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Copyr"ightO ResearchEngineersInternational,2002
Pro:- STAADTraining
STAAD.
1. Introduction

This course is structuredto look at the scope of the STAAD.PTo commandsand capabilities.
There are six exercises to complete, each one containing more STAAD commands and
dealing with more complex problems.

This document has been produced for your benefit and assistance. This document is
copyright and no part of it is to be copied, reproducedelectronically or otherwise without the
prior written consentof ResearchEngineers.

2. RevisionHistory

Date Version File Ref. Details Bv


r7 t06198 1 . 0 STAAD Pro Train ng FirstIssue CA
r0103/99 1 . 0 STAAD Pro Training Secondand third examples CA
added
t9108199 l . l STAAD Pro Training Updatedfor v3.l CA
25108199 l . l STAAD Pro Training Dynamic exampleadded CA
06t09199 t . 2 STAAD Pro Training RC Designer added CA
0l/05/00
ra
STAAD Pro Train ng Updatedto STAAD2000 CA
0 li l l/00 t . 4 STAAD Pro Training Detailed steel designexamples CA
added.
24109101 1 . 5 STAAD ProTrainins Uodatedfor STAAD 2001 ME
28106102 1 . 6 STAAD Pro Training Uodatedfor STAAD 2002 ME

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{t 1. Introduction """""""""""'1
""""""""""""""'1
2. RevisionHistory.'..""
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Contents """"""""""""""'2
i! 3.
1
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4. ?rinciplesof STAAD'Pro'STAAD"'
""""""""""""""'4
1 )M o d e l l i n g """"'4
ft 2) Analysis
3) PostProcessing...
"""""""'5
tJ """""""'6
5. lmportantWindowsConcepG
""""""""6
1) TheActiveWindow.'..'..."""""
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,tt 2) Menus
""""""6
1J """"""""""""""7
3) Toolbars.. """""""7
4) Selection Methods
""""""'7
(t
1l 5) UsefulKeys.....-....'.
""""""""8
LJ 6- Examplel-z}Beam Model """"""'8
1) SetupMode1........... """"""""""""9
f-l 2 ) S n a pN o d e/ B e a m . . - . . " " '
""""""""""""10
:l 3) InsertandMovea Node """"""""11
4) AssignProperties (Database)
"""""12
5) AssignSupports.....' """""12
!l
.t 6)AssignReleases..'.. """""13
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7) AssignLoads.......... """"13
l,
8) AnalYse """"'14
9) Resutts - Displacements """""""'
- Forces.....'. """'15
10)Results """"""""16
11)Printout-OutputFi|e"""""""'
a
12)Printout-UserReport """""";""""""""""""""""'16

T . E x a m p l e 2 - 3 D B e a m a n d P | a t e M o d e l w i t h S t e e | D e s i g n . . . . . . . ". ". .".".".".".". ". ". ". ." .".' .1.8. ' . ' . . 1 8
1 ) G e n e r a t3eD . " . . . ' . . ' . . . . . """""""18
2) AddBeamElements'..."""""" """""""19
3) AddPtate Elements '."""""""'
PlateProperties"""""""" """""""""""""19
4) Assigning """'20
5) Creating Views.....'..."
Tables """"""""20
6) UserAnalysisResults
;i ;#?'fiii'iontou' Maps"""""" """""""""""""21
"""""""""""""'21
8) Animations'..'...'....'.."' """"""""""'22
9) SteelDesign """'23
10)DesignResults...'....'
Tables """""""""'24
8. Example3 - UsingCut and Pasteand User """"""""""24
-
1)Joints Spreadsheet lnput'
"""""""""""'25
2) AddBeams """'25
3) Generate- lMinor.
^\ ^^-^-.^ li'_r
26
4) CuUCoPY andPasteElements"" 27
5) User Tables 27
6) Add 1.5m x 2.0m FoundationSupports 28
-
t l u l t i p l eL o a d c a s ea n d C o m b i n a t i o n"s" " " " " ' 30
t A n a l y s i sR e s u l t s . . . . . . . - .

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""""""31
9. Example4 - StructureWizardand DynamicAnalysis"'
Wizard """""""'31
1) Structure
""""""""'32
2) Add PopertiesandSupports
:iffiJ#Ji"ivi.o""'iew"""
"""' "" """""" 33
"""""""""'33
MassModetlin9"""""""""'
"""""""""""33
Mode Shapes..."""""""'
"""""""""34
2) CreateTimeHistoryGraphs "" "' 34
;iffii;;'iiil';il"ry Loadcase
""""'U
Masses
History. """"""""""'U
Trme """"'35
4) ViewingModeShapes """""""""
- """""" """.'"""36
10. Example5 Muliple Analysis""" """"""'"'36
1) DefiningBeamsas'Tensionbnly""""""""
the Loading """""":"""" ""''""'36
2) Modifv
commands"
;ini;'il,;iu;l; P";o* Analvsis """""""'37
Design" """"""""""'38
11. Example6 - Beam,Golumnand SlabRC "".'""""".''38
1) CreateBeamandColumns
iiffii. il;i;"* srab"""""' "" " " 38
;iffi;iffi;#'tertresanoSupports""" """""""'38
""""""39
4 ) F l o o rL o a d i n g . . . . . . . .
"""""""""""40
5 ) S l a bD e s i g n
"""""""""""'41
o'lsrReo.pro Rc r;;;ig; iB""tn "nOColumndesign)""""""""""' """""'41
1. CrcateenveloPe
"""""""""""""'41
2. Crcatemembers""'
"""""""42
3. CreateDesignBriefs""""""
"""""""42
4. CreateDesignGroups""""' """"'42
5. Designthe GrouP
t 2 . . D e t a i l e d S t e e | D e s | g n E x a m p | e t o B S 5 9 5 0 : P a r t 1 : 2 0 0 0 . . . . . . ' . . ...'..'.'........"45
..45
Exampler, simprvJu-piort"o-n*rn withtulltateralrestraint..................
beamwith,"itoint at loadpoints-.......... ..""""""""'49
Example2, simplysupported iestraints' """""""""""'53
Example3, Simplysupportedbeam.witho,uiintermediate """'55
a, cotumn ir.tti pinneJ"nor and intermediate support..
Example
"""""""'-"""57
13. OtherSTAADFeatures "
"""""""""""""57
LoadGenerators.'..'.""""
"""""""""""""57
OtherFormsof Analysis"'
"""""""""""57
P-Detta'-.-..--
"""""""""""57
Non-Linear..
Analysis Engine """""""""" ""57
Stardyne
Components """""58
1/1. OtherSTAAD.PTo """"" 58
STAAD.beava...'.""""""' '58
STAAD'etc " 58
LaYout.... " "58
OffshoreLoadingProgram""" ' "" '58
SectionWizatd'

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4. PrinciPlesof STAAD.PTo
software that uses a graphical user interface
STAAD.PTo - STAAD is an analysis and design
g-! -analysis
engine' It can also vicv" the results in
tr.
to generatea data file that is processedby an
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T h e m o d e i l i n g s t a g e o f t h e p r o c e s s w o r k s w i t h a n a s c i i f i l e f o r m a t t h a t h a s a which
f i l e e x the
tension
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3) Post Processing an
of output' A1 the inputfile is processed'
completionof ttreanallsisproducestwo sets viewed
extensicnis producedwhich canbe
outputfile with the s#e frfenum",but a .ANL
The analysisprocessalsogenerates
eitherwithin sTeAo.Pro or an asciifile viewer' canintenogatetheresults'
additionaldatabase files that areusedwith the GUI sothattheuser

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{l 1) The Active Window.


if STAAD.PTo is a MDI (Multiple Document lnterra;e I pro-sam. That is the program operates
L} 'child ' windows within the man ST..LA,DS'indow. The child window can
with a number of
be either text based,such as the tables,graphical such as the diagramsor dialogue boxes. Any
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operation is carried out on the
'Active' windo*'. The acnve u'indow can be identified by the
dark title bar. (Note although this is true for standard Windows setup, the colour
configuration can be alteredfrom Windows Conrol Panel.) By clicking the mouseon a child
window, that window becomes the active windor,r'.The menu and toolbars respond to the
active window so that only those commandsthat are appropriateto the active window are
available.
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2) Menus
The pnmary method of accessingall the commandsavailablein STAAD.PTo is from the
ii 'Main menu' which runs acrossthe top of the main applicationwindow. Note that this menu
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6. Example1 - 2D BeamModel
!t"t This example shows some of the most basic functionality needed to quickly create, analyse
it and print a report.
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2) Snap Node / Beam
Go to the Geometry Page, staying on the Beam sub-page. This anangesa window to display
'Snap
the strucurre and nodes and beams tables. As there is no stnrcture yel defined, the
Node/Beam dialog is automaticallyopeneddisplaying a grid on the struchrreso that nodes and
beamscan be addedgraphically.

1. In the SnapNode/Beam dialog, set the grid plane to the X-Y plane. Note the axes in the
lower left corner of ttre stnrcturewindow.
2. Clickonthe'FrontView' ggl button to get a front on view (X-Y plane) of the
grid.
a
To set the grid to suit the dimensions of the structuremodify the spacing to:-
X, I baysat 1.500mc/c
Y, I bay at 3.500m c/c

A
Note that the origin is set to 0, 0, 0. This is indicated on the gnd as a circle. As you move
the cursor over the grid, note the co-ordinate shown in the lower right corner which can be
used as a visual check.

5 . Click on the origin to generatea node.

6. Click on the grid line above to a new node and generatea column. Note the co-ordinate
shouldread0.000,3.500,0.000.

7 . Click on the extreme top right corner of the grid, 12.000, 3.500, 0'000 , to form a
horizontalbeam. Follow this by clicking in the lower right corner,12.000,0.000,0.000,to
form a column.

