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Types of Dimensioning in Engineering drawing

Linear Dimensioning Angular Dimensioning Dimensioning Diameters

Dimensioning Dimensioning Holes


What Is GD&T?
GD&T stands for geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. It is a system of symbols,
rules and definitions used to define the geometry of mechanical parts.
GD&T is one of the most powerful tool available that can improve quality, reduce
cost and shorten delivery time. All of this is possible when the concurrent
engineering team is involved with the creation of the drawing. The drawing is a
common thread that ties these groups together. They all are involved with the
engineering drawing. GD&T on the drawing must first and foremost capture design
intent. However, the best design in the world is worthless if it cannot be produced.
That is why it is necessary for production/vendors and quality to be involved with the
requirements that are placed on the drawing. When they are not involved, the
drawings often have overly tight tolerances and result in non-producible parts. At
least not producible at the quality level, cost and timeliness expected by industry.

In short GD&T is ………..

•Mathematical definition (ASME Y14.5.1)
•A National Standard (ASME Y14.5M-1994)
•An International Standard (ISO 1101)

Why Engineering Drawings?
Engineering drawing is a formal and precise way of communicating
information about the shape, size, features and precision of physical objects.
Drawing is the universal language of engineering.
Drawing Standards
Just like written language has standards, the “grammar” of technical drawing
is defined by...the ASME Y14.5 or the ISO 1101 standard
The ASME standards must be understood to read a drawing.

Basic Information Included in a Drawing

• Projected Views: Show as many sides as needed for completeness.
• Cross Sections: A view that is good for showing interior features.
• Table: Lower right corner, with material information, part name, designer
and finally
• DIMENSIONS!!!: These are the most important and most complicated part of
the drawing. There is more to it than just the numerical values!
The ANSI standard was revised in 1982.
In 1994, the standard was moved form ANSI to the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the name changed to ASME Y14.5.
The standard was also revised into its current form of ASME Y14.5-1994.
GD&T – Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
Establishes the standard by which designers can communicate the intended function
of the part to the machinist making the part and the inspector checking the part.

This standard lets the designer inform the machinist, toolmaker or fabricator what
are the important features of the design when they are making the part.

The standard also lets the inspector know what are the important features to inspect

GD&T uses symbols to communicate the information to those involved in making

the part to eliminate any misunderstanding.

Word explanations can be confusing especially with the global market and the
translations of words into different languages.
A Dimensioning Example,showing that
placement should match intent

These drawings show bolts holes for mounting a flange onto a plate. When
mounting the flange, the position of the holes with respect to each other is very
important, or else the flange (or part) won’t fit. It makes sense to dimension
the distance between the holes, instead of the distances to the edge.

Dimension placement Dimension placement

matches intent does NOT match intent

Types of Dimensional Tolerances
Limit Dimensioning Plus & Minus Tolerancing

Both methods are acceptable.

Geometric Tolerancing
Geometric Tolerancing is used to specify the shape of features.
Things Like:

Straightness, Flatness, Circularity, Cylindricity, Angularity, Profiles,

Perpendicularity, Parallelism, Concentricity and more…..

Geometric Tolerancing are shown on a drawing with a

feature control frame.
Co-ordinate Tolerancing

Geometric Dimensioning
& Tolerancing

Disadvantage of Co-ordinate Tolerancing System

Consequence : Good parts could be rejected.

Hole location is critical when the hole is at Minimum limit (MMC)
Co-ordinate tolerancing does not allow cylindrical tolerance zones and
tolerance hole that increases with the hole size.

Disadvantage of Co-ordinate Tolerancing System
(A) (B)

This method for part OR This method for part

Measurement? Measurement?

Consequence : Bad parts could be accepted.

Benefits of Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

•Cylindrical tolerance zones.

•Maximum material condition.
•Datums specified in order to precedence.
•Avoid tolerance stacking

Feature & Feature control frame

Feature of size

Diameter symbol



Maximum material

Geometric Characteristic Symbols
These are a set of fourteen symbols used in the language of Geometric tolerancing.


A Feature is a general term applied to a physical portion of part, such as a

surface, hole or slot.

