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TOUS LES REGLAGES MOTEURS SONT DEVELOPPES EN INTERNE,


LES CARTOGRAPHIES MOTEURS POUR LES VEHICULES DE SERIE
AINSI QUE CELLES CONCERNANT LES VEHICULES DESTINES A LA
COMPETITION OU AU CIRCUIT

Ci-dessous, une petite explication sur le système d’injection qui gère aujourd’hui la
majorité des moteurs.

L'injection
Petite explication de base pour comprendre le principe:

Pour faire fonctionner un moteur, il faut du carburant, de l'air et organiser tous ces
éléments.

Dans les années précédentes, le carburant et l'air dont le moteur avait besoin pour
fonctionner était géré par des systèmes mécaniques: exemple le carburateur ou les
pompes à injection.

Avec les normes en vigueur, il a fallu augmenter la précision des quantités admises
dans un moteur de ces deux élements:

le système d'injection électronique a été créé dans ce but.

Dans un système d'injection nous trouvons les éléments suivants, comme le


montre ce schéma très simple pour comprendre :
Paramètres d'entrée : Les capteurs, qui envoient sous la forme de signaux
électriques les informations sur l'état du moteur :
Températures : de l'air extérieur, de l'air que le moteur aspire, du liquide de
refroidissement etc...
Le débit d'air entrant dans le moteur, la position du papillon des gaz, le régime de
rotation du moteur etc...

Gestion : (EDC15, EDC16, EDC17, MED17, ME7, etc...)


L'ordinateur (calculateur), contient le composant mémoire (puce = eprom ou mémoire
flash intégrée), dans lesquelles sont stockées en mémoire les valeurs de réglage du
moteur. Ces valeurs lui permet de calculer et actionner en fonction des informations
qu'il reçoit des capteurs, les actionneurs de sorties.

Paramètre de sortie :
En fonction des informations transmises par les capteurs au calculateur, et des valeurs
qu'il y a en mémoire, les injecteurs, les électrovannes, les bobines d'allumage etc...
sont commandés très précisément afin de garantir la précision des différents dosages.

Notre intervention consiste à faire une copie des données du composant mémoire,
et d'optimiser ses valeurs de réglages en fonction de celles d'origine tout en
respectant les normes constructeurs.
Méthode
Il existe trois méthodes pour extraire les données informatiques selon les composants
mémoires :

La méthode de la puce, concerne les premières générations de mémoire, année 1987


à 2000 environ

1 il faut dessouder le composant du calculateur, de façon à lire les données.

Pour l'écriture des nouvelle données, soit on remplace la puce soit elle est éffacée.
Effacée via un faisceau d'ultraviolet ou une impulsion électrique selon le type de
mémoire.
L'évolution des puces, permet pour certain véhicule de lire les données directement
par la prise diagnostique OBD du véhicule.

La mémoire flash intégrée, concerne tous les véhicules actuels, la mémoire est
directement implantée au sein du calculateur, cette mémoire ne se démonte plus !

2 Lecture par la prise diagnostique OBD du véhicule.

3 Par connexion sur le calculateur, cette dernière nécessite la dépose et l'ouverture


du calculateur. Methode BDM ou Boot Tricore pour certains vehicules à partir de
2010/2011
Une puissance calculée
Les réglages du moteur qui sont contenus dans la mémoire, sont composés de
plusieurs cartes, turbo, injection, allumage, limiteur de couple etc...

Ces cartes sont représentées sous la forme de tableau, soit en valeurs comme le
limiteur de vitesse, soit en 2 dimensions comme certains limiteurs de couple et enfin
en 3 dimensions pour les autres cartes turbo, injection, etc...

Dans les boitiers électroniques de série, il y a beaucoup de cartes liées au confort et


aux normes antipollution, de plus ceux-ci, possèdent une stratégie complexe
d'apprentissage qui enregistre le style de conduite pour vous apporter un maximum de
confort.

Une mise au point complète d'un moteur de série nécessite 2 à 5 années.