R Now whilst holding down the CTRL key (only a node is required, not a beam) and click
on the horizontal beam 5 bays from the left hand side at co-ordinate7.500, 3.500, 0.000.

9. To insert the final column, without holding down the CTRL key, click on the gnd belos
the last nodeto createa new node at 7.500,0.000,0.000,alongwith the column'

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Click on the Close button to turn off the grid..
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'Symbols and
;; Stmcture toolbar click on the Labels' lill button and turn on the '\
'Beam t:l
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3) Insert and Move a Node


From the Struchrretoolbar pressthe 'Insert Node' ffi bufton. Note that the cursor bas
changed shape when over t}re structure windou'. From the structue window selectbeen
number 2, the top elernentof the larger span. ln the resultingdialoguebox pressthe 'Add mid
point'button and'OK'.
Changethe selectioncursor from the 'Select' menu to 'Nodes Cursort

Again note the change to the cursor when above the sffucture window. Select the neu i1
created node and click with the right mouse bunon to get a Floating menu. Select'\Iore'
from the msnu and enter 1.5 into the Y: field of the dialoguebox that is presented.And ci:;t
on OK.

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4) AssignProperties(Database)
Change to the General Page, staying on the property sub-page. From the .Assign
Properties'Dialoguebox pressthe 'Database...'button. Selecta 'UB j56x127x33' from the
British database. This is the first item of a list of sectionsthat will be used on the structure.
more can be addedin the sameway.

The stmcture should now look like the following diagram;

Note that when a section is chosen from the databasein this way, it has associatedwith it a
rnaterial property that will also get assignedwhen this section is assignedto the beamsof rhe
stnrcture.
Select the 356UB from the list, select on the option 'Assign to View' and click ol rhe
'Assign'
button. All the elementsin the structurenow havethis sectionpropeff)'.

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Staying in the General Page change to the Supports Sub-Page.Create a fully fixed s'.::1on
'support' dialogue by clicking on the Add button. To attach this suppon tr1 S!
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structure, selectthe support in the dialog box, check that the Assignmentmethod is set to st
'Assign' button. The cursor changesto the suppori lcsn
cursor to Assign' and click on the
f'l when over the structure window. Click over the basesof the columns to provide the support
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6) Assign Releases
Stayingin the GeneralPagechangeto the SpecSub-Page.Createa releaseby clicFE
'Beam...' bunon and define a releasethat is free in MZ and occursat the start.
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7) Assign Loads
page' a
Stltng in the General Page change to the Loads Sub-Page. When entering this
loadcase must either be selectedor defined. Thus for the first time the m'.:st
ioadca;se be
'Dead' and click on OK. The beam load needs to be created,thus
created. Enter the title
'Member...' button. Selectthe Uniform Force tab and enter the value -22 kN/m
click on the
on
into the Wl edit box and as a Projected load is required, set the direction to PY and click
the Add button.
This creates a load that can be applied to the structure. This time, pre-select the three roof
'Assign to SelectedBeams',click on the
beams 2,4 and6. With the assignmentmethod set to
Assign button.

8) Analyse
ft aen"e the method of analysis and additional information that is required in the standard
output frle. Changeto the Analysis/Print page and go to the Analysis sub-page.Click on the
,Define Commands...' button. On the 'Perform Anallsis'tab, with No Print selected,click
is now
on the Add button to insert the command, followed by the Close button. The file
ready to be analysed,but can be checked in the text editor by clicking on the Editor ffi
button. At this point the file is savedto disk and is shown thus:-

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the graphical environment.

.Analyze' menu and select'Run Analy'sis...' on the 'Analysis Option' tab,


click on the
ensurethat the'STAAD Analysis'option hasbeen selectedand click on the'Run Analvsis...'
button. Savethe file if required.
to close the analysisengine.
once the analysishas been completed,click on the Done button
The stmcture now has resultswhich can be viewed'

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i.i 9) Results- Displacements


To view results,the program needsto be switchedto the Post ProcessingMode.
This can be
a1 done either from the Mode menu or by clicking on the Post Processing button.
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* ;ffi If
!l there are no results available for a structure,then this button is disabled. i!!s'!
L'
When entering this mode, the results to be displayed in the tables has to be selected.
'>>' Use the
button to selectloadcaseI Dead'and click on the OK buttcn.
ft
ti The first page that is entered in the Post Processingmode is the Node page
with the
{'! Displacements sub-page. The stmcture is displayed with the displac.."it diagram.
frt However the displacementscaleneedsto be set to an appropriatevalue. Click on the
tt
LJ Scale
button and set the displacementscaleto l0 mnr/m
ffiJ
n
IJ Identify the displacementsof nodes in the table by clicking on the nodes on the diagram
and
selecta displacementin the table and note how it is locatedon the stnrcture.
ft
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tJ As this is a plane structure, the displacementsin the Z direction and the rX and ry
directions
are all zero and thus not required The u'idths of columns can be resized,or set
f1 to zero and
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thus the size of the table can be reduced
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10) Results- Forces
To view the forces on the beams,change to the Beam page and stay on the Forces sub-page.
The structure diagam is displayed with the Mz moment (major axis) and the Beam End
Forces Table. Note that clicking on the table or the diagram highlights the beam in the other
window. To add values onto the diagram, maximise the Whole Sructure window. Click on
'View Value...' option. On the 'Ranges' tab, select the
the Results menu and select the
'Ranges'option and enter 2 into the'Beams' edit box. Then changeto the Beam Results' tab,
click on the Bending Ends check box and click on the Annotate button. The labels have
been added,but may not be sufliciently clear, so re-sizethe fonl To do this click on the View
menu and selectthe'Options...'menu. On the Annotationtab, click on the Font button and
ser the font to 12pt, bold. Click the OK button on the font and Apply on the Options dialog
to show as below.

STAAD ko Training l.6.sg.doc e " g c - 1o5f 5 9


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iii To get individual bending moment graphs, change to Graphs sub-page. Click on the beams
of the sffucture to view the bending moments, shear forces and axial force diagrams in the
f,l
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To view different diagrams, such as the beam combined stresses,click on bottom graph
window to make it the active window. Click with the right mouse button over this window
fl
U and select the 'Diagrams...' option from the floating menu. Click on the Stress option to
turn it on and on the Axial option to h:rn it off. Click on OK to acceptthe changeto produce
n
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a page layout similar to this:-
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1{) Printout- OutputFile


Thereare two reportsthat canbe printed. Firstly the Ouput file that is automaticallycreated
by STAAD as the analysisis performed.To vieu'this file presson the STAAD Output
ffi
button. This is theform of outputSTAAD III usersr,r'ilibe familiarwith.

12)Printout- UserReport
The second method is to use a User Report. With this method information can be selectedand
organised for a particular situation, including tables and pictures. Pictures can be any
graphical view of the struchue, including results. Take a picture now, ensurethat the required
uindow is active, and click on the Take Picture button. lgil Accept the default
:
cotrlment.This becomesPicture l, any numberof pictures can be taken and addedto a
User ReDort.

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STAAD.Pro:- STAADTraining
To setup a User Report, click on the Report Setup ffi button. SelectNodes and Beams
*
from the Inpug selectNode Displacementsfrom the Output and Picture I from the
Picture Album. Click on the'Load Cases'tab and selectthe Dead loadcase. Click ol OK rc
acceptthis report setup.
Finally click on the Print Preview ffi button to view the report

This concludesthe exerciseExample 1.

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7. Example2- 3D Beamand PlateModelwith SteelDesign
This example expandson the model createdin Example L
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1) Generate3D
ft Thereare a numberof generationtools availablein STAAD.PTo.They are accessible
from
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the Geometry menu or the Generatetoolbar.

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it Open the model from Example I and save as 'Example 2'. Go to the Geometry page. Use
1-l
the Beams cursor to select all the beams. Click on the Translational Repeat button on the
trt Generatetoolbar or selectthe 'Translational Repeat...' item from the Geometrymenu.ln the
II dialog box, set the direction to the Z axis, 5 steps @ 5m c/c, but change the third bay to 6m.
il
Tick the Link bays and Open base options. Click on the OK button to generatethe structure.
Note how the sectionprofiles, supports and loads have been copied onto the new frames,but
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Beam elementscan be addedgraphically onto the structureview windows.


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Click on the Add Beams

{! buttonon theGeometry toolbar,Note how thecursor


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changeswhen it is over structureview.
Add bracing elemelts by clicking on the start joint and end joints of the end frames as per the
il above diagram, rotating the structure if necessary.
As with the link beams from
above, these new beams also
i1
need properties. Go to the
i
ii
Property sub-page and add a
'UB 254r146x31' from the
British Database.
t To assign the. new, property,
click on the Side Vidw button.
select the link'bearirs and the
diagonal bracing, highlight the
new properfy and click on the
^{ssignbutton. ,.'^'

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3) Add PlateElements

STAAD.PTo models can include plate and solid elements. Set the platesto be filled. From the
View menu, selectStructllreDiagrams. Select Fill Plates/Solids and Sort Geometry.

Startthe SnapNode Platedialogby clicking on the SnapNode/Plate ffi button on the


Geometry toolbar.

Locat(: tire origin to the top


of the end bay, ie X=7.5,
Y=3.5,7F0.0
Set the gnd to 3 bays @
l.Sm along the X axis.
Starting at the origin click
anti-clockwise on the grid
to form a plate l.0m x
1.5m.
The last joint on the plate
becomes the first joint on
the next plate so that only
three other joints need to
be defined. Again click
anti-clockwise to define a
second and third plate
along the lean-to main
beam. Once the three
plates have been created,
close the Snap Node/Plate
dialoe.

To fiIl in the rest of the roof plane, select the plates using the Plates Cursor. Selectthe
GenerateRepeatfrom the toolbar or Geometry menu and set the direction to the Zaxis and 25
stepsof 1.0m. Note that the Link Stepsoption shouldnot be selected.