A – Hole surface
B – Back face of surface E
C – Right face
D – Bottom face
E – Left face
F – Top face
G – Back face of surface C

The above part described with A,B,C,D,E,F&G are surfaces of the part.
The part has seven features.

Feature of size
This could be a cylindrical surface or a parallel surface associated with size
dimension which has an axis, central line or plane contained within it.

Feature of size are features which do have diameter or thickness.

External FOS External FOS

External FOS


Internal FOS

Internal FOS

External feature of size are comprised of part surface that are external surface.

Internal feature of size are comprised of part surface that are internal surface.

Feature of size
Caliper Rule -- Opposed Points

This rule is not found in the Standard but it is pretty helpful. The left end of the caliper
shown is used if the feature being measured has opposed points. Since these features have a
toleranced dimension and contain opposed points, they are features of size. Toleranced
dimensions that are measured using the probe on the other end of the caliper do not have
opposed points and are not features of size. This rule of thumb is intended to help you
identify features of size and is not intended to suggest that calipers are the best way to
measure size dimensions.

Modifiers convey additional information about the drawing or tolerancing of
the part. These are common modifiers used in geometric tolerancing.











Material conditions


Largest Smallest
shaft shaft

Smallest Largest
hole hole

“Maximum Material Condition” “Least Material Condition”

Regardless feature of size - RFS

In the below example Regardless of Feature Size is implied. This is the most
restrictive (expensive) control. Although the size may not be less than 9.8mm or
greater than 10.2mm, the hole may act like 9.5mm to 10.5mm. Any holes made
from 9.5mm to 9.8mm or from 10.2mm to 10.5mm should be rejected for size
even though they may function.

Maximum material condition - MMC
By using the MMC modifier, a bonus is allowed that could permit the hole to be
out of position by as much as 0.7mm. Although the inner boundary did not
change, the outer boundary has grown to 10.9mm since a 10.2mm size hole may
be out of position by as much as 0.7mm due to bonus tolerance. This could cause
shift problems if this hole is being used to locate parts in an assembly.

Least material condition - LMC
By using the LMC modifier, a bonus is allowed that could once again permit the
hole to be out of position by as much as 0.7mm. This time the outer boundary did
not change from the first RFS example, but, the inner boundary could be as small
as 9.1mm since a 9.8mm size hole may be out of position by as much as 0.7mm due
to bonus tolerance. This could cause fit problems in an assembly.

Projected tolerance
When a fastener mates with a threaded hole or a pin pressed in to a hole, or even
when there is a very close fit, it is good idea to specify a projected tolerance zone.
When specifying projected tolerance zone for a blind hole or a through hole, it
should be clear which surface is the interface and should be shown in the drawing.

Tangent plane
Here the Disk contacts the high points of the flat surface on the Drive Shaft. The
tangent plane modifier, the letter T in a circle, means that the tolerance applies to
a plane established by the high points of the surface. The flatness deviation in the
surface would be ignored when the surface profile tolerance is inspected. A flat
plate placed against the surface would have to be in the profile tolerance centered
at the 14mm basic dimension relative to the datum reference frame. This modifier
works well where it is expected that the process will create a surface that is

Free state
When a tolerance is defined under free state, the measurement is to be done after
removal of all restraining forces on the part.

A Free state tolerance is defined for fragile and thin sections parts which are
susceptible to deformation under stress. Mainly used in plastic and rubber

Diameter Modifier - Ø
The diameter symbol is used two ways. One inside the feature control frame to
denote the shape of the tolerance zone and outside to denote as diameter for the
feature of size.

Inside the feature control frame

Outside – Feature of size

Radius & Controlled radius – R & CR
Radius - A straight line extending from the center of an arc or circle to its surface.

Part contour must be within the

tolerance zone. Flats and reversals
are allowed.

Max radius 15.4

Min radius 14.6

Controlled Radius - A radius with no flats or reversals allowed. The symbol for a
controlled radius is "CR."
Part contour must be within the
tolerance zone. Flats and reversals
are not allowed.

Max radius 15.4

Min radius 14.6

Hole symbols

Counter bore or
Spot face Symbol

Depth symbol
Counter sink

Why Datum system ?

