays – Operations
on Arrays – Ordered Lists - Polynomials.

Unit-II:
Singly Linked Lists – Circular Linked Lists – Doubly Linked Lists – General Lists – Stacks – Queues –Circular Queues
– Evaluation of Expressions.

Unit-III
Trees – Binary Trees – Binary Tree Traversals – Binary Tree Representations – Binary Search Trees – Threaded Binary
Trees – Application of Trees (Sets) – Representation of Graphs – Graph Implementation Graph Traversals –
Application of Graph Traversals - Minimum Cost Spanning Trees - Shortest Path Problems.

Unit-IV:
Internal Sorting-Optimal Sorting Time-Sorting Large Objects-Sorting with Tapes-Sorting with Disks.

Unitv –V:
Hashing –AVL Trees-Red –Black Trees-Splay Trees-B-Trees.

BOOKS FOR STUDY :


E.Horowitz,S.Sahni and Mehta- Fundamentals of Data Structures in C++-Galgotia-1999.
Gregory L.heileman-Data Structures,Algorithms and Object Oriented Programming-Mc Graw Hill
International Editions –1996.

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PCA112 –PRACTICAL-II :DATA STRUCTURES USING C++

For the implementation of the following problems ,the students are advised to use all possible object oriented featueres.the
implementation based on structured concepts will not accepted.

1.Implementation of arrays(Single and Multi –Dimensional)


2.Polynomial Object and necessary overloaded operators.
3.Singly linked list.
4.Circular linked lists.
5.Doubly linked lists.
6.General Linked Lists.
7.Implementation of Stack(Using Arrays and Pointers).
8. Implementation of Queue(Using Arrays and Pointers).
9.Implementation of Circular Queue(Using Arrays and Pointers).
10.Evaluation of expressions.
11.Binary Tree implementation and Traversals.
12.Binary Search Trees.
13.Inorder Threaded Binary Trees.
14.Quick Sort and Heap sort.
15.AVL Tree –Insertion.

PCA114 –PRACTICAL-III :MICROPROCESSORS

Using 8086 Microprocessor kit/MASM software.

1.Multibyte Addition /Subtraction of Signed Numbers.


2.Computing LCM.
3.Computing GCD of n Numbers.
4.Insertion sort.
5.Selection sort.
6.Linear Search.
7.Matrix Multiplication.
8.Computing Factorial.
9.Computing ncr.
10.Computing Fibonacci Number.
11.Finding Memory Size.
12.Clearing screen.
13.Moving string of characters on the CRT.
14.Checking Password.
15.Displaying Command Line Parameter.

PCA201 –ALGORITHM ANALYSIS & DESIGN

Unit I:
Introduction and Divide and Conquer:Algorithm –Complexity analysis-Introductionn to random algorithms-General
Method-Finding maximum and mimimum-Strassen’s matrix multiplication-Quick sort –Selection sort.

Unit II:
Greedy Method: General Method –Tree vertex splitting-Job sequencing with dead lines –Shortest Path-Knapsack Dynamic
Programming: General Method-multistage graphs-String Editing-Traveling Salesman Problem.

Unit III:
Back Tracking:General Method –Sum of Subsets-Graph Coloring- Depth First Search-Breadth First Search.

Unit IV:
Branch and bound:General Method-O/I Knapsack Problem-Travelling Salesperson _Algebraic manipulation.

Unit V:
Lower bound Theory:Comparison trees-Oracles and advisory arguments- Lower bounds through reduction-Basic Concepts
of Np-Hard and Np- complete.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


E.Horowitz S.Sahni and S.Rajasekaran-Computer Algoritms-Galgotia-1999.
G.Brassard and P.Bratley-Fundamentals of Algorithms-PHI-1997.

PCA203_COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

Unit 1:

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Central Processing Unit: General Register And Stack Organization – Instruction formats - Addressing Modes -
Data Transfer And Manipulation-Program Control-Risc.

Unit II:
Pipelining-Arithmetic, Instruction and Risc Pipelinig-Vector Processing- Array Processors.

Unit III:
Computer Arithmetic-Addition and Subtraction-Multiplication and Division Algorithms-Floating Point and Decimal
Arithmetic operations

Unit IV:
Input-Output Organization-Peripheral devices-I/O Interface – Asynchronous Data Transfer-Modes of Transfer-Priority
Interrupt- Direct Memory Acess-I/O Processor-Serial Communications.

