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Lecture 15

F RAMES OF R EFERENCE –I
Lecture 15

F RAMES OF R EFERENCE –I

1 Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames

2 Galilean Transformations

3 Galilean Principle of Relativity

4 Non-inertial Frames
Uniformly accelerated frames
Newton’s Laws: First Law

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 2/16


Newton’s Laws: First Law

I Every body perseveres in its state of rest or of


uniform motion in a right line unless it is
compelled to change that state by forces
impressed thereon.

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 2/16


Newton’s Laws: First Law

I Every body perseveres in its state of rest or of


uniform motion in a right line unless it is
compelled to change that state by forces
impressed thereon.

Law of Inertia
Definition of an Inertial Frame:
Frame in which a free body (not acted upon by
net external force) has a constant velocity
(could be zero)

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 2/16


Newton’s Laws: First Law

I Every body perseveres in its state of rest or of


uniform motion in a right line unless it is
compelled to change that state by forces
impressed thereon.

Law of Inertia
Definition of an Inertial Frame:
Frame in which a free body (not acted upon by
net external force) has a constant velocity
(could be zero)
Inertial Frames Exist.

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 2/16


Newton’s Laws: Second Law
II

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16


Newton’s Laws: Second Law
II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever
proportional to the motive force impressed and
is made in the direction of the right line in
which that force is impressed.

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16


Newton’s Laws: Second Law
II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever
proportional to the motive force impressed and
is made in the direction of the right line in
which that force is impressed.

(In an inertial frame) The net force on a body is


the rate of change of its momentum:

→ d~ p
F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.
dt

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16


Newton’s Laws: Second Law
II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever
proportional to the motive force impressed and
is made in the direction of the right line in
which that force is impressed.

(In an inertial frame) The net force on a body is


the rate of change of its momentum:

→ d~ p
F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.
dt
d~
p
For a point particle, a.
= m~ (m = Const.)
dt

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16


Newton’s Laws: Second Law
II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever
proportional to the motive force impressed and
is made in the direction of the right line in
which that force is impressed.

(In an inertial frame) The net force on a body is


the rate of change of its momentum:

→ d~ p
F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.
dt
d~
p
For a point particle, a.
= m~ (m = Const.)
dt
N
X −
→ −

F i = F res
i=1

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16


Newton’s Laws: Second Law
II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever
proportional to the motive force impressed and
is made in the direction of the right line in
which that force is impressed.

(In an inertial frame) The net force on a body is


the rate of change of its momentum:

→ d~ p
F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.
dt
d~
p
For a point particle, a.
= m~ (m = Const.)
dt
N
X −
→ −

F i = F res = m~
a
i=1

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16


Newton’s Laws: Second Law
II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever
proportional to the motive force impressed and
is made in the direction of the right line in
which that force is impressed.

(In an inertial frame) The net force on a body is


the rate of change of its momentum:

→ d~ p
F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.
dt
d~
p
For a point particle, a.
= m~ (m = Const.)
dt
N
X −
→ −

F i = F res = m~
a
i=1

CAUSE
Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16
Newton’s Laws: Second Law
II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever
proportional to the motive force impressed and
is made in the direction of the right line in
which that force is impressed.

(In an inertial frame) The net force on a body is


the rate of change of its momentum:

→ d~ p
F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.
dt
d~
p
For a point particle, a.
= m~ (m = Const.)
dt
N
X −
→ −

F i = F res = m~
a
i=1

CAUSE EFFECT
Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16
Newton’s Laws: Second Law
II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever
proportional to the motive force impressed and
is made in the direction of the right line in
which that force is impressed.

(In an inertial frame) The net force on a body is


the rate of change of its momentum:

→ d~ p
F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.
dt
d~
p
For a point particle, a.
= m~ (m = Const.)
dt
N
X −
→ −

F i = F res = m~
a
i=1


F causes change in motion:
Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16
Newton’s Laws: Second Law
II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever
proportional to the motive force impressed and
is made in the direction of the right line in
which that force is impressed.