Note that where the generatedplates have introduced joints along beam lines, beamswill be
split and new beams will be formed with the section and material properties of the original
provided the toleranceis set to Test for addednode breaking a beam.

4) AssigningPlateProperties
Plate properties are determined by the thickness and material properties which can be
specified in the Propertiessub-page. On the Properties dialog, click on the Thickness...
button and specify a thicknessof 0.25m. Note that plates can be specifiedwith varying
thickness',but if only the node 1 value is specified,then a uniform thicknessis assumed.
'Assignto View'option and click on the Assign
Selectthe plateproperfy,selectthe button.

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Ii 5) CreatingViews
When working with largermodels,it is possiblethat only a part of the structureis required
f] These can be definedas views. To createa view, selectthe part of the structurethat is
U requiredandfrom the Vier','menu,selectthe New View option.

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{l To create the vie*' as above, click on Plan View. Change the selection cursor to the
Geometry Cursor so that both the beamsand platescan get selected.Selectthe middle bay
{}
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and selectNew View from the Viex' menu. Selectthe option 'Createa new window for the
1l
view' and click OK. Note that a Shole Stmctue window will highlight beamsof the current
view as shown above.
,l The View Management,in the Vielr. menu, allou's vieu's to be namedby selectingthe Save
rl

{, View option and entering a name. With the ne*' r'iex' (cunently named as <Untitled l>) as
',Viddle
the current window, selectthe Save View and name it as Bay'.
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:i..; As the current vierv is used for the stmcture *'hen pages are entered,ensure that the Whole
Structure view is the active window when changing to the next page. If the Whole Structure
{l view is closedit can be re-openedat any time from the Vie*' menu.
iJ
6) UserAnalysisResultsTables
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It is possible to createresultstablesby selectinggroupsof joints, beamsor plateswhich can
IJ be saveda*'ay and included in a User Report.
Perform an analysisas in Exanple 1, changeto the Post Processingmode and selectthe Dead
ft
1I
loadcaseto display in the results tables.
ii Using the Joints cursor, selecta number ofjoints by <iraggrnga window acrossthe stmcture or
holding doun the Ctrl key and clicking on a number of joints. From the Report menu select
iI
Joint Displacements. Select the sort method to Absolute Displacement. Changeto the
ti
:l
TJ Report tab, select Save Report and in the Id box, enter the name First set of node
displacements'.Click OK.
The table is now displayedon screen. Open the Report Setup dialog, and note that asthe table
;, f, was Saved, the table has been added to the user report. Close and view the report with Print
iJ
Preview.

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7) PlateElementContourMaps
Note that the Plate Pagehas been activatedby the presenceof plate elements.
Fror,r tire View menu,^selectthe Options item. Change to the Force Units tab and set the
Stressto display N/mm".
Change to the Plate Page. Selectthe Maximum Absolute stresst)?e and click on OK.

Mar Absokte

0s32
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251

?K?

103

7m
157
808
858

8) Animations
Both displacementsand contour maps can be anr:-:a:ed
To animate the displacements,changeto the Aimarion Page.SelectSection Displacement,
set Target FPS (frames per second) to l0 aad pressOK. PressEsc on the keyboard to stop
the animation. The second displacementoption Deflection,animatesthe deflection of the
joints only ratherr*'ithoutincluding the cun'au:rein the beams.

To animate the stress contours, select Structure Diagrams from the View menu. On Plate
Stress Contour tab select llex Absolute sffess q/pe. Go to the Animation tab and select
Stressand click on OK.
PressEsc to stop.

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9) SteelDesign
AJ beamelements andconcrete
results_of
iinAO.pro ca:nperforma steeldesignon theanalysis
Thescopeof designto becarriedoutareset
desienontheresultsof beaman,lplateelements'
il as parametersin the Design Page'

Changeback to Modelling Mode'


il
1"8
Go to the Design Page. ln the Steel
Design dialog Select 855950' Click on
the SelectParameters button and remove
il all the parametersexcept the Beam and
Track parameters and ciick OK'
Holding the Ctrl key',selectthe beamsthat
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form the near Portal frame.

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Beam parameter,u'hich ses u'hat moment values
press
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:I should be used in the steel desigrr,to 1'0 and
i!
but does not
TJ Add. This includes the parameter
define which beamsit aPPliesto'
f)
,:i Click on the Track tab, u'hich ses the level of detail
set
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{, the desig:rshould produce i-nthe output file, and
the parumeterto 2.0 and pressAssign' .This includes
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ihe parameter and also Cehnes which beams
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{tr Note that a parameterblock has been addedwith the


a
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code set to BS5950. The Beam parameterhas
question mark to sho*' that it has not been assigned

{l and needs to be before it *i11 get added to the file'


To assign the Beam parameter,remove the Highlight
{J essigned Geometry option, and c[ck on the Beam
I
labei to highlight ir The Assign button becornes
{l
it available with the Assignment mettrod set to Assigrt
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To SelectedBeams. Click on the Assign button
{1
assignthe parameter.
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to perform the code check needsto be
{J once all the parametershave been set, the command
button and pressAssigrr(or Add
set. With the frame still selected,click on Commands"'
{}
: !
ii
ii
and Assign to SelectedBeamsas per the Beam parameter)'

A steeldesignhas now been setuP'


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10)DesignResults
Startanalysisfrom Analyzemenu. This time it is importantto checkthe currentDesignCode
setting. Click on the STAAD DesignCodetab and ensurethe currentdesigncodeis setto
BRITISH, thenclick on the Run Analysisbutton.

Note that design codesare optional extras,pleasecheck you have purchaseda designcode
before tryrng to use iL

output
l1"-ffiilT.T;il$?f::'il,ffi:iesrAAD ffig button and go to
page 6 onwards.

2. Secondly,using the member


query by double clicking on
one of the beams. When a
member has been designedit
has a Steel Design tab such
as the one shown.

3. The third method is to display a Design Resultstable. Changeto Post Processingmode,


changeto the Beam Results page and Failurd sub-page.The structurediagramis colour
coded and those beams that have been ddsignedare labelled with ttreir maximum design
ratio.

This concludesthe exerciseExample2.

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8. Exarnple3 - UsingCut and Pasteand UserTables
31
ii

t] This example shows someof the more advancedfeaturesavailablewith STAAD.PTo.


This stn-rctureis basedon tr'/o back tc back oarabolic arches.
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Clearly the structural geometry can be defined using simple mathematicalequationsand thus
{? w'e can utilise the power of a spreadsheet
to calculatethe coordinatesfor us.
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1 ) J o i n t s - S p r e a d s h e e tl n p u t .
A' The vertical co-ordinatesfor eachnode on one arch is definedby the following equation:-
ii t

Y=5-((X-5)2x-s25)
!t a:'::lrhe lareraioffser:-

Z = 3 - ( G - 5 t :x 3 2 5 )
{}
\\th these s:mple aluanons added into the spreadsheet,and dragging them for a range of
IJ
values for X of 0 o l0 il I meter steps,all the co-ordinatesfor one arch will be createdthus.
trl
Ar ..8.'.r c,
iJ 1 x Y z
2 "1-10" '$((A2-51n2'57251"
"fl(Re-s1^2','tu,"
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LJ 4 1 1.8 1.08
6 2 3.2 1.92
{l o 3 4.2 2.52
7 4 4.8 2.88
8 5 5 J
a o 4.8 2.88
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11 8 3.2 1.92
{} 12 1.8 1.08
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These values can now be highlighted and 'copied' to the clipboard using either the .Copy'
option from the 'Edit' menu or pressingthe 'Ctrl and C' keys. They are now ready to insert
into STAAD.PTo. Launch .,.heprogram, if it is not already running, srarr a new structure and
go to the Geometry page. Close down the 'Snap node/beam' dialogue box and make the
Nodes table the current window. Go to the 'Edit' rnenu and this time select 'paste'. The
values have been inserted into the table and show on the diagram. Note that the nodes are
automatically numberedfrom the point you selectedin the eble.

2) Add Beams
Make the strucnrre diagram current by clicking inside the window. From the Geomeul'
toolbar, click on the Add Beams button. Note that the cursor has changedshapeu'hen in the
structurewindox' to show'that it is in this mode. Click on the fnst join! then the secondto
form a beam berweenthe hvo. Click on the secondjoin! then the third to create a beam
betweenthesetwo joina. Repeatthis to createall the beams.

3) Generate- Minor.
To form the other half of the smlctureis simply a caseof selectrngthosebeamsthat are to be
mirrored and clicking on the l\lirror $| button.

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beams. Click on the Mirror button. The plane of the minor is the X-Y plane with an offset
ft
of 3m. Also ensurethat the Copy option is toggledratherthan Move. Finally press.OK,.

{J If the final structure does not appear correct, rememberthat you can generally .Undo' your
last operation. This can be done from the .Edit' menu.

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4) CuUCopyand PasteElements bM
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The structurecanbe repeatedby using 'Cut / Copyandpaste'. /
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Onceagainmakesureall the elementsare selected, but this time selectdpv fro^the ,Edit'
IJ menu- Once againgo to the 'Edit' menu,this time selectPasteElem/nts.- This presentsa
dialoguebox which can define an offset from the original location,or graphicaliyusing a

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referencepoint.

Press the Reference Point button and an


itnuge of the structure to be pasted in is
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displayed with a highlighted node which
t,
represents the inserfion point. Select
either one of the ends of the frame and
{1
pressOK.
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The location point on the current


{' El
structureneeds to be identified, so select
I
't)
the base of the other arch.
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This calculates the offset to be 6m in the
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Z direction. Click on the OK bunon to
acceptthe offser
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properties as none have yet been
.1 assigned,this can be ignored.
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Finally, use the Add Beam command to draw a beam from the top of the first pair of arches,
rl to the top of the secondpair of arches.
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5) UserTables
ln additionto the standarddatabases providedwithin STAAD.PTo,it is possibleto create
specialisedsectionsusingLlserTableswhich are storedeither'Internally',within the file, or
'Externally',asa separate
file in the samefolder asthestructurefile.