Unit V:
Memory Organization-Memory Hierarchy Main Memory- Auxiliary Memory-Associative Cache and Virtual Memory-
Interconnection Structures- Inter processor Arbitration.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


M.M.Mano – Computer System Architecture –3 rd edition-PHI-1994
J.P.Hayes-Computer Architecture and Organization-McGrawHill-1988.

PCA205 - PROGRAMMING IN JAVA

Unit I:
Introduction to Java-Features of Java –Object Oriented Concepts-Lexical Issues- Data Types Variables-Arrays-Operators-
Control Statements.

Unit II:
Classes-Objects-Constructors-Overloading method-access Control-Static and fixed methods-Inner Classes-String
Class-Inheritance-Overriding methods- using super-Abstract class.

Unit III:
Packages - Access Protection - Importing Packages - Interfaces – Exception Handling – Throw and Throws –
Thread – Synchronization – Messaging - Runable Interface - Inter thread Communication – Deadlock -
Suspending, Resuming and stopping threads - Multithreading.

Unit IV:
I/O Streams –File Streams –Applets- String Objects- String buffer-Char Array –Java Utilities- Code Documentation.

Unit V:
Networks,basics-Socket,Programming-Proxy,Servers-TCP/IP,Sockets-Net, Address - URL-Data grams-Working with
windows using AWT classes-AWT Controls-Layout Managers and Menus.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


P.Naughton And H.Schildt-Java2(The Complete Reference)- Third Edition –Tmh –1999.
k.Arnold and j.Gosling-The Java Programming Language- Second Edition

PCA207 –COBOL PROGRAMMING

Unit I:
Introduction to COBOL-IDENTIFICATION Division-Environment Division- DATA Division-PROCEDURE
Division.

Unit II:
Debugging and Program Testing-Keyboard Input and Screen Display-Output Formatting- Arithmetic Operations.

Unit III:
Report Design and Coding –Conditional Operations –Designing and Writing Control Break Programs.

Unit IV:
Data validation Design and Coding –Processing Arrays/Tables-Processing Multi –Dimensional Tables.

Unit V:
Sorting – Master –Transaction File Processing –Indexed File Processing Program Management.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


Tyler Welburn & Wilson Price –Structured COBOL (Fundamentals and Style) –Fourth Edition –McGraw Hill-1995
A.S.Philippakis and L.J.Kazmier-Advanced COBOL – McGraw Hill –1991

PCA209 – ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS

Unit I:
The scope and significance of Organizational behaviour-contributing disciplines-applications in business and Management
Reliability and Validity measures.

Unit II:
Individual Behaviour-Perceptions –Personality –Types-Determinants- Influence on behaviour-methods of self assessment –
Johari Window-Values-Implications on work behaviour.

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Unit III:
Learing: Concepts and Theory –Motivation-Theories:Maslow,X and Y And Herzberg,Expectancy theories of Vroom,Porter
and Lawler- Motivation in practice-Job enrichment-Job satisfication –QWL Leadership-Types and effectiveness-
Fieldler,likert and Managerial Grid.

Unit IV:
Conflict –Process,sources-Organizational and Personal Goals-resolution of conflict-Concepts of groups-Informal groups-
grapevine-communication- management’s role –communication –types and processes-barriers.

Unit V:
Designing and an organization sructure –Methods –OD-Organizational change-change agents,programmes and strategies-
resistance-Organizational climate-Morale and work environment-organization culture.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


Fred Luthans ,Organizational Behaviour,McGraw Hill,1991.
Laurie J Mullins –Management and Organisational Behaviour –
Wheeler Publishing-1999.

PCA211 –PRACTICAL –IV: COBOL

The detail of the problem statement can be obtained from the book:Tyler Welburn & Wilson Price –Structured COBOL
(Fundamentals and Style) –Fourth Edition –McGraw Hill-1995.

The problem number used in the book is given inside the parenthesis.

1. Earning report (assignment 6-3)


2. Price-list (assignment 7-1)
3. Test grades report (assignment 8-1)
4. Account balance report (assignment 9-1)
5. ledger-record validation (assignment 10-1)
6. department-name look-up (assignment 11-1)
7. federal income tax computation (assignment 12-2)
8. sort and print earnings file (assignment 13-3)
9. vertices file maintenances (assignment 14-1)
10. student grade inquiry (assignment 15-1)

PCA 213-PRACTICAL-V: JAVA APPLICATION

 Finding area and perimeter of a circle. Use buffered reader class.


