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BEAM PROP

base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

218.432 kN-m
218.432 kN-m

179.326 kN-m

49.454 kN-m

6.309E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S
4700√fc'
Assume value of Ec ( ranges from to )
1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =
(∑𝐴_𝑖
𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
c = 𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =
(�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I1 =
(�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2
I2 =

�_𝑔+�_1+�_2
Itr, uncracked =

Solve for value of fr


5
1.
0.7√(𝑓𝑐′)
fr = =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )

Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )

ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 49.454
c -7716472.72
D 9656313868
x1 130.588445
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1943912
c 130.588445
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 123.419
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -8423482.5
D 11083219260
(𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
𝑐/2)^2
x1 123.418725
Ig =
x2 -227.504174 n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
c 123.418725 I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2
I2 =

total Itr, cr = 9.034E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�)
ø = (𝐸_𝑐 ) ) =

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE

ctr, cr = 123.419 mm
Itr, cr = 9.034E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦
Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point,
.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦/
((𝑑−𝑐) )
øy =

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )
My =

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,

Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/

3.
𝐸_𝑐
= 0.000828

Calculate the Curvature, ø


2
2.

�_𝑐/
3.

𝑐
ø0.7fy =

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
3.

(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )
M0.7fc' =

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 420
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 69.29983795
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5
𝑓_𝑠=𝑓_𝑠^′=𝑓_𝑦 �_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦

Assume all steel yields, and


1
4.

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦
0.85𝑓𝑐^′Compression = Tension
𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)
Singly:
Doubly:
𝑐=𝑎/�
Doubly a =
a 26.37243833 =

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Check for Strain:
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain at yield point

Strain of Tension Steel �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

Strain of Compression Steel

Assumption on Compression Steel is Wron


Top Bars Behave as Tension Bars

If Assumptions 𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′
are Correct: 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

Singly: 𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(

Doubly:

Singly Mn = 0
Mn 88.10373638
Check for ø:
Doubly For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
Mn 0
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
= 0

Curvature

Assumption On Compression Bars is Wrong.


2

Assume Tension Steel Yields and Top Bars behave as Tension Bars and d
4.

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐


Compresion = Tension

a 7140 c =
b -29452.4311 a =
c -36815538.9

D 1.05232E+12
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Check for Strain:
x1 73.89905849
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
x2 -69.7740681 Strain at yield point
c 73.89905849
�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Bars

Strain of Top Bars

Therefore, Assumption on Compression Steel is


Assumption on Top Bars Behaving as Tension is W

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐


If Assumptions are Correct:

Mn =
MN 218.393479

Check for ø:

For Strainformula > 0.005

For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002


For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu =
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 = фMn
= 0

Curvature
𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦
Assumptions are Wrong

3
Assume all steel do not yield and

4.
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_
Singly:

Singly Doubly:
a 7140

b 883572.9338 a=�𝑐
c -342384512 c =

=
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Check for Strain:
D 1.05592E+13 �_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
x -289.430366
Strain at yield point
x 165.6806557
c 165.6806557 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

base,b 300
Strain of Compression Steel

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
If Assumptions are Correct:
Doubly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
a 7140 Singly:
b 1443414.562
c -379200051 Doubly:
D 1.29134E+13
x1 -352.726637 Mn = 0
x2 150.5677349
c 150.5677349 Check for ø:
For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002

For Strainformula < 0.002

0
Singly Therefore use ø:
Mn 0
=
Mu ∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 фMn
=
Doubly = 0
Mn 0
Curvature
𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠>�_𝑦
Assumption On The Compression Steel Is Wrong
4

Assume tension steel yields and compression steel


4.

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴


Compression = Tension

Doubly:

a=�𝑐
c =
=
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Check for Strain:
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

fc' 35
Strain of Compression Steel
b 300
Doubly
a 7140
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′
Assumptions are Correct: 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly:
b -58659.4253

c -36815538.9 Mn = 218.432
D 1.05489E+12
x1 -67.8165462 Check for ø:
x2 76.03215195 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
C 76.03215195
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0.9

Doubly
=
Mu ∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
фMn
Mn
= 196.589

Curvature
𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦

Assumtion is/are wrong


5
4.

Assume tension steel do not yield and compressio


0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−

Compression = Tension

Doubly:
a=�𝑐
c =
=
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Check for Strain:
b 300 �_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

fc' 35
Strain at yield point
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

Strain of Tension Steel

Strain of Compression Steel

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′
Assumptions are Correct: 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑

Singly

Doubly

Doubly Mn = 0
a 7140
b 1266699.975 Check for ø:
c -342384512 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
D 1.1383E+13
x1 -324.970215 For Strainformula < 0.002
x2 147.5612552
C 147.5612552 Therefore use ø: 0
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Mu = фMn
0
=

Singly Curvature
Mn

Doubly
Mn
PART 2

case 4 neww fs (experimental data 1)


fs = 519.18535 75.3014396714 ksi

case 5 neww fs (Experimental data 2)

fs = 1051.2604 152.4723718611 ksi

Case 6 new fs experimental data 3)

fs = 806.16035 116.9236268758 ksi

CASE 4

fs' = 135.52774 19.6566288219

CASE 5

fs' = 97.456303 14.1348361418

CASE 6

fs' = 123.33881 17.8887745261

CASE 1

fs' = 106.788

Case 2

fs' = 106.7876

Case 3

fs' = 106.7876
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 420 MPa
Therefore, β =
new fs = 519.18535419

Case 0: Control Section

c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

228.081 mm 49.454 kN-m 6.309E-07


123.419 mm 49.454 kN-m 1.851E-06
123.419 mm 179.326 kN-m 6.711E-06
76.032 mm 218.432 kN-m 3.946E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.711E-06 rad/mm 3.946E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE


4700√fc' 5000√fc'
to )

√fc'
= 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

149140.1957 mm2

= 228.081 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.279E+09 mm4

= 2.156E+08 mm4
𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2
= 1.551E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2
= 2.650E+09 mm4
4.141 MPa

= 49.454 kN-m

= 6.309E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

123.419 mm

ent of Inertia

= 187993644 mm4

= 694372222 mm4
= 20990221.52 mm4

9.034E+08 mm4

1.851E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

(A.) Steel Yields First

0.0021

ℇ_𝑦/
((𝑑−𝑐) )
= 5.419E-06 rad/mm

y
�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,
𝑐�) )
= 979.121 kN-m
𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′
ves Non-Linearly,
0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐
= 6.711E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )
= 179.326 kN-m

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm
�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦

and

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦
85𝑓𝑐^′Compression = Tension
𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

26.372 mm
32.966 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0021

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐) = 0.0322640885 (Ok!)

= -0.0026877562 (Not Ok!)

n on Compression Steel is Wrong


Bars Behave as Tension Bars

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
ormula > 0.005 = 0.9
< fs/ Es > 0.002
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

rong.
ars behave as Tension Bars and does not yield.
𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐
esion = Tension

73.899 mm
59.119 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0021
�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0127309176 (Ok!)

= -0.0004627552 (Not Ok!)

mption on Compression Steel is Wrong


Top Bars Behaving as Tension is Wrong!

−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0 kN-m

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
0.9
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦 �_𝑠<�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
and
1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

ion = Tension
(600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0
�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
ormula > 0.005 = 0.9
< fs/ Es > 0.002
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
Is Wrong
and compression steel do not yield
2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
ion = Tension

76.032 mm
60.826 mm
𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0021
_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0.0122895843 (Ok!)

= 5.339E-04 (Ok!)

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)
kN-m
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

= 0.9

=
= 0.65

kN-m

3.946E-05 rad/mm
<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦

and compression steel yields


2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

ion = Tension

0 mm
0 mm
𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

= 0
= 0
_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

= 0 ---

= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

= 0.9
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

Curvature

6.309E-07 rad/mm
Mn Curvature

1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.309E-07 49.454

6.711E-06 rad/mm 1.851E-06 49.454

3.946E-05 rad/mm 6.711E-06 179.326

3.946E-05 218.432
75.30144
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

150.552 kN-m
150.552 kN-m

153.633 kN-m

47.428 kN-m

6.222E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 5656.078 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 13275.65199
Mcr = 47.428
c -5144315.15
D 6349421111
x1 110.6793382
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -22.1312388
c 110.6793382
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 6637.826
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 104.567
a 300
b 24587.80857
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -5851324.93
D 7626150249
x1 104.5667058 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -186.526068
c 104.5667058 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 6.557E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE

ctr, cr = 104.567 mm
Itr, cr = 6.557E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦/
øy = ((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,

Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

Calculate the Curvature, ø


2
2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 420
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 46.19989196
As1 = 981.7477
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5

Assume all steel yields, 𝑓_𝑠=𝑓_𝑠^′=𝑓_𝑦 and


�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
1
4.

Compression = Tension
Singly: 0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′

Doubly a =
a 3.272492347 𝑐=𝑎/� =

Check for Strain:


�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumption on Compression Steel is Wron


Top Bars Behave as Tension Bars

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly:

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(


Doubly:

Singly Mn = 0
Mn 11.26992042
Check for ø:
Doubly For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
Mn 0
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On Compression Bars is Wrong.


2

Assume Tension Steel Yields and Top Bars behave as Tension Bars and d
4.

Compresion = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

a 7140 c =
b 176714.5868 a =
c -36815538.9

D 1.08268E+12
Check for Strain:
x1 60.49050671
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x2 -85.2404488 Strain at yield point
c 60.49050671
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Bars

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Top Bars

Therefore, Assumptions are Correct


Assumption on Top Bars Behaving as Tension is C

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

Mn =
MN 150.5520566

Check for ø:

For Strainformula > 0.005

For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002


For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0.9

Mu = фMn
= 135.4969
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
Assumptions are Wrong
Assume all steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

3
4.
Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Singly:
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_
Singly Doubly:
a 7140

b 589048.6225

c -228256341 c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


D 6.86598E+12
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x -224.744399
Strain at yield point
x 142.2445917
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
c 142.2445917
Strain of Tension Steel

base,b 300 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)


Strain of Compression Steel

If Assumptions are Correct:


Doubly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
a 7140 Singly:
b 1148890.251
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
c -265071880 Doubly:
D 8.8904E+12
x1 -289.255456 Mn = 0
x2 128.3464577
c 128.3464577 Check for ø:
For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002

For Strainformula < 0.002

0
Singly Therefore use ø:
Mn 0

Mu = фMn
Doubly = 0
Mn 0 ∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On The Compression Steel Is Wrong


4

Assume tension steel yields 𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠>�_𝑦 and compression steel


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

fc' 35 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel
b 300
Doubly
a 7140
Assumptions are Correct:
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly:
b 147507.5926

c -36815538.9 Mn = 0.000
D 1.07321E+12
x1 -82.8757858 Check for ø:
x2 62.21645914 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
C 62.21645914
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Doubly

Mu = фMn
Mn
= 0.000
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumtion is/are wrong


5

Assume tension steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compressio


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


b 300

fc' 35
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly

Doubly Mn = 0
a 7140
b 972175.6641 Check for ø:
c -228256341 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
D 7.46413E+12
x1 -259.399933 For Strainformula < 0.002
x2 123.2408768
C 123.2408768 Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
0
=
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Singly Curvature
Mn

Doubly
Mn
PART 2

case 4
fs = 547.78816 79.4499243703

case 5

fs = 1088.9417 157.9375807842

case 6

fs = 811.86754 117.7513847278
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 420 MPa
Therefore, β =

Case 1: Tensile reinforcement is reduced to 2-25mmø

c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

225.000 mm 47.428 kN-m 6.222E-07


104.567 mm 47.428 kN-m 2.445E-06
104.567 mm 153.633 kN-m 7.921E-06
60.491 mm 150.552 kN-m 4.959E-05

Moment - Curvature
2.445E-06 rad/mm 7.921E-06 rad/mm 4.959E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

146312.1566 mm2

= 225.000 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.278E+09 mm4

= 1.494E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 1.494E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 2.577E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 47.428 kN-m

= 6.222E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

6637.826 mm
5656.078 mm

104.567 mm

ent of Inertia

= 114335285 mm4

= 531366261 mm4
= 10009039.89 mm4

6.557E+08 mm4

2.445E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

(A.) Steel Yields First

0.0021

ℇ_𝑦/
= 5.419E-06 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 710.706 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′

0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 7.921E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 153.633 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


and

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
85𝑓𝑐^′

3.272 mm
4.091 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.2811870664 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= -0.0428366236 (Not Ok!)

n on Compression Steel is Wrong


Bars Behave as Tension Bars

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

rong.
ars behave as Tension Bars and does not yield.

esion = Tension
𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

60.491 mm
48.392 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0162178916 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 9.9659933E-05 (Ok!)

ore, Assumptions are Correct


Top Bars Behaving as Tension is Correct!

−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

150.5520566 kN-m

=
0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

4.95946E-05 rad/mm
�_𝑠<�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

ion = Tension
1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

(600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

Is Wrong
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
and compression steel do not yield

ion = Tension
2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

0.000 mm
0.000 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0.000E+00 ---
𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0.000E+00 rad/mm

𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compression steel yields

ion = Tension
2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
= 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
2 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

-25mmø

Curvature

6.222E-07 rad/mm
Mn Curvature

2.445E-06 rad/mm 6.222E-07 47.428

7.921E-06 rad/mm 2.445E-06 47.428

4.959E-05 rad/mm 7.921E-06 153.633

4.959E-05 150.552
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

218.238 kN-m
218.238 kN-m

165.076 kN-m

47.853 kN-m

6.500E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 0.000 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 47.853
c -7716472.72
D 9656313868
x1 130.588445
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1943912
c 130.588445
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 0.000

doubly c = 130.588
a 300
b 19913.47798
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -7716472.72
D 9656313868
x1 130.588445 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -196.966705
c 130.588445 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 8.799E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE

ctr, cr = 130.588 mm
Itr, cr = 8.799E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦/
øy = ((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,

Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

Calculate the Curvature, ø


2
2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 420
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 69.29983795
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 0
d = 387.5
d' = 0

Assume all steel yields, 𝑓_𝑠=𝑓_𝑠^′=𝑓_𝑦 and


�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
1
4.

Compression = Tension
Singly: 0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′

Doubly a =
a 69.29983795 𝑐=𝑎/� =

Check for Strain:


�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumption on Compression Steel is Wron


Reinforce Beam is Singly Reinforced

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly:

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(


Doubly:

Singly Mn = 218.2381
Mn 218.2381469
Check for ø:
Doubly For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
Mn 0
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0.9

Mu = фMn
= 196.4143

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On Compression Bars is Wrong.


2

Assume Tension Steel Yields and Top Bars behave as Tension Bars and d
4.

Compresion = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

a 7140 c =
b -618501.054 a =
c 0

D 3.82544E+11
Check for Strain:
x1 86.62479743
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x2 0 Strain at yield point
c 86.62479743
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Bars

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Top Bars

----
---

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

Mn =
MN 0

Check for ø:

For Strainformula > 0.005

For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002


For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
Assumptions are Wrong
Assume all steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

3
4.
Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Singly:
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_
Singly Doubly:
a 7140

b 883572.9338

c -342384512 c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


D 1.05592E+13
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x -289.430366
Strain at yield point
x 165.6806557
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
c 165.6806557
Strain of Tension Steel

base,b 300 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)


Strain of Compression Steel

If Assumptions are Correct:


Doubly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
a 7140 Singly:
b 883572.9338
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
c -342384512 Doubly:
D 1.05592E+13
x1 -289.430366 Mn = 0
x2 165.6806557
c 165.6806557 Check for ø:
For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002

For Strainformula < 0.002

0
Singly Therefore use ø:
Mn 0

Mu = фMn
Doubly = 0
Mn 0 ∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On The Compression Steel Is Wrong


4

Assume tension steel yields 𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠>�_𝑦 and compression steel


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

fc' 35 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel
b 300
Doubly
a 7140
Assumptions are Correct:
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly:
b -618501.054

c 0 Mn = 0.000
D 3.82544E+11
x1 0 Check for ø:
x2 86.62479743 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
C 86.62479743
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Doubly

Mu = фMn
Mn
= 0.000
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumtion is/are wrong


5

Assume tension steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compressio


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


b 300

fc' 35
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly

Doubly Mn = 0
a 7140
b 883572.9338 Check for ø:
c -342384512 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
D 1.05592E+13
x1 -289.430366 For Strainformula < 0.002
x2 165.6806557
C 165.6806557 Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
0
=
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Singly Curvature
Mn

Doubly
Mn
PART 2

case 4
fs = 508.0432 73.6854069935

case 5

fs = 1025.6311 148.7551624219

case 6

fs = 804.77864 116.7232278969
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 0 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 420 MPa
Therefore, β =

Case 2: Compression reinforcement is removed

c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

234.609 mm 47.853 kN-m 6.500E-07


130.588 mm 47.853 kN-m 1.839E-06
130.588 mm 165.076 kN-m 6.342E-06
86.625 mm 218.238 kN-m 3.463E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.839E-06 rad/mm 6.342E-06 rad/mm 3.463E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 0 mm

143484.1174 mm2

= 234.609 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.291E+09 mm4

= 1.983E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 0.000E+00 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 2.489E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 47.853 kN-m

= 6.500E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
0.000 mm

130.588 mm

ent of Inertia

= 222696941 mm4

= 657180091 mm4
= 0 mm4

8.799E+08 mm4

1.839E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

(A.) Steel Yields First

0.0021

ℇ_𝑦/
= 5.419E-06 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 953.673 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′

0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 6.342E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 165.076 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


and

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
85𝑓𝑐^′

69.300 mm
86.625 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0104199448 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

n on Compression Steel is Wrong


rce Beam is Singly Reinforced

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

3.46321E-05 rad/mm

rong.
ars behave as Tension Bars and does not yield.

esion = Tension
𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

0.000 mm
0.000 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

----
---

−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0 kN-m

=
0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
�_𝑠<�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

ion = Tension
1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

(600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

Is Wrong
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
and compression steel do not yield

ion = Tension
2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

0.000 mm
0.000 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0.000E+00 ---
𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0.000E+00 rad/mm

𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compression steel yields

ion = Tension
2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
= 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
n)

Number Diameter
0 0 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

moved

Curvature

6.500E-07 rad/mm
Mn Curvature

1.839E-06 rad/mm 6.500E-07 47.853

6.342E-06 rad/mm 1.839E-06 47.853

3.463E-05 rad/mm 6.342E-06 165.076

3.463E-05 218.238
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

150.552 kN-m
150.552 kN-m

179.326 kN-m

49.454 kN-m

6.309E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 49.454
c -7716472.72
D 9656313868
x1 130.588445
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1943912
c 130.588445
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 123.419
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -8423482.5
D 11083219260
x1 123.418725 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -227.504174
c 123.418725 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 9.034E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE

ctr, cr = 123.419 mm
Itr, cr = 9.034E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 280 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦/
øy = ((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,

Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

Calculate the Curvature, ø


2
2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 280
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 46.19989196
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5

Assume all steel yields, 𝑓_𝑠=𝑓_𝑠^′=𝑓_𝑦 and


�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
1
4.