Beforecreatinga UserTable,the currentinputunitsmustbechangedto centimetres.Do this


by clicking on theunitsby clickingon theInput Units brl-ffiil.

Set the length units to centimetres and click on OK.


SelectCreate User Table... from the Tools menu. Selecta Wide Flange as the sectiontpe.
ln the resulting dialog box, click on the Add New Property button'

ln the following dialog box, enter the dimensionalvaluesas shown:-

Name:l27x76x13Ul
Ax = 16.5J- * nf \,^r.
D = 12.7 .t, i"l
Tw = 0.4
Wf = 7.6
Tf = 0.76

Click on the Calculate button for STAAD.PToto calculatethe sectionalpropertiesbasedon


the supplieddimensions.Note that any of thesevaluescan be modified for exampleto reduce
Oe crois sectional area. Click on OK to complete the definition of the section. Click the
Close button to completethe User table-

To assign this section to the structure, go to the General page and rn the Propery' sub-page
click on the User Table... button on the Propertydialog box, selectthe propem' ard click on
urtl this
the Add button. Notice that as with StandardDatabases,a matenal can be a"soc:ate^j
section. Finalll'to assignthe sectionto the stmctue, click on the prcPeq'. s:lec:::le.A'ssign
to View option and click on the Assign button.

6) Add 1.5m x 2.0m Foundation Supports


Go to the Supports sub-pageand change to the For'".1.:.': t::. llirci€ 3r€ r*'o types of
foundation ,uiiort that can be created. Footing. *'hi:r aiic;'s pac toultianons of a specified
size to be createdand an Elasric \Iat opnon rlher ST-'LdD *-r.1 es:aclisha zone around
dependingon the spacingand locarior:of sunoundiig nc:es. 3ol conulandscreatea spring
supportdependingon the sub-gradesnfrness.

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A sub-gradestiffress l0 kNim'/ m meansthat a load of l0lll over aplan areaof im2 will
settle lm such as in the following example.

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< 2.0m ,
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f,f Note that this is analyrically identical to creating the command:-
FIXED BUT KFY IO
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Enter the valuesshownin the dialogbox and click on tneCr&.e^button. Assignthe support
,l I to thebaseof all thearches. '*lA

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l! 7) Multiple Loadcase and Combinations
AJ The first two Examplesused struchrresthat only had one loadcaseeach. STAAD.pro can
analyse strucrures with many individual loadcasesand combine them together with various
tl
tl multiplicatronfac!ors.
.i;

First the basicloadcasa must be defrned.


it Go to the Loads sub-page,createloadcaseI and nameit Dead Loads.
it
iJ Click on the Selfweight... bunon and createthe selfu'eightloadcasewith a factor of -l in the
Y direction
fl
IJ Add a UDL of I kli,/m on all the beamsby clicking on the Member... button. ln the Uniform
Force tab, enter the value of -1 for W1 and click on the Add button. Select the Assign to
{l View method and click on the Assign button.
.ll
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To create the second loadcase,select the menu itern CommandslloadinglCreate New
ft Primary Load... , selectthe option to Createa New Primary Load Case und nu1n"it Live
,l
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Load.

1 t Click on the Member... button. On the Uniform Force tab enterthe values-15 for Wl, I for
:l
:f dl and 2 for d2. Click on the Add button and Assign it to the beam that spansberu'eenthe
fwo pairs of trusses.
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Create the third loadcaseas above by selectingthe menu item CommandslloadinglCreate
New Primary Load... , select the option to Create a New Primary Load Case and name it
Wind Load.
Click on the Nodal... button. On the Node tab enterthe value 5 lN in the FX field and click
on Add. Selectthe two joints (not the beam itself; at the ends of the beam that spansbetween
the pairs of trussesand Assign it to thosejoinS.

Now theseloadcasescan be combined into combinations.

Selectthe menu item Commandslloadinglload Combinations... In the dialog box click on


the New button, type the title of the combination as Dead + Live and click OK to createthe
combination.

To include the dead loadcasein this combination, set a factor of 1.4, select Dead from the
available list and click on the > bufton.
Repeat this with the Live loadcasewith a factor of 1.6.

Createa secondcombinatronby'clickilg on the New button and entera title of Dead + Liv€ +
Wind. This time set the load factor to 1.2 and click on the >> button to include all the
loadcasesin the combination.
As before the structure needs the cornnraad to rnstruct the analysis to proceed. Select the
menu item CommandslAnalysislPerform .$al1'sis... and click on the OK button to accept
the command with the No Print' option.

Run the analysisto producea set of anall'srsresul;.

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8) AnalysisResults
Now that the stmcture has more than one loadcase,
it is important to recognise the
f! ll fundament'aldifference benveen graphical views. That is
that whilit the graphicat ii.*, ."n
display the results of the analysis, they can only dispiai' the
:t
at results of one loadcaseat a time.
Results tables on the other trand can display the rezults
of many loadcasesand combinations
simultaneouslyand establishwhich tire maximum and minimum values. Therefore, when
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entering into the Post Processingmode "t*
the loadcaseswhich will be displayed.

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Loadcasedisptayedin the current
ct
itt
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Loadcase displayed in the results
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click on the Post hocessing mode and selectall rhe loadcases
ii in the ResultsSetupdialog as
above and click OK.
{} To changethe loadcasesthat are displai'edrn tbe resultsables
II
eitherright click over trretable
1l and select Results setup from the pop-up menu or it can
IJ be selectedfrom the main menu
ResultslResultsSetup.

t This concludesthe exerciseExample3.


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'1 STAAD ho Training l.6.sg.doc rug'-30 of 59


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9. Example4 - StructureWizardand DynamicAnalysis
Thisexample
look atotherfeahues
withinSTAAD.PTo.
1) StructureWizard
Yet anotherform of generatingstructuralgeometryis the StructureWizard. Start a new
struch:le,click on the Geometrymenu and selectthe Run Structure Wizard option. This
launchestheStrucnreWizard.

Select Frame
models and
double click the
Bay Frame and
the
parameters as FFE
t-F+l @

shown and click EryFnhr G'rUF|n Fhd Git

Applv'
Coiliruou6
EEl'
B
To transfer the Bcm
Ctf,.rddc.l
FBna
R4Ba
Ctlr*i..

model into the


STAAD.PTo
l4F structure, click
Circul.t

iw- on the Transfer


Model button.
Locate the
model without a
shift from the
I-^"r,yI ac i
origin.

We wish to replacethe four top bean'suith russes. Hi,l;:-lg: '5er: :: :l:e s:-:::rire r.ietr,and
click on the Del kev.

Once again Start the


Squcture !_tzg!!.
This-iime select a and
generate a Howe
Bridge Frame with
the dimensions as
shown. Transfer it to
STAAD.PTo as before,
but this time locatethis
model 3m above the
origin, i.e at the top of
the colurnns. Note that
where beams would be
duplicated, they have
not been created.

STAAD rto Jpining l.6.sg.doc P"e.-3I of 59


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ii.; 2) Add Propertiesand Supports
Add the sectionpropertiesas in Example I and 2. Go to the General page (Property sub-
r9 al page), add the British section U8305x102x33 and assignit to ttre columns, first floor and
T lI
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[,
eaves beams. Then add the British section UA100x75r3 .lnd assign it to all the remaining
roof beams.

f]
L.t Go to the Supports sub-pageand add a PINNED support. Assign the support to the baseof
all the columns.
n
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Right click on the Whole Stmcture window and selectthe Structure Diagrams... option
ta from the popup menu. On 3D sections, set the option to Full Sections. The diagram should
ct
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look thus:-
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10. ExamPle5 - MultiPleAnalYsis
(therefore the stiffness
During a single analysis run, STAAD.PTo can modify the stmcture
in situations such as when
mutrix'; anA frform multiple analysis calculations. This is needed
and thus each loadcase needs to analysed separately as
beams are defined as tensi,on-"*batt
others' In such situations
beams may be removed under some load conditions, but not
additional commandsare required:-
analysis'
SET NL Required to lit STAAD know how much spacewill be required for
CHANGE To resetthe stiffness matrix for the next analysis.

alreadydefined-
Use the Example 3 model which has 2 loadcasesand 2 coml-rinations
Open the file and SaveAs...Example 5'

1) DefiningBeamsas TensionOnlY
Go to the General page and the Spec sub-page'
With the bearns select the cross beam that joins the pairs of archestogether' Click on
".rrro-r, button to define the
the Beam... button and select the Tension tab. click on the Assign
selectedbeam as a tensiononly beam.

2) Modify the Loading


(numbers 1, 2 and 3) and 2
Recall that this stmctrie currently has 3 basic loadcases
must follow all basic
cornbination loadcases(numbers i and 5). Combination numbers
current combination numbers need to
loadcase numbers. To add an additional loadcase,the
be revised.