 Sub string removal from a string. Use string buffer class.
 Determining the order of numbers generate randomly using random class.
 Implementing of point class for image manipulation.
 Usage of calendar class and manipulation
 String manipulation using char array.
 Database creation for storing e-mail addresses and manipulation.
 Usage of vectors classes.
 Implementing threads based application & exception handling.
 Application using synchronization such as thread based, class based and synchronized statements.

APPLETS
 Working with frames and various controls.
 Working with dialogs and menus.
 Working with panels and layout.
 Incorporating graphics.
 Working with colors and fonts.

PCA2002-DATA COMMUNICATION ND NETWORKING

Unit-1:
Introduction to data communication, network, protocols & standards and standards organizations – line configuration – topology
transmission mode – classification of network – OSI model – layers of OSI model.

Unit-2:
Parallel and serial transmission – DTE/DCE/such as EIA-449, EIA-530, EIA-202 and x.21 interface – interface standards –
moderns – guided media – unguided media – performance – types of errors – error detection – error corrections.

Unit-3:
Multiplexing – types of multiplexing – multiplexing application – telephone system – project 802 – Ethernet – token bus –
token ring – FDDI – IEEE 802.6 – SMDS – circuit switching – packet switching – message switching – connecting oriented
and connectionless services.

Unit-4:
History of analog and digital network – access to ISDN – ISDN layers – broadband ISDN – x.25 layers – packet layer
protocol – ATM –ATM topology – ATM protocol.

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Unit-5:
Repeaters-bridges-routers-gateway-routing algorithms-TCP/IP network, transport and application layers of TCP/IP – World
Wide Web.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:

1.behrouz and forouzan, introduction to data communication and networking, TMH-1999.


2.jean garland – communication networks (A first course)-second edition-WCB/McGraw hill-1998.

PCA 204 – OPERATING SYSTEMS

Unit-1:
Introduction-multiprogramming – time sharing-distributed system-real-time systems-I/O structure-dual-mode operation-hardware
protection-general system architecture-operating system services-system calls-system programs-system design and implementation.

Unit-2:
Process management: process concept-concurrent process-scheduling concepts-CPU scheduling-scheduling algorithms,
multiple processors scheduling-critical section-synchronization hardware-semphores, classical problems of synchronization,
interprocess communication.Deadlocks: characterization, prevention, avoidance and detection.

Unit-3:
Storage management-swaping, single and multiple partition allocation –paging –segmentation-pages sagmentation, virtual
memory-demand paging-page replacement and
Algorithms, thrasing.

Secondary storage management – disk structure – free space management –allocation methods – consistency semantics –
directory structure organization – file
Protection – implementation issues – security – encryption.

Unit-IV:
Files and protection – file system organization – file operations – access methods – consistency semantics – directory
structure organization – file protection
- Implementation issues – security – encryption.

Unit-V:
Case studies: MS-DOS and UNIX operating systems.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


A. Silberschatz and P.B. Galvin – Operating System Concepts – Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
A.S. Godbole – Operating Systems – Tata McGraw Hill – 1999.

PCA206 - COMPUTER GRAPHICS

Unit-I:
Video Display Devices – Raster Scan Systems – Input Devices – Hard Copy Devices – Graphics Software – Output
Primitives – Attributes of Output primitives.

Unit-II:
Two – Dimensional Transformation – Clipping –Window-view port mapping.

Unit-III:
User dialogue – Input of Graphical Data – Input Functions – Input Devices parameters – Picture Construction Techniques –
Virtual Reality Environments.

Unit-IV:
Three Dimensional Concepts – 3D Transformations – 3D Viewing.

Unit-V:
Visible – Surface Detection: Back-Face Detection – Depth – Buffer Method – Scan Line Method – A-Buffer Methods –
Properties of Light – Infinitive Color Concepts – RBG Color Models – Computer Animation.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


D.Hearn and M.P.Baker – Computer Graphics – Second Edition – PHI – 1996.
W.M.Neumann and R.F.Sproull – Principle of Interactive Computer Graphics – McGraw Hill – 1979.

PCA 208 - OBJECT ORIENTED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Unit-I:
System Development – Object Basics – Development Life Cycle – Methodologies – Patterns – Frameworks – unified Approach
UML.

Unit-II:
Use – Case Models – Object Analysis – Object relations – Attributes – Methods – Class and Object responsibilities – Case
Studies.