Contrairement aux boitiers électroniques de compétition qui eux possèdent moins
de cartes , ils sont conçus pour exploiter la puissance maximum sans stratégie
d'apprentissage. Ce type de boitier se contente d'exécuter les réglages, si le moteur n'a
pas une bonne combustion, il ne corrigera pas. La mise au point pour ce type de
moteur est d'environ une journée à 1 semaine.

Le constructeur développe les réglages de leurs moteurs sur banc ou sur circuit, avec
des boitiers électronique adaptés que nous ne retrouvons pas dans nos véhicules de
tous les jours. Les boitiers qui équipent les véhicules de série servent simplement à
exécuter les actions que les motoristes ont développés en amont, ils peuvent bien sur
recevoir les mises à jour lors des maintenances.

Les boitiers électroniques de développement qu'utilisent les constructeurs contiennent


les cartes de réglages référencées selon leurs noms et adresses, elles sont disposées
différemments dans la mémoire des boitiers électroniques de série.

Pour retrouver précisément ces cartes, nom et adresse, nous avons mis au point un
système spécial utilisant les Damos qui répertorient toutes les cartes présentes dans le
fichier qui compose les réglages.

Après la recherche de toutes les cartes, nous optimisons uniquement les cartes
principales, notamment celle du limiteur de couple qui sert à brider le couple moteur
en fonction des versions de puissances définies par le fabricant.

Cette façon de procéder garantie le maintient des stratégies antipollution et


diagnostique intégré.

Nous travaillons au cas par cas à partir des données de chaque moteur et réalisons le
programme optimal en veillant à respecter les tolérances du constructeur.

Après notre reprogrammation, la durée du réapprentissage dur environ 1 à 2 plein.


Ceci est tout à fait normal, les stratégies de confort restent opérationnelles.

Apres la mise à jour DIGITALPROG, plus besoin de monter dans les tours, votre
moteur sera plus coupleux à bas régime, les reprises sont plus franches.

Facteur non négligeable, la consommation sera réduite si vous réadaptez votre style
de conduite en fonction de l'agrément moteur supplémentaire.

La consommation la plus faible (Cse) est en générale obtenue au régime de couple


maximum, pour rester dans ce couple nous préconisons de monter les rapports le plus
tôt possible.

Enfin notre produit supprime totalement le trou au démarrage du à la mise en service


de la climatisation, souvent sur les petites cylindrées, le moteur cale au démarrage.
Engine Control
Basic Description

The average new car has dozens of computers that control everything from the
airbags and brakes to the lights and entertainment system. However, when
someone refers to "the car's computer," they are probably referring to the
engine control module (ECM). The ECM generally employs the most
powerful (and expensive) microcontroller in the vehicle. Engine control
modules determine where to set the throttle, how much fuel to inject into the
cylinders, and when to fire the spark plugs. In many vehicles this controller
also regulates the electric power distribution, provides the on-board
diagnostics, and communicates with a number of other automotive systems to
share information it obtains from various sensors.

Engine control modules take data from a wide variety of analog sensors,
digitize this information, and use it to calculate the proper engine settings. The
results of these calculations are converted to actuator settings, and both digital
and analog outputs from the module are used to operate these actuators. The
diagram below illustrates some of the primary sensors and actuators employed
by the engine control module.

Although cars did not have engine control modules for the first 80 - 90 years
after the gasoline engine was invented, cars today would not be able to meet
modern fuel efficiency and emissions requirements without them.
Improvements in engine control algorithms, data collection, and data
communication continue to be a major reason that cars are more efficient and
less polluting with each new model year.

Some vehicles allow the driver to make trade-offs between power and fuel
economy by simply activating a switch that causes the ECM to run different
engine control subroutines. There are also various programmable ECMs that
are available to give car enthusiasts a great deal of control over how their
engine will perform in various situations.

Today's ECMs generally employ 32-bit microcontrollers with a few


megabytes of memory clocked at speeds between 32 MHz and 100 MHz.
They generally communicate with other electronic modules using one or more
CAN bus interfaces. In cases where the engine control function and the
transmission control function are combined in the same module, the module is
generally referred to as a powertrain control module (PCM).