Select the menu item


Firstly go to the Load sub-page and display the ld loadcase'
combination 4' Remove the
Commandslloadinglloaa Comninations... and display load
the combinationsdialog'
combinationby clicking on the Delete button. click oK to close

Toaddane\,!'basicloadcase,clickonthemenuitem
the create option set the loadcase
commandslloadinglcreate New Primary Load..., select
number to 4 and name it Side \Yind and click on the oKbutton'

Create a 10 kN Nodal load and


assignit to node 6 so the structure
shouldlook like this:-

p"ee
-36 of 59
STAAD ho Training l.6.sg.doc
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and
As discussedat the start of this example, multiple analysis commandshave to be added
t=l the mrmber of loadcases.
tt
IJ
Firstly, set the number of loadcases, select the menu itern
NL..., set the number to 4 and click OK.
ilT J CommandslMiscellaneouslSet

go to the
Next, the commands to perform each analysis neecl to be added' To do this,
AnalysislPrint pageand the Analysis sub-page'
fl On the Analysis Tree control window, click on Load lDead Loads to make it the
cunent
Ii
selectionandclick on theDefineCommands-..button'
Selectthe option to add the commandAfter current so that it is shownwith a tick- Then,
il x'hilst on thePerformAnalysistab,click on the Add button'

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IJ Perform Analysis commandhas
been addedafter Load I
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Now selectthe commandPERFOR\I I\ALYSIS commandin the tree control window and
the
again click on the Deline Commands... bunoe. Selectthe Changetab, again ensurethat
sl After Current option is set and click on the Add button'
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Repeat the above two stepsof adding the PERFOR\I ANALYSIS and CIIANGE
was
11 commandsto follow loadcases2 and3. Then afrer'.helast PERFORMANALYSIS that
ii defined from Example3, add a CHANGE com-n'nnd'

4
1l t l Finally run the analysis,changeto PostProcessingMode. Selectthe resultsof Loadcase
that was
ii only. Change to the Beam page and note the forces on the beambetween the frames
deirned as TENSION only is all zero as the applied ioad has forced it into compression-

rl
i.,.t This concludesthe exerciseExample5'

STAAD Pro Jaaining l.6.sg.doc rug.-37of59


]I
: - STAAD Trainins
STAAD.PTo U

6 - Rc Beam,corumnandsrabDesign
11. Example
There are two methods to design beams, columns and
slabs in sTAAD.pro. The original
srAAD method i119!ves including a number of parameters
in the input frle after the
PEMoRM ANALYSIS comnands so that when
the analysis is run'. a*is, is also
performed' This gives a fxed set of design results and
requires the whole analysis to be re-
performed if there are tweats required in the design.
The secondnewer and more favoured
method utilises the analysisresulb in the graphical tterface
allowing greaterinteractivity with
the design and is describedin the following example.

Desigr members are formed from the analytical beam


elementsarid can be used to design
beam and / or columns for a range of design codes.
Also shell elementscan be designed as
slabs.
Note that slab designs are performed using the finite
elements. The local MX and My
moments are resolved into the global axes and the reinforcement
requirement calculated on
those forces alone' Note that there is no check for shear.
Also no account is taken for the
torsional N{XY moments.

1) CreateBeamand Golumns
Start a new skucture basedon kNs and metres.
use the Structure wizard and createthe 3D frame in Example
4 (without the roof trusses).

2) Create First Floor Slab


Return to the Structure Wizard and createa Surface,
Quadrilateralwith the following
parameters:-
X Y z Bias , Dirn.
A 0 0 0 AB 6
B 6 0 0 BC I
lz
lo
c 6 0 6 CD l 6
D 0 0 6 DA I 6

Click on the Transfer Model icon to ircorporate the slao nro rhe
model. To raise the slab to
first floor level, enter a value of l.-(m u'hen prorptal fu tbe pasteprototype
Model dialog
box' You can alternatively do the sameusurg 'te :r',eshgerraior
cursor available in the select
menu and by clicking on the corner poinrs i-or rne rrcsh i ihe
GUI itseif.
3) DefineSectionPropertiesand Supports
Change to the General page and in the Property" suo-pageclick
on the Define... button to
create the cross sections.
For the columns, create a circle with a diarrerer fiD r of ()-3sm.
Note that the material
properry associatedwith this section is concreteas deinal
Lnthe I\lI file and displayed in the
materials table. Assign the section to all the columns.
For the beams,createa rectangrewith a depth
erD) of 0.40m aed *rdth (ZD) of 0.25m.
For the slab, define a plate properrythickness of 0.175m cradeof concrete.

G9 to the Support sub-page, create a fixed support and assign


it to the base of all the
columns.

STAAD ho l6ining L6.sg.doc ra" -38of 59


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ln theStmctureDiagramsdialogbox;-...,.'.
i) Set3D sectionsto,Full.Ses-tions'j
. ; : . " ti . i . ' - ;
ii) SetView Fill Plates/ Solids.
iii) Setsortgeometryand,
iv) SetsortNodes.
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iJ Go to the Load sub'pageand createthe first loadcasenaming it Dead.
a
Click on the Selfweight... button and createa selfweight load in Y with a factor of -1.
i
I
Click on the Member... button and select the Floor with Y range' tab. Set the load to
a
1 -3.5 kNim2, the Y range maximum to 3 m (ie both floors), X range maximum to 6m and Z
range maximum also to 6m. Click on the Add button to apply.
Note that this command is similar to the Selfiveight command in that it contains all the
information needed in itself and does not need to be assigned to the structure. Also this
command only applies loads to the beams,not the plates.
Add an area load of l0 kN/m2 to the plates. Click on the Plate... button and on the'Pressure'
tab, set a load of 10 kN/m2 in the Local z direction. Note that the local z axis on theseplates
points downwards, hencethe load is on the top acting down.

STAAD Pro fmioing l.6.sg.doc na.-39of 59


From the menuitem CommandsfloadinglCreate New Primary Load"" createa second
loadcaseandnameit Live l.
with Y range'tab' Set the load to
Click on the Member... button and selectthe Tloor
to 6m andZ
]rfi f.xm;, ,fr. i ,-g" maximumto 3 m (ie both floors),X rangemaximum
to apply'
r"oge rn*im,rm alsoto 2m- Click on the Add button
Primary Load"" createa third
From the menu item commands[LoadinglcreateNew
loadcaseandnameit Live 2.
with Y range'tab' Set the load to
Click on the Member... button and selectthe Floor
to 6m andZ '
]Zi.b' XXl.l tf. V r*g. maximr'n to 3 m (ie both floors),X rangemaximum
Add buttonto apply'
rangeminimumto 2m aid maximumto 4m. Click on the
Primary Load"" createa forth
From the menu item commandslloadinglcreate New
loadcaseandnameit Additional Live'
joint loadof -150 kN. Assignthis loadto the
Click on rheNodal... butronand Add an FY
afterclickingon theIsometric view
first floor level of the columnson the left of thestructure
button.
click
Createa combination from the menuitem CommandslloadinglloadCombination"',
the10adfactorsat 1'4 for the Dead
on the New buttonandnamethe combinationuLS. Set
loadcaseand 1.6 for all the others'
andrun theanalysis'
Finally addthePerform Analysis commandasbefore

5) Slab Design
ihuttg" to the PostProcessingmode'
ResultslslabReinforcement"'
Make-thegraphicalview ful[creen. Selectthemenuoption
parametersto be set.
The dialoialiows slabreinforcementdesign 'Loading'tab and selecting
that are to be designeaUy cnangingto the
First set the loadcases
,5 'Bottom'reinforcement*'ith an Enhanced'contourto
the loadcase ULS'. Selecttheview of
getthe following:-

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STAAD Pro f6ining l.6.sg.doc
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6) STAAD.PTo RC Design(Beam and Column design)


To starttheRC Designer,selectthemenuoptionFilelRun StaadProRC Design. This starts
d .l
CI anotherapplicationandloadsitwiththecurrentstructureandanalysisresults.
IJ :
Thereare5 stepsto thenperforma concretedesign.
ft
Ii l. Create envelope

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al Beams are designed using
{i
IJ envelopesof the analysisforces.
Click on the Envelopes page.

tl On the Envelopes table click on


ttre New Env... button to oPen
the Envelopedialogbox.
ft Type a name for the envelope
IJ and click OK to open the
following dialog box:-
{t To view all the loadcasesas well
rl
TI as combinations. click on the
q.J
Show Combinations Only
,{-l option so that it is not selected.
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Include all the loadcasesin the envelopeby clicking on the >> button and click OK.
iJ

2. Create members
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L.l Design is performed on Members, formed from one or more beam elementsthat can be
joined together. Thereare two methodsof forming Members,Form Member or AutoForm
il Member. The first attempb to join all the selectedelementsinto a single beam, the second
uses inrernal algorithms to identify continuous beamsand separatesothers beam elementsinto
other members.

il First select the nearestlong span beam at fust

I. floor and click on the Form Member ffi


button.
Then select the elements that span along the
short side at first floor level and click on the
1l
'LJ Form Member button. This should produce
the following two members:-
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p.s.-1I of 59
that form the
Then selectall thebeamelernents
columnsunder member M2 and click on the
AutoForm Member ffi button'

This will create4 new members,M3 to M6,


thus:-

3. Create Design Briefs


in a Design Brief. A
The design is then carried out to a set of parametersthat are defined
Design Brief is then rsed by a group of members known as a Design Group'

ensurethat the code is set


Go to the Groups/Briefs page. Check the Design Briefs table and
selected. Click on the
to BSgll0 Beam. Selectit from the pulldown list if it is not currently
brief . Click on the Edit
text,DesignBrief 1'and lenameit by enteringthe text'858110 beam
grade to C30 and click OK to
Brief button to view the parameters. Change the concrete
accept this changeand the rest of the default parameters'

the New Brief button, select


Create a second design brief for designing columns. Click on
Edit Brief button and from
Bsgll0 column uod-numeit'BS8I I0 ColumnBrief' Click on the
ULS. Click OK to acceptthis changeand the
the Member Combs tab, selectthe combination
rest of the defalrlt Parameters-

4. Create Design GrouPs


the graphical window and
A Design Group, as mentioned above, are membersselectedfrom
exist in more than one design
ussocialing them with a Design Brief. Note that a membercan
goup'
button. In the dialog
Selectthe beam membersMl and M2 and click on the New Design Grp
'Beams', ensurethat the BS8l l0 Beam bnef defined abovehas
box, name the design group
been selectedand click OK.
on the New Design Grp
Select the column membersM3, M4, M5 and M6 and againclick
'columns' and selectthe seconddesig brief BS8l10 Column Brief'
bunon. Name the group

5. Design the GrouP


All that-remainsis to perforrn the design. Firstly, designingthe beams'

to the Concrete Design


From the puiidorlvnlist of Design Groups selectG1:Beams' Change
button on the page control' As
Mode by seleding it from the Mode msnu or from the mode
the page control' The
with STnaD.Pro - STAAD, changing mode changesthe pageson
by the design code associated with the cunent
pages and the lay.outof the pagesis determined
g-SAl f O Beam design there are seven pages and is entered on the
i*tgtt group. U'itU ttur
on the Design page which shows the Design
SuJ-".1 iage. To design the group, click
grouP,thereforeclick on
Oprion, iiuio! box. We o'ith to designboth membersof the design
the Design button.

