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F RAMES OF R EFERENCE –I

Lecture 15

F RAMES OF R EFERENCE –I

2 Galilean Transformations

4 Non-inertial Frames

Uniformly accelerated frames

Newton’s Laws: First Law

Newton’s Laws: First Law

uniform motion in a right line unless it is

compelled to change that state by forces

impressed thereon.

Newton’s Laws: First Law

uniform motion in a right line unless it is

compelled to change that state by forces

impressed thereon.

Law of Inertia

Definition of an Inertial Frame:

Frame in which a free body (not acted upon by

net external force) has a constant velocity

(could be zero)

Newton’s Laws: First Law

uniform motion in a right line unless it is

compelled to change that state by forces

impressed thereon.

Law of Inertia

Definition of an Inertial Frame:

Frame in which a free body (not acted upon by

net external force) has a constant velocity

(could be zero)

Inertial Frames Exist.

Newton’s Laws: Second Law

II

Newton’s Laws: Second Law

II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever

proportional to the motive force impressed and

is made in the direction of the right line in

which that force is impressed.

Newton’s Laws: Second Law

II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever

proportional to the motive force impressed and

is made in the direction of the right line in

which that force is impressed.

the rate of change of its momentum:

−

→ d~ p

F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.

dt

Newton’s Laws: Second Law

II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever

proportional to the motive force impressed and

is made in the direction of the right line in

which that force is impressed.

the rate of change of its momentum:

−

→ d~ p

F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.

dt

d~

p

For a point particle, a.

= m~ (m = Const.)

dt

Newton’s Laws: Second Law

II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever

proportional to the motive force impressed and

is made in the direction of the right line in

which that force is impressed.

the rate of change of its momentum:

−

→ d~ p

F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.

dt

d~

p

For a point particle, a.

= m~ (m = Const.)

dt

N

X −

→ −

→

F i = F res

i=1

Newton’s Laws: Second Law

II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever

proportional to the motive force impressed and

is made in the direction of the right line in

which that force is impressed.

the rate of change of its momentum:

−

→ d~ p

F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.

dt

d~

p

For a point particle, a.

= m~ (m = Const.)

dt

N

X −

→ −

→

F i = F res = m~

a

i=1

Newton’s Laws: Second Law

II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever

proportional to the motive force impressed and

is made in the direction of the right line in

which that force is impressed.

the rate of change of its momentum:

−

→ d~ p

F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.

dt

d~

p

For a point particle, a.

= m~ (m = Const.)

dt

N

X −

→ −

→

F i = F res = m~

a

i=1

CAUSE

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16

Newton’s Laws: Second Law

II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever

proportional to the motive force impressed and

is made in the direction of the right line in

which that force is impressed.

the rate of change of its momentum:

−

→ d~ p

F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.

dt

d~

p

For a point particle, a.

= m~ (m = Const.)

dt

N

X −

→ −

→

F i = F res = m~

a

i=1

CAUSE EFFECT

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16

Newton’s Laws: Second Law

II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever

proportional to the motive force impressed and

is made in the direction of the right line in

which that force is impressed.

the rate of change of its momentum:

−

→ d~ p

F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.

dt

d~

p

For a point particle, a.

= m~ (m = Const.)

dt

N

X −

→ −

→

F i = F res = m~

a

i=1

−

→

F causes change in motion:

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16

Newton’s Laws: Second Law

II The alteration of the quantity of motion is ever

proportional to the motive force impressed and

is made in the direction of the right line in

which that force is impressed.

the rate of change of its momentum:

−

→ d~ p

F = where p ~ ≡ m~v.

dt

d~

p

For a point particle, a.

= m~ (m = Const.)

dt

N

X −

→ −

→

F i = F res = m~

a

i=1

−

→

F causes change in motion: m~

a is NOT a force!

Frames of Reference Newton’s Laws and Inertial Frames 3/16

Newton’s Laws: Third Law

III

Newton’s Laws: Third Law

reaction – or – the mutual actions of two bodies

upon each other are always equal & directed to

contrary parts.

Newton’s Laws: Third Law

reaction – or – the mutual actions of two bodies

upon each other are always equal & directed to

contrary parts.

−

→ −

→

F 12 = − F 21

Newton’s Laws: Third Law

reaction – or – the mutual actions of two bodies

upon each other are always equal & directed to

contrary parts.

−

→ −

→

F 12 = − F 21

Mutual forces generally along the line joining the

particles but not always

Newton’s Laws: Third Law

reaction – or – the mutual actions of two bodies

upon each other are always equal & directed to

contrary parts.

−

→ −

→

F 12 = − F 21

Mutual forces generally along the line joining the

particles but not always

XX− →

F ij = 0

i j6=i

Newton’s Laws: Third Law

reaction – or – the mutual actions of two bodies

upon each other are always equal & directed to

contrary parts.

