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Industrial Instrumentation and Measurements

Dr Rosdiazli Ibrahim

Electrical & Electronics Engineering Programme Universiti Teknologi Petronas

22.03.027

Email: nordiss@petronas.com.my Tel: 05-368 7821

Pressure

Measurements

LearningLearning OutcomesOutcomes

Learning Outcomes

To achieve the following Learning Outcomes:

Have knowledge and understanding of the various process industry instruments, the concept of measurements, calibration and configuration requirements and their applications.

Be able to design and develop a control loop consisting the process instruments, based on a prescribed requirement.

.

instruments, based on a prescribed requirement. • . Assessment criteria: To demonstrate student has achieved

Assessment criteria:

To demonstrate student has achieved the learning outcomes

Describe the measuring principles, calibration and configuration requirements of different process industry instruments and their applications.

Design and develop a control loop using the relevant instruments to meet specifications

• •
 

ProcessProcess ,, IndustrialIndustrial InstInstrumentationrumentation && MeasurementMeasurement

Process , Industrial Instrumentation & Measurement

Assessment criteria:

 

Lab experiences

Assessment criteria:

• Basic concepts of measurements

 

• Calibration, configuration of transmitters, controllers, recorders and other peripherals,

wiring, selection and installation.

 

Signal Conditioning

• Process control terminologies

P,T,L,F to mA, V

• Calibration

 

V-V,V-mA,mA-V

 
   

Assessment criteria:

     

Assessment criteria:

Applications and selections of sensors and actuators used in industries

• Design and implementation of

Design and implement a simple control loop.

Pressure

Level

Temperature

Flow

a simple control loop.

EEB5223/EAB4223 Industrial Automation & Control Systems

TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 22

Definition of Pressure

Pressure and Force are interrelated. Similarly, force and acceleration, along with mass, weight, velocity and distance, all depend upon each other.

Pressure = Force per unit area Eg. Consider at sea level, a car of mass=1000kg was dropped from a height of 9.81metres. It takes 1.0 second for the car to hit the ground. The force the car possesses when it strikes the ground is,

THE DEFINITION OF PRESSURE

when it strikes the ground is, THE DEFINITION OF PRESSURE Force = mass x acceleration F=1000kg

Force = mass x acceleration F=1000kg x 9.81 m.s -2 = 9810 N. Note: Each wheel of the car would absorbed 25% of the resistive concrete force.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 33

The Unit Area

The Unit Area

The unit area refers to the Reference Unit Area, i.e., either a”square inch” in British System or “square metre” in SI system. Suppose, the tyre footprint = 0.15 by 0.25 metres. Hence, Area = 0.0375 sq metres.

The force on the four wheels due to gravity and balanced by the concrete is 9810 N. Each wheel experiences 2452.5 N of force. Hence, the pressure on the concrete P=F/A =2452.5 N / 0.0375 m 2 = 65,400 N/m 2 . [expressed in SI system].

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 44

Calculation in BS system

Calculation in BS system:

Weight of the car is 2200 lb. Note: lb is a unit of force. The Mass of the car in BS:

The mass = Force / Acceleration = 2200 lb / 32.17 ft.s -2 = 68.39 slugs. The area of the tyre footprint in sq inches:

Conversion unit: 1 inch = 2.54 cm Length of tyre footprint = 25 cm/2.54 cm per inch = 9.84 inches. Width of tyre footprint = 15 cm/2.54 cm per inch = 5.91 inches. Area of tyre footprint = 58.15 sq inches.

= 5.91 inches. Area of tyre footprint = 58.15 sq inches. The pressure of each tyre

The pressure of each tyre footprint:

P = F / A = (2200 lb / 4 wheels) / 58.15 sq. in.

= 9.46 lb per sq. in.

Note: The unit pound per sq inch is abbreviated “psi”. In BS system, tyre footprint pressure = 9.46 psi. In SI system, tyre footprint pressure = 65, 400 N/m 2 .

