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(Book ID: xxxxxxx)

Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)

Name R Bhavani

Roll No.

especially the analysis of population characteristics by inference from sampling.

phenomenon of nature.

(2) Statistical helps in proper and efficient planning of a statistical inquiry in any field

of study.

(4) Statistics helps in presenting complex data in a suitable tabular, diagrammatic and

graphic form for an easy and clear comprehension of the data. It helps to compare

data collected from different sources.

phenomenon through quantitative observations. After data is collected, it is easier to

analyse the trend and tendencies in the data by using various concepts of Statistics.

(6) Statistics helps in drawing valid inference, along with a measure of their reliability

about the population parameters from the sample data.

(7) Statistics helps in simplification of complex data. Using statistics manger can

make decision more easily.

(8) Statistics analysis helps in drawing inferences on data. Statistics analysis brings

out the hidden relations between variables

(9) With the proper application of Statistics on the collected data, managers can take

effective decisions, which can increase the profits in the business.

data. Statistical survey are use to collect numerical information about units in

population. Surveys involve asking questions to individuals. Surveys of human

populations are common in government, health, social science and marketing sectors.

Statistical surveys are categorized into two stages- Planning and Execution.

survey depends upon the care exercised in planning. A properly planned investigation

can lead to best result with least cost and time.

manner.

➢ Establish a theory

A. The scope of investigation has to be made clear. The scope of investigation refers

to the area to be covered, identification of units to be studied, nature of characteristics

to be observed, accuracy of measurements, analytical methods, time, cost and

Other resources required.

B. Whether to use data collected from primary or secondary source should be

determination in advance.

C. The organization of investigation I the final step in the process. It encompasses the

determination of the number of investigators required, their training, and supervision

work needed funds required.

Age: 20-40; 40-60;60-above

Departments: English, Hindi, Political science, History, sociology

Degree level: Graduates, Post graduates; PhD,

Total students in age group and in degree level.

E, H, P, S, H, Socially Graduates/Post Graduate/PHD

20-40 English, History By Post Graduate

40-60 All the student Great with PhD

60-above Compulsory With the Degree

A statistical table is a systematic organization of data in Row & Column. According to prefers

Connor tabulation involves an orderly & systematic presentation of numerical data in a form

design to complain the problem under consideration.

(i) Table No:- Ist of all a table must be numbered different tables must have different no. numbers

help location of the table.

(ii) Titles:- A table must have a title, title must be written in board letters.

(iii) Head notes:- If the title of table does not give complete information. Its sample mented with

the head notes.

(iv) Stubs:- stubs are titles of the Row’s of the table

(v) Caption:- Caption is the title given to the column’s of the table.

Q4. The data given below is the distribution of employees of a business according to their

efficiency. Find the mean deviation and coefficient of mean deviation from Mean and

Median:

Efficiency Index 22-26 26-30 30-34 34-38 38-

42

Employees 25 35 15 5 2

Index F median)

22-26 25 24 600 -4.29 107.25 8 200

26-30 35 28 980 -.29 10.15 4 140

30-34 15 32 480 3.71 55.65 0 0

34-38 5 36 180 7.71 38.55 4 20

38-42 2 40 80 11.71 23.42 8 16

82 2320 235.02 24 376

∑ fx 2320

mean = x = = = 28.29

∑f 82

∑ x−x 2.87

md from Mean = = = 0.1014

n 28.29

= 0.10

∑( x − median) 376

md from median = [ ]= =11.75

median 32

md from median 11.75

coff of md (median) = = = 0.367

median 32

Conditional probability is the probability of some event, given the occurrence of some other event.

Conditional probability is writtenP (A|B),and is read "the (conditional) probability of A, given B"

or "the probability of A under the condition B". When in a random experiment the event B is

known to have occurred, the possible outcomes of the experiment are reduced toB, and hence the

probability of the occurrence o fA is changed from the unconditional probability into the

conditional probability given B.

Two events A and B are said to be dependent when B can occur only when A is known to have

occurred or vice versa. The probabilities associated

with such event are called conditional probabilities.

The probabilities of the occurrence of the event A when the event B has already occurred is called

the conditional probability of occurrence of A given

that the event B has already occurrence and is denoted by P(A/B).

Example:-A pair of dice is rolled. If the sum of 9 has appeared, find the probability that one of the

dice shows 3.

Solution :-The equiprobable sample space consisting of 36 sample points.

The event A = The sum of the scores is 9 has four sample points (6,3), (5,4),(4,5), (3,6), and its

reduced sample space.

Under the assumption that A has happened, the event B = one of the dice

shows 3 has only two sample points, that is (B∩A) = [(3,6),(6,3)].