Unit-III:
Design Processes – Design Axioms – Class Design – Object Storage – Object Interoperability – Case Studies.

Unit-IV:
User Interface Design – View Layer Classes – Micro-Level Processes – View Layer Interface – Case Studies.

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Unit-V:
Quality Assurance Tests – Testing Strategies – Object orientation on testing – Test Cases – test Plans – Continuous testing –
Debugging Principles – System Usability – Measuring User Satisfaction – Case Studies.

BOOKS FOR STUDY


Ali Bahrami –Obiect Oriented Systems Development – McGraw Hill International Edition – 1999.
R.S. Pressman – Software Engineering – Fourth Edition – McGraw Hill International Edition – 1997.

PCA 212 - PRACTICAL-VI: UNIX

Students can refer the following book for further details.


Charles Crowley - Operating Systems (A Design Oriented Approach) – TMH – 1998.
 Inter Process Communication (IPC) using Message Queues.
 IPC using pipes.
 Implementation of waits and signal using counting semaphores.
 Implementation of waits and signal using binary semaphores.
 Atomic Counter update problem.
 Counting Semaphores at the user level using binary semaphores.
 Signaling processes.
 Deadlock detection (for processes passing messages)
 Process Scheduling: FCFS
 Process Scheduling: Least Frequently used.
 Process Scheduling: Round Robin.
 Producer-Consumer problem with limited offers.
 Dining-philosopher problem.
 Reader-Writer problem.
 Two process Mutual Exclusion

PCA 301 - INTERNET & ITS APPLICATION

Unit-I:
Internet Concepts – Internet Services - Types of Accounts – Media for Internet – ISP – TCP/IP and Connection Software – Dial
up Networking – Setting up and internet Connection –Testing Connection –Disconnecting from the internet.

Unit-II:
Contenders –Issues in high-speed Connection - Connecting via ISDN, ADSL and Cable Modern – Intranets – Components
of an Intranet – Steps for Creating Intranet – Maintenance – Connecting LAN to Internet.

Unit-III:
E-mails – Downloading E-mails – Signatures and Stationery – Web Based E-mail – E-mail tasks – Outlook Express –
Sending and Receiving files using Eudora – Outlooks Express and pine –Multiple e-mail accounts – Sending form letters –
Formatting e-mail – E-mail mailing lists.

Unit-IV:
Forms of chat and Conferencing – Internet Relay Chat (IRC) – Chatting in Microsoft Chat and Vacate – Starting and
managing a channel – Web-based Chat – Direct Chat systems –MUDs, MOOs and mussles – Voice and Video
Conferencing.

Unit-V:
Elements of web – Browsers – Security and Privacy Issues – Purchasing Products Online with wallet programs – Netscape
Navigator and Communicator – Microsoft Internet Explorer.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


Internet – Margaret Levine Young – The Complete Reference – Millennium Edition – TMH Edition – 1999.
Harley Hahn, The Internet – Complete Reference – Second Edition – TMH Edition.

PCA 303 - DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Unit-I:
Advantages and Components of a Database Management Systems – Feasibility Study – Class Diagrams – Data Types – Events
Normal Forms – Integrity – Converting Class Diagrams to Normalized tables – Data Dictionary.

Unit-II:
Query Basics – Computation using queries – Subtotals and GROUP BY Command – Queries with Multiple tables – Sub
queries – Joins – DDL & DML –
Testing Queries.

Unit-III:
Effective Design of Forms and reports – From Layout – Creating Forms – Graphical Objects – Reports – Procedural
Languages – Data on forms – Programs to Retrieve and Save Data – Error handling.

Unit-IV:
Power of Applications Structure – User Interface Features – Transactions – From Events – Custom reports – Distributing
Applications – Table Operations – Data Storage methods – Sorting Data Columns – Data Clustering and partitioning.

Unit-V:
Database Administration – development stages – Application types – backup and recovery – Security and Privacy –

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Distributed databases – Client/Server Databases – web as a Client/Server Systems – Object Oriented Databases – integrated
Applications.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


Gerald V.Post – Database management Systems – Designing and Building Business Applications – McGraw Hill
International edition – 1999.
Raghu Ramakrishnan – Database management Systems – WCB/McGraw Hill – 1998.

