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Introduction To FLUENT

David H. Porter
Minnesota Supercomputer Institute
University of Minnesota
Topics Covered in this Tutorial
● What you can do with FLUENT
– FLUENT is feature rich
– Summary of features and capabilities
● Using FLUENT at MSI
– Hosts, X forwarding, environment, startup
● Essentials of working with FLUENT
– Basic steps for success
● User Resources at MSI
– Web documentation: User Guides & tutorials
– Help is available: helpline & forums
What You Can Do With FLUENT
● Flow problems in 2D and 3D
● Compressible & Incompressible
● Steady state and time dependent
● Variety of material properties
● Complex physics & chemsitry
● Inviscid, viscous, and turbulence models
● Complex geometries & meshes
● Multiple and non-inertial reference frames
● Quantitative analysis & visualization
Flow Problems in 2D and 3D
● 2D
– Planar
– Axisymmetric
– Axisymmetric with swirl

● 3D
– Full 3D
– Complex boundaries
Compressible and Incompressible
● Low subsonic
– Incompressible or weakly compressible
– Constant or variable density
– Equation of state
● Transonic
– Strong compressibility
– Shock waves
● Supersonic & Hypersonic
– Inviscid model
– Euler discontinuities
– Strong shocks
Steady State and Time Dependent
● Iterative convergence to
steady state solutions

● Follow transient solutions

● Use steady state solution


to initialize transient
problems.
Material Properties
● Newtonian & non-Newtonian fluids
● Phase changes
– Melting and solidification

● Porous media
– Non-isotropic permeability
– Inertial resistance Porous media in a catalytic converter
– Solid heat conduction
– Porous-face pressure jump conditions

● Material properties database


Chemistry
● Chemical Species
– Mixing
– Reaction

● Combustion models
– Homogeneous
– Heterogeneous

● Surface deposition/reaction models


Complex Physics
● MHD 000

● Heat transfer
– solid/fluid “conjugate” transfer Natural Convection
Velocity field
– Forced, natural & mixed convection

● Volume sources of mass,


momentum and energy

● Acoustic models: flow induced


noise
Viscosity & Turbulence Models
● Models for various flow regimes
– Laminar (only for smooth flows)
– Viscous (Navier-Stokes)
● Turbulence models
– Large Eddy Simulations (LES)
– Detached Eddy Simulation
– Spalart-Allmaras (1 eqn)
– K-epsilon (standard & RNG) (2 eqn)
– K-omega (2 eqn)
– Reynolds Stress (7 eqn)
Complex Geometries & Meshes
● Various and mixed meshes
– Structured, unstructured, & mixed
● Sliding meshes
● Mixing-plane model
– Time averaged mesh boundaries
● Dynamic (deforming) meshes
● Free surfaces
● GAMBIT: mesh generation
● T-GRID: merge meshes
Reference Frames
● Inertial
– Stationary or moving

● Non-inertial
– Rotating
– Accelerating

● Multiple reference frames


– Meshes in relative motion
Quantitative Analysis
● XY plots of values along
lines
– Primitive & derived
quantities
● Surface and volume
integrals
– Fluxes
– Averages
● Temporal variation
● Fourier analysis
Flow Visualization
● On surfaces
– Contours
– Primitive and derived fields
● In volumes
– Particle paths
– Vector fields
– Colored with scalar fields
● Animation
– Time dependent flows
– Moving viewpoint
Using FLUENT at MSI
● Hardware to run FLUENT on
– Computational resources at MSI
– MSI maintains academic licenses from ANSYS
– Run locally in MSI labs
● Running remotely on core hardware
– SSH & X forwarding
● Getting Started
– Environmental settings & modules
– Tutorial files & run directories
– GUIs for GAMBIT & FLUENT
FLUENT Availability at MSI

● Core hardware (remote access)


– Altix (up to 256 processors)
– Regatta (up to 32 processors)
http://www.msi.umn.edu/hardware/

● Labs (run locally or remotely)


– BMSDL
– SDVL
http://www.msi.umn.edu/labs/
Running Remotely
● GUI driven GAMBIT & FLUENT
● From your graphics & X11 enabled desktop
– X11 is standard with Linux shells
– On Mac use an xterm shell & “ssh -Y ...”
– On Windows, need X server & SSH client
●X server: XMing
● SSH client: PuTTY
http://www.cs.caltech.edu/courses/cs11/misc/xwindows.html

● Linux: SSH to remote host with X forwarding


ssh -X <user_name>@regatta.msi.umn.edu
Getting Started
● Use the “fluent” module to set your environment
module load fluent