Compression = Tension
Singly: 0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′

Doubly a =
a 18.67245634 𝑐=𝑎/� =

Check for Strain:


�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumption on Compression Steel is Wron


Top Bars Behave as Tension Bars

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly:

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(


Doubly:

Singly Mn = 0
Mn 63.02162517
Check for ø:
Doubly For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
Mn 0
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On Compression Bars is Wrong.


2

Assume Tension Steel Yields and Top Bars behave as Tension Bars and d
4.

Compresion = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

a 7140 c =
b 176714.5868 a =
c -36815538.9

D 1.08268E+12
Check for Strain:
x1 60.49050671
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x2 -85.2404488 Strain at yield point
c 60.49050671
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Bars

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Top Bars

Therefore, Assumptions are Correct


Assumption on Top Bars Behaving as Tension is C

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

Mn =
MN 150.5520566

Check for ø:

For Strainformula > 0.005

For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002


For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0.9

Mu = фMn
= 135.4969
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
Assumptions are Wrong
Assume all steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

3
4.
Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Singly:
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_
Singly Doubly:
a 7140

b 883572.9338

c -342384512 c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


D 1.05592E+13
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x -289.430366
Strain at yield point
x 165.6806557
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
c 165.6806557
Strain of Tension Steel

base,b 300 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)


Strain of Compression Steel

If Assumptions are Correct:


Doubly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
a 7140 Singly:
b 1443414.562
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
c -379200051 Doubly:
D 1.29134E+13
x1 -352.726637 Mn = 0
x2 150.5677349
c 150.5677349 Check for ø:
For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002

For Strainformula < 0.002

0
Singly Therefore use ø:
Mn 0

Mu = фMn
Doubly = 0
Mn 0 ∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On The Compression Steel Is Wrong


4

Assume tension steel yields 𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠>�_𝑦 and compression steel


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

fc' 35 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel
b 300
Doubly
a 7140
Assumptions are Correct:
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly:
b 147507.5926

c -36815538.9 Mn = 0.000
D 1.07321E+12
x1 -82.8757858 Check for ø:
x2 62.21645914 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
C 62.21645914
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Doubly

Mu = фMn
Mn
= 0.000
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumtion is/are wrong


5

Assume tension steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compressio


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


b 300

fc' 35
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly

Doubly Mn = 0
a 7140
b 1129255.297 Check for ø:
c -342384512 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
D 1.10537E+13
x1 -311.90257 For Strainformula < 0.002
x2 153.7435646
C 153.7435646 Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
0
=
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Singly Curvature
Mn

Doubly
Mn
PART 2

case 4
fs = 547.78816 79.4499243703

case 5

fs = 1088.9417 157.9375807842

case 6

fs = 811.86754 117.7513847278
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 280 MPa
Therefore, β =

Case 3: Grade of steel is changed to Grade 40

c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

228.081 mm 49.454 kN-m 6.309E-07


123.419 mm 49.454 kN-m 1.851E-06
123.419 mm 179.326 kN-m 6.711E-06
60.491 mm 150.552 kN-m 4.959E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.711E-06 rad/mm 4.959E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

149140.1957 mm2

= 228.081 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.279E+09 mm4

= 2.156E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 1.551E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 2.650E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 49.454 kN-m

= 6.309E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

123.419 mm

ent of Inertia

= 187993644 mm4

= 694372222 mm4
= 20990221.52 mm4

9.034E+08 mm4

1.851E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

(A.) Steel Yields First

0.0014

ℇ_𝑦/
= 3.613E-06 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 652.748 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′

0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 6.711E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 179.326 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


and

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
85𝑓𝑐^′

18.672 mm
23.341 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0014
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0468059807 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= -0.0050332227 (Not Ok!)

n on Compression Steel is Wrong


Bars Behave as Tension Bars

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

rong.
ars behave as Tension Bars and does not yield.

esion = Tension
𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

60.491 mm
48.392 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0014

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0162178916 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 9.9659933E-05 (Ok!)

ore, Assumptions are Correct


Top Bars Behaving as Tension is Correct!

−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

150.5520566 kN-m

=
0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

4.95946E-05 rad/mm
�_𝑠<�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

ion = Tension
1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

(600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

Is Wrong
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
and compression steel do not yield

ion = Tension
2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

0.000 mm
0.000 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0.000E+00 ---
𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0.000E+00 rad/mm

𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compression steel yields

ion = Tension
2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
= 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

ade 40

Curvature

6.309E-07 rad/mm
Mn Curvature

1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.309E-07 49.454

6.711E-06 rad/mm 1.851E-06 49.454

4.959E-05 rad/mm 6.711E-06 179.326

4.959E-05 150.552
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

221.533 kN-m
221.533 kN-m

206.500 kN-m

53.330 kN-m

6.300E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 7616.596 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5077.731 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 18178.43515
Mcr = 53.330
c -7044143.62
D 8783427849
x1 125.9025143
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -30.3026283
c 125.9025143
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9089.218
(n-1)As2 = 5077.731

doubly c = 119.589
a 300
b 28333.89651
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -7678859.96
D 10017441638
x1 119.5887895 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -214.035111
c 119.5887895 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 8.400E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE

ctr, cr = 119.589 mm
Itr, cr = 8.400E+08 mm4
fc' = 42 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
Ec = 32403.7 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦/
øy = ((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,

Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000907

Calculate the Curvature, ø


2
2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 420
fc' = 42
Singly β = 0.75
a 57.74986496
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5

Assume all steel yields, 𝑓_𝑠=𝑓_𝑠^′=𝑓_𝑦 and


�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
1
4.

Compression = Tension
Singly: 0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′

Doubly a =
a 22.52244733 𝑐=𝑎/� =

Check for Strain:


�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumption on Compression Steel is Wron


Top Bars Behave as Tension Bars

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly:

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(


Doubly:

Singly Mn = 0
Mn 90.75459104
Check for ø:
Doubly For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
Mn 0
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On Compression Bars is Wrong.


2

Assume Tension Steel Yields and Top Bars behave as Tension Bars and d
4.

Compresion = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

a 8032.5 c =
b -29452.4311 a =
c -36815538.9

D 1.18375E+12
Check for Strain:
x1 69.55838874
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x2 -65.8917307 Strain at yield point
c 69.55838874
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Bars

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Top Bars

Therefore, Assumption on Compression Steel is


Assumption on Top Bars Behaving as Tension is W

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

Mn =
MN 221.3592513

Check for ø:

For Strainformula > 0.005

For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002


For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
Assumptions are Wrong
Assume all steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

3
4.
Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Singly:
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_
Singly Doubly:
a 8032.5

b 883572.9338

c -342384512 c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


D 1.17815E+13
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x -268.658211
Strain at yield point
x 158.6584684
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
c 158.6584684
Strain of Tension Steel

base,b 300 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)


Strain of Compression Steel

If Assumptions are Correct:


Doubly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
a 8032.5 Singly:
b 1437573.163
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
c -379200051 Doubly:
D 1.42503E+13
x1 -324.465111 Mn = 0
x2 145.4955291
c 145.4955291 Check for ø:
For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002

For Strainformula < 0.002

0
Singly Therefore use ø:
Mn 0

Mu = фMn
Doubly = 0
Mn 0 ∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On The Compression Steel Is Wrong


4

Assume tension steel yields 𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠>�_𝑦 and compression steel


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

fc' 42 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel
b 300
Doubly
a 8032.5
Assumptions are Correct:
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly:
b -64500.8242

c -36815538.9 Mn = 221.533
D 1.18704E+12
x1 -63.8042011 Check for ø:
x2 71.83418233 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
C 71.83418233
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0.9

Doubly

Mu = фMn
Mn
= 199.379
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumtion is/are wrong


5

Assume tension steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compressio


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


b 300

fc' 42
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly

Doubly Mn = 0
a 8032.5
b 1260858.577 Check for ø:
c -342384512 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
D 1.25906E+13
x1 -299.357555 For Strainformula < 0.002
x2 142.3879223
C 142.3879223 Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
0
=
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Singly Curvature
Mn

Doubly
Mn
PART 2

Case 4
fs = 525.55125 76.2247343521

Case 5

fs = 1062.9745 154.1713591851

Case 6

fs = 809.67378 117.4332071954
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 42 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 420 MPa
Therefore, β =

Case 4: Specified concrete strength is increased to 42 Mpa

c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

227.793 mm 53.330 kN-m 6.300E-07


119.589 mm 53.330 kN-m 1.959E-06
119.589 mm 206.500 kN-m 7.587E-06
71.834 mm 221.533 kN-m 4.176E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.959E-06 rad/mm 7.587E-06 rad/mm 4.176E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 32403.703 Mpa

y (n)

6.17

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

147694.3267 mm2

= 227.793 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.279E+09 mm4

= 1.943E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 1.387E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 2.612E+09 mm4


4.537 MPa

= 53.330 kN-m

= 6.300E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9089.218 mm
5077.731 mm

119.589 mm

ent of Inertia

= 171029651 mm4

= 652391468 mm4
= 16548983.8 mm4

8.400E+08 mm4

1.959E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

(A.) Steel Yields First

0.0021

ℇ_𝑦/
= 5.419E-06 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 910.419 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′

0.000907

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 7.587E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 206.500 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


and

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
85𝑓𝑐^′

22.522 mm
30.030 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0357113792 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= -0.0032437708 (Not Ok!)

n on Compression Steel is Wrong


Bars Behave as Tension Bars

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

rong.
ars behave as Tension Bars and does not yield.

esion = Tension
𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

69.558 mm
52.169 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.013712578 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
= -0.0003044229 (Not Ok!)

mption on Compression Steel is Wrong


Top Bars Behaving as Tension is Wrong!

−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0 kN-m

=
0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
�_𝑠<�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

ion = Tension
1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

(600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

Is Wrong
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
and compression steel do not yield

ion = Tension
2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

71.834 mm
53.876 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0131831034 (Ok!)

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 3.898E-04 (Ok!)
𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

4.176E-05 rad/mm

𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compression steel yields

ion = Tension
2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
= 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.75

to 42 Mpa

Curvature

6.300E-07 rad/mm
Mn Curvature

1.959E-06 rad/mm 6.300E-07 53.330

7.587E-06 rad/mm 1.959E-06 53.330

4.176E-05 rad/mm 7.587E-06 206.500

4.176E-05 221.533
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

223.633 kN-m
223.633 kN-m

210.741 kN-m

63.427 kN-m

6.288E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 180000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 400
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 63.427
c -7716472.72
D 12742902955
x1 116.2137366
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -24.8958485
c 116.2137366
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 111.242
a 400
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -8423482.5
D 14452612262
x1 111.2417292 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -189.305816
c 111.2417292 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 9.569E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE

ctr, cr = 111.242 mm
Itr, cr = 9.569E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦/
øy = ((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,

Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

Calculate the Curvature, ø


2
2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 420
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 51.97487846
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5

Assume all steel yields, 𝑓_𝑠=𝑓_𝑠^′=𝑓_𝑦 and


�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
1
4.

Compression = Tension
Singly: 0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′

Doubly a =
a 19.77932875 𝑐=𝑎/� =

Check for Strain:


�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumption on Compression Steel is Wron


Top Bars Behave as Tension Bars

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly:

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(


Doubly:

Singly Mn = 0
Mn 88.8796597
Check for ø:
Doubly For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
Mn 0
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On Compression Bars is Wrong.


2

Assume Tension Steel Yields and Top Bars behave as Tension Bars and d
4.

Compresion = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

a 9520 c =
b -29452.4311 a =
c -36815538.9

D 1.4028E+12
Check for Strain:
x1 63.75274946
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x2 -60.6590067 Strain at yield point
c 63.75274946
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Bars

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Top Bars

Therefore, Assumption on Compression Steel is


Assumption on Top Bars Behaving as Tension is W

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

Mn =
MN 223.4684434

Check for ø:

For Strainformula > 0.005

For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002


For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
Assumptions are Wrong
Assume all steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

3
4.
Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Singly:
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_
Singly Doubly:
a 9520

b 883572.9338

c -342384512 c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


D 1.38187E+13
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x -241.645199
Strain at yield point
x 148.8329161
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
c 148.8329161
Strain of Tension Steel

base,b 400 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)


Strain of Compression Steel

If Assumptions are Correct:


Doubly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
a 9520 Singly:
b 1443414.562
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
c -379200051 Doubly:
D 1.65234E+13
x1 -289.302051 Mn = 0
x2 137.6828747
c 137.6828747 Check for ø:
For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002

For Strainformula < 0.002

0
Singly Therefore use ø:
Mn 0

Mu = фMn
Doubly = 0
Mn 0 ∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On The Compression Steel Is Wrong


4

Assume tension steel yields 𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠>�_𝑦 and compression steel


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

fc' 35 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel
b 400
Doubly
a 9520
Assumptions are Correct:
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly:
b -58659.4253

c -36815538.9 Mn = 223.633
D 1.40538E+12
x1 -59.182059 Check for ø:
x2 65.34376334 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
C 65.34376334
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0.9

Doubly

Mu = фMn
Mn
= 201.270
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumtion is/are wrong


5

Assume tension steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compressio


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


b 400

fc' 35
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly

Doubly Mn = 0
a 9520
b 1266699.975 Check for ø:
c -342384512 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
D 1.46425E+13
x1 -267.502941 For Strainformula < 0.002
x2 134.4462213
C 134.4462213 Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
0
=
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Singly Curvature
Mn

Doubly
Mn
PART 2

Case 4
fs = 538.38914 78.0867128079

Case 5

fs = 1078.2764 156.3907076496

Case 6

fs = 813.45569 117.9817261123
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 400 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 420 MPa
Therefore, β =

Case 5: Beam width is increased to 400 mm

c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

227.367 mm 63.427 kN-m 6.288E-07


111.242 mm 63.427 kN-m 2.241E-06
111.242 mm 210.741 kN-m 7.446E-06
65.344 mm 223.633 kN-m 4.591E-05

Moment - Curvature
2.241E-06 rad/mm 7.446E-06 rad/mm 4.591E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

194140.1957 mm2

= 227.367 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 3.039E+09 mm4

= 2.176E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 1.537E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 3.410E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 63.427 kN-m

= 6.288E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

111.242 mm

ent of Inertia

= 183544734 mm4

= 759884701 mm4
= 13437462.84 mm4

9.569E+08 mm4

2.241E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

(A.) Steel Yields First

0.0021

ℇ_𝑦/
= 5.419E-06 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 1037.120 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′

0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 7.446E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 210.741 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


and

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
85𝑓𝑐^′

19.779 mm
24.724 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0440187847 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= -0.004583675 (Not Ok!)

n on Compression Steel is Wrong


Bars Behave as Tension Bars

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

rong.
ars behave as Tension Bars and does not yield.

esion = Tension
𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

63.753 mm
51.002 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0152345077 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
= -5.895037E-05 (Not Ok!)

mption on Compression Steel is Wrong


Top Bars Behaving as Tension is Wrong!

−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0 kN-m

=
0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
�_𝑠<�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

ion = Tension
1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

(600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

Is Wrong
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
and compression steel do not yield

ion = Tension
2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

65.344 mm
52.275 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0147905272 (Ok!)

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 1.306E-04 (Ok!)
𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

4.591E-05 rad/mm

𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compression steel yields

ion = Tension
2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
= 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

0 mm

Curvature

6.288E-07 rad/mm
Mn Curvature

2.241E-06 rad/mm 6.288E-07 63.427

7.446E-06 rad/mm 2.241E-06 63.427

4.591E-05 rad/mm 7.446E-06 210.741

4.591E-05 223.633
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

311.207 kN-m
311.207 kN-m

306.786 kN-m

86.518 kN-m

4.721E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 180000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 86.518
c -10703494.4
D 13240739905
x1 158.5915601
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1944749
c 158.5915601
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 149.807
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -11410504.2
D 14667645297
x1 149.8073665 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -253.892815
c 149.8073665 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 1.876E+09

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE

ctr, cr = 149.807 mm
Itr, cr = 1.876E+09 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦/
øy = ((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,

Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

Calculate the Curvature, ø


2
2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 420
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 69.29983795
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 537.5
d' = 62.5

Assume all steel yields, 𝑓_𝑠=𝑓_𝑠^′=𝑓_𝑦 and


�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
1
4.

Compression = Tension
Singly: 0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′

Doubly a =
a 26.37243833 𝑐=𝑎/� =

Check for Strain:


�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumption on Compression Steel is Wron


Top Bars Behave as Tension Bars

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly:

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(


Doubly:

Singly Mn = 0
Mn 123.4098382
Check for ø:
Doubly For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
Mn 0
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On Compression Bars is Wrong.


2

Assume Tension Steel Yields and Top Bars behave as Tension Bars and d
4.