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 55

Calculation in BS system

The SI system offers standard pressure unit that is applicable to pressure measurements in fluids as well.

Definition of pascal: {named after Blaise Pascal}

1 pascal (Pa) = 1 newton / metre 2 (N/m 2 )

However, Pa is still a very small unit. The SI system

decided to use kilopascal (kPa).

1000 pascal (Pa) = 1 kilopascal (kPa). Conversion unit to BS system:

1 lb / in 2 = 6.894757 kPa

1 psi = 6.895 kPa.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 66

Pressure in Fluids

PRESSURE IN FLUIDS (Gases and Liquids) Pascal discovered two extremely important characteristics of pressure:

• The liquid level in a mercury barometer rises and falls not because of the vacuum at the top, but because of changes in the pressure of atmospheric air.

• A point of pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions. Thus pressure can be measured in any direction if and only if any other acting pressures are taken into account.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 77

Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

– Consists of two pressure components: the applied

pressure (P a ) and the elevation or head pressure

(P h ).

Consider the pressure in a 2-metre diameter water duct. Suppose the pressure applied from a pump is 100 kPa. Since pressure acts equally in all directions, the pressure at a point in the duct = P a + P h .

Note: A 1 metre head (or height of water) is the weight of the 1 metre “column” of water, directly above the duct centreline.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 88

Pressure Head relationship

Pressure Head relationship:

P h = mg / A, where m = the mass of 1 metre 3 of water at

4 o C and 101.325 kPa: In the metric system, 1 metre 3 of

water has a mass of 1000kg; g = acceleration due to gravity at sea level = 9.81 m/s 2 ; A = 1 metre 2 . At centre of duct, the head pressure P h = [1000kg x 9.81m/s 2 ] / 1 metre 2 = 9810 Pa.= 9.81 kPa.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 99

Hydrostatic Pressure

Total Pressure in a large water duct (P total = P a +P h )

Ph = 0 kPa at level C

C

2 metre 1 metre 100 kPa Ph = 9.81 kPa at level A 100 kPa
2 metre
1 metre
100
kPa
Ph = 9.81 kPa
at level A
100 kPa
100 kPa
A
100
kPa
Ph = 19.62 kPa
at level B

B

EEB5223/EAB4223 Industrial Automation & Control Systems

P total at level C = P a +P h =100 kPa

P total at level A = P a +P h =109.81 kPa

P total at level B = P a +P h =119.62 kPa

TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 1010

Pressure Measurement

PRESSURE TRANSMITTER PLACEMENT

• When measuring pressure in liquid lines, and particularly in large diameter lines with heavy liquids, transmitter placement must take into account head pressure (P h ) due to vertical height of the liquid.

• In gas measurement, the vertical height of a column of gas produces negligible head effect. In gas measurement, the location of the transmitter is not important.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 1111

Relative Density - RD

Type of fluid:

Involve two concepts: Density , and Specific gravity (or Relative Density) Density, ρ = mass / unit volume Relative density, RD= Density of liquid/Density of water. Hence, P = h ρ w g RD Where, P = Pressure in N/m 2 h=column height, metres ρ w = density of water g=gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s 2 RD = relative density of fluid.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 1212

Relative Density - RD

Example:

a.

The total height (h) of a fuel oil storage tank is 6.2m and the Relative Density of the fuel oil is 0.755. Assume the tank is vented to atmosphere. Calculate the pressure at the base of the tank when it is three-quarter full.

Total h = 6.2 m. Actual h=6.2 x 0.75 = 4.65 m

P

= h ρ w g RD = 4.65m x 1000kg/m 2 x 9.81 m/s 2 x 0.755

P

= 34,440 N/m 2 = 34.4 kPa.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 1313

Relative Density - RD

b. If the tank has a diameter of 11.5 m. Calculate the total force of the fuel oil on the base of the

c.

tank.