(In an inertial frame) The net force on a body is


the rate of change of its momentum:

→ d~ p
F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.
dt
d~
p
For a point particle, a.
= m~ (m = Const.)
dt
N
X −
→ −

F i = F res = m~
a
i=1


F causes change in motion: m~
a is NOT a force!
Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16
Newton’s Laws: Third Law

III

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 4/16


Newton’s Laws: Third Law

III To every action there is always an equal


reaction – or – the mutual actions of two bodies
upon each other are always equal & directed to
contrary parts.

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 4/16


Newton’s Laws: Third Law

III To every action there is always an equal


reaction – or – the mutual actions of two bodies
upon each other are always equal & directed to
contrary parts.


→ −

F 12 = − F 21

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 4/16


Newton’s Laws: Third Law

III To every action there is always an equal


reaction – or – the mutual actions of two bodies
upon each other are always equal & directed to
contrary parts.


→ −

F 12 = − F 21
Mutual forces generally along the line joining the
particles but not always

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 4/16


Newton’s Laws: Third Law

III To every action there is always an equal


reaction – or – the mutual actions of two bodies
upon each other are always equal & directed to
contrary parts.


→ −

F 12 = − F 21
Mutual forces generally along the line joining the
particles but not always
XX− →
F ij = 0
i j6=i

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 4/16


Newton’s Laws: Third Law

III To every action there is always an equal


reaction – or – the mutual actions of two bodies
upon each other are always equal & directed to
contrary parts.


→ −

F 12 = − F 21
Mutual forces generally along the line joining the
particles but not always
XX− →
F ij = 0
i j6=i
Mutual (internal) Forces in a system of particles
cancel

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 4/16


Galilean Transformations
Two observers S and S 0 , rel.


velocity V

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16


Galilean Transformations
Two observers S and S 0 , rel.


velocity V
O and O0 coincide at
t=0

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16


Galilean Transformations
Two observers S and S 0 , rel.


velocity V
O and O0 coincide at
t=0


S sees S 0 move with V

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16


Galilean Transformations
Two observers S and S 0 , rel.


velocity V
O and O0 coincide at
t=0


S sees S 0 move with V

t0 = t

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16


Galilean Transformations
Two observers S and S 0 , rel.


velocity V
O and O0 coincide at
t=0


S sees S 0 move with V

t0 = t


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16


Galilean Transformations
Two observers S and S 0 , rel.


velocity V
O and O0 coincide at
t=0


S sees S 0 move with V

Galilean Transformations

t0 = t


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16


Galilean Transformations
Two observers S and S 0 , rel.


velocity V
O and O0 coincide at
t=0


S sees S 0 move with V

Galilean Transformations

t0 = t


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t

Galilean Velocity Addition:

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16


Galilean Transformations
Two observers S and S 0 , rel.


velocity V
O and O0 coincide at
t=0


S sees S 0 move with V

Galilean Transformations

t0 = t


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t

Galilean Velocity Addition:


r0
d~ r0
d~ r −
d~ →
0
= = −V
dt dt dt
Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16
Galilean Transformations
Two observers S and S 0 , rel.


velocity V
O and O0 coincide at
t=0


S sees S 0 move with V

Galilean Transformations

t0 = t


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t

Galilean Velocity Addition:




r0
d~ r0
d~ r −
d~ → ~0 = u
u ~−V
0
= = −V or
dt dt dt
Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16
Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law
Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16


Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law
Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

→ d2~r
S frame: F = m~ a=m 2
dt

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16


Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law
Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

→ d2~r
S frame: F = m~ a=m 2
dt

→ 0 d2~ r0
S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2
dt

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16


Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law
Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

→ d2~r
S frame: F = m~ a=m 2
dt

→ 0 d2~ r0
S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2
dt


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16


Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law
Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

→ d2~r
S frame: F = m~ a=m 2
dt

→ 0 d2~ r0
S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2
dt


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t
d2~ r0 d2~
r
=⇒ 2
=
dt dt2

