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Annex A

APEC NON-BINDING INVESTMENT PRINCIPLES


Jakarta, November 1994 [ 2010]

In the spirit of APEC’s underlying approach of open regionalism,

Recognising the importance of investment to economic development, the stimulation of growth,


the creation of jobs and the flow of technology in the Asia-Pacific region,

Emphasising the importance of promoting domestic environments that are conducive to


attracting foreign investment, such as stable growth with low inflation, adequate infrastructure,
adequately developed human resources, and protection of intellectual property rights,

[Supporting the goal of sustainable development in promoting foreign investment,]


Perlu diklarifikasi penambahan konsideran ini. Namun, pada prinsipnya penambahan dapat diterima
karena sudah sesuai dengan kebijakan yang ada di Indonesia khususnya yang tercantum dalam UU PM

Reflecting that most APEC economies are both sources and recipients of foreign investment,

Aiming to increase investment including investment in small and medium enterprises, and to
develop supporting industries,

Acknowledging the diversity in the level and pace of development of member economies as
may be reflected in their investment regimes, and committed to ongoing efforts towards the
improvement and further liberalisation of their investment regimes,

Without prejudice to applicable bilateral and multilateral treaties and other international
instruments,

Recognising the importance of fully implementing the Uruguay Round TRIMs Agreement,
Perlu diklarifikasi kembali alasan penghapusan konsideran ini.
Alasan mereka (TNC/Negara maju) kemungkinan besar karena ruang lingkup hasil kesepakatan terkait
dengan masalah investasi dalam putaran Uruguay tersebut kurang memuaskan, mengingat penerapannya
yang sangat terbatas. Perjanjian ini hanya mengatur aspek kebijakan yang potensial menimbulkan
gangguan pada arus perdagangan barang internasional seperti larangan penggunaan persyaratan
kandungan lokal, kebijakan keseimbangan perdagangan, pembatasan devisa yang dikaitkan dengan
ekspor dan pembatasan impor yang dipersyaratkan dalam kegiatan investasi. Dengan penghapusan
konsideran ini, ada kemungkinan mereka ingin mendapatkan batasan lebih dari yang diatur oleh TRIMs.
Oleh karena itu, Indonesia seharusnya tetap menggunakan konsideran ini.

APEC members aspire to the following non-binding principles:

Transparency [of Laws]


• Member economies will make all laws, regulations, administrative guidelines and policies
pertaining to investment in their economies publicly available in a prompt, transparent and
readily accessible manner.
Tidak ada masalah dalam pencantuman tambahan frase “of laws” dalam klausul ini karena hanya terkait
definisi/peristilahan. Frase ini telah dipakai dalam beberapa BIT ekonomi APEC, misalnya Australia-
Mexico IIPA.
Usulan tersebut sebaiknya ditolak untuk menjaga konsistensi dengan perjanjian yang telah dibuat oleh
Indonesia.
[Transparency of interpretation and implementation
• Member economies recognize that consistent interpretation of laws, regulations,
administrative guidelines and policies governing foreign investment as well as the
establishment of prompt, transparent and predictable licencing and approval implementation
processes by central and local government agencies on a coordinated basis are
complementary to the principle of transparency of laws.]
Secara prinsip hal ini dapat disetujui karena secara tidak langsung penerapan klausul ini dapat
meningkatkan investasi yang masuk dengan semakin meningkatnya kepastian hukum di suatu negara.
Namun, perlu diperhatikan juga praktik yang ada di Indonesia. Seringkali terjadi perbedaan dalam
menginterpretasi suatu peraturan perundang-undangan dan peraturan pelaksanaanya karena ketidakjelasan
bunyi peraturan tersebut ataupun penjelasan yang diberikan tidak jelas. Untuk implementasi
perizinan/persetujuan, tidak ada masalah yang berarti mengingat penerapan prosedur dimaksud sudah
cukup transparan di Indonesia dengan adanya PTSP dan SPIPISE.

Non-discrimination between Source Economies


• Member economies will extend to investors from any economy treatment in relation to
the establishment, expansion and operation of their investments that is no less favourable
than that accorded to investors from any other economy in like situations, without prejudice
to relevant international obligations and principles.