It allows the designer to specify …… which part surfaces are to contact the
inspection equipment for the measurement of dimension …. which sequence the part
is to contact the inspection equipment for the measurement of dimension.

12.4 16.4
12.0 16.0

Method 1 12.4
Method 2

Surface plate Surface plate

Benefits of datum system:

It aids in making the dimensional measurement as intended by the designer

It aids in communicating part functional relationship

Good parts are rejected and Bad parts are accepted.

Importance of Datum

Two possible parts according to

first drawing.

A Datum is theoretically exact plane, point or axis from which a dimensional
measurement is made. It is a true geometric counterpart of a datum feature. A
true geometric counterpart is the theoretical perfect boundary or best fit tangent
plane of a datum feature.

Datum representation
Indication of datum feature Filled or Unfilled is ok

Datum with letter Datum with tolerance control frame

The datum triangle is placed on a feature

surface and an extension line

Placement of datum
feature symbols on
feature of size.

Datum representation
Datum reference in feature control frame
Primary datum : A
Secondary datum : B
Basic dimension symbol
Tertiary datum: C

Placement of datum
feature symbol in
conjunction with a
feature control frame

Datum feature of part / Stimulated datum

Datum plane A
True geometric counterpart of datum feature A
Datum feature – Actual part surface


Surface plate
Or datum feature stimulator
Stimulated datum is
established by inspection
Stimulated datum plane A
Plane derived from the datum feature stimulator

Datum reference frame

A Datum reference frame is a set of three

mutually perpendicular datum planes.

The datum reference frame provides

direction as well as an origin of dimensional

Primary datum establishes the orientation of the part to datum reference frame.
It restricts three degree of freedom.

Secondary datum locates the part within the datum reference frame.
It restricts two additional degrees of freedom.

Tertiary datum locates the part within the datum reference frame.
It restricts last degree of freedom.

Degrees of freedom

Degrees of freedom

Degrees of freedom

Datum symbol placement
The below drawing illustrates establishing datum center planes for datum B and
datum C. To do this, the triangles are placed inline with the size dimensions.
This approach would be used if the pattern of holes should remain centered on
the plate regardless of the actual length and width. 

Datum symbol placement
If the centering of the pattern of holes is not important, the datum triangles may
be offset as shown in the below drawing. Datum planes are established by the
sides of the part. Although, this approach is usually preferred by manufacturing,
the symmetry of the part is lost and may cause confusion at inspection.
Depending on the actual size of the part, the pattern will be controlled better to
one side than the other. 

Datum symbol placement
Placement of the new datum feature symbol (triangle) can be critical. In the first
three views below the datum feature symbol is associated with the size dimension
of a feature of size. They indicate that a datum axis should be established using
the feature indicated.

Datum symbol placement
In the view below, the datum may be interpreted as a line lying in a plane
tangent to the feature indicated. If line contact is desired a datum target line
should be indicated.

Datum center plane MMC primary

A internal FOS as a datum feature An external FOS as a Datum Feature

Stimulated gauge Stimulated gauge

Datum feature stimulator Datum feature stimulator
Gauge element width – 7.7mm. Gauge element width – 20.4mm.

Datum center plane C

Center plane of gauge Datum center plane C
Center plane of gauge
Datum axis MMC secondary

Datum axis B

Datum feature stimulator

(90° to datum plane A
Fixed s ize Ø17.8 diameter)

Datum plane A
Surface plate as datum
feature stimulator

Rules of GD&T

Rule # 1
This rule is referred to as the “ Individual feature of size rule”
In industry rule 1 is phrased as “Perfect form at MMC” or the “Envelope rule”

When no geometric tolerance is specified, the dimensional tolerance controls

the geometric form as well as the size.

No element of feature shall extend beyond the MMC boundary of perfect form.

The form tolerance increases as the actual size of the feature departs from the
MMC towards LMC.