PCA305 - MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS

Unit-I:
What is Multimedia: Definitions – CD-Rom and the Multimedia Highway – Where to use Multimedia – Introduction to Making
Multimedia: The stages of a Project – What You Need – Multimedia Skills and Training: The team – Macintosh and Windows
Production Platforms: Macintosh Versus PC – The Macintosh Platform – The Windows Multimedia PC Platform – Networking
Macintosh and Windows Computers – Hardware Peripherals: Connection – Memory and Storage Devices – Input Devices –
Hardware – Communication Devices

Unit-II:
Basic Tools: Text Editing and Word Processing Tools – OCR Software – Painting and Drawing Tools – 3-D Modeling and
Animation Tools – Image-Editing Tools – Sound Editing Tools – Animation, Video and Digital Movie Tools – Helpful
Accessories – Making Instant Multimedia: Linking Multimedia Objects – Office Suites – Word Processors – Spreadsheets –
Databases – Presentation Tools. Multimedia Authoring Tools: Types of Authoring Tools – Card-and-Page-Based Authoring
Tools – Icon – Based Authoring Tools – Time-Based Authoring Tools – Object – Oriented Authoring Tools – Cross-
Platform Authoring Notes

Unit-III:
Text: The Power of Meaning – About fonts and Faces – Using Text in Multimedia – Computers and Text – Font Editing and
Design Tools – Hypermedia and Hypertext – Sound: The Power of Sound – Multimedia Systems Sounds – MIDI Versus
Digital Audio – Digital Audio – Making MIDI Audio File Formats – Working with Sound on the Macintosh – Notation
Interchange File Format (NIFF) – Adding Sound to Your Multimedia Project – Toward Professional Sound: The Red Book
Standard – Production Tips.

Unit-IV:
Images: Making Still Images – Color – Image File Formats.
Animation: The Power of Motion – Principles of Animation – Making Animations That Work – Video: Using Video – How
Video works – Broadcast Video Standards – Integrating Computers and Television – Shooting and Editing Video – Video
Tips – Recording Formats – Digital Video.

Unit-V:
Planning and Costing: Project Planning – Estimating – RFPs and Bid Proposals – Designing and Producing: Designing –
Producing – Content and Talent: Acquiring Content – Using Content Created by Others – Using Content Created for a
Project – Using Talent – Delivering: Testing – Preparing for Delivery – Delivering on CD-ROM – Compact Disc
Technology – Wrapping It Up – Delivering on the World Wide Web.

BOOK FOR STUDY:


Tay Vaughan – Multimedia: Making it Work. – Fouth Edition – Tata McGraw-Hill Edition – 1999.
Walterworth John A – Multimedia Technologies and Application – Ellis Horwood Ltd. – London – 1991.

PCA 313 – PRACTICAL-IX: RDBMS


Students are advised to use the concepts like Data Normalization, Link between table by means of foregin keys and other
relevant data base concepts for developing databases for the following problems. The implementation of each problem
should have necessary input screen Menu-driven query processing and pleasing reports. The choice or RDBMS is left to the
students. Necessary validations must be done after developing database.

1. Library Information Processing.


2. Students Mark sheet processing.
3. Telephone Directory maintenance.
4. Gas booking and delivering system.
5. Electricity Bill Processing.
6. Bank Transactions.
7. Pay roll processing.
8. Personal Information System.
9. Question Database and Conducting quiz.
10. Personal Diary.

ELECTIVE - I
PCAE 101 – VISUAL PROGRAMMING

Unit-I:
Customizing a Form – Writing Simple Programs - Toolbox – Creating Controls – Name Property – Command Button – Access
Keys – Image Controls – Text Boxes - Labels – Message Boxes – Grid – Editing Tools – Variables – Data Types – String
Numbers.

Unit-II:
Displaying Information – Determinate Loops – Indeterminate Loops –Conditionals – Built-in Functions - Functions and
Procedures.

Unit-III:
Lists – Arrays – Sorting and Searching – Records – Control Arrays – Combo Boxes – Grid Control – Projects with Multiple
forms – DoEvents and Sub Main – Error Trapping.

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Unit-IV:
VB Objects – Dialog Boxes – Common Controls – Menus – MDI Forms – Testing, Debugging and Optimization – Working
with Graphics.

Unit-V:
Monitoring Mouse activity – File Handling – File System Controls – File System Objects – COM/OLE – automation –DLL
Servers - OLE Drag and Drop.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


Gary Cornell – Visual Basic 6 from the Ground up - Tata McGraw Hill – 1999.
Noel Jerke – Visual Basic 6 (The Complete Reference) – Tata McGraw Hill – 1999.