Oxygen Sensors
Basic Description

An oxygen sensor is an electronic device used to


measure the oxygen content in exhaust gases. In the automotive industry it is
also known as a lambda sensor, and is used to regulate the air/fuel mixture and
exhaust gas emissions in the internal combustion engine. The lambda sensor is
used to indicate whether the fuel mixture is rich or lean. The levels of oxygen
are determined by exposing one electrode to the outside air and another to the
exhaust gas. The difference in oxygen content causes a flow of electrons
through a ceramic element that generates a voltage potential between two
boundary layers. The voltage created is directly related to the level of oxygen
content in the exhaust gas.

The lambda sensor is very sensitive to temperature. The temperature of the


ceramic element will determine its ability to conduct the oxygen ions and
essentially influence the response time of the sensor. Most sensors are
manufactured with an integrated electrical heating element to sustain the
response time at low exhaust temperatures. This function assures that the
emissions of the vehicle are controlled over a wider range of engine operating
temperatures, especially during cold starts.
There are two different types of oxygen sensors that differ in the output signal.
The Narrowband Sensor operates in a narrow air-fuel ratio (AFR) region and
produces a significant "jump" in the signal voltage around when the AFR goes
higher than Lambda while the Wideband sensor provides a signal over a wider
range for lambda.

The Narrowband Sensor (aka Step Change Sensor)

Narrowband sensors are often just called oxygen sensors because for many
years this was the only type of oxygen sensor available. It is called a narrow
band sensor because it can only detect a very narrow range of AFRs. The
function of this sensor is based on an electrochemical cell called a Nernst cell
(Figure 1). It is made up of Zirconia, an oxide of Zirconium, and an important
property of Zirconia is that it can conduct oxygen ions above a temperature of
about 350°C. When the sensor is fitted, the outside of the Zirconia element is
exposed to the exhaust gas and the inside is in contact with reference air. Both
sides of the element are coated with thin layers of platinum that act as
electrodes and carry the sensor voltage from the Zirconia element to the lead
wires. At operating temperature, oxygen ions are able to pass through the
element and deposit charge on the platinum electrodes thus generating a
voltage.

The Narrowband Sensor is basically an on/off switch in that it can determine if


the mixture is lean or rich, but it doesn't tell the ECU how lean or how rich the
mix is. It communicates with the ECU via the voltage it produces. If the AFR
is rich, a HIGH signal voltage is generated across the electrodes due to the
difference in oxygen concentration present across the two sides of the element.
Conversely, if the AFR is lean, a LOW voltage is generated across the
electrodes due to the small difference in oxygen content between exhaust
gases and the reference air inside the sensor.

The Wideband Sensor


Wideband sensors, also known as wide-range sensors, are a newer technology.
The wideband sensor not only tells the ECU if the mix is rich or lean, but how
rich or how lean it is. In this way, it's easier for the ECU to adjust the mix
without a lot of overshoot and guess work. For this reason, the wideband
sensor is a superior technology, and it is likely that wideband sensors will
ultimately replace narrowband sensors in all cars and trucks.

Wideband sensors have an additional ceramic cell (Figure 2).The exhaust gas
partially diffuses through the diffusion barrier. The AFR of the exhaust gas in
the chamber is measured with the Nernst cell. Depending on whether the AFR
in the chamber is rich or lean, a control circuit applies a voltage to the
electrodes of the pump cell. Oxygen ions are transported from the inner to the
outer electrode so that the AFR in the chamber becomes lambda = 1. The
generated electric current, Ip, is the signal. There is a specific range of current
corresponding to lambda from 0.7 to infinity. The signal is zero when the AFR
of the exhaust gas is lambda = 1. The output curve permits steady control with
a predetermined nominal value for lambda.

Properties of Modern Oxygen Sensors

The heating elements of oxygen sensors are typically controlled in an open


loop with a pulse width modulated voltage, though modern sensors often have
heating elements that are controlled in a closed loop. The measured resistance
of the ceramic indicates the temperature, so the energy needed to hold the
temperature constant can be readily calculated. Closed loop control assures a
more reliable signal in different environmental conditions.

