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German Grammar by Paul G. Graves, Ph.D. University of Colorado BARRON'S EDUCATIONAL SERIES, INC. New York * London » Toronto » Sydney to my wite ‘© 1990 Copyright by Barron's Educational Series, Inc. ‘Adapted from Master the Basics: German. ‘© 1987 Copyright by Barron's Educational Series, Inc All rights reserved. Ne pet ot i taek ray a pnt Hauppauge, New York 11788 Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 89-17821 Intemational Standard Book No. 0-8120-4296-4 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Graves, Paul. German grammar / by Paul G. Graves. p. om, “Adapted from Master the basics : German.” ISBN 0-8120-4296-4 1. German language—Grammar—1950- 2. German language — Textbooks for foreign speakers—English. |. Graves, Paul G. Master the basics : German. 1. Tite PF3112.G66 1990 438.2°421—dc20 80-1780 i PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Contents Preface How to Use This Book The Basics 1. PRONUNCIATION 1.1 The German Alphabet 1.2 Vowels, Umiauts, Diphthongs 1.3 Consonants 1.4 Stress 2. ORTHOGRAPHY 2.1 Capitalization 2.2 Syllabieation 2.3 Punctuation 3. WORD ORDER 3.1. What is a Sentence? 3.2 Types of Sentences According to Function 3.2-1 Affirmative 3.2-2 Negative 3.2-3 Interrogative 3.3. Types of Sentences According to Structure Parts of Speech 4. NOUNS: 4.1 What Are Nouns? 4.2 Gender BBB 6. ADJECTIVES 6.1. Declension of Adjectives 6.1-1 Weak Endings 6.1-2 Strong Endings 6.1-3 Mixed Endings 6.1-4 Adjectives Used as Nouns 6.1-5 Predicate Adjectives 2 1-6 Miscellaneous 6.2 Comparison of Adjectives: ‘Comparative and Superiative Positive 6.3 Possessive Adjectives 2 2. 7. PRONOUNS 7.1 Personal Pronouns 71-1 Subject 71-2 Object 7.1-3 Reflexive 7.2 Possessives 7.3 Relative Pronouns 50 50 51 55 74 Interrogative Pronouns 7.5 Indefinite Pronouns 8. VERBS 8.1 What Are Verbs? 8.2 The Indicative Mood 8.2-1 Present Tense 8.2-2 Past Tense 8.2-3 Present Perfect Tense 8.2~4 Past Perfect Tense 8.2-5 Future Tense 8.26 Future Perfect Tense 8.3 The Imperative 8.4 The Subjunctive Mood 8.5 The Conditional Mood 8.6 Miscellaneous Categories 86-1 Impersonal Verbs 86-2 Verbs Taking The Dative 8.6-3 Reflexive Verbs 8.6-4 Separable Prefixes 8.6-5 Inseparable Prefixes 8.7 Present Participle 8.8 Modal Verbs 8.9 The Passive Voice 8.9-1 Present Tense Substitutes for The Passive ‘The False Passive 9. ADVERBS: 9.1 Adverbs of Place 9.2 Adverbs of Time 9.3 Adverbs of Manner and Degree 9.4 Adverbs Indicating Caution’ 9.5 Adverbs with Suffixes 9.6 Comparison of Adverbs 97 et 84 87 87 92 35 105 107 109 109 11 16 118 18 19 120 122 124 124 125 131 131 133 133 134 135 135 136 137 137 138 138 139 139 140 141