PCAE 101 – VISUAL PROGRAMMING -PRACTICAL LIST

1. Building Simple Applications.


2. Working with Intrinsic Controls and ActiveX Controls.
3. Application with multiple forms.
4. Application with Dialogs.
5. Application with Menus.
6. Application using Data Controls.
7. Application using Common Dialogs.
8. Drag and Drop Events.
9. Database Management.
10. Creating ActiveX Controls.

ELECTIVE - I
PCAE 102 – WINDOWS PROGRAMMING

Unit-I:
Windows Fundamentals – Programming Concepts and Vocabulary for Windows – Windows Development Tools – Resource
Information.

Unit-II:
Application Framework – Project Utility – Writing Windows Programming (Procedure Oriented) – Pie-chart Application.

Unit-III:
MFC Library – MFC Design Considerations – Key features of MFC Library – C Object – Simple Application and Template
– Drawing in Client Area – Fourier Series application with Resources – Bar Chart with Resources.

Unit-IV:
Graph Applications – Word Processor Applications – OLE Features and Specifications – Container Application.

Unit-V:
Active X Controls – Create simple Active X Controls with MFC – Customizing Controls – COM – DHTML – ATL vs.
ActiveX.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


C.H.Pappas and W.H.Murray – Visual C++.6 (The Complete Reference) Tata McGraw Hill Edition – 1999.
Herbert Schildt-Windows 98 Programming from the Groundup – Tata McGraw Hill Edition – 1999.

PCAE102 – AWINDOWS PROGRAMMING – PRACTICAL LIST.

• SDK program for windows creation and display.


• Window Creation using Cframe wind
• Usage of Mouse Routines.
• Creating Menus for Windows.
• Implementing keyboard Accelerator.
• Checking/Unchecking and Enabling/Disabling Menus.
• Inserting and Removing Menus at Runtime.
• Floating Pop-up Menus.
• MDI with cascaded and tiled window.
• Creating modal and modeless Dialog box.
• Creating Status Bar.
• Using List Box with CList Box Class.
• Using Edit Box with CEdit Class.
• Working of Spin Button Controls.
• Creating Graphics Editor.

ELECTIVE – I
PCAE103 – NETWORK PROGRAMMING

This paper is suitable for candidates already having sufficient knowledge in VC++ and visual Basic.

Unit-I
Overview of ActiveX scripting – Java Scripting – Stand-Alone scripts- ActiveX Controls- creating ActiveX Controls.

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Unit-II:
Active X Documents- ActiveX Document Architecture-Creating ActiveX documents.

Unit-III:
URL Monikers- Hyper linking- hyperlink interface- Working with URL Monikers- Overview of ISAPI Extension- ISAPI
Filte.

Unit-IV:
Designing IIS Applications – Building IIS Applications- Building Data DrivenDHTML Applications.

Unit-V:
ActiveX Documents – Technology – Migration Wizard- Modifying Code-
Launching and Testing Document- Testing the DLL.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


John Paul Muller – Visual C++ 5 from the GroundUp-
Tata McGrawHill Edition – 1998 (For first three units)
Noel Jerke – Visual Basic 6 (The Complete Reference)-
Tata McGrawHill Edition – 1999 (For fourth and fifth units)

PCA103 – NETWORK PROGRAMMING-PRACTICAL LIST

1.working with Java Scripts.


2.Creating ActiveX Controls.
3.OLE Server.
4.OLE Container.
5.Working with URL Monikers.
6.Creating an ISAPI Extension.
7.Creating an ISAPI Filter.
8.Building IIS Application.
9.Data –Driven DHTML Application.
10. ActiveX Documents.

ELECTIVE - II
PCA 201 - E-COMMERCE

Unit-I:
Electronic Commerce Environment and Opportunities: Background-The Electronic Commerce Environment – Electronic
Market place Technologies-Modes of Electronic Commerce: Overview –Electronic Data Interchange-Migration To Open
EDI – Electronic Commerce Going Forward.

Unit-II:
Approaches to safe Electronic Commerce: Overview- Secure Transport Protocols – Secure Transactions –Secure Electronic
Payment Protocol (SEPP)-Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) – Certificates for Authentication –Security
On Web Servers and Enterprise Networks- Electronic Cash and Electronic Payment Schemes: Internet Monetary Payment
and Security Requirements –Payment and Purchase Order – On-line Electronic Cash.