In addition, many modern oxygen sensors do not need outside air as a


reference. Rather, a reference pump current is applied to the Nernst cell, which
simulates the influence of the air. In these sensors, a gap in the element for the
reference air is not required. Therefore, the sensor element requires less
volume and heating it up requires less time and energy. Furthermore,
operating without reference air makes the sensor less sensitive to
contamination.

Fluid Pressure Sensors


Basic Description

Automobiles with an internal combustion engine use a fluid pressure sensor to


monitor the engine oil pressure. In most modern vehicles, this is a pressure
switch; however older vehicles and some high-end modern vehicles monitor
and display the actual oil pressure. Fluid pressure switches simply monitor the
presence or absence of the fluid in the vicinity of the sensor. Fluid pressure
transducers detect the pressure of the fluid in much the same way as air
pressure sensors, generally employing a diaphragm that moves or flexes with
increased pressure.

Fluid Level Sensors


Basic Description

Automobiles with an internal combustion engine use a fluid level sensor to


monitor the amount of fuel in the fuel tank. Some vehicles use fluid level
sensors to determine when fluids such as washer fluid, coolant or brake fluid
are getting low. Some fluid level sensors employ floats that move up and
down with the fluid surface and use position sensors to produce an output
relating to the position of the float. Another popular technique for detecting
fluid levels is to monitor the capacitance of a rod inserted in the fluid. As more
fluid surrounds the rod, the capacitance increases. Ultrasonic fluid level
sensors work like acoustic distance sensors that monitor the distance between
the tank wall and the fluid surface. In fluids that must be isolated from the
surrounding environment, optical sensors can be used. In these types of
sensors, a laser or LED produces light that is detected on the opposite end of
the fluid tank. The amount of light reaching the sensor is inversely
proportional to the amount of fluid in the tank.

Different methods for measuring fluid levels in a tank.

Design Variations

Float Switches - These sensors employ a magnetic float that moves with the
liquid surface, actuating a hermetically sealed "reed switch" in the stem. This
simple and comparatively low-maintenance design installs readily; minimizes
shock, vibration, and pressure; and works with a variety of fluids.

Non-Contact Ultrasonic Sensors - These fluid-level sensors employ ultrasonic


distance sensors to measure the distance from the surface of the fluid to the top
of the tank.

Contact Ultrasonic Sensors - These sensors use a low-energy ultrasonic device


which measures the presence or absence of liquid at a certain point. When the
fluid is in contact with the sensor, the ultrasonic signal is attenuated which
triggers a relay.

Capacitance Level Sensors - Capacitance sensors sense a change in the


capacitance that occurs between two conductors when a fluid is present. Like
ultrasonic sensors, there are contact capacitance sensors that detect the
presence or absence of a fluid at a point; and non-contact level sensors that
detect the level of the fluid as determined by the continuously varying value of
capacitance as the amount of fluid between the plates changes.
Wheel Speed Sensors
Basic Description

Wheel Speed
Sensors measure the road-wheel speed and direction of rotation. These sensors
provide input to a number of different automotive systems including the
antilock brake system and electronic stability control. Wheel speed sensors
typically include a toothed (or optically encoded) shaft and a magnetic (or
optical) sensor. The sensor counts the rate at which the teeth or marks pass by.
Wheel speed sensors may monitor the crankshaft or driveshaft rotation in
vehicles that do not need to know the rate at which individual wheels are
turning. Otherwise, they monitor the rotation of the axle driving each wheel.

There are two types of magnetic sensors: variable reluctance and Hall effect.
Both types detect the teeth of a steel gear as it rotates beneath the sensor.
Variable reluctance sensors detect the change in the inductance of a wire coil
as a steel tooth comes into close proximity. Hall effect sensors measure the
change in the resistance of a semi-conducting slab due to the strength of an
applied magnetic field.