F

= P x A

F

= 34.4kPa x [(11.5/2) 2 x 3.1416 m 2 ]

F

= 3573 kN

Calculate the mass of the tank liquid in kg? in tonnes?

m = F/g = 3 573 000N / 9.81 m/s 2 = 364, 220kg, or 364.22 tonne

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 1414

Relative Density - RD

d. Calculate the pressure in psi.

Use conversion: 1 psi = 6.895 kPa

34.4 kPa / [6.9 kPa/psi] = 4.99 psi, OR,

P = h ρ w g RD

= 4.65 x [100/2.54] in x 0.0361 lb/ in 3 x 0.755

= 4.99 psi.

Note: 0.0361 represents density of water (lb/in 3 ).

e. Find the total mass of the fuel oil in pounds:

F =PA

F

= 4.99 psi x [(11.5m/(0.0254 m/in)/2)] 2 x 3.1416

F

=4.99 psi x [4.52.8 in/2] 2 x 3.1416 = 804,987 lb

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 1515

Problem example

Example:

A pressure transmitter connected at a position 10 cm above the bottom of a tank sends 13.57 mA to a computer. The transmitter was calibrated for a range of 0-200kPa to produce 4-20 mA. If the liquid has a specific gravity of 1.26, calculate the level of the liquid in the tank.

P=h w gRD

RD=1.26 w =1000 kg/m 2 g=9.81 m/s 2

Reading 13.57 mA : (200 kPa * 13.57mA/16mA)-50 kPa=119.62 kPa

h=P/ w gRD=119.62kPa/(1000 kg/m 2 *9.81 m/s 2 * 1.26)=967.75cm h actual = h+10 cm = 977.75 cm

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 1616

Unit Conversion Factors

 

Pascal (Pa)

Bar

mbar

Torr

N/m 2

1 Pa

1

1

x 10 -5

0.01

0.0075

1

1 bar

1 x 10 5

 

1

1000

750.062

1 x 10 5

1 mbar

100

 

0.001

1

0.750

100

1 torr

133.322

0.001333

1.33322

1

133.322

1 N/m 2

1

1

x 10 -5

0.01

0.0075

1

1 atmosphere = 101.325 kPa 1 bar = 100 kPa = 0.987 atmospheres 1 torr = 1mm mercury (Hg) = 1.33322 mbar

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 1717

Gauge, Absolute, Differential

Gauge, Absolute, Differential Pressure

All pressures must be measured relative to some reference. Reference zero pressure (0 atm) • Reference absolute pressure (101.325 kPa) Consider the following illustration:

Sensing

Element P 1 P 2 EEB5223/EAB4223 Industrial Automation & Control Systems
Element
P 1
P 2
EEB5223/EAB4223 Industrial Automation & Control Systems

TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 1818

Gauge, Absolute, Differential

Gauge Pressure:

The pressure being measured using atmospheric pressure at sea level (101.325 kPa) as the reference point.

0 kPa (gauge) = 101.325 kPa (absolute). Gauge pressure is the unit we encounter in everyday work (eg., tyre ratings are in gauge pressure). A gauge pressure device will indicate zero pressure when bled down to atmospheric pressure (i.e., gauge pressure is referenced to atmospheric pressure at sea level).

Absolute Pressure:

The total pressure being measured including ambient (atmospheric) pressure. Absolute pressure starts at 0 kPa (at perfect vacuum). Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Atmospheric pressure.

Note: Majority of pressure measurements in plant are Gauge.

Absolute measurements tend to be used where pressures are below atmosphere.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 1919

Gauge, Absolute, Differential

Gauge Pressure

Reference absolute pressure (101.325 kPa)

•If P 1 is equals to atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa), the pressure sense is ‘gauge pressure’ or simply the ‘pressure’.

Consider the following illustration:

Sensing Element P 1 P 2
Sensing
Element
P
1
P
2

Reference side open to atmospheric pressure (vented gauge).

Or,

Reference side is sealed to atmospheric pressure(sealed gauge).

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 2020

Gauge, Absolute, Differential

Absolute Pressure

Reference zero absolute pressure (0 atm)

•If P 1 is equals to 0 atm (0 kPa), the pressure sense is known as the ‘absolute pressure’.