Unit-III:
Internet/Intranet Security Issues and Solutions: The Need for Computer Security –Specific Intruder Approaches –Security
Strategies – Security Tools – Encryption –Enterprise Networking and Access to the Internet –Antivirus Programs- Security
Teams.

Unit-IV:
MasterCard/Visa Secure Electronic Transaction: Introduction- Business Requirements- Concepts- Payment Processing- E-
mail and Secure E-mail Technologies for Electronic Commerce: Introduction – The Means of Distribution- A Model for
Message handling – How Does E-mail Work? –MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions – S/MIME: Secure
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions –MOSS: Message Object Security Services – Comparisons of Methods –MIME and
Related Facilities for EDI over the Internet.

Unit-V:
Internet and Web Site Establishment: Introduction- Technologies for Web Servers –Internet Tools Telecast to Commerce –
Internet Applications for Commerce- Internet Charges- Internet Access and Architecture –Searching the Internet- Internet
Resources: A Travelogue of Web Mails: Introduction- A Shopping Experience – A Travelogue –Applications: Advertising
on the Internet: Issues and Technologies: Introduction Advertising on the Web –“Marketing 101”-Creating a Web Site.

PCA 202 – OPERATIONAL RESERCH

Unit-I:
Linear programming – Formulation – Graphical solution (2 variables only) of LPP – Development of simplex method –
Artificial variable techniques – Big-M method – Revised simplex method.

Unit –II:
Duality in linear programming and its formulation -Dual simplex method –Bounded variables method –Applications of LPP
–Transportation problem –Assignment problem –Traveling salesman problem.

Unit-III:
Integer programming problem (IPP) –cutting plane algorithm – Branch and method of solving IPP –Dynamic programming
problem and its characteristics –Deterministic dynamic programming problem.

Unit-IV:

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Sequencing problem –Processing n jobs through two machines and three machines –Processing 2 jobs through m machines
–Project scheduling by PERT/CPM – difference between PERT and CPM –Constructing the network –critical path analysis
–Float of an activity-three time estimated for PERT –project cost by CPM.

Unit-V:
Stochastic process –Classification of stochastic processes – Discrete parameter Marko chains –continuous –queuing models
and its characteristics –Classification of Queuing models –(M/M/1):( / FCFS) (birth and death model).

BOOKS FOR STUDY:

H.A. TAHA operations research, 3rd edition, PHI-1995.


Sharma J.K. mathematical models in operations research, tata McGraw hill pub company ltd., new Delhi (1989).
Trivedi K.S: probability scince applications, prentice hall of India- private limited, new Delhi (1994).

ELECTIVE - II
PCA 203 - MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS

Unit-I:
The market place – the consumer and the producer, determination of the price in the market place- demand and supply
schedules. The concept of elasticity and equilibrium.

Unit-II:
The firm –profit maximization. Long run and short run costs, fixed and variables costs. Determination of output. Control
over the market – monopoly and oligopoly. Risk and uncertainty.

Unit-III:
The money system –the market fir money. Interest rates. The capital market –banks, stock exchange, the multiplier and
accelerator.

Unit-IV:
The economy – a concept of national income –aggregate demand expenditure. Savings and investment. The trade cycle and
its control. International trade and the balance of payments.

Unit-V:
Pricing policies –objectives of pricing policies, pricing decisions profit policies –aims- alternate profit policies –profit
maximization for long run.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


R.C. Lipsy and P.O.Stainer- introduction to Positive Economics.
Joel Dean – Managerial Economics-Prentice Hall of India.

ELECTIVE- III
PCAE 301-COMPUTER SIMULATION AND MODELING

Unit –1:
Introduction to Simulation: Advantages and Disadvantages of Simulation-Areas of Application-System and System
Environment-Components of a system-Discrete and continuous System-Model of a System-Types of Models-Discrete-Event
System Simulation-Steps in a Simulation Study: Simulation Examples.
Programming languages for simulations: FORTRAN, GPSS, SIMAN,
SIMSCRIPT, SLAM and MODSIM III.

Unit-II:
Statistical models in Simulation: Useful Statistical Models-discrete Distributions-Continuous Distributions-Poisson Process-
Empirical Distributions.

Simulation of Manufacturing and Material Handling systems: Modeling of Manufacturing Systems-Models of Material
Handling Systems-Goals and performance measures-Issues in simulating Manufacturing and Material Handling Systems-
Simulators and Languages for Manufacturing and Material Handling Systems.