Torque Sensors
Basic Description
A torque sensor, which is also called a torque transducer, is an instrument for
measuring and monitoring the torque on a rotating system, such as an engine
crankshaft. Torque sensors convert a torsional mechanical input into an
electrical output signal. Torque is measured by sensing the shaft deflection
caused by a twisting force. Since L, G and Ip, defined in the image on the
right, are properties of the shaft, the torque value can be determined by
measuring the rotation angle of one end of the shaft relative to the other. There
are two types of torque to be measured, static torque and dynamic torque.

Strain gauges are the most common way to measure the torque applied to a
shaft. When measuring the dynamic torque on a rotating shaft, slip rings,
wireless telemetry and/or rotary transformers must be used to power the strain
gauge bridge and receive the signal. Although strain gauge torque transducers
provide high accuracy, their high cost and bulkiness limit their application. In
addition, these transducers tend to require high levels of maintenance, making
them unsuitable for mass integration into manufacturing systems.

Another approach for measuring torque is employing proximity and


displacement sensors. These sensors detect torque by measuring the angular
displacement between a shaft's two ends. By fixing two identical toothed
wheels to the shaft at a distance apart, the angular displacement caused by the
torque can be measured. Proximity sensors or photocells located at each
toothed wheel produce output voltages whose phase difference increases as the
torque twists the shaft.

A magnetoelastic torque sensor can also be used to measure the torque applied
to a shaft. This sensor detects changes in permeability by measuring the
variation in a magnetic field. The key components of a magnetoelastic sensor
are a thin ring of steel tightly coupled to a stainless steel shaft forming a
magnetic circuit. A magnetometer converts the magnetic field into an
electrical output signal that is proportional to the torque being applied.

Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) torque sensing is an emerging technology for


wirelessly sensing and transmitting values of torque. SAW torque sensors are
resonators that have a resonant frequency that changes with applied torque.
These sensors are passive devices that can be excited with an applied
electromagnetic interrogation pulse. A receiver then wirelessly senses the
resonant frequency and calculates the torque.

Knock Sensors
Basic Description

Knock sensors are used to detect irregular vibrations of the engine caused by
uneven combustion. Generally, there are two approaches used to sense engine
knock: vibration detection and pressure measurement. Most knock sensors
operate based on the first method. Vibration detection sensors can be divided
into three types according to their sensing mechanisms: inductive resonant
sensors, piezoelectric resonant sensors, and piezoelectric non-resonant sensors.
Both the inductive and piezoelectric resonant sensors are comprised of a
vibration plate that has the same resonance frequency as the knock vibration.
When knocking occurs, the plate achieves its maximum amplitude of
vibration, which is converted to an electric signal through an electromagnetic
inductive effect or a piezoelectric effect. Resonant sensors can only detect a
particular frequency of engine knock due to their narrow-band response
characteristics. On the other hand, the piezoelectric non-resonant type uses a
spring-mass system to measure the vibration directly and thus has a wider
bandwidth (typically from about 5 kHz - 15 kHz). Since the knock frequency
may vary a little bit with the engine speed, non-resonant sensors tend to
perform better than resonant ones. Vibration-based knock sensors are
generally installed on the engine block or cylinder head.

Another way to detect engine knock is measuring the internal pressure of the
cylinder directly. Pressure type sensors are usually integrated into the spark
plug by mounting a ring-shaped piezoelectric element to the washer. When
engine knock occurs, high-frequency noise is generated and superimposed on
the normal combustion pressure waveform. The knock detection is achieved
by filtering this waveform.

Crankshaft and Camshaft Position Sensors, Engine Speed Sensors


Basic Description

Crank or camshaft position sensors and engine speed sensors are similar
devices that operate based on pulse detection and counting. The fundamental
components of these sensors include a toothed disc mounted on the shaft, a
stationary detector and electronic circuitry (Fig-1). The disc has teeth or marks
distributed evenly around the circumference. When the shaft spins, teeth or
marks pass by the stationary detector and generate a series of electrical pulses.
The frequency of these pulses is detected and converted to the corresponding
shaft rotation speed. The relative angular position can be obtained by counting
the number of pulses. Additional reference markers are required to sense the
absolute position of the crank or camshaft. The Crank position sensor is
usually mounted in the crankcase over the toothed wheel on the crankshaft.
The Camshaft position sensor is usually mounted in line with the toothed
wheel on the end of the camshaft. It is usually hidden under the timing chain
cover on the front of the engine. Some sensors have two sets of discs with a
constant phase shift in order to determine the direction of the rotary motion.

