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Subject Code :EN 63002

Lecturer : Eng.Juhaniya.A.I.S,BSc.Eng,Pg.Dip(EE),AMIESL
Dept.Electrical & Telecom.Eng.
Course contents
• Plant Modelling, Response and Feedback Control [8 h]
• Open loop and closed loop systems,Feedback control, Transfer function, Characteristic
equation, Poles and zeros

• Control systems design in time-domain [10 h]

• Pole placement with Root Locus method,Design of second order control systems (rise
time, settling time, overshoot, etc), Controllers and Matlab design and simulation

• Control systems design in frequency-domain [8 h]

• Bode plot

• Implementation of Control systems [4 h]

• Analog controllers using Opamps
• Digital controllers using microcontrollers
Systems : A combination of different types of components that act together to achieve
a certain objective.
Plant : It is defined as the portion of a system, which is to be controlled or regulated. It
is also called a process.
Controller : The element which control the plant or process.
Disturbances : the signal that has some adverse effect on the value of the output.
Process: A process is one where continuing sequencial operation goes on to lead
towards a particular goal of a product or result.
Classification of control systems
• Natural and Man-made control systems
• Manual and Automatic control systems
• Time-Variant and Time-Invariant control systems
• Linear and Non-linear control systems
• Continuous-time and discrete-time control systems
• SISO and MIMO control systems
• Open-loop and Closed loop systems
Open-loop and Closed loop systems:
Open-Loop systems
• A system in which control action does not depend on output is known as open-loop

• Examples of open-loop systems :

- Automatic washing machines
- Electric Iron
- Electric lift
- Traffic signals and etc.
Open-Loop systems
Advantages :
a. Simple in construction and design.
b. Very economic.
c. Easy from maintenance point of view.
d. Convenient to use when output is difficult to measure.

Disadvantages :
a. Not accurate and reliable.
b. Inaccurate results are occurred because of parameter variations.
c. Recalibration of the controller is required from time to time.
Closed-Loop systems
• If controlling action of a system are somehow dependent on output or changes in
output ,system is called closed-loop system.
• Permits comparison of output with input.
• So that appropriate controlling action can be taken is called the feedback of the
Practical Examples of Closed Loop Control
1. Automatic Electric Iron – Heating elements are controlled by output temperature
of the iron.
2. Servo Voltage Stabilizer – Voltage controller operates depending upon
output voltage of the system.
3. Water Level Controller – Input water is controlled by water level of the reservoir.
4. Missile Launched and Auto Tracked by Radar – The direction of missile is
controlled by comparing the target and position of the missile.
5. An Air Conditioner – An air conditioner functions depending upon the
temperature of the room.
6. Cooling System in Car – It operates depending upon the temperature which it
Closed-Loop systems
Advantages :
• More accurate even in the presence of non-linearity.
• Bandwidth range is large.
• The sensitivity of system may be made small to make system more stable.
• This system is less affected by noise.

Disadvantages :
• They are costlier.
• They are complicated to design.
• Required more maintenance.
• Feedback leads to oscillatory response.
• Overall gain is reduced due to presence of feedback.
Comparison of Closed Loop And Open Loop
Control System
Open-Loop Control System Closed-Loop Control System

The feedback element is absent. The feedback element is always present.

An error detector is not present. An error detector is always present.

It is stable one. It may become unstable.
Easy to construct. Complicated construction.
It is an economical. It is costly.
It is inaccurate. It is accurate.
Less maintenance. More maintenance.
Feedback Loop of Control System
• A feedback is a common and powerful tool when designing a control system.
• Enables the system to adjust its performance to meet a desired result of system.
• In any control system, the output is affected due to change in environmental
condition or any kind of disturbance.
• So one signal is taken from the output and is fed back to the input.
• his signal is compared with a reference input and the error signal is generated. This
error signal is applied to controller and output is corrected.
• Such a system is called feedback system. The figure below shows the block
diagram of a feedback system.
 When the feedback signal is positive then system called positive feedback system.
 For positive feedback system, the error signal is the addition of reference input
signal and a feedback signal.
 When the feedback signal is negative then the system is called negative feedback
 For negative feedback system, the error signal is given by the difference of
reference input signal and the feedback signal.
Effects of Feedback
• Effect of feedback on Overall Gain

 feedback affects the gain G of a non feedback system by a factor of (1 +GH). The
system of is said to have negative feedback, because a minus sign is assigned to the
feedback signal.
 The quantity GH may itself include a minus sign, so the general effect of feedback is
that it may increase or decrease the gain G.
 In a practical control system, G and H are functions of frequency, so the magnitude
of 1 + GH may be greater than 1 in one frequency range but less than 1 in another.
 Therefore Feedback could increase the gain of systen1 in one frequency range but
decrease it in another
• Effect of Feedback on Stability

System is said to be unstable if its output is out of control.

If GH = - l, the output of the system is infinite for any finite input, and the system
is said to be unstable.
If we introduce another feedback loop through a negative feedback gain of F, the
input-output relation of the overall system is

The overall system can be stable by properly selecting the outer-loop feedback
gain F.
Feedback can improve stability or be harmful to stability if it is not properly
• The sensitivity of the gain of the overall system M to the variation in G is defined as
• Effect of Feedback on External Disturbance or Noise
 The effect of feedback on noise and disturbance depends greatly on where these
extraneous signals occur in the system.
 No general conclusions can be reached, but in many situations, feedback can
reduce the effect of noise and disturbance on system performance

Example :
Find sensitivity of the over all transfer function of the system shown by the
figure below with respect to forward path transfer function.
Transfer Function
• A transfer function represents the relationship between the output signal of a control
system and the input signal, for all possible input values.
• A block diagram is a visualization of the control system which uses blocks to represent
the transfer function, and arrows which represent the various input and output signals.
• Thus the cause and effect relationship between the output and input is related to each
other through a transfer function.

• In a Laplace transform, if the input is represented by R(s) and the output is represented
by C(s), then the transfer function will be:
Example :
Determine the transfer function of the circuit given below where Vi(t) is the
input to the system and Vo(t) is the output of the system.
Poles and Zeros of Transfer Function
• Transfer function of a control system can also be represented as

• Where k is the gain factor

• Roots the numerator polynomial, the transfer function becomes zero, these roots
are called zeros of the transfer function.
• Now, if s = p1, or s = p2, or s = p3,….s = pm, the value of transfer function becomes
infinite. Thus the roots of denominator are called the poles of the function.
Example :
1. The impulse response of a system is
What will be the transfer function of the system?
2. Find the poles and zeros of the function
Characteristic Equation
• The denominator of closed loop transfer function determines the
characteristic equation of the system.
• Which is usually determined as:
(1+G(s)H(s)) = 0
Block Diagram representation
• Reduction of block diagram
i. Combining blocks in cascade

ii. Combining blocks in parallel

iii. Eliminating a feedback loop

iv. Moving a summing point behind a block

v. Moving a summing point ahead a block

vi. Moving a pickoff point behind a block

vii. Moving a pickoff point ahead of a block

Examples :
END : Transfer Function and Block diagram
Thanking You