Compresion = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

a 7140 c =
b -29452.4311 a =
c -36815538.9

D 1.05232E+12
Check for Strain:
x1 73.89905849
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x2 -69.7740681 Strain at yield point
c 73.89905849
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Bars

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Top Bars

Therefore, Assumption on Compression Steel is


Assumption on Top Bars Behaving as Tension is W

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

Mn =
MN 311.168637

Check for ø:

For Strainformula > 0.005

For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002


For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
Assumptions are Wrong
Assume all steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

3
4.
Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Singly:
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_
Singly Doubly:
a 7140

b 883572.9338

c -474920452 c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


D 1.43444E+13
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x -327.099227
Strain at yield point
x 203.3495161
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
c 203.3495161
Strain of Tension Steel

base,b 300 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)


Strain of Compression Steel

If Assumptions are Correct:


Doubly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
a 7140 Singly:
b 1443414.562
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
c -511735991 Doubly:
D 1.66986E+13
x1 -387.241578 Mn = 0
x2 185.0826757
c 185.0826757 Check for ø:
For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002

For Strainformula < 0.002

0
Singly Therefore use ø:
Mn 0

Mu = фMn
Doubly = 0
Mn 0 ∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On The Compression Steel Is Wrong


4

Assume tension steel yields 𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠>�_𝑦 and compression steel


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

fc' 35 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel
b 300
Doubly
a 7140
Assumptions are Correct:
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly:
b -58659.4253

c -36815538.9 Mn = 311.207
D 1.05489E+12
x1 -67.8165462 Check for ø:
x2 76.03215195 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
C 76.03215195
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0.9

Doubly

Mu = фMn
Mn
= 280.086
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumtion is/are wrong


5

Assume tension steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compressio


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


b 300

fc' 35
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly

Doubly Mn = 0
a 7140
b 1266699.975 Check for ø:
c -474920452 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
D 1.51683E+13
x1 -361.438699 For Strainformula < 0.002
x2 184.029739
C 184.029739 Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
0
=
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Singly Curvature
Mn

Doubly
Mn
PART 2

case 4
fs = 558.40013 80.9890594764

case 5

fs = 1099.3158 159.4422104969

case 6

fs = 832.8009 120.787510955
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 600 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 537.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 420 MPa
Therefore, β =

Case 6: Beam depth is increased to 600 mm

c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

303.460 mm 86.518 kN-m 4.721E-07


149.807 mm 86.518 kN-m 1.559E-06
149.807 mm 306.786 kN-m 5.529E-06
76.032 mm 311.207 kN-m 3.946E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.559E-06 rad/mm 5.529E-06 rad/mm 3.946E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 300 mm
d or y1 = 537.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

194140.1957 mm2

= 303.460 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 5.402E+09 mm4

= 4.647E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 3.284E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 6.195E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 86.518 kN-m

= 4.721E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

149.807 mm

ent of Inertia

= 336201393 mm4

= 1496553410 mm4
= 43113888 mm4

1.876E+09 mm4

1.559E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

(A.) Steel Yields First

0.0021

ℇ_𝑦/
= 3.907E-06 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 1465.795 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′

0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 5.529E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 306.786 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


and

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
85𝑓𝑐^′

26.372 mm
32.966 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0459147034 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= -0.0026877562 (Not Ok!)

n on Compression Steel is Wrong


Bars Behave as Tension Bars

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

rong.
ars behave as Tension Bars and does not yield.

esion = Tension
𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

73.899 mm
59.119 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0188203051 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
= -0.0004627552 (Not Ok!)

mption on Compression Steel is Wrong


Top Bars Behaving as Tension is Wrong!

−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0 kN-m

=
0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
�_𝑠<�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

ion = Tension
1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

(600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

Is Wrong
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
and compression steel do not yield

ion = Tension
2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

76.032 mm
60.826 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0182081331 (Ok!)

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 5.339E-04 (Ok!)
𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

3.946E-05 rad/mm

𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compression steel yields

ion = Tension
2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
= 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

mm

Curvature

4.721E-07 rad/mm
Mn Curvature

1.559E-06 rad/mm 4.721E-07 86.518

5.529E-06 rad/mm 1.559E-06 86.518

3.946E-05 rad/mm 5.529E-06 306.786

3.946E-05 311.207
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

197.552 kN-m
197.552 kN-m

145.101 kN-m

46.646 kN-m

6.290E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 46.646
c -7019500.99
D 8819947792
x1 123.3351652
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1943674
c 123.3351652
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 120.535
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -8122436.26
D 10721963761
x1 120.5354686 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -224.620917
c 120.5354686 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 7.139E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE

ctr, cr = 120.535 mm
Itr, cr = 7.139E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦/
øy = ((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,

Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

Calculate the Curvature, ø


2
2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 420
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 69.29983795
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 352.5
d' = 97.5

Assume all steel yields, 𝑓_𝑠=𝑓_𝑠^′=𝑓_𝑦 and


�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
1
4.

Compression = Tension
Singly: 0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′

Doubly a =
a 26.37243833 𝑐=𝑎/� =

Check for Strain:


�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumption on Compression Steel is Wron


Top Bars Behave as Tension Bars

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly:

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(


Doubly:

Singly Mn = 0
Mn 79.86564595
Check for ø:
Doubly For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
Mn 0
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On Compression Bars is Wrong.


2

Assume Tension Steel Yields and Top Bars behave as Tension Bars and d
4.

Compresion = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

a 7140 c =
b -29452.4311 a =
c -57432240.7

D 1.64113E+12
Check for Strain:
x1 91.77305797
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x2 -87.6480676 Strain at yield point
c 91.77305797
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Bars

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Top Bars

Therefore, Assumptions are Correct


Assumption on Top Bars Behaving as Tension is C

If Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

Mn =
MN 197.5515108

Check for ø:

For Strainformula > 0.005

For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002


For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0.9

Mu = фMn
= 177.7964
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
Assumptions are Wrong
Assume all steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

3
4.
Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Singly:
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_
Singly Doubly:
a 7140

b 883572.9338

c -311459459 c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


D 9.67598E+12
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
x -279.705686
Strain at yield point
x 155.9559752
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
c 155.9559752
Strain of Tension Steel

base,b 300 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)


Strain of Compression Steel

If Assumptions are Correct:


Doubly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
a 7140 Singly:
b 1443414.562
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
c -368891700 Doubly:
D 1.2619E+13
x1 -349.841505 Mn = 0
x2 147.6826031
c 147.6826031 Check for ø:
For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002

For Strainformula < 0.002

0
Singly Therefore use ø:
Mn 0

Mu = фMn
Doubly = 0
Mn 0 ∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumption On The Compression Steel Is Wrong


4

Assume tension steel yields 𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠>�_𝑦 and compression steel


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

fc' 35 �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel
b 300
Doubly
a 7140
Assumptions are Correct:
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly:
b -58659.4253

c -57432240.7 Mn = 0.000
D 1.64371E+12
x1 -85.6730705 Check for ø:
x2 93.88867633 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
C 93.88867633
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Doubly

Mu = фMn
Mn
= 0.000
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

Assumtion is/are wrong


5

Assume tension steel do not yield 𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compressio


4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−
Doubly:

c =
a=�𝑐 =

Check for Strain:


b 300

fc' 35
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Strain at yield point
Strain at yield point
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

Assumptions are Correct:


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑
Doubly

Doubly Mn = 0
a 7140
b 1266699.975 Check for ø:
c -311459459 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
D 1.04998E+13
x1 -315.619129 For Strainformula < 0.002
x2 138.2101686
C 138.2101686 Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
0
=
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Singly Curvature
Mn

Doubly
Mn
PART 2

Case 4
fs = 505.27729 73.2842467079

Case 5

fs = 983.23343 142.6058969281

Case 6

fs = 806.03648 116.9056611696
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 75 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 97.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 352.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 420 MPa
Therefore, β =

Case 7: Cover concrete is increased to 75 mm

c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

227.418 mm 46.646 kN-m 6.290E-07


120.535 mm 46.646 kN-m 2.209E-06
120.535 mm 145.101 kN-m 6.871E-06
91.773 mm 197.552 kN-m 3.269E-05

Moment - Curvature
2.209E-06 rad/mm 6.871E-06 rad/mm 3.269E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 352.5 mm
d' or y2 = 97.5 mm

149140.1957 mm2

= 227.418 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.279E+09 mm4

= 1.327E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 9.547E+07 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 2.507E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 46.646 kN-m

= 6.290E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

120.535 mm

ent of Inertia

= 175123562 mm4

= 535747669 mm4
= 3001300.748 mm4

7.139E+08 mm4

2.209E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

(A.) Steel Yields First

0.0021

ℇ_𝑦/
= 5.957E-06 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 850.572 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′

0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 6.871E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 145.101 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

�_𝑠>�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


and

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1
𝑓_𝑦𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
85𝑓𝑐^′

26.372 mm
32.966 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.029078945 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= -0.0058728997 (Not Ok!)

n on Compression Steel is Wrong


Bars Behave as Tension Bars

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

rong.
ars behave as Tension Bars and does not yield.

esion = Tension
𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

91.773 mm
73.418 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0.0021

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0085229897 (Ok!)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0001872099 (Ok!)

ore, Assumptions are Correct


Top Bars Behaving as Tension is Correct!

−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

197.5515108 kN-m

=
0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

3.26893E-05 rad/mm
�_𝑠<�_𝑦 ; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; 𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦and

ion = Tension
1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

(600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

Is Wrong
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
and compression steel do not yield

ion = Tension
2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

0.000 mm
0.000 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0.000E+00 ---
𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0.000E+00 rad/mm

𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦; 〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦


<𝑓_𝑦 ; �_𝑠<�_𝑦 and compression steel yields

ion = Tension
2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0 mm
0 mm

𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
= 0
= 0
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0 ---

𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

= 0.9
= 0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

mm

Curvature

6.290E-07 rad/mm
Mn Curvature

2.209E-06 rad/mm 6.290E-07 46.646

6.871E-06 rad/mm 2.209E-06 46.646

3.269E-05 rad/mm 6.871E-06 145.101

3.269E-05 197.552
BEAM PRO
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curvatu
218.432 kN-m

179.326 kN-m

49.454 kN-m

6.309E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S
Assume value of Ec ( ranges from to )

1
1.
Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber
3
1.

Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

c =
Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia

4
1.
Ig =

I1 =
I2 =

Itr, uncracked =

Solve for value of fr


5
1.

fr = =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr


6
1.

Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

ø =

1.8 CALCULATE FOR THE STRAIN and ACTUAL STRESS

FORMULA SA STRAIN =
FS = 20.109

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 49.454
c -7716472.72
D 9656313868
x1 130.588445
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber
1
2.

x2 -33.1943912
c 130.588445

Singly:

Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 123.419
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia

2
2.
c -8423482.5
D 11083219260
x1 123.418725
Ig =
x2 -227.504174
c 123.418725 I1 =
I2 =

total Itr, cr = 9.034E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

ø = =

2.2 CALCULATE THE STRAIN AND STRESS

=
STRAIN FORMULA

FS =

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAV

ctr, cr = 123.419 mm
Itr, cr = 9.034E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point,


.1
1
3.

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

øy =

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My =

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,

Solve for the Strain of Concrete


.1
2
3.

= 0.000828

Calculate the Curvature, ø


2
2.
3.
Calculate the Curvature, ø

ø0.7fy =

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' =

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves N

3.2.4 CALCULATE FOR STRAINS AND STRESS

STRAIN FORMULA

FS

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 420
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 69.29983795
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5

Assume all steel yields, and


1
4.

Compression = Tension
Singly:
Doubly:

Doubly a =
a 26.37243833 =

Check for Strain:

Strain at yield point

Strain of Tension Steel

Strain of Compression Steel


Assumption on Compression Steel is Wron
Top Bars Behave as Tension Bars

If Assumptions are Correct:

Singly:

Doubly:

Singly Mn = 0
Mn 88.10373638
Check for ø:
Doubly For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
Mn 0
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0

Curvature

Assumption On Compression Bars is Wrong.


2

Assume Tension Steel Yields and Top Bars behave as Tension Bars and d
4.

Compresion = Tension

a 7140 c =
b -29452.4311 a =
c -36815538.9

D 1.05232E+12
Check for Strain:
Check for Strain:
x1 73.89905849

x2 -69.7740681 Strain at yield point


c 73.89905849

Strain of Tension Bars

Strain of Top Bars

Therefore, Assumption on Compression Steel is


Assumption on Top Bars Behaving as Tension is W

If Assumptions are Correct:

Mn =
MN 218.393479

Check for ø:

For Strainformula > 0.005

For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002


For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
= 0

Curvature
Assumptions are Wrong

3
Assume all steel do not yield and

4.
Compression = Tension

Singly:

Singly Doubly:
a 7140

b 883572.9338

c -342384512 c =

Check for Strain:


D 1.05592E+13
x -289.430366
Strain at yield point
x 165.6806557
c 165.6806557
Strain of Tension Steel

base,b 300
Strain of Compression Steel

If Assumptions are Correct:


Doubly

a 7140 Singly:
b 1443414.562
c -379200051 Doubly:
D 1.29134E+13
x1 -352.726637 Mn = 0
x2 150.5677349
c 150.5677349 Check for ø:
For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002

For Strainformula < 0.002

0
Singly Therefore use ø:
Mn 0

Mu = фMn
Doubly = 0
Mn 0
Curvature

Assumption On The Compression Steel Is Wrong


4

Assume tension steel yields and compression steel


4.

Compression = Tension

Doubly:

c =
=

Check for Strain:

Strain at yield point

Strain of Tension Steel

fc' 35
Strain of Compression Steel
b 300
Doubly
a 7140
Assumptions are Correct:
Doubly:
b -58659.4253

c -36815538.9 Mn = 218.432

4.4 CALCULATE FOR STRAINS AND STRESS

STRAIN FORMULA =

FS =

D 1.05489E+12
x1 -67.8165462 Check for ø:
x2 76.03215195 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
C 76.03215195
For Strainformula < 0.002

Therefore use ø: 0.9

Doubly

Mu = фMn
Mn
= 196.589

Curvature

Assumtion is/are wrong


5
4.

Assume tension steel do not yield and compressi

Compression = Tension

Doubly:
c =
=

Check for Strain:


b 300

fc' 35
Strain at yield point

Strain of Tension Steel

Strain of Compression Steel

Assumptions are Correct:

Singly

Doubly

Doubly Mn = 0
a 7140
b 1266699.975 Check for ø:
c -342384512 For Strainformula > 0.005
For 0.005 < fs/ Es > 0.002
D 1.1383E+13
x1 -324.970215 For Strainformula < 0.002
x2 147.5612552
C 147.5612552 Therefore use ø: 0

Mu = фMn
0
=
Singly Curvature
Mn

Doubly
Mn
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 420 MPa
Therefore, β =

Case 0: Control Section

c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

228.081 mm 49.454 kN-m 6.309E-07


123.419 mm 49.454 kN-m 1.851E-06
123.419 mm 179.326 kN-m 6.711E-06
76.032 mm 218.432 kN-m 3.946E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.711E-06 rad/mm 3.946E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE


to )

= 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete

yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

149140.1957 mm2

= 228.081 mm
Moment of Inertia

= 2.279E+09 mm4

= 2.156E+08 mm4
= 1.551E+08 mm4

= 2.650E+09 mm4

4.141 MPa

= 49.454 kN-m

= 6.309E-07 rad/mm

d ACTUAL STRESS

1.006E-04
FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

123.419 mm
ent of Inertia

= 187993644 mm4

= 694372222 mm4
= 20990221.52 mm4

9.034E+08 mm4

1.851E-06 rad/mm

4.887E-04

97.72193837

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


(A.) Steel Yields First

0.0021

= 7.952E-06 rad/mm

= 1436.715 kN-m

ves Non-Linearly,

0.000828
= 6.711E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

= 179.326 kN-m

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

= 1.772E-03

= 354.3527128

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

and

Compression = Tension

26.372 mm
32.966 mm

= 0.0021

= 0.0322640885 (Ok!)

= -0.0026877562 (Not Ok!)


n on Compression Steel is Wrong
Bars Behave as Tension Bars

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

rong.
ars behave as Tension Bars and does not yield.

esion = Tension

73.899 mm
59.119 mm
= 0.0021

= 0.0127309176 (Ok!)

= -0.0004627552 (Not Ok!)

mption on Compression Steel is Wrong


Top Bars Behaving as Tension is Wrong!

0 kN-m

=
0.9
=
= 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm
and

ion = Tension

0 mm
0 mm

= 0

= 0 ---

= 0 ---

kN-m

ormula > 0.005 = 0.9


< fs/ Es > 0.002
=
ormula < 0.002 = 0.65

kN-m

0 rad/mm

Is Wrong
and compression steel do not yield

ion = Tension

76.032 mm
60.826 mm

= 0.0021

= 0.0122895843 (Ok!)

= 5.339E-04 (Ok!)
kN-m

1.229E-02

429.2262872

= 0.9

=
= 0.65

kN-m

3.946E-05 rad/mm

and compression steel yields

ion = Tension
0 mm
0 mm

= 0

= 0 ---

= 0 ---

kN-m

= 0.9
=
= 0.65

kN-m
0 rad/mm
on)
FOR GRADE 60 STEEL
Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

factor
8 Mpa β = 0.85
> 28 Mpa

0.8

Curvature

6.309E-07 rad/mm
Mn Curvature
1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.309E-07 49.454
6.711E-06 rad/mm 1.851E-06 49.454
3.946E-05 rad/mm 6.711E-06 STAGE 1. BEFORE CRACKI

3.946E-05 218.432
Strain =
=
fs =

STAGE 2. AFTER CRACKIN

Strain =

fs =

STAGE 3. CONCRETE NON

Strain =

fs =
STAGE 4. ULTIMATE S

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

es

fs
STRAIN = 1.006E-04

LET
fs1 = 2.917E+00
fs2 = 60
fs3 = 55.6189260781

FS = 2.9165628681
STRAIN = 4.887E-04
LET
fs1 = 1.417E+01
fs2 = 60
fs3 = 55.8411781

FS = 14.1733633037
STRAIN = 1.772E-03

LET

fs1 = 5.139E+01
fs2 = 60
fs3 = 56.5709334644

FS = 51.3944956508
STRAIN = 1.229E-02

LET
fs1 = 3.564E+02
fs2 = 60
fs3 = 62.2539852334

FS = 62.2539852334
FOR GRADE 60 STEEL (PRIESTLEY ET AL. 1996)

BEFORE CRACKIG STAGE

ørad (d-c)
1.006E-04
20.1090010002 Mpa

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

ørad (d-c)

4.887E-04

97.7219383721 Mpa

CONCRETE NON-LINEAR

ørad (d-c)

1.772E-03

354.3527128333 MPa
STAGE 4. ULTIMATE STAGE

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

= 1.229E-02

= 429.22629 MPa
FOR A1035-ACI ITG 6 (2010) Model

Curvature
0.000
0.000
STAGE 1. BEFORE CRACKIG STAGE

BEFORE CRACKIG STAGE


Strain = ørad (d-c)
= 1.006E-04
fs = 20.109001 Mpa

STAGE 2. AFTER CRACKING STAGE

ørad (d-c)
Strain =

= 4.887E-04

fs = 97.721938372 Mpa

STAGE 3. CONCRETE NON-LINEAR

Strain = ørad (d-c)

= 1.772E-03

fs = 354.35271283 MPa
STAGE 4. ULTIMATE STAGE

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

es = 1.229E-02

fs = 1034.214 MPa
el FOR SD685-Wang et. al (2009) Model

Curvature
0.000
0.000
STAGE 1. BEFORE CRACKIG STAGE

BEFORE CRACKIG STAGE


Strain = ørad (d-c)
= 1.006E-04
fs = 20.1090010002

STAGE 2. AFTER CRACKING STAGE

ørad (d-c)
Strain =

= 4.887E-04

fs = 97.7219383721 Mpa

STAGE 3. CONCRETE NON-LINEAR

Strain = ørad (d-c)

= 1.772E-03

fs = 354.3527128333 MPa
STARGE 4 ULTIMATE STAGE

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

es = 1.229E-02

fs = 703.085
(2009) Model

STAGE
Mpa

STAGE

-c)

LINEAR

-c)
TAGE

1.229E-02

MPa
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

317.673 kN-m
306.786 kN-m

86.518 kN-m

4.721E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 180000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

Ig (𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
=

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.