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16


Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law
Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

→ d2~r
S frame: F = m~ a=m 2
dt

→ 0 d2~ r0
S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2
dt


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t
d2~ r0 d2~
r
=⇒ 2
=
dt dt2
=⇒ ~ a = ~a0

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16


Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law
Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

→ d2~r
S frame: F = m~ a=m 2
dt

→ 0 d2~ r0
S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2
dt


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t
d2~ r0 d2~
r
=⇒ 2
=
dt dt2
=⇒ ~ a = ~a0

Both measure the SAME


acceleration

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16


Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law
Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

→ d2~r
S frame: F = m~ a=m 2
dt

→ 0 d2~ r0
S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2
dt


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t
d2~ r0 d2~
r
=⇒ 2
=
dt dt2
=⇒ ~ a = ~a0

Both measure the SAME


acceleration

→ − →0
=⇒ F = F

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16


Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law
Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

→ d2~r
S frame: F = m~ a=m 2
dt

→ 0 d2~ r0
S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2
dt


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t
d2~ r0 d2~
r
=⇒ 2
=
dt dt2
=⇒ ~ a = ~a0

Both measure the SAME


acceleration



→ − →0 a in both frames
F = m~
=⇒ F = F =⇒

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16


Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law
Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

→ d2~r
S frame: F = m~ a=m 2
dt

→ 0 d2~ r0
S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2
dt


r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − V t
d2~ r0 d2~
r
=⇒ 2
=
dt dt2
=⇒ ~ a = ~a0

Both measure the SAME


acceleration



→ − →0 a in both frames
F = m~
=⇒ F = F =⇒
Galilean Invariance
Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16
Galilean Principle of Relativity

“When you have observed all of these things


carefully (though there is no doubt that
when the ship is standing still everything
must happen this way), have the ship
proceed with any speed you like, so long as
the motion is uniform and not fluctuating
this way and that. You will discover not the
least change in all the effects named, nor
could you tell from any of them whether the
ship was moving or standing still.”
–Dialogues Concerning the Two Chief World
Systems (February 1632)
Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 7/16
Galilean Principle of Relativity

Galilean Invariance
The laws of Physics are identical in all reference frames that move with
uniform velocity w.r.t. each other

“When you have observed all of these things


carefully (though there is no doubt that
when the ship is standing still everything
must happen this way), have the ship
proceed with any speed you like, so long as
the motion is uniform and not fluctuating
this way and that. You will discover not the
least change in all the effects named, nor
could you tell from any of them whether the
ship was moving or standing still.”
–Dialogues Concerning the Two Chief World
Systems (February 1632)
Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 7/16
Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Both observers use the same scale for measuring


distance

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 8/16


Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Both observers use the same scale for measuring


distance

Time is the same in both frames

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 8/16


Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Both observers use the same scale for measuring


distance

Time is the same in both frames

Both observers agree on the value of mass?

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 8/16


Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Both observers use the same scale for measuring


distance
Both the scales are calibrated against the same
standard of length.

Time is the same in both frames

Both observers agree on the value of mass?

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 8/16


Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Both observers use the same scale for measuring


distance
Both the scales are calibrated against the same
standard of length.

Time is the same in both frames


Both the clocks are calibrated against the same
standard of time
Both observers agree on the value of mass?

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 8/16


Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Both observers use the same scale for measuring


distance
Both the scales are calibrated against the same
standard of length.
Does this ensure that they will measure the same
length for an object while in relative motion?

Time is the same in both frames


Both the clocks are calibrated against the same
standard of time
Both observers agree on the value of mass?

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 8/16


Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Both observers use the same scale for measuring


distance
Both the scales are calibrated against the same
standard of length.
Does this ensure that they will measure the same
length for an object while in relative motion?