● GAMBIT & FLUENT produce many files


– Good idea to make a project directory

● Tutorial resource files available on regatta


– Meshes & example output
– Zipped files for each tutorial
/usr/local/Fluent.Inc/fluent6.3.26/help/tutfiles
http://wwwr.msi.umn.edu/fluent/tutfiles/
Essentials of Working with FLUENT
● Dream up a problem
● Draw a picture with labels for consistency
● Use GAMBIT to generate mesh
– Specify geometry & boundaries
– Specify solver, mesh type & resolution
● Use FLUENT to generate flow solutions
– Specify models, boundaries, material properties
– Specify solver approx, monitors, & iterate ...
– Adapt/refine mesh
– Examine/compare results
Example Problem
Channel flow with backward-facing step
● Classic problem from turbulence
● Our example: 2D for simplicity & speed
● Will solve for steady state solution
● Compare results from different models

Re = (2/3)U(2h)/nu = 500

Lambros, Kaiktsis, Karniadakis, & Orszag, 1991


Rani, Sheu, & Tsai, 2007,
JFM vol. 231, pp. 501-528
JFM vol. 588, pp. 43–58
Define Geometry
Y

vip=(-1,1) vop=(10,1)
Wall Outflow
Inflow
Wall vm0=(0,0)
X
vi0=(-1,0)
Wall
Wall
vmm=(0,-1) vom=(10,-1)

●2D problem: Z=0


●Walls can be free slip or no slip

●Use default MKS units


Mesh Generation: Outline
● Setup & start GAMBIT
● Specify FLUENT 5/6 solver
● 0D: Vertices from point coordinates
● 1D: Edges from pairs of vertexes
● 2D: Domain from edges
● Specify 1D meshes on Edges
● Interior mesh (on face) from 1D meshes
● Associate boundary types & labels with edges
● Save work & export mesh
Setup GAMBIT
● Project Directory
– Make directory: mkdir step
– Enter directory: cd step

● Start GAMBIT
– module load fluent
– gambit

● Specify solver
menu: solver -> FLUENT 5/6
Specify Vertices
● Vertexes from point coordinates
– Operation: GEOMETRY button
– Geometry: VETREX button
– Vertex: CREATE VERTEX button
– Enter coordinates with labels & APPLY for each pair
vip (-1,1) vmm (0,-1)
vim (-1,0) vom (10,-1)
vm0 (0,0) vop (10,1)

● Resize view to see all


– Global Control: FIT TO WINDOW button
Create 1D Edges & 2D Domain
● Edges from pairs of vertices
– Geometry: EDGE button
– Edge: CREATE EDGE button: strait edge (default)
– Select pairs of vertices, label, & Apply
in {vip, vim} bot {vmm, vom}
ibot {vim, vm0} out {vom, vop}
step {vm0, vmm} top {vop, vip}

● Face from edges


– Geometry: FACE button
– Face: FORM FACE button
– Select all edges, label “domain”, & Apply
Generate Mesh
● 1D Mesh on Edges (0.1 m mesh)
– Operation: MESH button
– Mesh: EDGE button
– Mesh Edges dialog:
● Spacing: 0.1 (interval size)
● Select all edges & Apply
● Mesh 2D domain from edges
– Mesh: FACE button
– Face: MESH FACES button
– Mesh faces dialog:
● Select all edges
● Retain defaults for quad mesh & Apply
Boundary Types
● Associate boundary types &
labels with edges
– Operation: ZONES button
– Zones: SPECIFY BOUNDARY
TYPES button
– Specify Boundary Types dialog:
● Edge, label , boundary type, Apply
in inlet VELOCITY_INLET
out outlet PRESURE_OUTLET
top top WALL
bot bot WALL
ibot ibot WALL
step step WALL
Save Work & Export Mesh
● Good Idea to save GAMBIT session
– Modify or fix mesh as needed
– Use as a starting point for another project
Menu: File -> Save As ...

● Export mesh
– Generates a mesh file: step.msh
– Will import this file into FLUENT
Menu: File -> Export -> Mesh ...
● Enable “Export 2-D (X-Y) Mesh”

● File name: step.msh

● Accept
Solve for Steady State Solution
● Use FLUENT
● Import mesh
● Models: solver, viscous, source terms, ...
● Material properties
● Boundary conditions
● Operating conditions
● Solution controls & initialization
● Monitors
● Iterate ...
Setup FLUENT
● Use “step” project directory
– Contains file: step.msh
● Set environment: module load fluent
– Only need to do once per shell
– Can put “module load ...” in file: .bashrc
● Run FLUENT for 2D simulations
fluent 2D
● Import mesh from file step.msh
File -> Read -> Case
● Check mesh: Grid -> Check
Choose Model
● Solver framework
Define -> Models -> Solver
– Retain defaults