∴ P(B/A) = 2/4 = 1/2

Also using the formula derived above, we get P(B/A)= P( A∩ B) P( A)

∴PA∩B= n(A∩B)n(S)=236, and PA= n(A)n(S)= 436

=2/364/36=24= ½

Q6.The probability that a football player will play Eden garden is 0.6 and on

Ambedkar Stadium is 0.4. The probability that he will get knee injury when

playing in Eden is 0.07 and that in Ambedkar stadium is 0.04.What is the

probability that he would get a knee injury if he played in Eden.

1

P(E1 ) = P (E 2 ) =

2

P (A / E2) = -

1

× 0.4

P(A/E 2 )2 = 2

1 1

× 0.6 + × 0.7

2 2

= 0.3

MBA SEMESTER 1

MB0040 – STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT- 4 Credits

(Book ID: xxxxxxx)

Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)

Name R Bhavani

Roll No.

Q1. A random sample of 6 sachets of mustard oil was examined and two were found to be

leaking. A wholesaler receives seven hundred twenty six packs, each containing 6 sachets.

Find the expected number of packets to contain exactly one sachet leaking?

Sol.

N=6

P=2

H=4

Total no, of outones = 726

P (x =1) ⇒c (n1r) Pr q n-r

C (6, 1) P1 q5

⇒ 6 x 726 x 1

= 4356

Q2. What do you mean by errors in statistics? Mention the measures to do so.

The standard error of a method of measurement or estimation is the standard deviation of the

sampling distribution associated with the estimation method. The term may also be used to refer to

an estimate of that standard deviation, derived from a particular sample used to compute the

estimate.

For example, the sample mean is the usual estimator of a population mean. However, different

samples drawn from that same population would in general have different values of the sample

mean. The standard error of the mean (i.e., of using the sample mean as a method of estimating the

population mean) is the standard deviation of those sample means over all possible samples (of a

given size) drawn from the population. Secondly, the standard error of the mean can refer to an

estimate of that standard deviation, computed from the sample of data being analysed at the time.

The term standard error is derived[citation needed] from the fact that, as long as the estimator is

unbiased, the standard deviation of the error (the difference between the estimate and the true

value) is the same as the standard deviation of the estimates themselves; this is true since the

standard deviation of the difference between the random variable and its expected value is equal to

the standard deviation of a random variable itself.

In many practical applications, the true value of the standard deviation is usually unknown. As a

result, the term standard error is often used to refer to an estimate of this unknown quantity. In

such cases it is important to be clear about what has been done and to attempt to take proper

account of the fact that the standard error is only an estimate. Unfortunately, this is not often

possible and it may then be better to use an approach that avoids using a standard error, for

example by using maximum likelihood or a more formal approach to deriving confidence

intervals. One well-known case where a proper allowance can be made arises where the Student's

t-distribution is used to provide a confidence interval for an estimated mean or difference of

means. In other cases, the standard error may usefully be used to provide an indication of the size

of the uncertainty, but its formal or semi-formal use to provide confidence intervals or tests should

be avoided unless the sample size is at least moderately large. Here "large enough" would depend

on the particular quantities being analysed.

Q3. From a population known to have a standard deviation of 1.4, a sample of 70 individuals

is taken. The mean of this sample is found to be 6.2. Find the standard error of the mean.

Also establish an interval estimate around the sample mean using one standard deviation of

the mean.

Sol.

Standard error of mean

(i) When standard deviation of the population is know

σP

S.E. x =

N

S.E. x refers to the standard error of the mean

σ p standard deviation of the the population

N = number of observation

1.4

x=

6.2

1.4

=

2.48

⇒ 0.5645

σ sample

S .E.x =

N

70

⇒

6.2

70

= =28.22

2.48

5ml. A sample of 150 bottles when measured had a mean content of 201.3ml. Test whether

the machine is functioning properly.(use 5% level of significance)

1 1

S .E.( P1 − P2 ) = pq +

n1 n 2

1200

P1 = = 0.6

2000

800

P2 = = 0.8

1000

x1 + x2 1200 + 800

P= = = 0.6666

n1 + n 2 2000 + 1000

q = 1 − p ⇒ 0.334

S .E( p1 − p2 ) = = 3.33 =1.824

1 1

0.666 × 0.334 +

2000 1000

Q5. Out of 2000 people surveyed, 1200 belong to urban areas and rest to semi urban areas.

Among 1000 who visited other regions, 800 belonged to urban areas. Test at 5% level of

significance whether area and visiting other states are dependant.

x1 − x 2 n1 n2

Ε=

5 n1 + n2

x1 = 300, S1 = 5, n1 = 5

x2 =150, S2 = 201.3, n2 = 201.3

s2

4( s ) 2 + 200.3(201.3)2

5 + 201.3 − 2

⇒ 199.31

Ε= ×

199.31 5 + 201.3

1006.5

0.752 ×

206.3

⇒ 1.6551

Q6. How is statistics useful for modern managers? Give examples and explain.