0.7√(𝑓𝑐′)
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 86.518
c -10703494.4
D 13240739905
x1 158.5915601
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1944749
c 158.5915601
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 149.807
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -11410504.2
D 14667645297
(𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
x1 149.8073665 𝑐/2)^2
Ig =
x2 -253.892815
I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
c 149.8073665
(�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2
I2 =

total Itr, cr = 1.876E+09

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


ctr, cr = 149.807 mm
Itr, cr = 1.876E+09 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 429.2262872282 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦
Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point,
.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦/
øy = ((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


My = 𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐
= 0.000828

2 Calculate the Curvature, ø


2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy =
𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
M0.7fc' = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 429.2263
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 70.82217178
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 537.5
d' = 62.5

Calculate for Flexural Moment Capacity and Moment-Curvature


1
4.

0.85𝑓𝑐^′Compression = Tension
𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)
Doubly:

a
𝑐=𝑎/� =
Doubly =
a 62.34805539 �_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

Strain of Tension Steel


�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

Strain of Compression Steel

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

Singly:
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(

Doubly:

Mn = 317.6733
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

Singly
Mn Err:504

Doubly

Mn 317.6732821
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

a 7140
b -43039.2606
c -36815538.9
D 1.0533E+12
x1 74.88412747
x2 -68.8562198
c 74.884127470.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

�_𝑠<�_𝑦
𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦; ;〖𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦
�〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦

MN #REF!
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

a=�𝑐

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

Singly
a 7140
b 883572.9338

c -474920452

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
D 1.43444E+13
x -327.099227
x 203.3495161
c 203.3495161

base,b 300

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

Doubly
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦;
𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; �_𝑠>�_𝑦
a 7140
b 1443414.562
c -511735991
D 1.66986E+13
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
x1 -387.241578
x2 185.0826757
c 185.0826757

a=�𝑐
Singly �_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Mn #REF!
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Doubly

Mn �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Err:504

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

fc' 35∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
b 300

Doubly

a 7140
𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦;
𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
; �_𝑠<�_𝑦

b -72246.2548
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
c -36815538.9
D 1.05667E+12
x1 -66.9256957
x2 77.04421879

C 77.04421879
a=�𝑐

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Doubly
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Mn

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
b 300
fc' 35
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

Doubly

a 7140
b 1275757.862
c -474920452

D 1.51913E+13
x1 -362.279967
x2 183.6023948
C 183.6023948

Singly

Mn

Doubly
Mn
= Err:504 Err:504 ksi

= Err:504 Err:504 ksi

= Err:504 Err:504 ksi

PART 2

case 4 neww fs (experimental data 1)

fs

case 5 neww fs (Experimental data 2)

fs

Case 6 new fs experimental data 3)


fs
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 600 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 537.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 429.226 MPa
fs' = 106.78760185 Mpa Therefore, β =
new fs =

Case 1. Grade 60 Steel (Priestley et al. 1996


c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

303.460 mm 86.518 kN-m 4.721E-07


149.807 mm 86.518 kN-m 1.559E-06
149.807 mm 306.786 kN-m 5.529E-06
77.935 mm 317.673 kN-m 3.849E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.559E-06 rad/mm 5.529E-06 rad/mm 3.849E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 300 mm
d or y1 = 537.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

194140.1957 mm2

= 303.460 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 5.402E+09 mm4

= 4.647E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 3.284E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 6.195E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 86.518 kN-m

= 4.721E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

149.807 mm

ent of Inertia

= 336201393 mm4

= 1496553410 mm4
= 43113888 mm4

1.876E+09 mm4

1.559E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


(A.) Steel Yields First

0.002146131

ℇ_𝑦/
((𝑑−𝑐) ) = 3.993E-06 rad/mm

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) ) = 1497.995 kN-m

𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′
ves Non-Linearly,
0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 5.529E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) ) = 306.786 kN-m

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

y and Moment-Curvature

85𝑓𝑐^′Compression = Tension
𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

62.348 mm
77.935 mm
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

= 0.0176903005 Err:504
�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

= 0.0005941511 Err:504

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
3.84936E-05 rad/mm

))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)
=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

(𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

el (Priestley et al. 1996) Model


Curvature Stress Strain

4.721E-07 rad/mm 20.109 MPa 0.000101


1.559E-06 rad/mm 97.722 MPa 0.000489
5.529E-06 rad/mm 354.353 MPa 0.001772
3.849E-05 rad/mm 429.226 MPa 0.017690
Err:504
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

512.384 kN-m
179.326 kN-m

49.454 kN-m

6.309E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.

0.7√(𝑓𝑐′)
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 49.454
c -7716472.72
D 9656313868
x1 130.588445
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1943912
c 130.588445
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 123.419
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -8423482.5
D 11083219260
x1 123.418725 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -227.504174
c 123.418725 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 9.034E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


ctr, cr = 123.419 mm
Itr, cr = 9.034E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 1034.214 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

øy ℇ_𝑦/
=
((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

2 Calculate the Curvature, ø


2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 1034.214
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 170.644911
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5

Calculate for Flexural Moment Capacity and Moment-Curvature


1
4.

Compression = Tension
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)

a =
Doubly
𝑐=𝑎/� =
a 60.15412933
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Strain of Compression Steel

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
Singly:
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(
Doubly:

Mn = 512.384

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐


Singly
Mn Err:504

Doubly

Mn 512.3839778

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)


a 7140
b -933957.208
c -36815538.9
D 1.92373E+12
x1 162.5309787
x2 -31.7246471
c 162.5309787
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

�_𝑠<�_𝑦
𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦; ;〖𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦
�〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦

MN #REF!
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

a=�𝑐

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)


Singly
a 7140
b 883572.9338

c -342384512

D 1.05592E+130.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
x -289.430366
x 165.6806557
c 165.6806557

base,b 300

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

Doubly
a 7140
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦;
𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; �_𝑠>�_𝑦
b 1443414.562
c -379200051
D 1.29134E+13
x1 -352.726637
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
x2 150.5677349
c 150.5677349

a=�𝑐
Singly
Mn �_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
#REF!

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Doubly

Mn Err:504
�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

fc' 35
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
b 300

Doubly

a 7140
𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦;
𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
; �_𝑠<�_𝑦

b -963164.202

c 0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)


-36815538.9
D 1.97914E+12
x1 -31.0681978
x2 165.9651448

C 165.9651448
a=�𝑐

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Doubly

Mn �_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

b 3000.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
fc' 35
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

Doubly

a 7140
b 1869703.16
c -342384512

D 1.32743E+13
x1 -386.070958
x2 124.2077703
C 124.2077703

Singly

Mn

Doubly
Mn
= Err:504 Err:504 ksi

= Err:504 Err:504 ksi

= Err:504 Err:504 ksi

PART 2

case 4 neww fs (experimental data 1)

fs

case 5 neww fs (Experimental data 2)

fs

Case 6 new fs experimental data 3)


fs
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 1034.214 MPa
fs' = 106.78760185 MPa Therefore, β =
new fs =

Case 2. A1035-ACI ITG 6 (2010) Mod


c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

228.081 mm 49.454 kN-m 6.309E-07


123.419 mm 49.454 kN-m 1.851E-06
123.419 mm 179.326 kN-m 6.711E-06
75.193 mm 512.384 kN-m 3.990E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.711E-06 rad/mm 3.990E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

149140.1957 mm2

= 228.081 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.279E+09 mm4

= 2.156E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 1.551E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 2.650E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 49.454 kN-m

= 6.309E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

123.419 mm

ent of Inertia

= 187993644 mm4

= 694372222 mm4
= 20990221.52 mm4

9.034E+08 mm4

1.851E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


(A.) Steel Yields First

0.00517107

ℇ_𝑦/
= 1.334E-05 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 2411.003 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 6.711E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 179.326 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

y and Moment-Curvature

Compression = Tension
85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

60.154 mm
75.193 mm

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0124602853 Err:504

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
= 0.0005064056 Err:504

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
3.98975E-05 rad/mm

))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)
=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

(𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

ACI ITG 6 (2010) Model


Curvature Stress Strain

6.309E-07 rad/mm 20.109 MPa 0.000101


1.851E-06 rad/mm 97.722 MPa 0.000489
6.711E-06 rad/mm 354.353 MPa 0.001772
3.990E-05 rad/mm 1034.214 MPa 0.012290
Err:504
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

352.043 kN-m
179.326 kN-m

49.454 kN-m

6.309E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.

0.7√(𝑓𝑐′)
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 49.454
c -7716472.72
D 9656313868
x1 130.588445
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1943912
c 130.588445
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 123.419
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -8423482.5
D 11083219260
x1 123.418725 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -227.504174
c 123.418725 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 9.034E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


ctr, cr = 123.419 mm
Itr, cr = 9.034E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 703.084727905 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

øy ℇ_𝑦/
=
((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

2 Calculate the Curvature, ø


2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 703.0847
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 116.0087088
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5

Calculate for Flexural Moment Capacity and Moment-Curvature


1
4.

Compression = Tension
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)

a =
Doubly
𝑐=𝑎/� =
a 41.94206196

Strain of Tension Steel �_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

Doubly: 𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)

Mn = 352.0434

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
Singly

Mn Err:504

Doubly

Mn 352.0434206

a 7140
b -446329.104
c -36815538.9
D 1.25066E+12
x1 109.5699487
x2 -47.0588697
c 109.5699487
MN #REF!
Singly
a 7140
b 883572.9338

c -342384512

D 1.05592E+13

x -289.430366

x 165.6806557

c 165.6806557

base,b 300

Doubly
a 7140
b 1443414.562
c -379200051
D 1.29134E+13
x1 -352.726637

x2 150.5677349

c 150.5677349
Singly
Mn #REF!

Doubly

Mn Err:504

fc' 35
b 300
Doubly
a 7140

b -475536.098

c -36815538.9
D 1.27759E+12
x1 -45.8520704

x2 112.4537648

C 112.4537648

Doubly

Mn

b 300
fc' 35
Doubly

a 7140
b 1544617.757
c -342384512

D 1.21643E+13
x1 -352.40616
x2 136.0731405
C 136.0731405

Singly

Mn

Doubly
Mn
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 703.085 MPa
fs' = 106.78760185 MPa Therefore, β =
new fs =

Case 1. SD685-Wang et. al (2009) Mod


c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

228.081 mm 49.454 kN-m 6.309E-07


123.419 mm 49.454 kN-m 1.851E-06
123.419 mm 179.326 kN-m 6.711E-06
52.428 mm 352.043 kN-m 5.722E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.711E-06 rad/mm 5.722E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

149140.1957 mm2

= 228.081 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.279E+09 mm4

= 2.156E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 1.551E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 2.650E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 49.454 kN-m

= 6.309E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

123.419 mm

ent of Inertia

= 187993644 mm4

= 694372222 mm4
= 20990221.52 mm4

9.034E+08 mm4

1.851E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


(A.) Steel Yields First

0.003515424

ℇ_𝑦/
= 9.072E-06 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 1639.060 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 6.711E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 179.326 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

y and Moment-Curvature

Compression = Tension
85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

41.942 mm
52.428 mm

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐) = 0.0191734449

𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
5.72218E-05 rad/mm
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

Wang et. al (2009) Model


Curvature Stress Strain

6.309E-07 rad/mm 20.109 MPa 0.000101


1.851E-06 rad/mm 97.722 MPa 0.000489
6.711E-06 rad/mm 354.353 MPa 0.001772
5.722E-05 rad/mm 703.085 MPa 0.012290
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

261.716 kN-m
179.326 kN-m

49.454 kN-m

6.309E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.

0.7√(𝑓𝑐′)
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 49.454
c -7716472.72
D 9656313868
x1 130.588445
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1943912
c 130.588445
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 123.419
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -8423482.5
D 11083219260
x1 123.418725 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -227.504174
c 123.418725 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 9.034E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


ctr, cr = 123.419 mm
Itr, cr = 9.034E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 519.1853541889 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

øy ℇ_𝑦/
=
((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

2 Calculate the Curvature, ø


2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 519.1854
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 85.66538312
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5

Calculate for Flexural Moment Capacity and Moment-Curvature


1
4.

Compression = Tension
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)

a =
Doubly
𝑐=𝑎/� =
a 31.82762005
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(


Doubly:

Mn = 261.7165

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

Singly
Mn Err:504
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Doubly
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

a 7140
b -175514.922
c -36815538.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
D 1.08226E+12

x1 85.14221802

x2 -60.5602962
c 85.14221802
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

�_𝑠<�_𝑦
𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦; ;〖𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦
�〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)


MN #REF!

a=�𝑐

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

Singly
a 7140

b 883572.93380.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

c -342384512

D 1.05592E+13
x -289.430366
x 165.6806557
c 165.6806557
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

base,b 300

𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦;
𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; �_𝑠>�_𝑦

Doubly

a 71400.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦


b 1443414.562
c -379200051
D 1.29134E+13
x1 -352.726637
x2 150.5677349 a=�𝑐
c 150.5677349

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Singly
Mn �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
#REF!

Doubly

Mn Err:504

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

fc' 35𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦〖 �〗
𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦; _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
; �_𝑠<�_𝑦
b 300
Doubly
a 7140

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

b -204721.916

c -36815538.9
D 1.09336E+12 a=�𝑐
x1 -58.8878158
x2 87.56035306
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
C 87.56035306

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Doubly

Mn

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

b 300

fc' 35

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Doubly

a 7140
b 1364074.969
c -342384512

D 1.16392E+13
x1 -334.432946
x2 143.3860314
C 143.3860314

Singly

Mn

Doubly
Mn
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 519.185 MPa
fs' = 135.52773814 MPa Therefore, β =

Case 4: Experimental Data (fy = 519.185 M


c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

228.081 mm 49.454 kN-m 6.309E-07


123.419 mm 49.454 kN-m 1.851E-06
123.419 mm 179.326 kN-m 6.711E-06
39.785 mm 261.716 kN-m 7.541E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.711E-06 rad/mm 7.541E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

149140.1957 mm2

= 228.081 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.279E+09 mm4

= 2.156E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 1.551E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 2.650E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 49.454 kN-m

= 6.309E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

123.419 mm

ent of Inertia

= 187993644 mm4

= 694372222 mm4
= 20990221.52 mm4

9.034E+08 mm4

1.851E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


(A.) Steel Yields First

0.002595927

ℇ_𝑦/
= 6.699E-06 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 1210.346 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 6.711E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 179.326 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

y and Moment-Curvature

Compression = Tension
85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

31.828 mm
39.785 mm

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0262199039

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
7.54062E-05 rad/mm
))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)
=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

(𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

al Data (fy = 519.185 MPa)


Curvature Stress Strain

6.309E-07 rad/mm 20.109 MPa 0.000101


1.851E-06 rad/mm 97.722 MPa 0.000489
6.711E-06 rad/mm 354.353 MPa 0.001772
7.541E-05 rad/mm 519.185 MPa 0.026220
7.541E-05 261.716
BEAM PROP
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

520.558 kN-m
179.326 kN-m

49.454 kN-m

6.309E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.

0.7√(𝑓𝑐′)
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 49.454
c -7716472.72
D 9656313868
x1 130.588445
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1943912
c 130.588445
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 123.419
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -8423482.5
D 11083219260
x1 123.418725 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -227.504174
c 123.418725 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 9.034E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


ctr, cr = 123.419 mm
Itr, cr = 9.034E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 1051.260410613 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

øy ℇ_𝑦/
=
((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

2 Calculate the Curvature, ø


2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 1051.26
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 173.4575621
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5

Calculate for Flexural Moment Capacity and Moment-Curvature


1
4.

Compression = Tension
Doubly:0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)

a =
Doubly
𝑐=𝑎/� =
a 61.09167972
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Strain of Tension Steel

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(


Doubly:

Mn = 520.5581

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦+𝐴_𝑠2 600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐

Singly
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
Mn Err:504

Doubly �_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

Mn 520.558131
�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑑^′−𝑐)/𝑐)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

a 7140
b -959060.119
c -36815538.90.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

D 1.97125E+12

x1 165.4812012

x2 -31.1590556
c 165.4812012
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

�_𝑠<�_𝑦
𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦; ;〖𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦
�〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

MN #REF!

a=�𝑐

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)


𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

Singly
a 7140
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
b 883572.9338

c -342384512

D 1.05592E+13
x -289.430366
x 165.6806557
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
c 165.6806557

base,b 300
𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦;
𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; �_𝑠>�_𝑦

Doubly 0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦


a 7140
b 1443414.562
c -379200051
D 1.29134E+13
x1 -352.726637 a=�𝑐
x2 150.5677349
c 150.5677349
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Singly
Mn #REF!