In this rule, the word perfect form means perfect flatness, straightness,
circularity and cylindricity. In other words parts produced at MMC have
perfect form

Rule 1 applied to…………

External feature of size MMC size & form boundary

Size and form must allow the part to

pass through the boundary

Ø10.2 boundary of perfect

form at MMC

LMC size limit Ø9.8

Each two-point measurement must

be within the specified tolerance
Rule 1 applied to…………

Internal feature of size

MMC size & form boundary

Ø9.8 boundary
of perfect form
at MMC

LMC size limit


Each two-point measurement must

be within the specified tolerance
Rules of GD&T

Rule # 2 (NEW) as per 1994 standard

RFS automatically applies to individual tolerances and to datum feature of size.
MMC & LMC must be specified where required.

RFS is the default for tolerance and datum reference (as appropriate)

Rule # 2a (OLD) as per 1982 standard

It is an alternative practice of rule # 2 according to which RFS may be
specified as a symbol in feature control frame if desired and applicable.

For a tolerance of position, RFS may be stated for the tolerance and datum
references (as appropriate)

Rules of GD&T

Rule # 3 (1982 standard)

For all other geometric controls, RFS automatically applies.
Rule # 4
All geometric tolerance specified for screw threads apply to the axis of the
thread derived from the pitch diameter. Exceptions must be specified by a note
(such as major dia or minor dia). All geometric tolerance specified for gears and
splines must designate the specific feature (such as major dia or minor dia) at
which each applies

Rule # 5
When a datum feature of size is controlled by a geometric tolerance and is
specified as secondary or tertiary datum, the datum applies at virtual condition
with respect to orientation.

Revision of Standard

Virtual condition

The virtual condition of a part is the condition that defines the boundary of
acceptability. This condition is the boundary established by the collective effect of
size and geometric tolerance.

Virtual condition is not a control but a condition of a feature as a result of size,

geometric tolerance and the modifiers. Virtual condition is the boundary (locus) at
which the features are no longer acceptable. The boundary (locus) may violate rule
#1, which in part states that “the boundary of perfect for at MMC”. In certain
applications, the combined effect of actual mating size, the geometric tolerance and
the modifiers will exceed the boundary of perfect form.

The letter denoted by VC.

Virtual condition – Internal feature of size @ MMC
The virtual condition for a internal feature is the constant value equals to its
maximum material condition size minus its applicable tolerance of form or
Stimulated Gauge
Plug gauge - GO
Ø24.8 diameter

Plug gauge – NO GO
Ø25.21 diameter

Functional gauge
Ø24.75 diameter

Virtual condition = MMC – Geometrical tolerance 03

VC = 24.8 – 0.05
Virtual condition = 24.75

Virtual condition – External feature of size @ MMC
The virtual condition for a external feature is the constant value equals to its
maximum material condition size plus its applicable tolerance of form or
Stimulated Gauge

Snap gauge – Go Ø45.2 diameter

No G o - Ø44.79 diameter

01 & 02

Functional gauge
Ø45.40 diameter

Virtual condition = MMC + Geometrical tolerance

VC = 45.2 + 0.20 03
Virtual condition = 45.40

Introduction to BONUS Tolerance
When a MMC modifier is used in the feature control frame, it means that the
stated tolerance applies when the FOS is at its MMC. When the actual mating
size of FOS departs from MMC towards LMC, an increase in the stated tolerance
- equal to the amount of departure is permitted. This increase or extra tolerance
is called Bonus tolerance. 2.7 Gauge

0.2 bow

Feature Straightness Bonus Straightness

AME tolerance tolerance Tolerance
2.5 MMC 0.2 0.0 0.2
2.4 0.2 0.1 0.3
Maximum bonus occurs when the 2.3 0.2 0.2 0.4
actual mating envelope is at LMC 2.2 0.2 0.3 0.5
2.1 0.2 0.4 0.6
2.0 LMC 0.2 0.5 0.7 52
Example – Condition - MMC/LMC/RFS

AME Geometric Tol. ‘Bonus’ Tol. Total Tolerance

12.39 out of size tolerance
MMC - 12.40 0.05 0.00 0.05
12.45 0.05 0.05 0.10
12.50 0.05 0.10 0.15
12.55 0.05 0.15 0.20
LMC - 12.60 0.05 0.20 0.25
12.61 out of size tolerance