Consider the following illustration:

P 1

P 1 Sensing Element P 2

Sensing

Element

P 2

Reference side is evacuated and

sealed.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 2121

Pressure Detectors

Bourdon tube:

A circular-shaped tube with oval sections. The pressure of the medium acts on the inside of the tube. The outward pressure on the oval cross section forces it to become rounded. Because of the curvature of the tube ring, the bourdon tube then bends as indicated.

Often used in harsh environments and high pressures, but can also be used for very low pressure: the response time is slower than the bellows or diaphragm.

the response time is slower than the bellows or diaphragm. EEB5223/EAB4223 Industrial Au tomation & Control

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 2222

Pressure Detectors

Pressure Detectors Bellows: Bellows type elements are constructed of tubular membranes that are convoluted around the

Bellows:

Bellows type elements are constructed of tubular membranes that are convoluted around the circumference. The membrane is attached at one end to the source and at the other end to an indicating device or instrument. The bellows element can provide a long range of motion in the direction of the arrow when input pressure is applied.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 2323

Pressure Detectors

Diaphragms:

A diaphragm is a circular-shaped

convoluted membrane that is attached

to the pressure fixture around the

circumference. The pressure medium

is on one side and the indication

medium is on the other. The deflection that is created by pressure in the vessel would be in the direction of the arrow indicated.

vessel would be in the direction of the arrow indicated. EEB5223/EAB4223 Industrial Au tomation & Control

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 2424

Pressure Detectors

Pressure Detectors Capsule : The capsule consists of two circular shaped, convoluted membranes (usually stainless steel)

Capsule:

The capsule consists of two circular shaped, convoluted membranes (usually stainless steel) sealed tight around the circumference. The pressure acts on the inside of the capsule and the generated stroke movement is shown by the direction of the arrow. This arrangement is not much different from the diaphragm except that it expands both ways.

In a D/P transmitter, the capsule is constructed with two diaphragms forming an outer case and the inter- space is filled with viscous oil. Pressure is applied to both sides and it will deflect towards the lower pressure.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 2525

Pressure Detectors

A strain gauge is a device (a metal wire with very small diameter) that is affixed to the surface of the capsule to detect the force applied. When force is applied the overall length of the wire tends to increase while the cross- sectional area decreases. The output of the strain gauge is a change in resistance that can be measured by the input circuit of an amplifier, which then used to produce a 4-20 mA signal.

an amplifier, which then used to produce a 4-20 mA signal. Typical DP Transmitter construction EEB5223/EAB4223

Typical DP Transmitter construction

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 2626

Impact of operating environment

The sensors are widely used in control and instrumentation systems. Their existence will not normally be evident because the physical construction will be enclosed inside manufacturers’ packaging. However, each is highly accurate when used to measure the right quantity and within the rating of the device. The constraints are not limited to operating pressure. Other factors include temperature, vapor content and vibration.

Vibration: causes inconsistency of measurement, stress on the sensitive membranes, diaphragms and linkages that can leads to the failure of sensor.

Temperature: effects the elasticity of the detectors. An operating temperature outside the rating of the sensor will create significant error in the readings.

Vapor content: Vapor density or ambient air density can affect the DP cell readings. A DP sensor located in a hot and humid room will tend to read high.

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 2727

Failures and abnormalities

Over pressure:

Diaphragms and bellows are usually the most sensitive and fast-acting of all pressure sensors. They are the most prone to fracture on over- pressuring. Bourdon tubes are very robust and can handle very high pressures, although when exposed to over-pressure they become slightly distended and will read high.

Faulty sensing lines:

A cracked or punctured sensing line has the characteristic of consistently low readings.

Loss of loop electrical power:

The output of DP transmitter will drop to zero or become irrational with a loss of power supply.

to zero or become irrational with a loss of power supply. EEB5223/EAB4223 Industrial Au tomation &

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TopicTopic 1.31.3 PressurePressure-- 2828