Doubly

Mn Err:504

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦;
𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
; �_𝑠<�_𝑦
fc' 35
b 300
Doubly
a 7140
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

b -988267.114

c -36815538.9
a=�𝑐
D 2.02812E+12
x1 -30.522056
x2 �_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
168.934817

C 168.934817�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

Doubly

Mn

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

b 300

fc' 35

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Doubly

a 7140
b 1886438.434
c -342384512

D 1.33372E+13
x1 -387.846285
x2 123.6392217
C 123.6392217

Singly

Mn

Doubly
Mn
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 1051.2604106 MPa
fs' = 97.456302837 MPa Therefore, β =

Case 5: Experimental Data (fy = 1051.260 M


c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

228.081 mm 49.454 kN-m 6.309E-07


123.419 mm 49.454 kN-m 1.851E-06
123.419 mm 179.326 kN-m 6.711E-06
76.365 mm 520.558 kN-m 3.929E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.711E-06 rad/mm 3.929E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

149140.1957 mm2

= 228.081 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.279E+09 mm4

= 2.156E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 1.551E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 2.650E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 49.454 kN-m

= 6.309E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

123.419 mm

ent of Inertia

= 187993644 mm4

= 694372222 mm4
= 20990221.52 mm4

9.034E+08 mm4

1.851E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


(A.) Steel Yields First

0.005256302

ℇ_𝑦/
= 1.356E-05 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 2450.742 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 6.711E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 179.326 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

y and Moment-Curvature

Compression = Tension
85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦

61.092 mm
76.365 mm

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
= 0.0122230223

(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

kN-m

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
3.92852E-05 rad/mm
))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)
=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

(𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)
n)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

l Data (fy = 1051.260 MPa)


Curvature Stress Strain
6.309E-07 rad/mm 20.109 MPa 0.000101
1.851E-06 rad/mm 97.722 MPa 0.000489
6.711E-06 rad/mm 354.353 MPa 0.001772
3.929E-05 rad/mm 1051.260 MPa 0.012223
3.929E-05 520.558
BEAM PRO
base, b
height, h
clear cover
stirrups
Effective depth, d'
effective depth, d
fc'
fy

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

JUST BEFORE CRACKING STAGE

AFTER CRACKING STAGE

STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY

ULTIMATE CONDITION

Moment - Curv

402.272 kN-m
179.326 kN-m

49.454 kN-m

6.309E-07 rad/mm

1. BEFORE CRACKING S

Assume value of Ec ( ranges from 4700√fc'to )


1
1.

Ec = 5000

Solve for ratio of the moduli of elasticity (n)


2
1.

�=𝐸_𝑠/𝐸_𝑐
=

Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the extreme top fiber o
3
1.
Ag = 135000 mm2
(n-1)As1 = 8484.117 mm2
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078 mm2

Area total, At =

(∑𝐴_𝑖
c = 𝑦_𝑖)/𝐴_
𝑡

Calculate the Transformed, Uncracked Moment of Inertia


4
1.

(𝑏ℎ^3)/12+𝐴_𝑔 (𝑐−ℎ/2)^2
Ig =

I1 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

Itr, uncracked = �_𝑔+�_1+�_2

Solve for value of fr


5
1.

0.7√(𝑓𝑐′)
fr = 0.7√(𝑓𝑐′) =

Determine the Cracking Moment, Mcr

6
1.
𝑓�(�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) )/((ℎ−𝑐) )
Mcr =

Calculate the Curvature, ø


7
1.

𝑀𝑐�/(𝐸_𝑐 (�_(𝑡�, 𝑢�𝑐�) ) )


ø =

2. AFTER CRACKING ST
singly
a 300
b 19913.47798
Mcr = 49.454
c -7716472.72
D 9656313868
x1 130.588445
Locate the distance ( c ) of the Neutral Axis from the top extreme fiber o
1
2.

x2 -33.1943912
c 130.588445
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Singly:
(𝑏𝑐^2)/2+𝐴_𝑠2 (�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)
Doubly:

(n)As1 = 9956.739
(n-1)As2 = 5656.078

doubly c = 123.419
a 300
b 31225.63456
Solved for Transformed, Cracked Moment of Inertia
2
2.

c -8423482.5
D 11083219260
x1 123.418725 (𝑏𝑐^3)/12+𝑏𝑐(
Ig = 𝑐/2)^2
x2 -227.504174
c 123.418725 I1 = n𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)^2
I2 = (�−1)𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2

total Itr, cr = 9.034E+08

Calculate the Curvature, ø


3
2.

𝑀_𝑐�/
ø = (�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) =
(𝐸_𝑐 ) )

3. STEEL YIELDS OR CONCRETE BEHAVE


ctr, cr = 123.419 mm
Itr, cr = 9.034E+08 mm4
fc' = 35 MPa
fy = 806.1603456379 MPa
Ec = 29580.4 MPa

(A.) Steel Yields First

Solve for Steel Strain at Yield Point, ℇ_𝑠=ℇ_𝑦


.1
1
3.

ℇ_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
=

Calculate the Curvature, ø


.2
1
3.

øy ℇ_𝑦/
=
((𝑑−𝑐) )

Calculate for Moment at Yield Point, My


.3
1
3.

My = �_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�,


𝑐�) )

(B.) Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly,


Solve for the Strain of Concrete

.1
2
3.
ℇ_𝑐=𝑓_𝑐/
𝐸_𝑐 = 0.000828

2 Calculate the Curvature, ø


2.
3.

�_𝑐/
ø0.7fy = 𝑐

Calculate for Moment when concrete behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'


3
2.
3.

M0.7fc' �_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )


=
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

M0.7fc' governs, therefore Concrete Behaves No

4. ULTIMATE CONDITI
fy = 806.1603
fc' = 35
Singly β = 0.8
a 133.016146
As1 = 1472.622
As2 = 981.7477
d = 387.5
d' = 62.5

Calculate for Flexural Moment Capacity and Moment-Curvature


1
4.

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏+𝐴𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐

a =
Doubly
𝑐=𝑎/� =
a 47.61120767

Strain of Tension Steel �𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

Mn = 0.85fc'ab(d-a/2) +As2 (fy -0.85fc')(d-d')

Mn = 402.2724

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Curvature
Singly
Mn

Doubly

Mn 402.2723693

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (600 ((𝑑^′−𝑐))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)

a 7140
b -598120.48
c -36815538.9
0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
D 1.4092E+12

x1 125.0152478

x2 -41.2448724
c 125.0152478

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

�_𝑠<�_𝑦
𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦; ;〖𝑓_𝑠^′<𝑓_𝑦
�〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)


MN #REF!

a=�𝑐

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)
𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

Singly
a 7140

b 883572.93380.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

c -342384512

D 1.05592E+13
x -289.430366
x 165.6806557
c 165.6806557
∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

base,b 300

𝑓_𝑠′<𝑓_𝑦;
𝑓_𝑠>𝑓_𝑦〖 �〗 _𝑠^′ <�_𝑦
; �_𝑠>�_𝑦

Doubly

a 71400.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (600((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦


b 1443414.562
c -379200051
D 1.29134E+13
x1 -352.726637
x2 150.5677349 a=�𝑐
c 150.5677349

�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
Singly
Mn �_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
#REF!

Doubly

Mn Err:504

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑠′−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =

fc' 35𝑓_𝑠<𝑓_𝑦〖 �〗
𝑓_𝑠′>𝑓_𝑦; _𝑠^′ >�_𝑦
; �_𝑠<�_𝑦
b 300
Doubly
a 7140

0.85𝑓𝑐^′ �𝑐𝑏+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

b -627327.475

c -36815538.9
D 1.44499E+12 a=�𝑐
x1 -40.2486372
x2 128.109628
�_𝑦=𝑓_𝑦/𝐸_𝑠
C 128.109628

�_𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)

�_𝑠^′=0.003((𝑐−𝑑′)/𝑐)
Doubly

Mn

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)

𝑀�=0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏(𝑑−𝑎/2)+𝐴_𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)

b 300

fc' 35

∅_𝑢=0.003/𝑐 =
Doubly

a 7140
b 1645812.008
c -342384512

D 1.24872E+13
x1 -362.712541
x2 132.2066579
C 132.2066579

Singly

Mn

Doubly
Mn
BEAM PROPERTIES (Control Section)

base, b = 300 mm
height, h = 450 mm Compression bars
clear cover = 40 mm Tension bars
stirrups = 10 mm
Effective depth, d' = 62.5 mm β factor
effective depth, d = 387.5 mm For fc' <= 28 Mpa β = 0.85
fc' = 35 MPa For fc' > 28 Mpa
fy = 806.16034564 MPa
fs' = 123.33880705 MPa Therefore, β =

Case 6: Experimental Data (fy = 806.16 MP

c Nominal Flexural Capacity, Mn Curvature

228.081 mm 49.454 kN-m 6.309E-07


123.419 mm 49.454 kN-m 1.851E-06
123.419 mm 179.326 kN-m 6.711E-06
59.514 mm 402.272 kN-m 5.041E-05

Moment - Curvature
1.851E-06 rad/mm 6.711E-06 rad/mm 5.041E-05 rad/mm

FORE CRACKING STAGE

4700√fc'to 5000√fc')

√fc' = 29580.399 Mpa

y (n)

6.76

Axis from the extreme top fiber of concrete


yg = 225 mm
d or y1 = 387.5 mm
d' or y2 = 62.5 mm

149140.1957 mm2

= 228.081 mm

Moment of Inertia

= 2.279E+09 mm4

= 2.156E+08 mm4

𝑠2 (𝑐−𝑑′)^2 = 1.551E+08 mm4

+�_1+�_2 = 2.650E+09 mm4


4.141 MPa

= 49.454 kN-m

= 6.309E-07 rad/mm

FTER CRACKING STAGE

kN-m

Axis from the top extreme fiber of concrete


�−1)(𝑐−𝑑′)=�𝐴_𝑠1 (𝑑−𝑐)

9956.739 mm
5656.078 mm

123.419 mm

ent of Inertia

= 187993644 mm4

= 694372222 mm4
= 20990221.52 mm4

9.034E+08 mm4

1.851E-06 rad/mm

OR CONCRETE BEHAVES NON-LINEARLY


(A.) Steel Yields First

0.004030802

ℇ_𝑦/
= 1.040E-05 rad/mm
((𝑑−𝑐) )

�_𝑦 (𝐸_𝑠 )(�_(𝑡�, = 1879.354 kN-m


𝑐�) )

ves Non-Linearly, 𝑓_𝑐=0.7𝑓_𝑐′


0.000828

�_𝑐/
𝑐 = 6.711E-06 rad/mm

behaves non-linearly, M0.7fc'

�_0.7𝑓𝑐′ (𝐸_𝑐 )
= 179.326 kN-m
(�_(𝑡�, 𝑐�) )

s, therefore Concrete Behaves Non-Linearly

ULTIMATE CONDITION
MPa
MPa

mm2
mm2
mm
mm

y and Moment-Curvature

Compression = Tension
0.85𝑓𝑐^′ 𝑎𝑏+𝐴𝑠2 (𝑓_𝑦−0.85𝑓𝑐′)=𝐴𝑠1 𝑦

47.611 mm
59.514 mm

�𝑠=0.003((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐) = 0.0165332159

+As2 (fy -0.85fc')(d-d')

kN-m

0.65+250/3 (�_𝑠−0.002)
5.04083E-05 rad/mm
))/𝑐)(𝑑−𝑑′)
=𝐴_𝑠1 600((𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

=𝐴_𝑠1 𝑓_𝑦
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)

(𝑑−𝑐)/𝑐)
𝑐′)(𝑑−𝑑′)
tion)

Number Diameter
2 25 mm
3 25 mm

actor
8 Mpa β = 0.85 �=0.85−0.05/7 (𝑓𝑐^′−28)
> 28 Mpa

0.8

al Data (fy = 806.16 MPa)