−

→ −

→

F 12 = − F 21

Mutual forces generally along the line joining the

particles but not always

XX− →

F ij = 0

i j6=i

Mutual (internal) Forces in a system of particles

cancel

Galilean Transformations

Two observers S and S 0 , rel.

−

→

velocity V

Galilean Transformations

Two observers S and S 0 , rel.

−

→

velocity V

O and O0 coincide at

t=0

Galilean Transformations

Two observers S and S 0 , rel.

−

→

velocity V

O and O0 coincide at

t=0

−

→

S sees S 0 move with V

Galilean Transformations

Two observers S and S 0 , rel.

−

→

velocity V

O and O0 coincide at

t=0

−

→

S sees S 0 move with V

t0 = t

Galilean Transformations

Two observers S and S 0 , rel.

−

→

velocity V

O and O0 coincide at

t=0

−

→

S sees S 0 move with V

t0 = t

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

Galilean Transformations

Two observers S and S 0 , rel.

−

→

velocity V

O and O0 coincide at

t=0

−

→

S sees S 0 move with V

Galilean Transformations

t0 = t

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

Galilean Transformations

Two observers S and S 0 , rel.

−

→

velocity V

O and O0 coincide at

t=0

−

→

S sees S 0 move with V

Galilean Transformations

t0 = t

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

Galilean Transformations

Two observers S and S 0 , rel.

−

→

velocity V

O and O0 coincide at

t=0

−

→

S sees S 0 move with V

Galilean Transformations

t0 = t

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

r0

d~ r0

d~ r −

d~ →

0

= = −V

dt dt dt

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16

Galilean Transformations

Two observers S and S 0 , rel.

−

→

velocity V

O and O0 coincide at

t=0

−

→

S sees S 0 move with V

Galilean Transformations

t0 = t

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

−

→

r0

d~ r0

d~ r −

d~ → ~0 = u

u ~−V

0

= = −V or

dt dt dt

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 5/16

Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law

Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law

Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

−

→ d2~r

S frame: F = m~ a=m 2

dt

Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law

Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

−

→ d2~r

S frame: F = m~ a=m 2

dt

−

→ 0 d2~ r0

S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2

dt

Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law

Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

−

→ d2~r

S frame: F = m~ a=m 2

dt

−

→ 0 d2~ r0

S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2

dt

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law

Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

−

→ d2~r

S frame: F = m~ a=m 2

dt

−

→ 0 d2~ r0

S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2

dt

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

d2~ r0 d2~

r

=⇒ 2

=

dt dt2

Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law

Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

−

→ d2~r

S frame: F = m~ a=m 2

dt

−

→ 0 d2~ r0

S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2

dt

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

d2~ r0 d2~

r

=⇒ 2

=

dt dt2

=⇒ ~ a = ~a0

Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law

Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

−

→ d2~r

S frame: F = m~ a=m 2

dt

−

→ 0 d2~ r0

S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2

dt

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

d2~ r0 d2~

r

=⇒ 2

=

dt dt2

=⇒ ~ a = ~a0

acceleration

Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law

Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

−

→ d2~r

S frame: F = m~ a=m 2

dt

−

→ 0 d2~ r0

S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2

dt

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

d2~ r0 d2~

r

=⇒ 2

=

dt dt2

=⇒ ~ a = ~a0

acceleration

−

→ − →0

=⇒ F = F

Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law

Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

−

→ d2~r

S frame: F = m~ a=m 2

dt

−

→ 0 d2~ r0

S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2

dt

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

d2~ r0 d2~

r

=⇒ 2

=

dt dt2

=⇒ ~ a = ~a0

acceleration

−

→

−

→ − →0 a in both frames

F = m~

=⇒ F = F =⇒

Galilean Invariance of Newton’s Second Law

Second Law: valid in 2 inertial frames

−

→ d2~r

S frame: F = m~ a=m 2

dt

−

→ 0 d2~ r0

S 0 frame: F = m~ a0 = m 2

dt

−

→

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − V t

d2~ r0 d2~

r

=⇒ 2

=

dt dt2

=⇒ ~ a = ~a0

acceleration

−

→

−

→ − →0 a in both frames

F = m~

=⇒ F = F =⇒

Galilean Invariance

Frames of Reference Galilean Transformations 6/16

Galilean Principle of Relativity

carefully (though there is no doubt that

when the ship is standing still everything

must happen this way), have the ship

proceed with any speed you like, so long as

the motion is uniform and not fluctuating

this way and that. You will discover not the

least change in all the effects named, nor

could you tell from any of them whether the

ship was moving or standing still.”