Generally, there are four types of crankshaft or camshaft position sensors:


magnetic pick-up coils, Hall-effect sensors, magneto-resistive element (MRE)
sensors, and optical sensors. The first three utilize the metal teeth of a wheel to
generate a series of electric pulses, based on changes in the magnetic field, as
the teeth come into the proximity of the sensor. Optical position sensors use a
light-emitting diode (LED) light source and a photodiode to detect optical
marks on the shaft or slots in a disk as they move past the detector. Optical
sensors have a good degree of accuracy and are suitable for both high-speed
and low-speed applications, but the optical components and disc must be kept
clean to ensure an accurate reading.

Air Flow Sensors


Basic Description

Air flow sensors measure either the volume or the mass of air flowing in a
channel. In an automobile, the primary use of an air flow sensor is to
determine the amount of air drawn into the engine through the intake
manifold. There are two main types of air flow sensors: volume air flow
sensors, which measure the effect of moving air on a pinwheel or deflecting
plate, and mass air flow sensors, which measure the mass of air as it passes
through the sensor. As the load on an internal combustion engine varies, it is
necessary to determine how much air is entering the cylinders in order to
determine how much fuel to inject and how to adjust the engine timing.
Because the stoichiometry of the air-fuel reaction depends fundamentally on
the mass (proportional to the number of molecules) of the air, rather than the
volume, the use of mass air flow sensors (MAFs) is much more widespread.

The first airflow sensors to appear in cars measured the deflection of a plate
placed in the airflow path. Later, another style of volume air flow sensor, the
Karman Vortex airflow sensor, was introduced. This sensor determined the
velocity of the air flow by monitoring the frequency of an artificially induced
turbulence using optical sensors. The ECM combines volume airflow
information with air temperature measurements to calculate the mass air flow.

There are several types of mass air flow sensors. The most common designs
use a thin resistive wire (usually platinum) that hangs down into the air flow.
This wire is heated to a specified temperature, usually 100's of degrees
Fahrenheit above the ambient temperature detected by the intake air
temperature (IAT) sensor. As the air moving through the sensor cools the hot
wire, the current flow through the wire changes. This current is detected by the
sensor, which then relays this information to the ECM. Other types of mass
airflow sensors include "cold-wire" sensors (which detect the varying
inductance of a circuit connected to thin metallic strips that vibrate as the air
goes by) and membrane sensors (MEMS devices that use the change in
temperature of a heated membrane to detect air flow in a manner similar to the
"hot wire" sensor).

Mass Air Flow Sensor


Air Pressure Sensor
Basic Description

Pressure is a non-directional force in gasses and liquids that is expressed as


function of force over a given surface area (e.g. pounds per square inch or
PSI). Depending on the application, it may be useful to know the pressure in a
given environment in either absolute terms or relative terms. Absolute
pressure refers to the amount of pressure in a certain system in relation to zero
pressure. Relative pressure on the other hand, refers to the pressure as it relates
to the ambient or surrounding pressure.

Different types of pressure sensors employ various technologies. Sensors that


use piezoresistive strain gauges take advantage of the electro-mechanical
properties of certain materials. As pressure is applied to a diaphragm
containing a piezoresistive element, the diaphragm deflects causing the
piezoresistive element to bend resulting in a change in its resistance. The
change in the resistance of the element can then be used to determine the
pressure behind the diaphragm. Similarly, piezoelectric elements generate an
electric potential proportional to the material deformation. Other pressure
sensor technologies are based on electromagnetic, optical or potentiometric
effects. Though the technologies differ, the basic principle behind them is the
same. Each pressure sensor detects the strain or displacement of a material
within the sensor and translates that information into a pressure value.