Curvature Stress Strain

6.309E-07 rad/mm 20.109 MPa 0.000101


1.851E-06 rad/mm 97.722 MPa 0.000489
6.711E-06 rad/mm 354.353 MPa 0.001772
5.041E-05 rad/mm 806.160 MPa 0.016533
5.041E-05 402.272
Strain (in/iStress (ksi)
0 0.179018 120
1.81E-05 0.522136
1.96E-05 0.264052
1.3E-05 0.578612
7.49E-06 0.604186 100
6.19E-06 0.494334
1.04E-05 0.528448
9.67E-06 0.462464
8.95E-06 0.523892
80
7.9E-06 0.522922
1.06E-05 0.530661
1.33E-05 0.718992
1.46E-05 0.814533
60
1.46E-05 0.814699
1.49E-05 0.858824
1.77E-05 0.899422
1.91E-05 0.897803
2.29E-05 0.898927 40
2.69E-05 0.872714
3.01E-05 0.906567
3.1E-05 0.952399
3.46E-05 0.964825 20
3.76E-05 0.975152
3.8E-05 0.997455
3.85E-05 1.003781
4.58E-05 1.041202 0
4.54E-05 1.028933 0 0.05 0.1 0.
4.72E-05 1.03383
5.12E-05 1.035636
5.35E-05 1.050594
5.26E-05 1.038159
5.46E-05 1.045338
5.3E-05 1.049322
5.44E-05 1.076781
5.67E-05 1.087082
5.67E-05 1.111615
5.81E-05 1.133884
6.19E-05 1.165409
6.19E-05 1.188902
6.2E-05 1.225935
6.33E-05 1.296501
6.6E-05 1.339671
6.5E-05 1.380283
6.22E-05 1.413884
6.25E-05 1.465837
6.61E-05 1.518212
6.31E-05 1.57435
6.73E-05 1.606217
6.72E-05 1.658225
6.53E-05 1.68146
6.72E-05 1.717733
6.84E-05 1.77845
6.73E-05 1.831527
6.79E-05 1.876972
6.62E-05 1.933274
6.58E-05 1.978272
6.68E-05 2.030391
6.4E-05 2.075444
6.12E-05 2.130814
6.02E-05 2.179058
5.96E-05 2.230145
5.88E-05 2.28794
5.84E-05 2.348361
5.89E-05 2.407055
6.09E-05 2.453521
6.13E-05 2.509671
5.77E-05 2.579276
5.8E-05 2.620296
5.7E-05 2.67335
5.76E-05 2.740975
5.88E-05 2.782241
5.66E-05 2.842384
5.9E-05 2.89778
6.09E-05 2.95106
6.24E-05 3.004112
6.45E-05 3.057833
6.42E-05 3.107224
6.44E-05 3.1474
6.73E-05 3.200236
6.67E-05 3.234572
6.96E-05 3.269445
6.93E-05 3.301541
6.99E-05 3.33001
6.95E-05 3.363961
6.98E-05 3.406245
6.78E-05 3.434716
6.91E-05 3.469513
6.85E-05 3.504793
6.65E-05 3.54054
6.64E-05 3.570238
6.58E-05 3.615352
6.61E-05 3.647129
6.7E-05 3.69213
6.4E-05 3.734373
6.3E-05 3.783536
6.27E-05 3.824288
6.2E-05 3.865935
6.36E-05 3.899499
6.15E-05 3.934652
6.1E-05 3.978545
6.23E-05 4.027464
6.12E-05 4.06643
6.18E-05 4.111964
6.22E-05 4.151486
6.11E-05 4.196018
6.11E-05 4.241329
6.29E-05 4.285972
6.31E-05 4.32182
6.55E-05 4.360786
6.75E-05 4.40298
6.83E-05 4.443949
6.91E-05 4.496831
6.96E-05 4.536353
6.81E-05 4.589234
7.37E-05 4.630426
7.65E-05 4.677185
7.63E-05 4.719267
7.51E-05 4.762686
7.24E-05 4.812562
7.34E-05 4.860434
7.47E-05 4.901848
7.55E-05 4.954062
7.24E-05 4.977775
6.92E-05 5.010729
6.74E-05 5.047579
6.85E-05 5.090886
6.8E-05 5.131521
6.75E-05 5.168594
7.09E-05 5.217357
7.13E-05 5.252426
7.03E-05 5.304417
7.18E-05 5.341489
7.35E-05 5.390363
7.6E-05 5.441352
7.74E-05 5.490894
7.34E-05 5.543664
7.24E-05 5.587862
7.24E-05 5.643193
7.76E-05 5.684942
7.91E-05 5.737378
8.21E-05 5.787699
8.44E-05 5.828112
8.41E-05 5.882663
8.62E-05 5.932428
9.12E-05 5.982415
9.46E-05 6.027726
9.65E-05 6.079605
0.0001 6.126587
9.98E-05 6.175349
9.74E-05 6.230569
9.7E-05 6.285231
9.85E-05 6.339672
9.98E-05 6.395225
0.000106 6.458238
0.000108 6.51368
0.000106 6.557321
0.00011 6.624231
0.000111 6.676667
0.000115 6.734892
0.000117 6.786995
0.000122 6.846333
0.000128 6.910682
0.000129 6.963786
0.000134 7.028691
0.000139 7.087362
0.000144 7.149818
0.000148 7.203479
0.000152 7.253912
0.000154 7.309354
0.000161 7.368581
0.000168 7.425805
0.000177 7.479243
0.000184 7.542478
0.000188 7.6046
0.000188 7.666722
0.000192 7.729067
0.0002 7.797089
0.000202 7.862106
0.000205 7.922892
0.000207 7.985125
0.00021 8.039565
0.000213 8.091668
0.000213 8.152231
0.000215 8.201884
0.000218 8.265899
0.000221 8.326573
0.00022 8.390477
0.000224 8.452265
0.000232 8.514053
0.000237 8.582298
0.00024 8.644754
0.000243 8.716228
0.000242 8.77835
0.000242 8.843477
0.000247 8.919293
0.000252 8.986202
0.000255 9.0471
0.00026 9.101428
0.000263 9.172902
0.000266 9.237807
0.000271 9.298148
0.000272 9.36027
0.000274 9.416826
0.000279 9.476944
0.000283 9.54029
0.000284 9.607311
0.000284 9.665759
0.000288 9.737567
0.000289 9.797462
0.000287 9.85925
0.000288 9.924823
0.00029 9.992623
0.00029 10.06287
0.000294 10.12388
0.000297 10.18266
0.000297 10.24946
0.000295 10.30713
0.000295 10.38217
0.000297 10.44228
0.0003 10.50552
0.000302 10.57054
0.000303 10.6301
0.000308 10.69333
0.000311 10.74833
0.000312 10.80923
0.000316 10.86344
0.000317 10.92612
0.000321 10.98279
0.000322 11.03634
0.000324 11.10826
0.000326 11.1637
0.000329 11.23061
0.00033 11.28717
0.000333 11.34673
0.000332 11.42399
0.000334 11.48823
0.000333 11.55447
0.000338 11.6147
0.00034 11.67827
0.000341 11.73226
0.000343 11.79516
0.000345 11.8604
0.000349 11.91662
0.000351 11.98531
0.000353 12.04577
0.000355 12.11078
0.000356 12.17591
0.000361 12.23414
0.000365 12.30127
0.000369 12.37441
0.000371 12.447
0.000372 12.50734
0.00037 12.57748
0.000368 12.64561
0.000367 12.71597
0.00037 12.7909
0.000368 12.84923
0.000371 12.91781
0.000371 12.99285
0.000372 13.0739
0.000371 13.15205
0.000372 13.22664
0.000371 13.31426
0.000371 13.38272
0.00037 13.46366
0.00037 13.54081
0.000368 13.62353
0.000368 13.70291
0.000366 13.77605
0.000366 13.85343
0.000365 13.92947
0.000365 14.01385
0.000367 14.08878
0.00037 14.1774
0.000375 14.24809
0.000379 14.33114
0.000382 14.41464
0.000385 14.48634
0.000387 14.57651
0.000388 14.65333
0.00039 14.72614
0.000393 14.80897
0.000396 14.8908
0.000401 14.98309
0.000404 15.05412
0.000407 15.13873
0.000409 15.21432
0.000412 15.29826
0.000416 15.38087
0.000419 15.4558
0.000422 15.54274
0.000421 15.62914
0.000422 15.70618
0.000422 15.78711
0.000426 15.87684
0.000429 15.957
0.000432 16.04239
0.000434 16.13235
0.000439 16.21429
0.000443 16.3009
0.000444 16.38373
0.000443 16.46478
0.000443 16.55328
0.000447 16.62899
0.000449 16.70859
0.000448 16.79164
0.00045 16.87592
0.000456 16.95196
0.000457 17.03412
0.000459 17.11628
0.000462 17.19966
0.000466 17.28294
0.000472 17.36376
0.000474 17.4457
0.000475 17.5223
0.000478 17.60847
0.000481 17.70365
0.000483 17.78136
0.000481 17.86174
0.000483 17.93845
0.000485 18.02183
0.00049 18.10567
0.000495 18.18649
0.0005 18.28557
0.000502 18.37386
0.000504 18.4656
0.000509 18.55188
0.000511 18.6455
0.000511 18.73579
0.000515 18.82341
0.000517 18.91459
0.00052 18.99976
0.000519 19.09416
0.000521 19.17488
0.000528 19.26138
0.000529 19.34577
0.000532 19.43372
0.000532 19.53058
0.000533 19.61296
0.000535 19.70102
0.000535 19.79676
0.000539 19.88227
0.000544 19.96933
0.000549 20.06151
0.00055 20.14768
0.000553 20.23685
0.000555 20.33516
0.000557 20.42166
0.000558 20.51807
0.00056 20.60157
0.000563 20.69542
0.000566 20.77858
0.00057 20.87009
0.000574 20.96406
0.000576 21.0578
0.000579 21.15989
0.000585 21.25908
0.00059 21.34336
0.000597 21.43721
0.000601 21.51714
0.000608 21.61489
0.000614 21.70863
0.000617 21.80148
0.000621 21.89221
0.000623 21.97582
0.000629 22.07123
0.000634 22.16831
0.000644 22.26539
0.00065 22.36625
0.000653 22.45899
0.000659 22.55908
0.000667 22.6448
0.00067 22.74711
0.000677 22.83729
0.000682 22.9288
0.000685 23.01987
0.000691 23.10793
0.000695 23.19666
0.000697 23.27749
0.000698 23.3611
0.000703 23.4564
0.000703 23.54913
0.000705 23.6451
0.000708 23.73561
0.000711 23.83525
0.000714 23.92187
0.000717 24.01538
0.000718 24.10834
0.000719 24.20353
0.000727 24.29137
0.000738 24.37019
0.000745 24.45525
0.000748 24.53618
0.000755 24.62525
0.000757 24.70819
0.000764 24.79224
0.000769 24.8803
0.00077 24.97271
0.000775 25.07179
0.000777 25.16052
0.000782 25.25315
0.000788 25.34499
0.000798 25.4404
0.000805 25.53292
0.00081 25.62176
0.000813 25.71483
0.000818 25.79966
0.000823 25.8924
0.00083 25.97423
0.000835 26.0624
0.000835 26.15625
0.000836 26.23819
0.000837 26.32091
0.000839 26.40964
0.00084 26.50494
0.000844 26.60068
0.000845 26.68897
0.000848 26.78159
0.000853 26.86075
0.000859 26.95649
0.000864 27.04856
0.000868 27.15143
0.000871 27.24138
0.000872 27.32967
0.000872 27.43209
0.000876 27.51704
0.000878 27.62436
0.000881 27.71008
0.000881 27.8095
0.000881 27.90535
0.000882 27.99998
0.000885 28.10419
0.000887 28.19381
0.000889 28.2861
0.000891 28.3765
0.000892 28.46334
0.000893 28.55496
0.000895 28.64024
0.000902 28.73955
0.000902 28.8285
0.000902 28.92814
0.000903 29.01743
0.000904 29.11896
0.000908 29.20791
0.000913 29.3002
0.000915 29.39606
0.000914 29.48835
0.000918 29.58933
0.000921 29.69097
0.000928 29.78705
0.000932 29.87723
0.000934 29.97074
0.000934 30.07161
0.000935 30.16813
0.000936 30.26376
0.00094 30.35672
0.000946 30.45347
0.000948 30.54999
0.000948 30.64206
0.000948 30.73313
0.00095 30.8223
0.000953 30.9107
0.000958 31.00756
0.000961 31.09406
0.000962 31.19337
0.000962 31.29045
0.000965 31.39187
0.000969 31.48127
0.000973 31.57823
0.000977 31.66841
0.000975 31.76393
0.000975 31.86513
0.000975 31.95887
0.000977 32.06508
0.000978 32.15158
0.000983 32.25478
0.000981 32.35487
0.000983 32.44972
0.000984 32.5586
0.000989 32.65312
0.00099 32.7502
0.000995 32.84929
0.000997 32.94091
0.000999 33.0391
0.001001 33.12405
0.001004 33.22458
0.001005 33.31843
0.001008 33.42063
0.001013 33.52183
0.001014 33.61913
0.001017 33.71821
0.001021 33.81418
0.001026 33.91338
0.001031 34.01491
0.001037 34.11822
0.001044 34.21486
0.001046 34.31906
0.001051 34.41313
0.001054 34.50799
0.001062 34.60718
0.001064 34.70949
0.001068 34.80524
0.001073 34.9031
0.001079 35.00196
0.001084 35.08935
0.001092 35.19812
0.001096 35.29375
0.001101 35.39395
0.00111 35.49682
0.00111 35.59946
0.001112 35.70768
0.001114 35.80275
0.00112 35.90284
0.001125 36.00682
0.001129 36.10791
0.001132 36.20599
0.001136 36.30418
0.001139 36.40026
0.001143 36.50769
0.00115 36.60767
0.001152 36.71254
0.001155 36.81786
0.001159 36.92618
0.001164 37.03205
0.001168 37.12802
0.001173 37.24147
0.001171 37.33432
0.001179 37.43696
0.001186 37.53738
0.001186 37.64303
0.001192 37.7439
0.001199 37.85033
0.001201 37.96032
0.001205 38.05774
0.001209 38.15971
0.001212 38.26269
0.001216 38.36835
0.001218 38.4691
0.001225 38.56618
0.00123 38.68129
0.001233 38.78951
0.001237 38.88736
0.001245 38.99558
0.00125 39.10702
0.001251 39.20332
0.001256 39.30975
0.001258 39.41574
0.001263 39.5146
0.001264 39.62437
0.001264 39.72278
0.001269 39.82587
0.001269 39.93175
0.00127 40.03473
0.001276 40.13994
0.001281 40.23368
0.001285 40.34044
0.001291 40.43129
0.001295 40.53493
0.001299 40.64214
0.001301 40.74256
0.001304 40.85679
0.001309 40.95776
0.001313 41.05729
0.001315 41.15593
0.001317 41.26348
0.001321 41.3757
0.001324 41.47266
0.001328 41.57409
0.001335 41.67963
0.00134 41.77838
0.001347 41.88091
0.00135 41.98155
0.001359 42.09143
0.001366 42.19542
0.00137 42.30051
0.001376 42.40661
0.001382 42.50992
0.001381 42.61758
0.001384 42.72713
0.00139 42.8399
0.001396 42.95758
0.001399 43.06112
0.001402 43.16822
0.001409 43.27609
0.001413 43.38653
0.001418 43.50087
0.001422 43.61365
0.001427 43.71729
0.001436 43.82462
0.001439 43.93016
0.001442 44.03124
0.001445 44.14113
0.00145 44.24834
0.001453 44.35488
0.001456 44.46276
0.001459 44.58066
0.001463 44.68497
0.001466 44.79252
0.001472 44.90529
0.001479 45.01596
0.001482 45.12962
0.001483 45.24084
0.001487 45.36052
0.001491 45.47241
0.00149 45.58218
0.001492 45.69406
0.001497 45.79326
0.001501 45.90737
0.001504 46.0167
0.001505 46.13404
0.001509 46.25005
0.001515 46.35637
0.001519 46.48028
0.001521 46.59929
0.001525 46.71062
0.00153 46.81905
0.001537 46.93584
0.001538 47.05229
0.001542 47.16562
0.001548 47.28552
0.00155 47.40175
0.001555 47.52043
0.001562 47.62597
0.001568 47.75044
0.001574 47.87245
0.001579 47.99102
0.001585 48.11337
0.001589 48.23105
0.001593 48.36208
0.001599 48.47898
0.001602 48.60133
0.001605 48.71511
0.001607 48.82265
0.00161 48.94556
0.001615 49.06858
0.001619 49.19249
0.001624 49.31028
0.001627 49.42762
0.001631 49.55754
0.001635 49.67622
0.001635 49.80414
0.001637 49.92348
0.001643 50.05485
0.001647 50.17342
0.001648 50.299
0.001648 50.42948
0.001652 50.55405
0.001656 50.68397
0.001658 50.8051
0.001663 50.92979
0.001667 51.05036
0.001671 51.16525
0.001674 51.2836
0.001677 51.40161
0.00168 51.5283
0.001686 51.64508
0.001691 51.77534
0.001693 51.89057
0.001697 52.01548
0.001703 52.14729
0.001707 52.27632
0.001715 52.4038
0.001719 52.52559
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0.170998 93.89314
0.171041 93.85614
0.171087 93.80297
0.171132 93.75857
0.171177 93.69961
0.171221 93.63761
0.171269 93.57133
0.171311 93.50008
0.171358 93.42469
0.171406 93.35868
0.171446 93.2971
0.171495 93.24305
0.171541 93.18018
0.171591 93.09734
0.171634 93.02561
0.171687 92.93952
0.171738 92.85306
0.171785 92.78589
0.171834 92.71154
0.171879 92.6119
0.171926 92.56113
0.171973 92.49811
0.172019 92.42183
0.172063 92.33306
0.172112 92.25665
0.172157 92.19371
0.172205 92.09317
0.172249 92.01714
0.172295 91.93979
0.172339 91.85341
0.172384 91.76175
0.172435 91.66465
0.17248 91.55431
0.172527 91.45637
0.172571 91.40433
0.172624 91.33309
0.172673 91.19387
0.172724 91.08384
0.172774 91.01166
0.172826 90.94986
0.172876 90.8463
0.172927 90.75137
0.172974 90.64628
0.173025 90.4771
0.173075 90.28845
0.173123 90.13733
0.173179 89.95128
0.173234 89.81655
0.174188 89.49099
0.174339 89.13105
0.17451 88.76276
0.174713 88.22614
0.17496 87.72237
0.175275 87.10864
0.17571 86.38872
0.176362 85.05283
0.177506 83.05102
0.180107 78.69342
0.192755 58.24805
Column B