–Dialogues Concerning the Two Chief World

Systems (February 1632)

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 7/16

Galilean Principle of Relativity

Galilean Invariance

The laws of Physics are identical in all reference frames that move with

uniform velocity w.r.t. each other

carefully (though there is no doubt that

when the ship is standing still everything

must happen this way), have the ship

proceed with any speed you like, so long as

the motion is uniform and not fluctuating

this way and that. You will discover not the

least change in all the effects named, nor

could you tell from any of them whether the

ship was moving or standing still.”

–Dialogues Concerning the Two Chief World

Systems (February 1632)

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 7/16

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

distance

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

distance

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

distance

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

distance

Both the scales are calibrated against the same

standard of length.

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

distance

Both the scales are calibrated against the same

standard of length.

Both the clocks are calibrated against the same

standard of time

Both observers agree on the value of mass?

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

distance

Both the scales are calibrated against the same

standard of length.

Does this ensure that they will measure the same

length for an object while in relative motion?

Both the clocks are calibrated against the same

standard of time

Both observers agree on the value of mass?

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

distance

Both the scales are calibrated against the same

standard of length.

Does this ensure that they will measure the same

length for an object while in relative motion?

Both the clocks are calibrated against the same

standard of time

Both observers agree on the value of mass?

Depends on the length and time measurements

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

distance

Both the scales are calibrated against the same

standard of length.

Does this ensure that they will measure the same

length for an object while in relative motion?

1/2

v2

Special Theory: L = L0 1 − 2

c

Time is the same in both frames T = 1/2

Both the clocks are calibrated against the same v2

T0 / 1 − 2

standard of time c

Both observers agree on the value of mass?

m = 1/2

Depends on the length and time measurements v2

m0 / 1 − 2

c

Frames of Reference Galilean Principle of Relativity 8/16

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Einstein’s Axiom–

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Einstein’s Axiom–

• Speed of light c is constant in all

inertial frames

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Einstein’s Axiom–

• Speed of light c is constant in all

inertial frames

–Special Theory of Relativity

Galilean Relativity: Limits of Validity

Einstein’s Axiom–

• Speed of light c is constant in all

inertial frames

–Special Theory of Relativity

• Galilean transformations valid only

when v c (Newtonian Limit)

Non-inertial Frames

Non-inertial Frames

Newton’s Ist law will not hold: fictitious forces

Non-inertial Frames

Newton’s Ist law will not hold: fictitious forces

Bodies under no visible action of force will accelerate

Non-inertial Frames

Newton’s Ist law will not hold: fictitious forces

Bodies under no visible action of force will accelerate

Uniformly accelerated frames

Non-inertial Frames

Newton’s Ist law will not hold: fictitious forces

Bodies under no visible action of force will accelerate

Uniformly accelerated frames

Rotating Frames

Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇

→ − →

Suppose V = A

Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇

→ − →

Suppose V = A

1−→2

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − At

2

Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇

→ − →

Suppose V = A

1−→2

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − At

2

r0

d2~ d2~

r − →

a0 =

=⇒ ~ = −A

dt2 dt 2

−

→

a− A

= ~

Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇

→ − →

Suppose V = A

1−→2

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − At

2

r0

d2~ d2~

r − →

a0 =

=⇒ ~ = −A

dt2 dt 2

−

→

a− A

= ~

−

→

IF 2nd law holds in S, F = m~

a

Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇

→ − →

Suppose V = A

1−→2

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − At

2

r0

d2~ d2~

r − →

a0 =

=⇒ ~ = −A

dt2 dt 2

−

→

a− A

= ~

−

→ −

→

IF 2nd law holds in S, F = m~ a0 + A )

a = m(~

Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−̇

→ − →

Suppose V = A

1−→2

r 0 (t) = ~

~ r (t) − At

2

r0

d2~ d2~

r − →

a0 =

=⇒ ~ = −A

dt2 dt 2

−

→

a− A

= ~

−

→ −

→

IF 2nd law holds in S, F = m~ a0 + A )

a = m(~

−

→ −

→

a0 = F − m A : 2nd law not valid in S 0

m~

Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−

→ − →

We call −m A = F fict : Fictitious Force

Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−

→ − →

We call −m A = F fict : Fictitious Force

If you use fictitious forces correctly, then you can pretend you are

in an inertial frame and use 2nd law:

Motion w.r.t. a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

−

→ − →

We call −m A = F fict : Fictitious Force

If you use fictitious forces correctly, then you can pretend you are

in an inertial frame and use 2nd law:

−

→0 −

→ − →

a0

F NI = F I + F fict = m~

Example

Example

Example

Example

Example

Example

Example

Frames of Reference Non-inertial Frames Uniformly accelerated frames 15/16

a = (r̈ − rθ̇2 )r̂ + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇)θ̂

~

a = (r̈ − rθ̇2 )r̂ + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇)θ̂

~

FRadial = maRadial

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Dr. Radhika Vathsan for the slides and figures

Thank You

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