Time is the same in both frames


Both the clocks are calibrated against the same
standard of time
Both observers agree on the value of mass?
Depends on the length and time measurements

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 8/16


Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Both observers use the same scale for measuring


distance
Both the scales are calibrated against the same
standard of length.
Does this ensure that they will measure the same
length for an object while in relative motion?
1/2
v2

Special Theory: L = L0 1 − 2
c
Time is the same in both frames T = 1/2
Both the clocks are calibrated against the same v2
T0 / 1 − 2
standard of time c
Both observers agree on the value of mass?
m = 1/2
Depends on the length and time measurements v2
m0 / 1 − 2
c
Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 8/16
Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Einstein’s Axiom–

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 9/16


Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Einstein’s Axiom–
• Speed of light c is constant in all
inertial frames

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 9/16


Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Einstein’s Axiom–
• Speed of light c is constant in all
inertial frames
–Special Theory of Relativity

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 9/16


Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Einstein’s Axiom–
• Speed of light c is constant in all
inertial frames
–Special Theory of Relativity
• Galilean transformations valid only
when v  c (Newtonian Limit)

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 9/16


Non-inertial Frames

Motion of observer is not uniform

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames 10/16


Non-inertial Frames

Motion of observer is not uniform


Newton’s Ist law will not hold: fictitious forces

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames 10/16


Non-inertial Frames

Motion of observer is not uniform


Newton’s Ist law will not hold: fictitious forces
Bodies under no visible action of force will accelerate

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames 10/16


Non-inertial Frames

Motion of observer is not uniform


Newton’s Ist law will not hold: fictitious forces
Bodies under no visible action of force will accelerate
Uniformly accelerated frames

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames 10/16


Non-inertial Frames

Motion of observer is not uniform


Newton’s Ist law will not hold: fictitious forces
Bodies under no visible action of force will accelerate
Uniformly accelerated frames
Rotating Frames

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames 10/16


Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇
→ − →
Suppose V = A

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 11/16


Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇
→ − →
Suppose V = A
1−→2
r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − At
2

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 11/16


Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇
→ − →
Suppose V = A
1−→2
r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − At
2

r0
d2~ d2~
r − →
a0 =
=⇒ ~ = −A
dt2 dt 2


a− A
= ~

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 11/16


Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇
→ − →
Suppose V = A
1−→2
r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − At
2

r0
d2~ d2~
r − →
a0 =
=⇒ ~ = −A
dt2 dt 2


a− A
= ~



IF 2nd law holds in S, F = m~
a

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 11/16


Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇
→ − →
Suppose V = A
1−→2
r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − At
2

r0
d2~ d2~
r − →
a0 =
=⇒ ~ = −A
dt2 dt 2


a− A
= ~


→ −

IF 2nd law holds in S, F = m~ a0 + A )
a = m(~

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 11/16


Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇
→ − →
Suppose V = A
1−→2
r 0 (t) = ~
~ r (t) − At
2

r0
d2~ d2~
r − →
a0 =
=⇒ ~ = −A
dt2 dt 2


a− A
= ~


→ −

IF 2nd law holds in S, F = m~ a0 + A )
a = m(~

→ −

a0 = F − m A : 2nd law not valid in S 0
m~

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 11/16


Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

→ − →
We call −m A = F fict : Fictitious Force

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 12/16


Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

→ − →
We call −m A = F fict : Fictitious Force
If you use fictitious forces correctly, then you can pretend you are
in an inertial frame and use 2nd law:

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 12/16


Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

→ − →
We call −m A = F fict : Fictitious Force
If you use fictitious forces correctly, then you can pretend you are
in an inertial frame and use 2nd law:

→0 −
→ − →
a0
F NI = F I + F fict = m~

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 12/16


Example

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 13/16


Example

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 13/16


Example

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 14/16


Example

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 14/16


Example

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 14/16


Example

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 14/16


Example

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 14/16


Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 15/16
a = (r̈ − rθ̇2 )r̂ + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇)θ̂
~

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 15/16


a = (r̈ − rθ̇2 )r̂ + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇)θ̂
~

FRadial = maRadial

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 15/16


Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Dr. Radhika Vathsan for the slides and figures

Thank You

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 16/16