0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25


Strain (in/iStress (ksi)
0 1.697782272 180
-7.88E-05 1.886424747
-6.79E-05 1.89585687
160
-0.0001 1.455241947
-1E-04 1.454119076
-4.08E-05 1.434111519 140
2.77E-05 1.229803807
5.15E-05 1.287484859 120
3.57E-05 1.302465294
6.9E-05 1.202595752
100
6.18E-05 1.212701601
4.79E-05 1.116476365
3.04E-05 1.027158256 80
2.66E-05 0.992993009
1.95E-05 0.983054949 60
3.14E-05 0.931041876
6.02E-05 0.887477083
5.09E-05 0.814531243 40
4.16E-05 0.759031026
5.15E-05 0.730989577 20
4.8E-05 0.655647614
4.72E-05 0.639958617
0
4.65E-05 0.63195228 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
5.11E-05 0.602050441
5.27E-05 0.616456649
5.85E-05 0.5728628
7.33E-05 0.619316795
8.64E-05 0.599368582
8.19E-05 0.594472001
9.57E-05 0.651056326
8.38E-05 0.66334115
8.45E-05 0.73772681
6.93E-05 0.805358243
6.66E-05 0.872119487
6.17E-05 0.972944051
5.81E-05 1.081040926
5.68E-05 1.146390636
5.11E-05 1.297860207
5.25E-05 1.398281702
3.96E-05 1.551823121
3.31E-05 1.686428764
4.52E-05 1.851196302
4.56E-05 1.999055368
6.02E-05 2.179145791
7.94E-05 2.381346251
8.82E-05 2.570771925
8.64E-05 2.761938773
9.32E-05 2.976331424
0.000102 3.176778123
0.000103 3.403424588
9.55E-05 3.607787273
9.05E-05 3.751370344
7.03E-05 3.872540446
7.3E-05 3.993710546
7.51E-05 4.142896853
8.51E-05 4.274573038
9.18E-05 4.418856517
0.000105 4.561739181
0.00011 4.706022651
9.94E-05 4.881824357
0.000104 5.056925654
0.000112 5.192804271
0.000113 5.374909625
0.000118 5.561217411
0.000122 5.714606152
0.00013 5.879201378
0.000128 6.054302687
0.000121 6.247614532
0.000123 6.429019484
0.000138 6.616027668
0.000137 6.798133018
0.000152 6.990744449
0.000163 7.202266823
0.000172 7.404683927
0.000183 7.605700227
0.000194 7.80251409
0.000216 7.998627556
0.000245 8.241668158
0.000271 8.45599216
0.000277 8.66891534
0.000303 8.918259603
0.000311 9.131883191
0.00032 9.342705158
0.000324 9.575940089
0.000326 9.81547867
0.000326 10.05361645
0.000342 10.30506192
0.00036 10.57611874
0.000355 10.8268638
0.00037 11.0551959
0.000389 11.33185597
0.000407 11.61481969
0.000426 11.86486435
0.000446 12.13381995
0.000453 12.39647191
0.000467 12.64791738
0.000485 12.91687297
0.000498 13.22154926
0.000507 13.51782066
0.000512 13.78537545
0.000531 14.07604361
0.000548 14.37581706
0.000562 14.64757428
0.000584 14.91232746
0.000604 15.21910495
0.000614 15.53358688
0.000619 15.81514978
0.00063 16.11282199
0.000649 16.39928772
0.00066 16.68785466
0.000677 16.98482646
0.000689 17.29090355
0.0007 17.58227212
0.000703 17.886248
0.000715 18.18882305
0.000725 18.48579485
0.000735 18.79817559
0.000745 19.08814336
0.000741 19.39352002
0.000743 19.69679547
0.000751 19.99726931
0.000751 20.29774316
0.000759 20.60522105
0.00077 20.91199852
0.000794 21.21037115
0.000803 21.51504743
0.000807 21.832331
0.000811 22.15031498
0.000826 22.43327867
0.000844 22.73025049
0.00085 23.0419308
0.000851 23.33049775
0.000861 23.62606874
0.000867 23.93494746
0.000883 24.24942941
0.000898 24.54009756
0.00091 24.81325558
0.000914 25.13053913
0.000923 25.43241377
0.00093 25.70206978
0.000939 25.99904158
0.000956 26.298815
0.000957 26.57687587
0.000966 26.87664932
0.000973 27.1694187
0.000973 27.45658484
0.000986 27.75635827
0.001003 28.03722075
0.001014 28.29987272
0.001013 28.59614414
0.001024 28.91622934
0.001027 29.21180035
0.001038 29.50036729
0.001045 29.79313666
0.001061 30.08240403
0.001067 30.35696288
0.001066 30.65813713
0.001075 30.96771625
0.001075 31.25908482
0.001088 31.54064771
0.001101 31.80119847
0.001099 32.07155488
0.001109 32.37412992
0.001124 32.66409768
0.001133 32.95756747
0.001141 33.26364456
0.001152 33.56832083
0.001158 33.86459223
0.001162 34.12514296
0.001157 34.41020788
0.001169 34.69807445
0.001182 34.98734181
0.001195 35.26120027
0.001205 35.54346356
0.001224 35.85724512
0.001228 36.17873111
0.001235 36.49181224
0.001238 36.79648851
0.001246 37.05773968
0.001248 37.35190987
0.001256 37.64397886
0.001266 37.92694258
0.001263 38.22041237
0.001273 38.5341939
0.001287 38.85217786
0.0013 39.15545332
0.001312 39.43561539
0.001319 39.70597182
0.001333 39.99663998
0.001352 40.31462394
0.001368 40.63470911
0.001367 40.92607768
0.001375 41.19853531
0.001384 41.48289981
0.001397 41.77847081
0.0014 42.0712402
0.001409 42.36050755
0.001431 42.64137005
0.001439 42.91382766
0.00146 43.18838649
0.001474 43.49376317
0.001493 43.79773905
0.001512 44.09050843
0.00153 44.39658548
0.001544 44.68935486
0.001549 44.96951695
0.001553 45.26088552
0.001565 45.55925814
0.00159 45.86043237
0.001614 46.15320175
0.001645 46.47258657
0.001669 46.79757457
0.001679 47.1015504
0.00169 47.39572063
0.001695 47.70109727
0.001695 48.01768042
0.001706 48.29994377
0.001726 48.58010586
0.001739 48.8861829
0.001748 49.17965273
0.001766 49.47802537
0.001775 49.78620367
0.001785 50.04675436
0.001802 50.34232537
0.001808 50.65960894
0.001822 50.96218398
0.001833 51.23604244
0.001848 51.50709928
0.001854 51.80126944
0.001862 52.115051
0.001871 52.39241143
0.001893 52.69288528
0.001916 53.0059664
0.001939 53.28192605
0.001956 53.58169947
0.001965 53.8828737
0.001985 54.16583742
0.002012 54.47681735
0.002017 54.76748554
0.002029 55.06865978
0.00203 55.36773279
0.00204 55.66470461
0.002042 55.96167643
0.002051 56.26004907
0.002051 56.54861601
0.002059 56.84979024
0.002071 57.15096451
0.002082 57.42272175
0.002096 57.72949924
0.002093 58.05168561
0.002097 58.34585581
0.002109 58.62671831
0.002103 58.8970747
0.002113 59.16953234
0.002118 59.47420861
0.002134 59.79149217
0.002156 60.11087692
0.002163 60.38963816
0.002166 60.68170713
0.002183 61.00109188
0.002193 61.29246044
0.002214 61.61534723
0.002236 61.91091824
0.002252 62.19738399
0.002258 62.47404408
0.002283 62.74650173
0.002282 63.03436826
0.002292 63.33834416
0.002299 63.65282609
0.002328 63.97010965
0.002344 64.28108955
0.002357 64.59206948
0.002366 64.90374978
0.002378 65.22593619
0.002381 65.53551528
0.002395 65.81847896
0.002411 66.09233739
0.002412 66.36129297
0.002409 66.63515139
0.002422 66.93772644
0.002436 67.22139056
0.002452 67.51836239
0.002466 67.80272692
0.002485 68.11720888
0.002501 68.39316853
0.002519 68.68523754
0.002534 68.98220937
0.002548 69.30019333
0.002564 69.58525824
0.002579 69.87102358
0.002595 70.15398727
0.00261 70.45306028
0.002605 70.75423455
0.002619 71.05540878
0.002628 71.34607694
0.002643 71.64024713
0.00265 71.95052666
0.002656 72.26991144
0.002661 72.58509378
0.002678 72.87926401
0.002684 73.16012654
0.002704 73.45429673
0.002709 73.75897297
0.002707 74.03913502
0.002718 74.30809063
0.002735 74.62537416
0.002743 74.93635406
0.002753 75.22912344
0.002764 75.52819648
0.002781 75.81606302
0.002781 76.11723728
0.002785 76.39039527
0.002792 76.68036309
0.002803 76.95352115
0.002807 77.22667913
0.002815 77.50824207
0.002814 77.79680901
0.002835 78.09308036
0.002848 78.38655015
0.002865 78.67301587
0.002876 78.97068803
0.002888 79.26976108
0.002897 79.55272476
0.002897 79.85670066
0.002907 80.1550733
0.002919 80.44854308
0.002926 80.73640962
0.002937 81.02497656
0.002943 81.31914676
0.002959 81.62032102
0.002969 81.91589203
0.002984 82.2170663
0.002995 82.50353202
0.003019 82.77388845
0.003029 83.09187241
0.003037 83.3748361
0.003047 83.65920059
0.003055 83.96597805
0.003073 84.26224946
0.003086 84.54101071
0.003088 84.81346835
0.003095 85.13145232
0.003096 85.440331
0.003098 85.70928661
0.003116 85.99435151
0.003128 86.29902775
0.003134 86.59950161
0.003143 86.86915763
0.003156 87.16262741
0.003165 87.44629151
0.00317 87.723652
0.003185 88.01361975
0.003199 88.28467659
0.003205 88.56974149
0.003218 88.85340559
0.003231 89.13636927
0.003244 89.41793214
0.00326 89.67287968
0.003254 89.93833326
0.003265 90.20588805
0.003267 90.47064129
0.003274 90.73609487
0.003279 91.00014763
0.003288 91.28521254
0.003305 91.56117215
0.003313 91.84273502
0.003324 92.12359748
0.003341 92.39745594
0.003349 92.66571108
0.003377 92.90945211
0.003382 93.14478825
0.003388 93.38012439
0.003394 93.63647268
0.0034 93.90472788
0.003403 94.14286565
0.003417 94.37540024
0.003431 94.61003597
0.003444 94.85727903
0.003462 95.11782983
0.003469 95.37697974
0.00348 95.63893129
0.003492 95.89317835
0.003508 96.15302867
0.003527 96.41217859
0.003547 96.64611392
0.003564 96.88004931
0.003581 97.11048261
0.003598 97.35002119
0.003612 97.56364479
0.00362 97.81228867
0.003636 98.04202155
0.003649 98.28366136
0.00365 98.49938618
0.003661 98.72001377
0.003679 98.95254829
0.003672 99.18858484
0.003684 99.41271453
0.003696 99.61092918
0.0037 99.80354063
0.003718 99.99685249
0.003724 100.2153789
0.003746 100.4535166
0.003765 100.6552333
0.003779 100.8401404
0.003801 101.0411567
0.003813 101.2778936
0.003828 101.4726063
0.003826 101.6547117
0.003835 101.8550276
0.003852 102.080558
0.003862 102.2822748
0.00387 102.4832911
0.003888 102.683607
0.003902 102.853105
0.003914 103.0681294
0.003923 103.2726478
0.003932 103.4575548
0.003949 103.6389597
0.003969 103.8280691
0.003974 104.0206805
0.003981 104.2055875
0.003994 104.3834905
0.004007 104.5445837
0.004021 104.7343935
0.004034 104.9214017
0.004043 105.1168147
0.00405 105.2877136
0.004052 105.4418028
0.004065 105.6239081
0.004065 105.8263252
0.004075 106.0042281
0.004083 106.1583172
0.004093 106.3236129
0.004111 106.5043174
0.004131 106.6927264
0.004149 106.8594229
0.004166 107.0373258
0.004175 107.1956174
0.004196 107.3532086
0.004203 107.5192046
0.004213 107.6662897
0.004233 107.8434922
0.004246 107.9702656
0.004253 108.1047434
0.004261 108.2532292
0.004249 108.413622
0.004254 108.5761161
0.004265 108.7203995
0.004287 108.8695858
0.004294 109.0243753
0.004288 109.1945738
0.004295 109.3416589
0.004307 109.476837
0.004303 109.6372298
0.004312 109.8214364
0.004314 109.9811288
0.00433 110.1212098
0.004345 110.268295
0.004348 110.411878
0.004353 110.5799753
0.004368 110.7501738
0.004384 110.8979592
0.004389 111.0660565
0.004402 111.2236478
0.004403 111.3798382
0.004407 111.5220205
0.004409 111.666304
0.004422 111.8203932
0.004443 111.9604742
0.004456 112.0914501
0.004469 112.2497417
0.004482 112.4038309
0.004488 112.5754302
0.004501 112.7260173
0.004518 112.8436854
0.004512 112.9970741
0.004517 113.1483617
0.004531 113.2996492
0.004547 113.4698477
0.004553 113.615532
0.004571 113.7570139
0.004579 113.900597
0.004585 114.0294716
0.004591 114.1723542
0.004605 114.3152368
0.004618 114.4413098
0.004641 114.6122087
0.004652 114.7627957
0.004651 114.9021763
0.004659 115.0583667
0.004675 115.2173587
0.004686 115.3833547
0.004692 115.5283386
0.004695 115.6579136
0.004714 115.7832861
0.00472 115.9149623
0.00475 116.0599462
0.004763 116.220339
0.00477 116.3751285
0.00478 116.5439262
0.004793 116.6889101
0.004806 116.8486025
0.004818 116.9753758
0.004837 117.1238618
0.004842 117.2877566
0.004865 117.4376433
0.004885 117.5798257
0.004894 117.7199067
0.004895 117.8894047
0.004906 118.0189797
0.004916 118.1625627
0.004941 118.2970405
0.004965 118.4329192
0.004985 118.5877087
0.005002 118.7417979
0.005014 118.8853809
0.005034 119.0457737
0.005038 119.2005631
0.005048 119.345547
0.005044 119.5024377
0.005052 119.667033
0.005062 119.8344298
0.005072 119.9584015
0.005075 120.1271992
0.005087 120.2651789
0.005101 120.4178673
0.00511 120.5362357
0.005121 120.6952277
0.005133 120.833908
0.005149 120.9957016
0.005165 121.1119688
0.005175 121.2373413
0.005205 121.4047382
0.005211 121.5455196
0.005241 121.6898031
0.005249 121.831285
0.005248 121.9573579
0.005253 122.0785281
0.005264 122.2396213
0.005273 122.3867064
0.005292 122.5022733
0.005302 122.6731722
0.005307 122.8139537
0.00531 122.9799498
0.005317 123.1347394
0.005336 123.2881282
0.005346 123.448521
0.00536 123.5858005
0.005388 123.7209788
0.005414 123.8624606
0.005413 124.0312582
0.005426 124.1559304
0.005441 124.3009143
0.005444 124.4458982
0.005453 124.5873802
0.005466 124.6903397
0.005468 124.8353236
0.005486 124.9606962
0.0055 125.0874696
0.005518 125.2464615
0.005536 125.3676317
0.005544 125.4958058
0.00556 125.6393888
0.005578 125.7759677
0.005596 125.8971378
0.005608 126.0211094
0.00562 126.1569879
0.00563 126.2837612
0.005652 126.4077328
0.005664 126.5534171
0.005677 126.7033038
0.005692 126.8447856
0.005705 126.9813645
0.005711 127.1179436
0.005732 127.2524214
0.00574 127.3890003
0.005775 127.5325835
0.00581 127.6439478
0.005831 127.8071422
0.005845 127.9192071
0.005869 128.052284
0.005882 128.1937658
0.005899 128.3163368
0.005917 128.4746283
0.005943 128.5866932
0.005965 128.7197703
0.005982 128.8528472
0.006 128.9747177
0.006003 129.1056936
0.006014 129.2254629
0.006026 129.365544
0.006053 129.4720056
0.006073 129.5826697
0.006085 129.6940341
0.0061 129.813103
0.006114 129.9419776
0.006137 130.0799575
0.006155 130.2130345
0.00617 130.3384069
0.006197 130.4637795
0.006207 130.5828484
0.006228 130.7138243
0.006252 130.8398971
0.006273 130.9617677
0.006288 131.0969458
0.006314 131.2034074
0.006328 131.3511929
0.006337 131.4723629
0.006355 131.5921322
0.006385 131.7090999
0.006403 131.8421768
0.006427 131.9465372
0.006447 132.0831162
0.00647 132.1972821
0.006496 132.3135494
0.00652 132.434019
0.006534 132.5544887
0.006548 132.6700556
0.006566 132.7884241
0.006573 132.8941853
0.006591 132.9859383
0.006604 133.0720881
0.006619 133.1666428
0.006642 133.2850112
0.006659 133.3851691
0.006675 133.4993352
0.006693 133.6128008
0.006706 133.7269669
0.006724 133.8334285
0.006755 133.9721087
0.006778 134.0561573
0.006802 134.1899347
0.006824 134.2900927
0.006832 134.4021575
0.006845 134.5163236
0.006862 134.6297892
0.006883 134.7257447
0.006899 134.8539189
0.006928 134.9617814
0.006933 135.071745
0.006937 135.1648988
0.00696 135.2923726
0.006992 135.3813241
0.007016 135.4730771
0.007038 135.5627289
0.007066 135.6656885
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0.071959 154.9135246
0.072027 154.8806054
0.072097 154.8189698
0.072175 154.7566337
0.072251 154.6802895
0.072319 154.6431679
0.072393 154.5486132
0.072468 154.4988843
0.07255 154.4477547
0.072625 154.3931231
0.072692 154.3384915
0.072761 154.2929652
0.072836 154.257945
0.072899 154.2201231
0.072966 154.1710948
0.073043 154.140277
0.07312 154.11086
0.073186 154.0758398
0.073267 153.9945929
0.073333 153.9322568
0.073415 153.8671191
0.07348 153.8292972
0.07355 153.775366
0.073615 153.7508519
0.07369 153.6787103
0.073752 153.6275807
0.073821 153.5477344
0.073897 153.510613
0.073976 153.4356696
0.074048 153.3817384
0.074143 153.3201027
0.0742 153.2605683
0.074282 153.1968314
0.074354 153.1625115
0.074432 153.0840661
0.074507 153.0567504
0.074593 153.0154265
0.074669 152.9383818
0.07475 152.8893535
0.074825 152.8312198
0.074903 152.774487
0.074987 152.7058473
0.075061 152.644912
0.075128 152.5636649
0.075207 152.5146366
0.07527 152.4684098
0.075342 152.4312884
0.075407 152.3584462
0.075475 152.3087174
0.07554 152.2442801
0.075611 152.2057579
0.075692 152.1399198
0.075769 152.0747822
0.075844 152.0012396
0.075923 151.9606161
0.076004 151.9073853
0.076074 151.8485513
0.076143 151.7687051
0.076215 151.7154743
0.076284 151.688859
0.076362 151.5985068
0.07643 151.5361707
0.076512 151.4829399
0.076584 151.4114986
0.076666 151.3484621
0.076737 151.2777213
0.076816 151.2132841
0.07689 151.111025
0.076955 151.0220736
0.077021 150.974446
0.077092 150.8903975
0.077159 150.8350654
0.077231 150.7545189
0.077298 150.6991869
0.07736 150.6242435
0.077427 150.561207
0.077492 150.4925674
0.077562 150.4239278
0.077632 150.3587902
0.077708 150.2852477
0.07778 150.2229116
0.077853 150.1486688
0.077919 150.0919359
0.077992 150.0085878
0.078084 149.9651627
0.078145 149.8720088
0.078227 149.8173772
0.078307 149.7354298
0.078379 149.6478792
0.078445 149.5792396
0.07852 149.5063976
0.078582 149.4524664
0.078641 149.3859278
0.078706 149.3179885
0.078764 149.2451463
0.078838 149.184211
0.078913 149.1197739
0.078984 149.0672435
0.079051 148.9845957
0.079125 148.883037
0.079197 148.8164986
0.079266 148.7457576
0.079354 148.6659115
0.079421 148.609879
0.079493 148.5111219
0.079568 148.4718993
0.079645 148.3717413
0.079718 148.3269154
0.079789 148.2365632
0.079873 148.1700247
0.079949 148.0782715
0.080025 148.0019273
0.080085 147.918579
0.080167 147.8499392
0.08024 147.751182
0.080325 147.6629308
0.080392 147.587287
0.080472 147.5060399
0.080537 147.4114851
0.080598 147.3337401
0.080665 147.2658007
0.080741 147.17825
0.080821 147.1019057
0.080902 147.0234603
0.080979 146.9338083
0.081043 146.8532617
0.08112 146.795128
0.081187 146.7152819
0.081257 146.6473425
0.081331 146.563294
0.081407 146.4792454
0.081485 146.4162089
0.081568 146.3440673
0.081648 146.2726259
0.081728 146.1752696
0.081807 146.1129335
0.081887 146.0232815
0.081958 145.9364313
0.082026 145.8916054
0.0821 145.7900467
0.082171 145.7144028
0.082244 145.6499655
0.082316 145.58833
0.08238 145.522492
0.082451 145.4552532
0.082524 145.3747067
0.082598 145.2871561
0.082671 145.1975042
0.08274 145.129565
0.082811 145.0546218
0.082886 144.9789779
0.082964 144.87882
0.083038 144.7996743
0.083113 144.7429415
0.083179 144.6623949
0.083249 144.5909535
0.083316 144.4823907
0.083383 144.425658
0.08345 144.3500142
0.083524 144.2715689
0.083601 144.1735122
0.083669 144.1027712
0.083737 144.0362328
0.083802 143.9458806
0.083873 143.8835445
0.083934 143.8268117
0.084002 143.7623744
0.08407 143.6769248
0.084143 143.6117871
0.084209 143.5277384
0.084279 143.4520946
0.084359 143.3778516
0.084422 143.3141147
0.084493 143.252479
0.084563 143.1733331
0.08463 143.1004911
0.084705 143.0199444
0.084766 142.9527055
0.084842 142.8658552
0.084911 142.7986162
0.084988 142.7131667
0.085062 142.6648387
0.085131 142.5744864
0.085203 142.5100491
0.08527 142.4274012
0.08534 142.3496561
0.085419 142.28732
0.085482 142.2025709
0.085552 142.13183
0.085625 142.0638906
0.085688 141.9742386
0.085758 141.8859875
0.085817 141.7844286
0.085883 141.710886
0.085966 141.6478495
0.086048 141.5750073
0.086118 141.4825537
0.086197 141.3922014
0.086271 141.3123551
0.086349 141.2507194
0.086426 141.1813794
0.086512 141.0903266
0.086595 141.028691
0.086673 140.9523467
0.086743 140.8710996
0.086815 140.8213709
0.086891 140.7226138
0.086959 140.6749862
0.087035 140.5741279
0.087117 140.5145934
0.087194 140.4368485
0.087275 140.3745124
0.087336 140.2904639
0.087405 140.2225247
0.087479 140.1307716
0.087559 140.0789416
0.087632 139.984387
0.087717 139.9101439
0.087796 139.8443058
0.087864 139.7833706
0.087942 139.7245365
0.088015 139.6685041
0.088088 139.5907592
0.08816 139.5067106
0.088232 139.4240628
0.088314 139.3288078
0.088381 139.2622694
0.088441 139.1656135
0.088521 139.1116823
0.088592 139.0157268
0.08866 138.9540911
0.088746 138.9099656
0.088816 138.8049048
0.088899 138.7320626
0.08897 138.6648238
0.089026 138.585678
0.0891 138.4981274
0.089176 138.4238845
0.089249 138.3475403
0.089329 138.2431799
0.089399 138.1766414
0.089469 138.0925928
0.08953 138.0008398
0.089595 137.9272971
0.08966 137.8467505
0.089735 137.7599001
0.089804 137.687058
0.089883 137.6275235
0.089965 137.5651874
0.090038 137.493746
0.090105 137.4167014
0.090172 137.3333532
0.090232 137.2598106
0.090317 137.1848672
0.090393 137.108523
0.090463 137.0272759
0.090517 136.9453286
0.090606 136.8605796
0.090663 136.7709276
0.09073 136.6987858
0.090808 136.5986278
0.09089 136.5320892
0.090973 136.4459393
0.091046 136.362591
0.091117 136.2862468
0.091192 136.1972954
0.091265 136.1300564
0.091358 136.0355018
0.091446 135.9801697
0.091516 135.9017244
0.091595 135.8358864
0.091679 135.7518379
0.091753 135.6852993
0.091825 135.6061535
0.091891 135.5249064
0.091971 135.4716756
0.092043 135.398133
0.092107 135.3161857
0.092179 135.232137
0.092246 135.1550925
0.092311 135.0598374
0.092382 134.9883961
0.092453 134.8987442
0.092525 134.8209993
0.0926 134.7390519
0.092676 134.6683111
0.092752 134.5660519
0.092825 134.4792017
0.092895 134.3930519
0.092966 134.3104042
0.09304 134.2193516
0.09311 134.1437079
0.09319 134.050554
0.093267 133.9903193
0.093329 133.9020683
0.093408 133.8201209
0.093476 133.7486797
0.09356 133.6653315
0.093623 133.5707768
0.093706 133.4636148
0.093782 133.3501492
0.093842 133.2611976
0.093908 133.1638413
0.093969 133.0867968
0.094043 132.9810356
0.094124 132.9053919
0.094197 132.7982299
0.094269 132.7204849
0.094325 132.627331
0.094394 132.5446832
0.094471 132.4480273
0.094553 132.3548733
0.094621 132.2491121
0.094687 132.1720674
0.094762 132.0719094
0.094844 131.9843586
0.094914 131.8757958
0.094979 131.7980508
0.095054 131.7076985
0.095121 131.5865285
0.095194 131.4947755
0.095264 131.3757067
0.095341 131.244731
0.095411 131.1459739
0.095489 131.0423139
0.095556 130.9505607
0.095629 130.8665122
0.09571 130.7509453
0.095783 130.6472853
0.095859 130.5492286
0.095927 130.4623784
0.096009 130.3482123
0.096076 130.2403499
0.096144 130.1457953
0.096218 130.0610463
0.096291 129.9314713
0.096366 129.8544268
0.096445 129.7465644
0.096525 129.6380015
0.096595 129.5294387
0.096669 129.4418881
0.096746 129.3326249
0.096831 129.232467
0.096904 129.1211025
0.096976 129.0195438
0.097052 128.9214871
0.097121 128.8143251
0.097198 128.7344789
0.097271 128.6196125
0.097361 128.5138513
0.097435 128.397584
0.097504 128.2967256
0.097568 128.1671506
0.097636 128.076098
0.097719 127.9752396
0.097801 127.8596728
0.097872 127.7595148
0.097951 127.6446484
0.098043 127.5465915
0.098118 127.4408303
0.098197 127.3245632
0.098279 127.2321097
0.098367 127.097632
0.098443 127.0023769
0.098516 126.8833081
0.098593 126.7607373
0.098672 126.6626804
0.098747 126.5225995
0.098804 126.4371499
0.098885 126.3061742
0.098959 126.1948098
0.099047 126.0925505
0.099117 125.9629755
0.099205 125.8221941
0.099278 125.6730078
0.099353 125.5196191
0.099432 125.3704328
0.099505 125.2219469
0.099575 125.1266918
0.099649 125.0090239
0.099736 124.9025623
0.099806 124.7736876
0.099879 124.6315053
0.09995 124.4942259
0.100032 124.3611489
0.100112 124.2322743
0.100183 124.0844888
0.100268 123.9661203
0.100346 123.8204359
0.100423 123.6901605
0.100492 123.5346705
0.100567 123.3910874
0.100646 123.227893
0.100726 123.0871115
0.100812 122.8952004
0.100886 122.7481153
0.10096 122.5562042
0.101033 122.3825037
0.10111 122.2646163
0.101187 122.1564534
0.101265 122.0467148
0.101341 121.9140006
0.101416 121.7762301
0.101484 121.6259089
0.101562 121.4890043
0.101652 121.3672956
0.101727 121.22438
0.101814 121.0857603
0.101891 120.9320628
0.101988 120.7878364
0.102064 120.6877946
0.102144 120.5687042
0.102219 120.423974
0.102304 120.312888
0.102386 120.1476574
0.102469 120.0059967
0.102555 119.8553418
0.102638 119.6994465
0.102726 119.5749472
0.102812 119.4280593
0.102897 119.2627714
0.102974 119.1130385
0.10307 118.9737551
0.103166 118.7538042
0.103259 118.5632982
0.103342 118.4155954
0.103431 118.1718956
0.10353 117.9889644
0.103605 117.7927128
0.103691 117.5905397
0.10378 117.3733458
0.103866 117.1426875
0.103949 116.9187783
0.104047 116.656667
0.104137 116.4212249
0.104234 116.1622609
0.104332 116.0058927
0.104429 115.8601635
0.104525 115.5236562
0.104613 115.024746
0.104717 114.7983753
0.104795 114.4697018
0.104924 114.0279417
0.105059 113.5470462
0.105215 112.9631532
0.105327 112.4497755
0.105425 112.1479481
0.10569 112.1951088
Column B

