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WHH The Middle Ages Test

1. Laity refers to the regular members of the Catholic Church while clergy refers to…

a. The pope
b. The church leaders
c. The church founders
d. The 12 apostles

2. Throughout the Middle Ages towns and cities grew and became economic centers, this led to craftspeople organizing themselves
into business associations called…

a. Guilds
b. Clans
c. Firms
d. Orders

3. The Black Death was brought to the island of Sicily by Italian merchants from the besieged city of…

a. Palermo
b. Antioch
c. Nicea
d. Caffa

4. Muslims trace their religious heritage through Abraham’s son…

a. Moses
b. Ishmael
c. Isaac
d. Abu Bakr

5. All of the following are considered Abrahamic religions except…

a. Hinduism
b. Christianity
c. Judaism
d. Islam

6. What document issued by Emperor Constantine proclaimed official toleration for Christianity within the Roman Empire?

a. Edict of Milan
b. Edict of Trent
c. Edict of Nantes
d. Edict of Rome

7. The deal between God and Abraham was called the…

a. Social Contract
b. Second Covenant
c. First Covenant
d. The Ark of the Covenant

8. The early bishops of Rome eventually became…

a. The Popes
b. The Papal States
c. The Vatican City
d. The Catholic Church
9. What was the land grant made to a vassal known as…

a. Feudalism
b. Fief
c. Vassal
d. Weir geld

10. The crowning of which individual symbolized the coming together of Roman, German, and Christian culture?

a. Saladin
b. King Richard
c. Roland
d. Charlemagne

11. Which pope encouraged the undertaking of the First Crusade?

a. Pope John Paul II

b. Pope Boniface X
c. Pope Urban II
d. Pope Gregory VII

12. The Battle of Hastings occurred on…

a. September 14, 1066

b. October 14, 1061
c. October 14, 1066
d. September 14, 1061

13. The First Crusade was successful in its goal of capturing the city of…

a. Constantinople
b. Jerusalem
c. Antioch
d. Baghdad

14. What is a monk?

a. A man who pursues a life of total dedication to God

b. A woman who pursues a life of total dedication to God
c. An intellectual and religious leader of the early Church
d. A powerful feudal vassal of the Pope

15. According to the Crusades article, the primary motivating factor for the crusades was…

a. Byzantine and Muslim rivalry

b. Muslim and Christian rivalry
c. Roman and Byzantine rivalry
d. Roman and Christian rivalry

16. All of the following were leaders of the Third Crusade except…

a. Richard I of England
b. Philip II of France
c. Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire
d. Pope Urban IV
17. The main difference between the Byzantine (Eastern) church and the Roman (Western) church was that…

a. Eastern bishops all answered to the Pope

b. The Pope had no authority over western bishops
c. The Western bishops were all equal
d. The western bishops answered to the Pope

18. For Pope Urban II, liberating Asia Minor (Anatolia or modern Turkey) from the Turks would force the Byzantines to…

a. Accept the Pope as their spiritual leader and heal the Great Schism
b. Accept Muslim rule and end the Byzantine Empire and the Great Schism
c. Accept the political power of the Pope as the new Byzantine Emperor
d. Throw out the Byzantine Emperor and accept western rule

19. Which crusade captured Constantinople and further worsened the Great Schism?

a. 1st Crusade
b. 2nd Crusade
c. 3rd Crusade
d. 4th Crusade

20. The long poem about Charlemagne’s failed expedition into Spain is called…

a. The Song of Charles

b. The Song of Oliver
c. The Song of William
d. The Song of Roland

21. Following the successful conquest of England by the Normans, who commissioned the creation of the Bayeux Tapestry?

a. Harold Godwinson
b. Bishop Odo
c. Oliver
d. William the Conqueror

22. One of the earliest achievements of the Catholic Church was the creation of the institution of…

a. Feudalism
b. Monasticism
c. Vassalage
d. Catholicism

23. In what year did William the Conqueror defeat Harold Godwinson?

a. 1066
b. 1099
c. 1204
d. 1453

24. Which of the following arguments did Pope Urban IV present for going on the First Crusade to capture Jerusalem?

a. To start killing fellow Christians

b. To re-open Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims
c. To potentially reunite the Eastern and Western churches
d. None of the above, it was Pope Urban II

25. Following the successful completion of the First Crusade, some crusades remained in the holy land and created the…

a. Papal States
b. Holy Kingdoms
c. Crusader States
d. Byzantine Empire
26. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Empire continued to exist throughout the Middle Ages and was
known as the…

a. Byzantine Empire
b. Constantine Empire
c. Holy Roman Empire
d. Greek Orthodox Empire