Managers need an understanding of statistics for four key reasons: to know how to properly

present and describe information; to know how to draw conclusions about large populations based

only on information obtained from samples; to know how to obtain reliable forecasts and to know

how to improve processes . These four reasons form the basis of the structure and content of

Statistics for Managers. There is not a single activity undertaken in business or in everyday life

that does not involve probability. In many cases the probabilities are consciously considered while

in others they may be subconscious. Ordering a particular level of stock for a retail outlet involves

a probability consideration of the actual demand for the products. Undertaking tertiary studies

involves probability estimations for levels of future income that a degree will produce. In the same

way, almost all business decisions depend on probability evaluation. It is important then for you to

have an understanding of probability analysis.

Having developed our basic ‘feel’ for probabilities we need to develop an understanding of the

key theoretical probability distributions. These enable us to assign probabilities of all potential

outcomes for a given situation. This work will enable us to move onto the very important

statistical concept called the sampling distribution. Many data sets for the business manager are

samples drawn from a wider population. Of interest to the manager are the conclusions that can be

drawn about the relevant population characteristic from the sample statistic. We might have some

market research that indicates that customer acceptance of a new brand is 30%. The obvious

conclusion is that 30% of all potential customers will accept the brand. However, if the sample is

not representative of the population then the results may be misleading. Even when the sample is

representative, intuitively we would not believe that exactly the same result would hold for the

population. We need to understand how samples are taken from population and what affect this

has on sample statistics such as the sample mean, sample proportion etc. We will examine

sampling theory and the resulting sampling distributions. These are probability distributions for

sampling situations.

The idea of sampling in business situations and inferential statistics as a method for drawing

conclusions about population parameters from sample statistics are both fundamental issues in

statistics. The problem with a sample, however, is error. A sample is unlikely to be an accurate

representation of the whole population but the concept of the confidence interval can be used to

cope with sample error.

1. The six sigma is the best way in managing the business which puts all the data and while using

the data and facts in order to have a better solution. This can also be use for the improvement of

the customer satisfaction, to reduce the time of the cycle, and can also reduce the defects.

a). The control chart for the product and service of Brecker Associates, Inc. First Phase

Quantifying Opportunities

Second Phase

Planning Solutions

Third Phase

Re-designing

Process

Fourth Phase

Implementing Change

Performance Data Planning Solutions

b.) The techniques in valuing are the ways that the business is using for the productivity of the

business and the process, the cost and the quality. This includes the company’s workshop on

design, marketing, quality, operations, purchasing and the personnel supplier. In this manner, the

first phase is the quantification of the opportunities of Brecker Associates Inc. which use for the

quantification and determination of the services and products that the company is producing. For

the planning solution which is the second phase is the move or the way that the company had been

notified in order to get solutions for the circumstances in the company. The designing again of the

plan is also applicable as for the improvement of the company’s services and products. The

implementation of the change is applicable after the exact analyzation and detailed outcome of the

plan. With the aide of the QFD technique, the requirements for the customer can be determined

and can also be quantified. This way, the benefits regarding the improvements had been sought

and identified and are being refined for the improvement of the services. These can also lead to the

redesign of the products which was the company’s phase 3. The redesigned of the specified

components or the processes are charged and made an additional tools and quality that had been

used for the design in the manufacture, in lean thinking, the design of the assembly, and the

reduction set-up. These phases are all dependent on the data planning solutions performance.

The processes are in control of the team which only signifies that the results are all at the hands of

the team.

c). The recommended policy is to have a keen understanding of the team towards the required

factors which can improve the performance of the products and services as benefitted to the

employees and to the company.

7. The scatter diagram of the given data is given below. Based on the graph, the data are

interrelated to one another which only show that the weight of the mails has high correlation to the

number of orders. Computing the relationship of the mails’ weight and the number of orders it will

get the value of the Pearson r or the correlation coefficient to be 0.99 and interpreted as high

correlation.

a). Using the least-square method the regression line had been notified and approximately as y =

5.55 + 32.76x. This means that the slope is 32.76 with the vertical intercept to be 5.55.

b). This means that whatever the value to be substituted in x will always depend on the slope and

to the vertical intercept so that it can get the value of y or the weight of the mails.

c). Using the regression line, substitute the value of weight of the mails in y or 500 pounds. The

value of x got is 15.0931 or $15,093.10.

d). The prediction is reliable because it use the regression line and the value that had got is near to

the least square regression line.

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