0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12


Strain (in/iStress (ksi)
0 1.697782
160
3.08E-07 2.593834
5.78E-06 2.504229
1.64E-05 1.980746 140
2.54E-05 2.585974
3.13E-05 2.881085
3.42E-05 2.933028 120
3.53E-05 3.070156
3.86E-05 2.971119
100
4.24E-05 3.079092
4.72E-05 3.176604
5.09E-05 3.097222 80
5.35E-05 2.988097
5.84E-05 3.007799
6.09E-05 2.880863 60
6.37E-05 2.950581
6.61E-05 3.146899
6.85E-05 3.177278 40
7.18E-05 3.17187
7.51E-05 3.279477
20
7.85E-05 3.279963
8.22E-05 3.329759
8.65E-05 3.430149 0
9.12E-05 3.565644 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
9.52E-05 3.655429
9.96E-05 3.754817
0.000103 3.809332
0.000106 3.947344
0.000108 4.002447
0.000111 4.056213
0.000114 4.182992
0.000117 4.269159
0.00012 4.392467
0.000123 4.497856
0.000126 4.540747
0.000129 4.639011
0.000132 4.759992
0.000136 4.876408
0.00014 4.942678
0.000143 5.038724
0.000147 5.146621
0.00015 5.310683
0.000153 5.373814
0.000157 5.460061
0.000162 5.595687
0.000165 5.670157
0.000168 5.746749
0.000171 5.889368
0.000174 6.003498
0.000178 6.111587
0.000181 6.247615
0.000185 6.331663
0.00019 6.425517
0.000194 6.536181
0.000199 6.67136
0.000203 6.786226
0.000207 6.936113
0.00021 7.053081
0.000214 7.130826
0.000217 7.245692
0.00022 7.341647
0.000223 7.475425
0.000225 7.555971
0.000227 7.602198
0.000229 7.703757
0.000232 7.817923
0.000234 7.960806
0.000236 8.105089
0.000238 8.220656
0.000242 8.325016
0.000245 8.416069
0.000249 8.55545
0.000252 8.72915
0.000255 8.88394
0.000259 9.013515
0.000261 9.115073
0.000263 9.249551
0.000268 9.416248
0.00027 9.62777
0.000272 9.761548
0.000276 9.90373
0.000279 9.989179
0.00028 10.07603
0.000284 10.16848
0.000287 10.31347
0.00029 10.43674
0.000292 10.5425
0.000295 10.68048
0.000298 10.77223
0.000301 10.92842
0.000305 11.0643
0.000308 11.19878
0.000312 11.34096
0.000314 11.49295
0.000318 11.63093
0.000322 11.77521
0.000325 11.91389
0.000329 12.00565
0.000332 12.12682
0.000336 12.23748
0.00034 12.37196
0.000344 12.46931
0.000349 12.63321
0.000354 12.77259
0.000358 12.89586
0.000364 13.05555
0.000368 13.1396
0.000372 13.32591
0.000378 13.43938
0.000383 13.60887
0.000388 13.73915
0.000393 13.87713
0.000397 14.02001
0.000402 14.16149
0.000408 14.28476
0.000412 14.42204
0.000418 14.55372
0.000425 14.71131
0.000431 14.8584
0.000436 15.02509
0.000442 15.16587
0.000446 15.32417
0.000451 15.46635
0.000457 15.63655
0.000462 15.79904
0.000467 15.92511
0.000472 16.0736
0.000478 16.21368
0.000483 16.34886
0.000489 16.50575
0.000494 16.66544
0.000499 16.78591
0.000504 16.947
0.000509 17.1102
0.000516 17.30631
0.000521 17.49822
0.000526 17.65792
0.000532 17.82181
0.000537 17.96679
0.000543 18.12439
0.00055 18.29739
0.000554 18.48369
0.00056 18.63638
0.000565 18.79677
0.000571 18.94736
0.000577 19.11126
0.000582 19.26745
0.000587 19.43765
0.000593 19.65197
0.000598 19.79625
0.000603 19.93283
0.000608 20.11354
0.000612 20.30545
0.000617 20.44833
0.000622 20.61012
0.000626 20.75301
0.000631 20.90009
0.000636 21.06048
0.000641 21.20757
0.000645 21.34205
0.00065 21.49053
0.000655 21.66914
0.00066 21.83373
0.000664 22.04595
0.000669 22.23646
0.000673 22.40736
0.000677 22.59297
0.000682 22.76037
0.000687 22.90395
0.000693 23.04543
0.000698 23.18551
0.000703 23.36342
0.000709 23.52871
0.000714 23.673
0.000719 23.8467
0.000723 24.04351
0.000728 24.1927
0.000733 24.3664
0.000737 24.52119
0.00074 24.64936
0.000744 24.85948
0.000749 25.04089
0.000755 25.20548
0.00076 25.42191
0.000765 25.60121
0.00077 25.7616
0.000776 25.94231
0.000781 26.13772
0.000787 26.31072
0.000793 26.51104
0.000799 26.65252
0.000806 26.83322
0.000813 26.98731
0.000819 27.17922
0.000826 27.36133
0.000832 27.54834
0.000838 27.74025
0.000844 27.94757
0.00085 28.1766
0.000856 28.35591
0.000862 28.54501
0.000869 28.72432
0.000876 28.94004
0.000883 29.13546
0.00089 29.30706
0.000897 29.48566
0.000903 29.65025
0.000909 29.89259
0.000916 30.08871
0.000922 30.28482
0.000929 30.47323
0.000936 30.63222
0.000942 30.82203
0.000948 31.03355
0.000956 31.21916
0.000963 31.44819
0.000969 31.64081
0.000974 31.83062
0.000981 32.00782
0.000989 32.16541
0.000997 32.36012
0.001004 32.55624
0.001011 32.74815
0.001017 32.95687
0.001024 33.12707
0.001031 33.33999
0.001038 33.57603
0.001045 33.80996
0.001053 33.98716
0.00106 34.2246
0.001067 34.4018
0.001074 34.60352
0.00108 34.82555
0.001087 35.01326
0.001093 35.15894
0.0011 35.36696
0.001106 35.56167
0.001112 35.74518
0.001119 35.97631
0.001126 36.18223
0.001134 36.39235
0.00114 36.59757
0.001146 36.79089
0.001152 36.97159
0.001159 37.18872
0.001166 37.38483
0.001173 37.60826
0.001181 37.78686
0.001189 37.97877
0.001196 38.13426
0.001203 38.36119
0.00121 38.58392
0.001216 38.79825
0.001223 38.94183
0.00123 39.14495
0.001237 39.33476
0.001244 39.52877
0.001252 39.73609
0.001259 39.90909
0.001266 40.11291
0.001273 40.31743
0.00128 40.52264
0.001287 40.68094
0.001294 40.86374
0.001301 41.04305
0.001307 41.26297
0.001313 41.42126
0.00132 41.57605
0.001326 41.78477
0.001332 42.0026
0.001337 42.23163
0.001343 42.44316
0.001349 42.65958
0.001355 42.84659
0.001362 43.05461
0.001367 43.29065
0.001374 43.51197
0.00138 43.79003
0.001387 43.98405
0.001394 44.19557
0.001401 44.45682
0.001408 44.65223
0.001415 44.88477
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0.104525 146.9184
0.104562 146.9702
0.104598 146.9667
0.104634 146.9422
0.10467 146.9436
0.104705 146.9541
0.104741 147.0186
0.104778 147.0242
0.104814 147.0165
0.104849 146.9926
0.104885 147.0074
0.104921 147.0214
0.104958 147.041
0.104995 147.0417
0.105032 147.0109
0.10507 147.0031
0.105107 147.0431
0.105144 147.0298
0.105182 147.0991
0.105218 147.1299
0.105255 147.1586
0.105292 147.1257
0.10533 147.1446
0.105367 147.1404
0.105406 147.1804
0.105444 147.1986
0.105483 147.2133
0.105522 147.1818
0.105561 147.2399
0.1056 147.2497
0.105638 147.214
0.105677 147.1888
0.105716 147.1446
0.105754 147.1278
0.105793 147.0732
0.105832 147.1033
0.10587 147.104
0.105908 147.1096
0.105946 147.0851
0.105985 147.0368
0.106024 147.0389
0.106062 147.062
0.1061 147.0627
0.106139 147.0081
0.106178 147.0165
0.106217 147.0045
0.106256 147.0599
0.106296 147.055
0.106335 147.0403
0.106374 147.0396
0.106414 147.0368
0.106455 147.0655
0.106495 147.0711
0.106535 146.98
0.106575 146.9366
0.106615 146.9338
0.106655 146.9436
0.106695 146.9303
0.106735 146.8785
0.106775 146.8196
0.106814 146.8386
0.106854 146.8834
0.106895 146.9177
0.106935 146.9457
0.106976 146.9289
0.107016 146.9345
0.107056 146.9975
0.107096 146.9898
0.107136 146.9807
0.107176 146.9807
0.107217 146.9562
0.107258 146.9723
0.107299 146.9961
0.10734 146.9947
0.107382 146.9527
0.107424 146.9737
0.107466 146.9639
0.107507 146.9478
0.107549 146.9212
0.10759 146.9156
0.107632 146.8988
0.107674 146.9128
0.107716 146.8925
0.107759 146.8918
0.107802 146.8827
0.107846 146.8841
0.107889 146.8792
0.107931 146.9198
0.107974 146.9912
0.108016 147.0074
0.108059 147.0017
0.108102 147.0081
0.108145 146.9954
0.108187 146.973
0.10823 146.9611
0.108272 146.9359
0.108315 146.9128
0.108357 146.8995
0.1084 146.8995
0.108444 146.8827
0.108488 146.8834
0.108532 146.8855
0.108576 146.8456
0.10862 146.8386
0.108665 146.833
0.10871 146.8049
0.108754 146.7916
0.108799 146.7664
0.108844 146.7559
0.10889 146.7286
0.108936 146.7552
0.108982 146.772
0.109027 146.7839
0.109073 146.73
0.109118 146.7048
0.109163 146.6691
0.109208 146.7111
0.109253 146.6775
0.109299 146.6431
0.109346 146.5612
0.109393 146.5199
0.10944 146.5073
0.109487 146.5318
0.109533 146.4961
0.109579 146.482
0.109625 146.4533
0.109671 146.4225
0.109718 146.454
0.109766 146.4197
0.109812 146.3511
0.10986 146.3189
0.109907 146.3714
0.109954 146.3742
0.110002 146.391
0.11005 146.3854
0.110098 146.3826
0.110147 146.3182
0.110196 146.3175
0.110245 146.302
0.110293 146.3069
0.110341 146.2936
0.110389 146.3076
0.110438 146.2649
0.110487 146.2243
0.110536 146.1627
0.110585 146.1543
0.110633 146.1073
0.110682 146.08
0.110731 146.073
0.110781 146.0072
0.11083 145.9595
0.110879 145.9014
0.110929 145.8552
0.110979 145.8111
0.111029 145.7928
0.111079 145.7697
0.11113 145.7382
0.111181 145.7102
0.111231 145.6654
0.111281 145.6367
0.11133 145.6521
0.11138 145.6184
0.111431 145.5792
0.111481 145.4686
0.111532 145.374
0.111583 145.3208
0.111634 145.2907
0.111684 145.2374
0.111735 145.194
0.111786 145.1436
0.111837 145.1142
0.111888 145.0882
0.111939 144.9965
0.111991 144.8879
0.112043 144.8319
0.112094 144.8158
0.112146 144.771
0.112198 144.7226
0.112249 144.6743
0.112301 144.5727
0.112353 144.5762
0.112404 144.5692
0.112457 144.544
0.11251 144.4887
0.112562 144.4222
0.112614 144.3437
0.112666 144.2541
0.112718 144.2113
0.112769 144.1035
0.11282 143.962
0.112872 143.8562
0.112923 143.7953
0.112975 143.7533
0.113027 143.7063
0.113079 143.5845
0.11313 143.5242
0.113182 143.4738
0.113234 143.4311
0.113286 143.3246
0.113338 143.2112
0.11339 143.1453
0.113443 143.0783
0.113495 143.0195
0.113547 142.9621
0.1136 142.8734
0.113653 142.7989
0.113707 142.6747
0.113759 142.6129
0.113813 142.5694
0.113867 142.5334
0.11392 142.4937
0.113974 142.3638
0.114027 142.3119
0.11408 142.261
0.114133 142.1783
0.114186 142.1165
0.114239 141.9549
0.114293 141.8214
0.114346 141.8187
0.1144 141.7219
0.114453 141.6317
0.114508 141.4769
0.114562 141.4819
0.114615 141.3991
0.114669 141.2128
0.114724 141.2436
0.114778 141.2079
0.114833 141.1407
0.11489 141.087
0.114947 141.035
0.115002 140.925
0.115057 140.8203
0.115112 140.827
0.115168 140.7873
0.115223 140.6421
0.11528 140.5598
0.115335 140.5439
0.115392 140.6216
0.115446 140.3531
0.115502 140.2456
0.115557 139.9851
0.115613 139.3679
0.115671 139.2983
0.115729 139.5229
0.115787 139.0767
0.115849 139.2496
0.115913 138.7937
0.115984 139.0201
0.116063 138.44
0.116152 137.1667
Column B

0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14