27. Which of the leaders of the First Crusade left the crusade and founded the crusader state of Edessa?

a. Godfrey
b. Bohemund
c. Baldwin
d. Richard

28. Which legendary Muslim leader led the Islamic re-conquest of the Holy Lands…

a. Mamelukes
b. Abn Bakur
c. The Caliph of Egypt
d. Saladin

29. The first religious disagreement between the eastern and western churches of Christianity was over the worship of…

a. Books
b. Icons
c. Scripture
d. Money

30. Which English king made a claim to the throne of France that initiated the 100 Years War?

a. Richard the Lion-Hearted

b. Henry I
c. William the Conqueror
d. Edward III

31. William the Conqueror’s transformation of England after he defeated Harold Godwinson is called the…

a. The Norman Conquest

b. The Bayeux Tapestry
c. The Great Crusade
d. The 100 Years War

32. The land a noble or knight holds as a grant of vassalage from a higher lord is called a…

a. Vassal
b. Feudalism
c. Fief
d. Land Grant

33. The territory in central Italy controlled by the pope is called the…

a. The Crusader States

b. The Vatican City
c. The Roman States
d. The Papal States
34. The first emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor to use the title “Holy” was…

a. Otto I
b. Charlemagne
c. Henry IV
d. Frederick I Barbarossa

35. The most dramatic victory of the First Crusade occurred after the discovery of the Holy Lance at…

a. The Siege of Jerusalem

b. The Battle of Dorylaem
c. The Siege of Antioch
d. The Siege of Nicea

36. Which Holy Roman Emperor did Pope Gregory VII have a conflict with over the practice of investiture?

a. Otto I
b. Charlemagne
c. Henry IV
d. Frederick I

37. Under which pope did the Papacy reach the height of its political power?

a. Urban II
b. Innocent III
c. Gregory VII
d. Boniface IX

38. After the death of Genghis Khan in 1227, his empire was divided into several separate territories called____?

a. Khanates
b. Samurias
c. Shoguns
d. Daimyos

39. As trade increased during the Middle Ages, a new economic system based on money emerged called…

a. Cash economy
b. Commercial capitalism
c. Money economy
d. Capitalism Revolution

40. Two innovations made the construction of Gothic cathedrals possible, first ribbed vaults and pointed arches, and second…

a. arches
b. the flying buttress
c. stained glass windows
d. concrete

41. Historians define the early Middle Ages, or the Dark Ages, by all of the following except…

a. Lack of contemporary written literature

b. Population decline
c. Spread of protestant faiths
d. Limited building and cultural achievements

42. The economic collapse following the fall of the Western Roman Empire is evident in all of the following examples except…

a. Less then 2% of the amount of shipwrecks from Dark Ages when compared to the Roman Era
b. The population of Rome declined from ~450,000 to ~20,000
c. Large areas of formerly cultivated land where reclaimed by the forests of Europe
d. The outbreak of epidemics such as the Black Death
43. Arianism was a branch of Christianity that existed during the 4th and 5th centuries that was primarily supported by…

a. The elite of the Germanic peoples as a way of showing their status

b. Common people of Europe prior to the ascendancy of the Pope and the Catholic Church
c. Heretics and outlaws seeking to undermine the Papacy
d. Powerful eastern kings that were eventually conquered by the Muslims

44. Monasticism and the practice of devoting one’s entire existence to God originally emerged from religious hermits from…

a. Egypt and Syria

b. Germany and England
c. Italy and Spain
d. Morocco and Asia Minor

45. One theory behind the formation of feudalism was that it was a…

a. system of mutual protection created to defend against raiding peoples like the Vikings
b. system of control created by the Catholic Church to exert secular authority
c. social contract between lords and vassals with the intention of creating equality
d. political structure intended to improve upon the political systems developed by the Romans

46. In what year did the Western and Eastern Christian Churches excommunicate each other?

a. 1099
b. 1066
c. 1054
d. 1453

47. The Dukes of Normandy were descendents of…

a. English lords and nobles

b. Germanic tribes such as the Goths
c. Viking raiders who were given land by the King of France in exchange for becoming vassals
d. Christian knights given land by the pope for their service during the crusades

48. All of the following are accurate descriptions of Gothic Architecture except…

a. Tall ceilings were meant to simulate the church reaching towards heaven
b. Flying buttresses and ribbed vaults were borrowed from eastern architecture
c. Large amounts of natural light were meant to express the perfection of God
d. This walls and narrow construction contrasted greatly with the thick, block, and marble construction of the ancient Greeks
and Romans

49. The recovery and translation of many Latin/Greeks texts brought to Europe after contact with Islamic culture contributed greatly

a. The Renaissance of the 12th century

b. The Crusades
c. The creation of Gothic architecture
d. Establishment of public schools during the later part of the Middle Ages

50. Which of the following best describes the Hanseatic League of the 12th century?

a. An alliance of Italian cities that formed as a precursor to the Renaissance

b. A political alliance of Germany cities created to oppose the Holy Roman Empire
c. An economic alliance of powerful bishops, monasteries, and abbeys
d. An economic alliance of northern German cities created to promote trade