Example – Condition - MMC/LMC/RFS

AME Geometric Tol. ‘Bonus’ Tol. Total Tolerance

12.39 out of size tolerance
MMC - 12.40 0.05 0.20 0.25
12.45 0.05 0.15 0.20
12.50 0.05 0.10 0.15
12.55 0.05 0.05 0.10
LMC - 12.60 0.05 0.00 0.05
12.61 out of size tolerance

Example – Condition - MMC/LMC/RFS

AME Geometric Tol. ‘Bonus’ Tol. Total Tolerance

12.39 out of size tolerance
MMC - 12.40 0.05 0.00 0.05
12.45 0.05 0.00 0.05
12.50 0.05 0.00 0.05
12.55 0.05 0.00 0.05
LMC - 12.60 0.05 0.00 0.05
12.61 out of size tolerance



Straightness is a condition where one line element of a surface or axis is
in a straight line.
The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel
straight lines, a distance ‘t’ apart.

The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter ‘t’ if the tolerance

value is preceded by the sign Ø


On Drawing Means this

Place the part on V-Blocks. At each

measuring position along longitude, move
dial indicator around circumference.
Take lowest and highest reading.

a. The maximum diameter of the pin with perfect
On Drawing form is shown in a gauge with a 16.04 diameter hole.

b. With the pin at max. dia 16.0, the gauge will accept
the pin with up to 0.04 variation in straightness.
Part is held between centers. Measurements
are taken along longitudinal sections. At least
four sections must be measured. At least three
points must be measured in each section. This
holds good for RFS condition. For ‘M’
modifier use functional gauges.
c. With the pin at min. dia 15.89, the gauge will
accept the pin with up to 0.15 variation in


On Drawing Functional gauge

Flatness is the condition of a surface having all of its elements in one plane. The
tolerance zone for a flatness control is three dimensional.

General representation

Two parallel
planes 0.2 apart

Surface plate

Interpretation of Flatness tolerance: It consist of two parallel planes within

which all the surface elements must lie. The distance between the parallel planes is
equal to the flatness control tolerance value.

In this example, the flatness has been applied to
datum feature A. Three possible inspection
methods are illustrated as below.

In the first case, the part is leveled on the surface plate. If

the surface is convex, the part will rock making it difficult to
determine the minimum indicator reading over the entire
In the second illustration, the surface is leveled by placing it
on three equal height gage blocks. The indicator is then
02 moved across the surface. Ideally, the gage blocks should be
placed under the high points on the surface. Otherwise, the
indicator movement may not be the lowest possible.

In the third illustration, the CMM will mathematically

03 "level" the points of the surface contacted by the probe. Of
course, a CMM will automatically align the points to evaluate
the flatness error. Often insufficient points are taken to
evaluate the flatness error. As a result, an out of spec surface
may be accepted.
Circularity is a condition, where all points on the periphery of a surface of
revolution, at any cross section of shaft, which is perpendicular to its axis are
equidistant from that axis.

A circular tolerance is given to control a roundness

of a feature, e.g, the circumference of shaft or hole.

For example a shaft may be bowed or bent yet still

meets the requirement because it does not control
relative positions of the tolerance zone.
General representation

Measuring principle of circularity

Place the shaft on a V-Block which is kept on a surface plate.

The dial indicator should be stationary. Measurement at one
line on surface when part is rotated. The deviation or circular
error is the difference between the highest and lowest

Circularity - Interpretation

The shaft diameter to be within Ø4.70 – Ø5.3

with a circular tolerance of 0.2mm.

Here the inner boundary is Ø4.7 and outer

boundary is Ø5.3. The size tolerance is 0.6.
The circularity control tolerance must be less
than the size tolerance.
The shaft diameter should be within size
tolerance and form (out of round) should be
within the circular tolerance

Circular tolerance – (0.2)

Cylindricity controls roundness of a feature over its entire surface. Cylindricity is
a condition of a surface of revolution in which all points of the surface are
equidistant from a common axis.

Cylindricity controls deviations such as concavity

and convexity of a shaft.

It composite control that limits the circularity,

straightness and taper of a diameter

Place the shaft on a V-Block which is kept on a surface plate.