STAAD ho f6ining L5.sg.doc Prs"42 of 59


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Both membersare shown in green to indicate that they were designedsuccessfully,
page to view the resultof the
fl confirmedin the Summarytable. Click on the Main Layout
{: desrgn.
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f! Tte \{ain Rernforcemenrciaesan sho*'s the layout of the reinforcement


of the beam. To move the
above a capacity
location of the cross
graph u hich is ln urrn abore a cross secrion
on the set button or click and
,o,ion, either qpe tn a cisrarce in the sectionedit box and click
il] can be resized by
tf drag the .r*, G,ion alro\r's. Also note that proportions of the windows
iJ clickurg aad dragging tbe horizontal separationbars'

1i l l layout on that
In the .r'hole structule window, click on the member rO to view the designed
TJ rnember. Altemadvely selectM2 from the pulldown list in the toolbar.

setup.'.
{t To view the detarlsof the design,selectthe menu option FilelBS8ll0 Report
il and click OK' To
{J Remove all the selecteditsrns from the report, add the item Design Detail
view the report, click on the Print Preview button'

the pulldown list in


Next to desigathe columns,selectthe designgroup G2: Columns from
the toolbar.

ii Perform the design as for the beamsby clicking on the Design page and
Design Options dialog box. Change to the Main Layout page to
click Design on the
view the resulting
1] reinforcernentlaYoul
ii tl

STAAD Pro Training l.6.sg.doc


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STAAD.Pro :- STAADTraining

This concludesthe exerciseExample6

STAAD pro l6ining l.6.sg.doc r^g"44 of 59


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{: Fl
"ri 12. Detailedsteel DesignExampleto BS sg50:part 1:1g90
Thereare a numberof examplecalculationsproducedby the SteelConstuctionInstitutein
fll
ri their publicationSteelworkDesign Guide to BS 5950: Part l:1990 Volume 2 Worked.
Examples(RevisedEdition). The following examplesdemonstratehow thoseaspectswhich
arewithin the scopeof theSTAAD.PTocanbe implemented.
fi&j
Example I, Simply supported beam with full lateral restraint.
ft
TF
The first stageis to definethe model(stepsl-8). Thencheckthe sectionfor forces(steps9-
&J l4). Finallycheckfor deflection(steps15 ro 2l).
This is the model:-

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flJ l. Startaneu"space' filewiththedefaultSlunits of 'Metres'and'KiloNewtons'.
2- change to the Geometry Page, Beam sub page, changethe grid so that the X spacmgls
f,l
{t 3.250m. Generatethe two segmentsof the 6.5m beam.
fj
3. Change to the General Page,Property sub page, selecta 53ix210x92 (lB sectionand
assign it to both beam segments.
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., I 4- Change to the Supports sub page. The supportsneed to be pinned about the global Z axis
+"3 (not fully pinned as this will cause an instability about the global (and local) X axis.
Therefore create a Fixed But support where it is releasedabout the MZ axis. Assign this
rt
1I support to either end of the model.
{J 5. Change to the Loads sub page and createthe fust loadcase,'Dead'. Createthe loads UDL
-15 kN/m assignedto both beams and the point load -40 kN and assign it to the
central
{
I
node.
t 6. Createthe secondloadcase,Zive'. Assigr rhe UDL ioacisoi-30 klrlim to both the beam
segmentsand the point load of -50 kN ro the cenral node.
7. Createa load combinahonb1'clickingon rhe'Combine...'bufton. On the Combination
dialog, click on the Ne*'button and name the conbilation 'Ul^9'. lnclude loadcasel,
'Dead' *'ith a
factor of 1.4 and loaCca-se2 'Live, with a factor 1.6.
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8. change to the Analysis/Print page, Analysis sub page. Add the command
PERFORM ANALYSF PRNT STATICS CHECK
and run the analysis.

Check your analysisresults and confirm that your staticscheck in the output file indicatesthat

Sl1,{D Pro Trainingl.6.sg.doc nage


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D SUM-Y for loadcaseI is 137.5 kN
II) SUM-Y for loadcase2 is 245.0 kN.
Also confirm by whichever method you prefer that the maximum moment in the combination
is 585 kNm.

Now to check the section to BS 5950. The first check will be for the forces, the secondwill
be for deflection. The section is defined as having it's compressionflange as fully restrained.
This meansthat for the lateral torsional buckling check,the effective length is zero.

9. ln the Modelling Mode, change to the Design page, Steel sub-page. On the dialog box,
chinge the code to BS5950. Click on the Select Parameters, remove all the parameters
from the selectedlist exceptfor BEAM, TRACK and UNL.
10. Create a BEAM parameterof 2.0 and assign it to both beams. The BEAM parameteris
used to define the locations where forces should be checked and calculations should be
performed on a beam. The default value is 0.0 which meansthat the beamsare designed
using the forces at either end and the maximum result is reported. If there are forces
applied along the lengthof a beam,then it is advisedthat a BEAM L0, 2.0 or 3.0 is used.
11. Create a TRACK 2.0 cornrnandand assignit to both beams. This will generatea more
detailed report in the output file which can be checked.
72. Create a UNL 0.0 command and assign it to both beams. As stated above, the beam is
restrained against lateral torsional buckling and thus it's effective length in buckling is
zero.
13. Click on the Commands... button and createa Check Code commandand assignit to
both beams. This is the instruction to perform the design.

The Steel Design dialog should now


look similar to this:-

Note that there are only ticks in the


'?'
parameter section. If there are any
next to the parameters,then the program
is indicating that commands have been
defined, but not assigned to any
members.

14. Savethe file and re-run the analysis. With designparametersincluded,it is importantthat
u'hen running the analysisthe correctdesigncodeis selectedfrom the analysisdialogbox.
Ensue that it is set to BzuTISH and not BzuTISH(EXTENDED) as this is for BS 8007
and BS 5400.

STAA,Dpro lr":rnE Lf .sa.&r prr.46 of 59


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F1
ij Check the output file for the pagesof the code check and you should have the following.
Note in particular the highlighted items:-
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)
fi-l pRocRAM
i I coDE RevrsroN v3.3_5950_90/2
'. J STAAD SPACE -- PAGE NO. 5

F\
; i tIlL uurtg lxl - xrl uErB (Itlclx8a orrExrrrlaE noIED)
iiI
tJ 'ETBER *Btr RlsuLa/ cRrrrcrr coD/ *rrro/ r.orADrrrc/

fl -=---.-----=--:-_--.-_-...-=_"-_-__3::::
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TI p.r+s$
[J 1 sr rrBs33x210x92 Bs-4.3 / 4 .9 lr:got 3

I,IATRIAL DATA
::::========-===3=I!=========::::il=
=======I=3I
gi =
'il Grade of steel 43
Modulus of elasticity = 205 Ll{/rm2
TJ Desigm Strength (py) -- =
275 N/mr2 Reduced 275N/nm2

S E C T I O N P R O P E R T I E S( u n i L s - c m )
Merrber Length = 325.00
i f
Gross Area = 117.00 Net Area = 117.00
.J

z-axis y-axis
ft Y-.{r€:i :f ::€!!:a : 55229.996 2J89.000
' . tI ::as::c r:i:l:s : 2350.000 355.000
E:asLic:r-::l-s | 2072.031 228.285
tJ
SLar Area 58.770 53.8113
i.aj::s:i _:-;:a:::: : 2f.12i 4-519
=::e:::r'e le:,g--: : j25.Cl0 325.000

:=S:'-i\-:;.:L i-.::s - L\.t 5i:t:: :i!l


,<.e.::cr. :lass E.I.FJC
Siias:. :.cai :::-.::
Ax:al, f c:ce Sqlasi, LG: : . :: :

Slendeness raEio (I(L r) : -'-


:5 : t
Corpression Capacity : lll- : :j1-.:
Tension Capacity : ll'--.5 :::-.:
-:.1
Motnent Capacity : €{9 :
-5 j
Reduced Uoment Capacity : 5{3 :
-
Shear Capacity : 969 :!:.{

-
rl BUCKLING CAIJCUI,ATIONS (units KN,h)
:I Lateral. Torsional Buckling Mone.nt.
co-efficients m & n : rn =1 .00 n =1.00,
F: = €1,:.:
?tie:liye I,iqg-*b= o-,Silp
IJ
CRITICAT INADS FOR EACH CI,AUSE CHECR (mit,s- K\ I :
El ..2
CLAUSE RATIO LOAD FX Iry I4 HY
it BS-4.8.3.2 0.814 3 0.0 292.2 ;,: _i65.{ 0.0
LJ
BS-4.8.3.3.2 0.902 3 0.0 292.2 i.: 585.4 0.0
BS-4-2.3-(y) 0.329 3 0.0 292.2 a.: 0.0 0.0
BS-4.3 / 4.9 0.902 3 0.0 292.2 :.: 58s.4 0.0
it
!l
,l STAAD SPACE -- PAGE NO. 6
i.J