● Energy equation?
Define -> Models -> Energy ...
– Simple, low Mach flow: Try energy eqn. off

● Viscosity model
Define -> Models -> Viscous ...
– Try Laminar option.
Materials & Boundaries
● Select fluid
Define -> Materials ...
– Can select from Database
– Can define your own
– Will keep default: air
● Dynamic Viscosity: 1.7894e-05 [kg/m-s]
● Boundaries: Define -> Bounary Conditions
– Select Inlet (Velocity Inlet) & Set...
– Set Velocity Magnitude: 0.002435 m/s (Re ~ 500)
– Retain default settings for outlet (Pressure Outlet)
– Retain defaults for all other boundaries (Wall)
Operating Conditions & Solver Controls
● Set operating conditions
Define -> Operating Conditions ...
– Retain defaults

● NOTE: panel entry fields


adapt to model chosen.

Set solver controls


Solve -> Controls -> Solution

Discretization: Momentum: 2nd order
Upwind
● Retain other defaults
Initialization & Monitors
● Initialize flow on mesh
Solve -> Initialize -> Initialize ...
– Compute From: inlet
– Init

● Solution convergence monitors


Solve -> Monitors -> Residual ...
– Select “Plot” under Options
– Increase Storage & Plotting
iterations to 10000
– Keep Continuity, X-, & Y-velocity
monitors
Iterative Solution to Steady State
● Iterate
Solver -> Iterate ...
– Set # of iterations to 1000
– Iterate
● Laminar: unrealistic
– Low res. mesh
– Numerical Diff.
– Need Turb. Visc.

● Save settings & data


File -> Write -> Case & Data ...
Try a Turbulence Model
● Standard K-epsilon model
Define -> Models -> Viscous ...
– Select k-epsilon (2 eqn)
– Retain standard default settings
● Solver for SGS fields
Solve -> Controls -> Solution ...
– 2nd order Upwind for TKE & TDR
● Iterate ...
Examine Flow
● Vector fields
● Contours
● Particle paths
● XY plots along lines or edges
● Quantitative reports
● Compare results from different models
● Hard copy output
File -> Hardcopy ...
– I've used: JPEG & Color
Flow Visualization
● Display -> Vectors
– In subsets of full domain
– Colored by ...
– Zoom with middle mouse button

● Display -> Contours ...


– Select “Filled” under Options

● Display -> Pathlines ...


– Steps 200; Path skip 2
– Release from “default-interior”
Quantitative Results
● Pressure along a vertical cut
Surface -> Line/Rake
● X0=X1=0.6; Y0=-1; Y1=1
● Name: x=0.6
Plot -> XY Plot ...
● Plot Direction: (X,Y,Z)=(0,1,0)
● Surfaces: x=0.6 & Plot
● Quantitative reports
Report -> Fluxes ...
Mass Flow Rate (kg/s)
– Select: Inlet & Outlet inlet 0.0029828751
outlet -0.0029837638
– Retain Mass Flow Rate Net -8.887e-07
– Compute
Compare Results from Different Models

● Plot -> XY Plot ...


– Select “Write to File”
– Write
● Switch cases
File -> Write -> Case & Date
File -> Read -> Case & Data
● Plot -> XY Plot ...
– Load File ...
● Select file: keps_Vx_on_x=0.6.xy
– Plot
Adapt/Refine Mesh
● Reason: test & improve accuracy
● Refinement based on your choice of
– Gradients
– Residual errors
– Domain
● Adapt -> Region
– X=[-1,10]; y=[-1,1]
– Adapt
● doubles mesh
● Solver -> Iterate ...
Comparison of Vx from 3 Models
User Resources at MSI
● User Guide & tutorials on the WEB:
– GAMBIT: http://wwwr.msi.umn.edu/gambit/index.htm
– FLUENT: http://wwwr.msi.umn.edu/fluent/index.htm

● MSI User Support


– Email: help@msi.umn.edu
– Phone: 612–626–0802 (8:30am – 5pm)

● MSI web portals & Forums


– Still in planning stages
– Will be under MSI web site http://www.msi.umn.edu
Proposed:
MSI Forum on Fluid Dynamics/Continuum Mech.
● Interdisciplinary & interdepartmental
– Theory, Experiment, Computation
– Facilitate access to local resources & opportunities
– Share knowhow
– Address questions & concerns with MSI resources
– Brainstorm projects leveraged by MSI resources
● Still in planning stages
– Forums will be user driven
– Your input is crucial
– Email: porter@msi.umn.edu