The dial indicator should be stationary. Measurement at all
points on surface when part is rotated and moved length wise.
The deviation or cylindrical error is the difference between
the highest and lowest reading through out the surface.

In this example, the cylindricity has been applied to 5 features. Cylindricity is an
individual control. Therefore, each feature is inspected independent of the others.
An electronic probe gathers many points on the surface. A computer then evaluates
the points to fit them between two concentric cylinders that may not have a radial
separation greater than 0.02. The actual size, location and orientation of the feature
are ignored. Cylindricity is a composite of circularity, surface straightness and


Profile of any line

Profile of any surface

Profile of any line
Profile of any line is a two-dimensional cross section tolerance. The line profile
tolerance is used where parts have changing cross section along their length and
do not have to be along the entire feature. The profile tolerance is assumed a
bilateral tolerance, which is the tolerance both above and below the true profile


Uses profile of a line to control all Cross section of a simple contour that is
around of a cross section of a wing. controlled by line profile tolerance.

Profile of any Surface
Most of us still use ± linear, general tolerances found in the titleblock of a drawing. We do not know
why we use it, we just do. "That's the way we've always done it." This general note causes much
confusion because it does not relate tolerances to a datum reference frame, allows tolerance
accumulation and wedge shaped tolerance zones.

To clear up the drawing's meaning, many practice to change to a general profile of a surface tolerance
with datum referencing. This requires that the dimensions describing surfaces be basic. Since this will
usually be most of the dimensions, it is becoming a common practice to add the note
"UNTOLERANCED DIMENSIONS ARE BASIC". This note eliminates a lot of boxes on the drawing.

Since the general profile tolerance controls location of the entire surface of each feature, the only
reason to put any geometric tolerances on the field of the drawing is for refinements of orientation, size
and form.

Profile of any Surface
MMC May Be Applied to Datum References in a Profile tolerance callout, but
not to the Profile Tolerance.

We cannot apply the MMC modifier to a profile tolerance because it is a surface

control. We can, however, apply MMC or LMC to the datum references of a
profile tolerance where the datum features are features of size. Here the
secondary and tertiary datum features are features of size

Profile vs Direct tolerancing
A better approach is shown on the revised drawing below. By stating that ALL
UNTOLERANCED DIMENSIONS ARE BASIC and specifying a general profile
tolerance relative to a datum reference frame, several improvements have been
made to the drawing. Tolerance accumulation is reduced / avoided compared to
conventional tolerancing. No need for all of those boxes around the dimensions.

Better. Life made easy

Another advantage of profile tolerancing
Imagine trying to inspect the R8 dimension if it had been toleranced without GD&T
as is shown here. Try to determine if the center of the 4X R8±0.1 are on the Ø36±0.1
and at the implied 90°±0°30'. By the way, how centered does the Ø36 have to be on
the Ø28. There are many ways to "interpret" this drawing. However, the drawing
with GD&T has "one clear meaning." Bottom line, if you want to do an inadequate
job of inspecting a part using calipers-go ahead, regardless of how the part is
Dimensioning without GD&T Dimensioning with GD&T

Better. Life made easy

Profile equal and unilateral
According to the Y14.41 standard, the value that follows the U in a circle is the
amount of tolerance zone that applies outward from the surface. This may also be
used to indicate a unilateral profile tolerance. Of course, if you want to use this
new symbol, you should reference ASME Y14.41-2003 as well as ASME Y14.5-
1994 so everyone reading the drawing knows where to find the meaning.



Angularity Control
Angularity is a condition of a surface, center plane or axis being exactly at the
specified angle. It limits the amount of surface, center plane or axis is permitted to
vary from its specified angle.

Angularity are applied to surface and cylindrical FOS. Tolerance zone for surface
are two parallel planes and for cylindrical FOS will be a cylinder.

Angularity tolerance to a surface given with two

datum references. Measurement method – Placing
the block on sine bar and measuring high and low
limits which should fall under 0.2mm.

Use two datum reference for Angularity.

Angularity Control
Angularity are applied to cylindrical FOS. Tolerance zone for cylindrical FOS
will be a cylinder or parallel planes based on notation given to tolerance.
Tolerance zone is oriented relative to the datum plane by a basic angle. Axis of
hole must lie between the tolerance zone.