Torsion and deflections have not been considere.d :;r the desiqn.
:t
rt
,t
1l
{l

t!
The final stageis to perform the deflection checks.
it
i! ii
TJ

!! STAAD pro Jp.ainingl.6.sg.doc r^gc47 of 59


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:- STAAD Training
STAAD.PTo
15. In the Modelling Mode, changeto the Analysis page,Post Print sub-page.Click on the

units icon ffi uod select'millimetres'.Click on the Define Commands... button and on
the Load List option, move the Live loadcasefrom the left to the right selectiorriist. Click
on the Add button, then close the dialog box. Note that both the unit command and the
load list commandare now displayedin the dialog box.
16. Click on the Design page,Steelsub-page.The codewill alreadybe set to BS5950. Click
on the SelectParameters button and selectDFF, DJl, DJ2 and TRACK.
17. Select both beams and create a TRACK 4 command. As both bearns are selected the
Assign option should be available on the Design Parametersdialog box. Click on this
button to both clcate the command and assign it to those beams. Note rnat a new
parametersection hasbeen startedin the file.
18. With the beamsstill selected,createand assignDJI as node I and DJ2 as node 3, which
defines the extent of the beam which should be checkedfor the local deflection.
19. Create and assign the command DFF with a value of 360 as the problem statesthat the
beam is assumedto carry a plaster finish.
20. Click on the Commands...button,createand assignCheckCode.
21. Finally save the file and re-nn the analysis. The final page of the output file should be
similar to this. Again take note of the highlightedvalues:-

CI,AUSE BS-2.5.1 CHECKS

LE{GTH INITS - MMS

ME,IBER TABLE RESULT ACTIJAL DEFL. DEFL. LEN// IOAD/

1 sr uBs33x21oxe2 F.qS.! -E;2?9 6s00.000


f$",1,.0,,8-6" 2
3 5 0 .0 0 0 3 2 5 0 . 0 0
2 ST U8533X210x92 PASS 9.228 18.055 5500.000 2
350.000 0.00

*'*t*r*'***r'r D E S U L TO F D E S I G N* * * t * r * * t * t t * t
E I I D o F T A B U I , A T ER

Note that there is a slight difference in the calculated deflection of 9.2mm (r'alue in
publication 8.66mm) is due to the I value differing beween that used b,v- STA-{D of
55229cm4and 55400cm4usedin the publication.

STAAD Pro Training l.6.sg.doc p"ec


48 of 59
Pro:- STAADTraining
STAAD.
Example2, Simplysupportedbeamwith restraintat loadpoints.
Createthe model below using stepsI -8 in examplel.

Load Data:-
Loadcasel:-
UDL, -3 lN/m (GY)on all threebeams.
Point loads 401I1(FY) onjoint 2
-20 kll (FY) onjoint 3
Loadcase2:-
Point loads -60 }}l (FY) onjoint 2
-30 kN (F! onjoint 3

Load Combination3:-
1.4 x LoadcaseI * 1.6x Loadcase2

The bending momentshouldappearthus:-

and the shear force:-

STAA,D Pro f1'sining l.6.sg.doc p^er-49of 59


:- STAADTraining
STAAD.PTo

The structure is now ready to be designed-

There are essentiailythree checksthat are carried out in this example,


D Shearload / shearcapacity,(the maximum shearforce is at the start of beam 1).
ID Maximum moment / moment capacity, (the maxirnum moment is at the end of
beam I or the start of beam 2).
ilD Equivalent moment / lateral torsional buckling capacity, (the critical section is
between the two intermediaterestraints,ie beam 2)'

Therefore we need to set the following parameters:-


TRACK as 2.0 to get a detailed output
'm'
CMM to -1.0 to calculate for the major axis (otherwiseit usesthe default of 1.0).
CHECK CODE membersI andZ-

the anaivsis'
Define the parametersas outlined in the previous example steps9 to 14 and run
The last pagesof the output file should be as follows:-

34. PARAMETER
35. CODE 855950
35. O{U -1 ALIJ
3?. TRACK 2 AJ,L
38. CI{ECK CODE Mq'tB 1 2

Check your parametersto ensurethe conect palametersare being used.

STAAD Pro Trarmng1.6'sg.doc n"g.-50 of 59


f,:
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-f
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Ii

STAAD-III CODE CHECKING - (BSI )

st
il pRocRAucoDE EEVTSTON
V3.3_5950_90/2
ei STIAD SPACE -- PAGE NO.

tr-i AI,L UNITS ARE - KN METE (UNLESS OIHm.WISE NOTED)


IF
ltE{BAR TIBI.E Rtsuta/ gRlrrc.f,I, coFD/ nlTlo/ tarDnE/
ai
EX ,$ wt tpctf,troN

f! ll i[ sr u8457x191x82 PASS BS-4.8.3.2 0.688


0.00 0.00 417.80 3.00
[,i
UATE8.IAL DATA
Grade of sLeel =43
tl
II l{odulus of elasticity = 205 lN/mn2
tl Design Stsrength (py) = 2'15 N/trm2 Reduced = 275N/rsn2
3 i
a.l
SECTION PROPERTIES (units - qn)
Menber Lenqth = 300-00
fl cross Area = 104.00 Net Area = 104.00
ali

iJ Monent. of inertia
z-axi s y-axis
37050.000 1871.000
Plast.ic modulus 1 8 3 1. 0 0 0 30{.000
t't Elastic modulus 1510.859 195.609
]l
Shear Area 55.093 45.540
{.i Radius of gryration tb.d/)
Effective I€ngth 300.000 300.000

{'l DESIGII DATA (unit's - kN,m) BS5950/1990


:l
,t Section Class PLASTIC
t9 Squash Load 2850.00
AxiaL force/Squash load 0.000

ft z-nis y-axis
;l
,! Slenderness raiio (KLlr) 15.9 70.7
ii Conpression Capacity 2850.0 2 0 8 4. 9
Tension CapaciEy 2860.0 2850.0
l4otnent CapaciLy 5 0 3 .s 5 4 .5
?'t Reduced MoE€nt Capacity 3UJ, ] 5 4. 5
;l
!l
$a: r C:nrai rr' e0t.1 ?57..4

BUCKLING C-AlCUlATIONS i'si-:s - K:i,nl


Lateral Tolsional tsuckiing l! ai€a.:
co-efficiencsm&n:r=0 .), i =^..-.

CRITICAL LOADS FOR EACH CTAUSE Ci€CN r:::!s- .ci,: :

'.:
CLAUSE RATIO LOAD FX \-:' n l4Y
BS-4.8.3.2 0.588 3 0.0 -1i3.3 4:".8 :.: 0.0
BS-4.8.3.3.2 0.501 3 0.0 -133.C 41'.8 :.: 0.0
B.-S;"{j,Ei3 !l-r:i,:;ft ;A?l{ i:giiii jiii: j:j:9j;.9.r,:,:i
;- 1.r.{t .6 -c^€ .., Q, 0.':.,;,1O';'0
B S - 1 1 . 3/ 4 . 9 0.601 3 0.0 33.0 C.: 1 t ' t. 8 0. 0
Torsion and deflections have not been consi&:ei in c h e d e s i g m .

thepublishedresultswith thosein theSTAADdesign:-


Cornparing
Thepublishedmomentcheckshowsthecapacityas503kNm (STAADdesignis 503.5kNm)
Thepublishedshearcheckshowsthecapacityas752kN (STAADdesignis 751.4kN)

STAAD pro J6ining l.6.sg.doc -51 of 59


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-- PAGE NO.
STAAD SPACE

ARE - KN METE (UNIJESS OTHERWISE NOTED)


AI,L I'NITS

CRITICTL COND/ RAUO/ I, T'DIIF/


t( T4BgR TABII NES!IL!/
EK mr w t'ctarol|

Bs-4'3 / 4'9 0'956 3


? , s r u B 4 5 ? x 1 9 1-x 8 2P A s s 0.00 -417'80 0'00
0.00

MATER,IA', DATA
=43
Grade of steel
= 205 kll/nrn2
Modulus of elasticitY = 2'lsN/nsra
(PY) = 2'15 N/nn2 Reduced
Desigrn Strength
- cxn)
SECTION PROPERTIES (units
Member Length = 300'00
Gross Area = 104.00 Net Area = 104.00

z-axls y-ax1 s
: 3?050.000 1 8 ? 1. 0 0 c
Moment of inerlia
: 1831.000 304.000
Plastic modulus 195.609
Elastic rnodulus : 1510.659
: 55.093 45.540
Shear Area 4.242
Radius of g'Yration : 18.8?5
LengLh : 3 0 0. 0 0 0 300.000
Effective
- kN,m) 8s5950/1990
DESIGN DATA (units
Section Class : PLASTIC
iquash l,oad : 2860' 00
a.iial forc./Squash load : 0'000

z-uis Y-axrs
(Kllr) 15.9 7o
Slenderness raLio
2850.0 2 0 8 4" .t 9
Conpression Capacrty
2860.0 2850.0
Tension CapacitY
503.s 54'6
Monent Capacity
s 0 3. 5 64.6
Reduced Moment Capacity
909.1 75r'4
Shear Capacity

- kN'm)
BUCIGING CALCULATIONS(unils
Torsional s""kii"g Moment l'B :':'L96'5
Lateral Lensth= 3'000
co-efficienrs r &;-;'-m1'e.5;p,x n =1 .00, eriecti';e

(UNiLS- KN'N):
CRITICAT IOADS FOR EACH CT'AUSECEECK
FX VY \rZ t'tZ UY
CLAUSE RATIO LOAD
--
-417'8 0-0
3 0'0 -19'O 0'0
Bs-4.8.3.2 0.588 -41?'8 0-0
J o'0 -19'0 o'0
Bs-4.8.3.3.2 0.956 0'0
r o'o 31'6 0'0 3d1'I
0.042
BS-4.2.3-(Y)
il-;:; i i:; p:,-sia; : o.o -1e'o o'o -417'8 o'o
have not been considered in the desigm'
Torsion and deflections

t''ltt**'ttt*TEIIDoFTABuI,ATDRESULToFDESIGNI**t*'tttt*rr'