Pressure sensors are used to measure various hydraulic and gas pressures in
automotive systems. Hydraulic pressures for example are measured in the
brake system, hydraulic suspension systems and at different points in the fuel
system (e.g. the fuel pump and injection rail). Gas pressures are employed in
tire pressure monitoring systems, pneumatic suspension systems and the air
conditioning systems. A manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP) may be
used to determine the air pressure in the intake manifold relative to
atmospheric pressure. Some engine control systems also measure the
environment air pressure in order to calculate the air mass corresponding to a
measured air volume in the intake manifold. In turbocharged engines, one or
more air pressure sensors may be necessary to measure the charge pressure.

Temperature Sensors
Basic Description

Automotive temperature sensors are used to measure temperature at many


places in an automobile, and usually consist of either a thermistor (thermally
sensitive resistor), thermocouple, resistance temperature detector (RTD), or
infrared device. Thermocouples are usually used for higher temperature
measurements (such as exhaust gas temperatures), and infrared sensors are
used where direct contact with the object being sensed is undesirable.

Thermocouples operate on the principle that a voltage that changes with


temperature can be produced by a junction of two dissimilar metals joined
together. Thermocouples can be used when very fast response times are
needed.

RTDs rely on certain metals' (usually platinum, nickel, or copper) thermo-


resistive behavior to detect changes in temperature. RTDs respond to
temperature changes very linearly and can achieve good accuracy.

Thermistors are made from a semiconductor material whose resistance varies


with temperature. Thermistors have two variations: positive temperature
coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC). These types
refer to the direction of resistance change with respect to an increase in
temperature. For instance, a PTC type's resistance will increase with a rise in
temperature. An NTC type will behave in the opposite manner. Thermistors
generally have lower temperature limits than a thermocouple or an RTD, but
they are less prone to signal interference.

Engine Temperature Sensor

This sensor is installed in the coolant circuit. The engine control module uses
its signal to determine the temperature of the engine. The measuring range of
this type of sensor is usually from -40 degrees to +130 degrees Celsius.

Air Temperature Sensor

The air temperature sensor is installed in the intake manifold and is used to
measure the temperature of the engine intake air. The engine control module
uses the air temperature and pressure to calculate the intake air mass. The
measuring range of this type of sensor is usually from -40 degrees Celsius to
+120 degrees Celsius.

Engine Oil Temperature Sensor


This sensor is used to calculate the temperature of the engine oil. The
measuring range of engine oil temperature sensor is generally from -40
degrees to +170 degrees Celsius.

Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor

The exhaust gas temperature sensor usually employs a platinum measuring


resistor. Information from this sensor is used to regulate the exhaust gas
recirculation system in an engine. This sensor is mounted in the exhaust
system of the engine. The measuring range is usually from -40 degrees to
+1000 degrees Celsius.

Fuel Temperature Sensor

Fuel temperature sensors are located along the fuel delivery system, and
provide feedback to the PCM as to the state of the fuel system. Temperature
ranges of these sensors is between -40 and 160 degrees Celsius.

Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor

This sensor is located on the valve body of automatic transmissions and is


used to measure the temperature of the transmission fluid. The measuring
range of this sensor is approximately -40 degrees to 210 degrees.

Tire and Brake Disc Temperature Sensor

These sensors are usually located in an area around the tire envelope, where
the sensor can "view" the radiation emitted by either the tire or the brake disc.
Since direct contact with these elements is not desirable, infrared temperature
sensors are usually employed (see McLaren Electronic Systems link in more
information below).

Auxiliary Heater Temperature Sensor

Some auxiliary systems (e.g. seat heaters) that may be installed on certain
vehicles will also have an associated temperature sensor to accompany them.
These sensors provide feedback necessary to control these systems.

Exterior Temperature Sensor

The exterior temperature sensor allows a person inside the vehicle to know the
temperature outside of the vehicle. It is often located around the front bumper
area.

Cabin Temperature Sensor

The cabin temperature sensor is usually found around or within the steering
column. It measures the temperature within the vehicle, which will signal to
the HVAC system to either increase or decrease the temperature to fit a
desired temperature range.

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