Axis can lie on Ø0.4 Axis can lie between

With ref. to datum A two planes 0.2 apart
With ref. to datum A

Parallelism Control
Parallelism is a condition of a surface, center plane or axis being exactly parallel
to the datum. It limits the amount of a surface, center plane or axis is permitted to
vary from being parallel to datum. It is applied to a surface and cylindrical FOS.

Size to be within 29.7 to 30.3 mm.

Parallelism applied to a surface

Datum A

Parallelism to be within 0.1 with ref. to datum A

Datum A

Parallelism Control
Bonus tolerance is permissible. A fixed gauge can be used to verify parallelism.
Parallelism tolerance zone limits the flatness of the toleranced feature.
AME Parallelism tolerance Bonus tolerance Total Tolerance zone
Parallelism applied to a 8.2 LMC 0.1 0.4 0.5
cylindrical FOS at MMC 8.0 0.1 0.2 0.3
7.8 MMC 0.1 0.0 0.1

The axis can lie on The axis can lie

Ø0.1 with ref. to between two planes
datum A. Bonus of 0.1 apart with
tolerance allowed ref. to datum A.
up to Ø0.5 at LMC Bonus tolerance
Datum A Datum A allowed up to 0.5
at LMC

Perpendicularity Control
Perpendicularity is a condition that results when a surface, axis or center plane is
exactly 90 degree to a datum ref. It limits the amount of surface, axis or center
plane is permitted to vary from being perpendicular to the datum. It is applied to
surface, planar FOS and cylindrical FOS.

Center plane established from max.

Surface to lie within parallel planes separation of parallel planes to lie
0.2 apart and 90° with ref. to datum A within parallel planes 0.2 apart and
90° with ref. to datum A

Datum A
Datum A

Perpendicularity Control
Perpendicularity applied to cylindrical FOS. Bonus tolerance is permissible.
AME Perpendicularity tolerance Bonus tolerance Total Tolerance zone
Perpendicularity applied to 50.2 MMC 0.1 0.0 0.1
a cylindrical FOS at MMC 50.1 0.1 0.1 0.2
50.0 LMC 0.1 0.2 0.3

Axis of Ø50 can lie between two planes 0.1 apart with
ref. to datum A and 0.3 at LMC. Gauge ID Ø50.3

Axis of Ø50 can lie on Ø0.1 with ref. to datum A and

Ø0.3 at LMC. Gauge ID Ø50.3


Position Control
True position is the theoretically exact location of a FOS as defined by basic
dimension. Tolerance of position (TOP) can control is a geometric tolerance that
defines the location tolerance of a FOS from its true position. It can control distance
between FOS (SLOTS), location of FOS (HOLES), coaxiality between FOS.


True position of Ø11.8 – Ø12.2

Ø0.2 Cylindrical tolerance

zone perpendicular to
From Datum C Datum A

From Datum B

Advantage of Position Tolerancing
Cylindrical tolerance zone are 57% larger than square zones. Permits additional
tolerance – Bonus and datum shift. Prevents tolerance accumulation. Permits the
use of functional gauges. Protects part function and lowers manufacturing cost.

Co-ordinate Tolerancing TOP Tolerancing

Co-ordinate tolerance Cylindrical tolerance

allows 0.2 square Cylindrical tolerance allows 57% allows Ø0.28
more tolerance for the hole

Inspection of TOP applied at MMC
A TOP applied at MMC can be verified in number of ways like Variable gauges,
CMM and functional gauging. Functional gauge is a gauge that verifies functional
requirements of a part feature. Also called attribute gauge or fixed gauge.
Functional gauge only provides a pass or fail assessment of a part feature. i.e. does
not provide numerical reading of a part parameter. It represents the virtual
condition of the tolerance FOS.
Functional Gauge – Used to check the
function of part feature