National Treatment
• With [specified] exceptions [in their strategic national interest or for a transitional
development purpose] as provided for in domestic laws, regulations and policies, member
economies will accord to foreign investors in relation to the establishment, expansion,
operation and protection of their investments, treatment no less favourable than that
accorded in like situations to domestic investors.
Perlu penjelasan lebih lanjut penambahan tersebut karena provisi ini sudah cukup jelas mengatur
mengenai NT tanpa adanya tambahan frase “With [specified] exceptions [in their strategic national
interest or for a transitional development purpose]”

Investment Incentives
• Member economies will not relax health, safety, and environment regulations as an
incentive to encourage foreign investment.
[With limited and specified exceptions in their economic interests, member economies will
avoid the use of investment incentives which distort fair competition amongst themselves or
which are inconsistent with these principles.]
Perlu penjelasan lebih lanjut alasan penghapusan provisi ini. Akan tetapi, secara prinsip proposal ini dapat
diterima karena lebih jelas mengatur mengenai insentif daripada sebelumnya. Eksepsi yang ada juga tidak
dijabarkan sehingga setiap ekonomi dapat mengatur sesuai kepetingan nasional masing-masing.

Performance Requirements
• Member economies will minimise the use of performance requirements that distort or
limit expansion of trade and investment.

Expropriation and Compensation


• Member economies will not expropriate foreign investments or take measures that have
a similar effect, except for a public purpose and on a nondiscriminatory basis, in accordance
with the laws of each economy and principles of international law and against the prompt
payment of adequate and effective compensation.
Repatriation and Convertibility
• Member economies will further liberalise towards the goal of [ensure] the free and
prompt transfer of funds related to foreign investment, such as profits, dividends, royalties,
loan payments and liquidations, in freely convertible currency.

Settlement of Disputes
• Member economies accept that disputes arising in connection with a foreign investment
will be settled promptly in a variety of ways including consultations, negotiations or
mediation between the parties to the dispute or through procedures for arbitration in
accordance with members’ international commitments or other arbitration procedures
acceptable to both parties, or failing the above, through litigation in tribunals or courts.

[Protection and Enforcement of Rights


• Member economies will endeavour to ensure prompt and transparent access to dispute
resolution mechanisms for foreign investors, including tribunals, courts and appeal
processes, and will ensure timely delivery and enforcement of judgments and arbitration
awards.]
Maksud dari pencantuman provisi ini adalah agar investor asing mendapatkan jaminan adanya akses yang
sama di pengadilan dan jaminan atas jangka waktu yang efektif serta atas penegakan atas putusan
pengadilan/arbiter.
Untuk akses pengadilan ini semua orang tak terkecuali investor asing mendapatkan perlakuan yang sama
dengan lokal. Akan tetapi, untuk waktu dan penegakan putusan oleh pengadilan/arbiter sangat sulit
dilakukan mengingat kondisi peradilan Indonesia saat ini. Waktu yang dihabiskan untuk pelaksanaan
putusan membutuhkan waktu sekitar bulanan. Sedangkan, putusan pengadilan untuk satu pekara bisa
mencapai tahunan. Selain itu, putusan arbitrase yang bersifat final and binding pun masih dapat
dibatalkan oleh pengadilan di Indonesia. Hal inilah yang masih menjadi hambatan dalam pencatuman
provisi in sehingga lebih baik ditolak.

Entry and Sojourn of Personnel


• Member economies will permit [in a timely manner] the temporary entry and sojourn of
key foreign technical and managerial personnel for the purpose of engaging in activities
connected with foreign investment, subject to relevant laws and regulations.
Pencantuman frase “in timely manner” dalam klausul ini perlu mendapat penjelasan lebih lanjut. Setiap
ekonomi tentu mempunyai kebijakan masing-masing atas jangka waktu yang akan diberikan kepada key
technical and managerial personnel untuk masuk dan tinggal sementara di ekonomi tersebut yang
berbeda dengan ekonomi lainnya.
Oleh karena itu, lebih baik frase baru tersebut dihapus.

Avoidance of Double Taxation


• Member economies will endeavour to avoid double taxation related to foreign
investment.

Investor Behaviour
• Acceptance of foreign investment is facilitated when foreign investors abide by the host
economy’s laws, regulations, administrative guidelines and policies, just as domestic
investors should.

Removal of Barriers to Capital Exports


• Member economies accept that regulatory and institutional barriers to the outflow of
investment will be minimised