39. FINISH

STAAD desrg:'-
Comparingthe publishedresultswith thosein the '*:
factor m is 0'91 (STAAD Ces;s' - i '
The iublished equivalentmoment
397 L\r:' ST"1-{Dccs:g: :q -19r'i 'r\i:'l
The publishedBuckling resistancemomentMb is

ST.A-:J P:c T==:g - : s; ::': :r.'. -51 o: i 9


i rl
rl
.l
l !
i {J

11 ft
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:- STAADTraining
STAAD.PTo
.ia
r1
:i-
- -
aa
Example3, Simplysuppoftedbeamwithout intermediate
restraints. iJ

Asexample2,createthemodelbelowusingstepsl-8inexample I orcopytheexample2
f't !,t
model without the design parametersand changethe sectionprofile to:- tt

IJ tJB6|AX229Xl40. tl
lt

FA
t1 t1 As the beam is not restrained at the joint locations, the effective lengths of the beamsneed to n
ra
tJ be defined for the calculations of Mb in the lateral torsional buckling check. This can be done i.J
either by setting an appropriate factor on each beam using the UNL parameter,or specifying
f1
tt
the effective length directly using the UNF parameter. ln this example,the effective length of ta

tt
TJ the beam is defined as 0.85 x 9.000m= 7.65m. This can be specifiedby assigningLINL 7.65 )
I

to the members or assigningthe parameterUNF of 0.85 x 3 = 2.55. This can be awkward in


fl sihrationswhere the beam is not made up of equal segments. rl
I

.J
Therefore we need to set the following parameters:-
{4 l1 TRACK as 2.0 to get a detailed ourput
{g lJ trNL 7.65. I

)
CHECKCODEALL members.
f'l
II Defrne the parametersas outlined in the fust examplesteps9 to 14 and run the analysis. The I
* -l I
last pagesof the ouput file shouldbe as foilou's:-
{l
tt 34. PARAMETER
:F
.I 35. CODE BS595C
q"J
36. TRACK 2 ALL
37. UNL ?.55 Al,L
38. CHECK CODE AI.L
]I
i {
,t
a5

! l

: l

i"f

tl
!!
LJ

{}
;l
tl
LJ

it
'' .! ]
it
t*r

STAAD ho Training l.6.sg.doc rug"-53


of 59
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STAAD-III CODE CHECKING - (BSI )

PROGRAM CODE REVISION V3 . 3_5950-90/2


STAAD SPACE -- PAGE NO.

rl AI,I, UNITS ARE - KN }IETE (UNLESS OTHm.WISE NOTED)


,l
.J
MS{BER RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADITiG/

,l FX HY IN LOCATION

) t sT u8510x229x140 PASS BS-4.3 / 4.9 0.923 3


0.00 0.00 417.80 3.00
'l I'{ATERIAI DATA
.J Grade of steel
Modulus of elascicity
=43
= 205 kN/rm2
Desigm Strength (py) = 265 N/mn2 Reduced = 255N/nuA

I SECTION PROPIF.TIES (unj-Ls - cm)


J Member Length =
Cross Area = 178.00
300.00
Net Area = 178.00

I z-axis y-axis
i Moment of inertia
Plastic modulus
t
:
LI1799.992
{142.000
4505.000
511.000
J Elastic modulus i Jozz - drz 391.399
Shear Area : 91.571 8 0-8 5 3
I Radius of gyration : 25.062 ( n11

I
Effective Length ; 300.000 300.000
I
DESIGN DATA (uniLs - kN,n) 855950/1990
Section Class : PLASTIC
Squash Load : 4?l-7.00
I Axial force/Squash load : 0.000
I
j
z-d1s y-ills
Slenderness ratio (KL/r) : L 2. 0 5 9 .5
conBression Capacity : 4'7r't.0 3814.2
Tension Capacity : 4 7 1 7. 0 47!7.0
MomenL Capacity i 1 0 9 7 .5 124.5
Reduced llotnen! Capacity : 1 0 9 ? .5 724.5
Shear Capacity : 1456.0 1285.5

BUCKLINC CALCULATIONS(units - KN,n)


Lateral Torsional Buckling Monent XB = i5'jlq
co-efficients m & n : m =1.00 n =1.00, Effective Length= 7,550

CRITIC-\I, LOADS FOR EACH CLAUSE CHECK (unit.s- kN,m):

CLAUSE RATIO LOAD FX \/Y VZ W I{Y


BS-4.8.3.2 0.145 3 0.0 -133.0 0.0 417.8 0.0
BS-4.8.3.3.2 0.923 3 0.0 - 1 3 3 . 0 0.0 417.8 0.0
B S - 4 . 2. 3 - ( y l 0.113 3 0.0 1 4 5 .6 0.0 0.0 0.0
BS-4.3 / 4.9 0.923 3 0.0 -133.0 0.0 At7.8 0.0
Torsion and deflections have not been considered in the desicrn,

Comparingthe publishedresultswith thosein the STAAD design:-


The publishedBuckling resistancemomentMb is 450 kNm (STAAD designis 452.6 kJtlm)

STAAD Pro Training l.6.sg.doc rug.-54 of 59


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tl
'l
-.i
.i Example4, Columnwith pinned ends and intermediatesupport.
As with thepreviousexamples,
createthemodelbelowusingstepsl-8 in example1.
tl

1J This is a 6m high columr'. with a lateral restraint at


mid-height.
n
tl
E.J Provide a support at ttre basewhich is 'Fixed But', MX
and MY. At the top provide another support which is
gt Fixed But'MX, MY and also FY.
EJ uc254X254X89
Loading is applied as a single factored point load at
!l
the top of the column of -2500 kN (FY). As the load
iT
has already been factored, then no load combination is
required.

sl
al Create the command PERFORM ANALYSN as with
ti.,t
all the other examples.
ft
'i I
!t Check that there is tle correct loading by changing to
1,|
the Post ProcessingMode and review t}re reactions.
?!
There should be none at the top and 2500 kN
i:l verticalh,atthebase.
iI
uc254X254X89
q1
1!

dJ
fl q
[,1 Ii
t-
Il
ii [1
{-i The str,rcnre is readyto be designed. l^ il
U
fj ll
t-t
[,J When bearrs are being designedas colunrns(ie compressionmembers,clause4.7), then the :l
tl
design lengds and factors that are used are defined with the parametersLY and LZ if defning TJ
f
I the actual lengr.hsor KY andKZ if defrning a multiplication factor of the actual beam length.
J

I
ln this example,restraintis provided at mid height when bending about the local Y axis, but n
not the locaj Z aris. Thereforethe effective lengthof both thesebeamswhen bendingaboutZ U
J
axis is fu'ice their acruallength,or 6.0 m.
I {}
JF
;l
I
Thereforeu'e need:o setthe following parametersto both members:- {J
TRACK l.t-'
LZ 6.0 ti
CHECK CODE i'

iI Et
il
l- J

S-rAAD pro Jpining l.6.sg.cloc of 59


rage-55 :r
t;

;i
LJ
nrnf
Theresurtingdesignoutput
shourdfor eithermember
shouldbe:-
iTH;lll.lgl:.ff:IlT - (Bsr)
*Tff""33i"REVrs roNv3.3_s
es0_e
0/2
-- PAGE NO.
ALL TINITS ARE - KN I.{ETE (r.rNLESs oTHSRWTSE
NOTED)
teaER TASLI RASITL!/ cRrrrcl!
---; c RArro/
Er( "*' I6lDo,G/
* 1., u"iiii,ii*;;T;--."=;;:;:;:=-;::-=_.*=:t:_"=__-fll::
-- ' 't t
= = . : . : = - : : = = = = = = = = = =c= = l t o 0 ' 0 0 ' : - l 3:;,
MATmrAr, ooro-----=== l.oo
Grade of steel

fly!"^:, elasricity = ,ii *r*o


-ofr"#
uesrgm sErensrh (py) = Zei Reduced = 2G5N/mn2
SECTIO,NPROPERTTES(unirs
_ cm)
Meriber LengLh =
100.00
Gross Area = 113.00
Net Area = 113.00

Mornent of inertia z_axi s y-axis


Plastic modulus : I42G9.999
{r
: 4857.000
Elastic rnodulus 7224.000
: 575.000
Strear Axea 1096.427
: 3 7 9 .0 0 9
Radius of gyration 79.810
: 26.817
Erteccive Iensth 11.238
: o. )56
G00.000
300.000
*"i::.?:1"{:::.. _ },:N,n} Bsses0/1ee0
squash r,oal : PLASTTG
t: ,tii;jl
a*r"r r"i.Jzsquashroad
l ;
Slenderness z-axi s y_axis
rat.io (KL/r) : q? ,
eonq>ression Capacitv - 45.8
'Iension
Capacitv : ?,5!9,t9 2,iez:z
ItomenE Capacity 2994.5 2ggi.i
:
Momenecapaciry 3 2 4. 4 tzu->
L"9:..9
snear Capacicy ; 50.3
L 2 6 9. 0 ,zo, J
cAlcu,ArroNs (unirs _
"u"P:I" kN,m)
Torsional Bucklinguo*"l.i
:1."::i
co-efficients h _
m & n : m =1.00 n =1.99.
Eife:r:ve
CRITICAL LOADS FOR EACH
CLAUSECHECK (unirs_ kN,nt

rn) PTI9 LoAD Fx tar


r.vur vz w rar.
"3T:;"
sraao spi6" 1 2500.0 o.o o.o llc
=l aa rr^
Torsion and deflections have not been considered in the Ces:gr.

Comparing thepublishedresultswith thosein theSTAADdesisn;_


h'rblishedcompression capacityis 250gkN (srAAD
designis rqz.z kN)
ontv passesas it usesthe
Sl$i::ff:gn ord Britishsteelsectionproperries
r-.=jr-r.'r, st""L;;;;;i."r-
ffi;lT:T'iJr'iil'"Tlo;i:l'l ii,.p.rl,;:;;;;.,,", whereas

-56 of 59
nuge