Plug gauge Ø12.0 Datum A

AME Position tolerance Bonus tolerance Total Tolerance zone

12.80 LMC 0.20 0.30 0.50 Datum C Datum B
12.70 0.20 0.20 0.40
12.60 0.20 0.10 0.30

12.50 MMC 0.20 0.00 0.20

Benefits of Functional gauges
•The gauge represents the worst case mating part.
•Parts can be verified quickly.
•A functional gauge is economical to produce.
•No special skills are required to read the gauge or interpret the results.
•In some cases a functional gauge can check several part characteristics

Functional Gauge

Co-axial diameters controlled by TOP (RFS)
Interpretation : The axis of Ø45 can lie on tolerance zone of Ø0.4 with reference to
datum A regardless feature of size. Variable gauges are used. Functional gauges
are not used on RFS condition.
Axis of Ø20 (Datum A)
Ø0.4 Tolerance
of position

AME Position tolerance Bonus tolerance Total Tolerance zone

45.10 0.4 0.0 0.4
45.00 0.4 0.0 0.4
44.90 0.4 0.0 0.4

Bi – Directional TOP (Locating a hole in two directions)
In this application the tolerance zone are parallel boundaries in the direction of
TOP control. The shape of the tolerance zone is rectangular.

Tolerance zone

Use TOP to locate an elongated hole
For elongated hole – bonus tolerance is are permissible. The size should meet the
functional requirements.

Outer boundary Inner boundary

Use TOP in fixed fastener assembly
A fixed fastener assembly is where the fastener is fixed or restrained in to one of
the components of the assembly. Often, the holes in one of the component in
assembly are clearance hole and other would be threaded to held the fastener.
This is called fixed fastener assembly

Calculating position tolerance:

T – Position tolerance diameter ? T = (H-F)/2
H – MMC of clearance hole (Top plate) =(12.5-12)/2
F – MMC of fastener =0.25

Concentricity Control
A concentricity or coaxiality is a condition where the median points of all
diametrically opposed elements of a cylinder are congruent with the axis of the
datum feature. It is used when precise balance of part is required, equal wall
thickness are required, equal distribution of mass.
Datum axis A

Tolerance zone Ø 0.1

Median points of all diametrically
opposed to be congruent with datum axis

Symmetry Control
Symmetry is a condition where the median points of all opposed elements of two
or more feature surfaces are congruent with the axis or center plane of a datum
feature. It is applied to features that are shown symmetrical to the datum center
plane. It is difficult to measure, since it requires deriving the features median
points to determine if they are contained within the specified tolerance zone
which is centered on the datum axis or datum center plane

Symmetry Control
Symmetry tolerance added to a line or axis. Here the
tolerance is given to the axis of a lever. The axis of the
hole to be contained between two parallel planes 0.1
apart and symmetrically disposed with respect to datum

The difference between

dimensions A and B
must not exceed 0.1.

Use a mandrel and measure the

dimensions of A and B
Circular Runout

Circular runout requires inspecting circular elements individually. Because of

this, circular runout will not detect changes in size. Any barreling, waisting or
taper should be ignored. These conditions will be controlled by the size tolerance.

Circular elements that are contained within a cylindrical feature that is shown
centered on the datum axis.

Total Runout

Total runout requires determining the full indicator movement over the entire
feature. Total runout, therefore, detects any changes in size, i.e. barreling,
waisting or taper. Although changes in size are controlled, the actual size of the
feature is determined and controlled by the size dimension and tolerance. A
feature may be manufactured to a very tight size tolerance but due to
eccentricity, the runout could be large. Total runout controls form, orientation
and location but not size.

Cylindrical features shown centered on the datum axis.

Controls all geometric characteristics except size.

Runout (Circular Vs Total)
The worst circular runout error occurs at the slice with the greatest variation. In
this case two slices vary a total of 0.03.

Total runout is the difference between the highest and lowest readings found over
the entire feature. The highest reading was +0.02 and the lowest reading was
-0.09. Therefore, the total runout for the feature is 0.11, the difference between
+0.02 and -0.09.

(Runout Vs Concentricity)
Avoid specifying concentricity. Concentricity requires deriving the median line of
a feature. All of the features shown below are concentric. Usually, designs require
that a feature be round as well as concentric like example A.

A better geometric control is usually circular runout. Circular runout controls

circularity (roundness) as well as concentricity.

“When in doubt use Runout”