Simulation of Queueing systems: Queueing system Characteristics-Queueing Notation-Transient and Steady-State behavior
of queues-Long-Run-Measures of Performance of Queuing Systems-Steady-state-Behavior of Infinite Population Markovian
Models-Network of Queues.

Unit-III:
Random Number Generation: Properties of Random Numbers-Generation of Pseudo Random Numbers-Techniques for
Generating Random Numbers-Tests for Random Numbers.

Random Variate Generation: Inverse Transformation Technique-Uniform Distribution-Exponential Distribution-Weibull


Distribution-Triangular Distribution-Empirical Continuous Distribution –Discrete Distribution-Direct Transformation for
the Normal Distribution-Convolution Method for Erlang Distribution-Acceptance-Rejection Technique: Poisson
Distribution-Gamma Distribution.

Unit-IV:
Input Date Analysis: Data collection-identifying the Distribution with Data-Parameter Estimation-Goodness-of-Fit Tests: -
Chi-Square Test-Kolmogrov-Smirnov Test; Selecting Input Models without Data-Multivariate and Time Series Input
Models.

Verification and Validation of Simulation Models: Model Building, Verification and Validation-Verification of simulation
Models-Calibration and Validation of Models: -Face Validity-Validation of Model Assumptions-Validating Input-Output
Transformations-Input-Output Validation using a Turing Test.

Unit-V:

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Output Data Analysis: Stochastic Nature of Output Data-types of Simulation with respect to output Analysis-Measures of
Performance and their Estimation – Output analysis for Terminating Simulations-Output Analysis for Steady-State
Simulations.
Comparison and Evaluation of Alternative System Designs: Comparison of Two System Designs-Comparison of Several
system Designs-statistical Models for Estimating the Effect of Design Alternatives-Metamodeling.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


Jerry Banks, John S.Carson, II and Barry L.Nelson, ‘Discrete-Event system Simulation’ 2nd Edition.Printice Hall, 1995

ELECTIVE – III
PCAE 302-DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING

Unit –I:
Hardware Concepts-Switched Multiprocessor-Bus-based multicomputers-Switched Multicomputers-software concepts-
Network Operating /systems and NS-Time Distributed Systems. Design Issues: Transparency-Flexibility-Reliability-
Performance and scalability.

Unit –II:
Communications in distribute systems-The Client/Server Model-Blocking versus unbuffered primitives-Implementation of
Client/Server model.

Unit-III:
Synchronization in distributed systems-Clock synchronization – Mutual exclusion-Election algorithms-Atomic transactions-
Dead lock distributed system-Threads-thread usage and implementation of thread packages-Processor allocation.

Unit-IV:
Distributed File System: File Service interface-Semantics of file sharing – Distributed file system-Implementation of new
trends in distributed file system.

Unit –V:
Distributed databases: Distributed DBMS Architecture-sorting Data in a Distributed DBMS- distributed Catalog
Management-Distributed query processing- Updating distributed data-Distributed transaction management-Distributed
Concurrency control-Recovery.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


A.S.Tanenbanum-Modern operating systems-Prentice Hall.
Raghu Ramakrishnan - Database Management Systems-WCB/McGraw Hill-1997.

ELECTIVE-III
PCAE 303: ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

Unit I:
Introduction to Neural Networks-Basic Concepts of Neural Networks-Inference and Learning-classification Models-
Association Models-Optimization Models-Self-Organisation Models.

Unit II:
Supervised and Unsupervised Learnings –Statistical Learning – Al learning-Neural Network Learning-Rule Based Neural
Networks-Network Training-Network Revision-Issues-theory of Revision-Decision Tree Based NN-Constraint Based NN.

Unit-III:
Incremental learning-Mathematical Modeling-Application of NN-Knowledge based Approaches.

Unit-IV:
Heuristics-Hierarchical Models_Hybrid Models-Parallel Models-Differentiation Models-Control Networks-Symbolic
Methods-NN Methods.

Unit-V:
Structures and Sequences-Spatiotemporal NN-Learning Procedures-Knowledge based Approaches.

BOOKS FOR STUDY:


Limin Fu- Neural Networks in Computer Intelligence-McGraw Hill International Edition-1994.
Robert J Schalkoff-Artificial Neural Networks-McGraw Hill-1997.
© 2007 Marudhar Kesari Jain College for Women, Vaniyambadi

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