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Important Lessons for the Ummah

Explained by Shaykh Saleh as Saleh


Notes taken by Nasrin As-Salafiyah
Table of Content
1. Preface  P. # 3
2. Chapter Two: Shahaadah – Testimony and its Nullifiers [Audio # 13]  P. # 4 to 10
3. Chapter Three: Pillars of Faith [Audio # 14]  P. # 11 to 17
4. Chapter Four: Tawheed – Shirk Opposes Tawheed [Audio # 15]  P. # 18 to 21
5. Chapter Five: Pillars of Islam – 1 – Belief in Allah [Audio # 16]  P. # 22 to 30
A. First Pillar of Islam  P. # 22 to 25
B. Second Pillar of Islam  P. # 25 to 30
6. Chapter Five: Pillars of Islam – 5 – Fasting [Audio # 20]  P. # 31 to 37
7. Chapter Six: Conditions of Salaah [Audio # 25]  P. # 38 to 43
8. Chapter Seven: Pillars of Salaah [Audio # 26]  P. # 44 to 46
9. Chapter Eight: Waajibaat of Salaah [Audio # 27]  P. # 47 to 48
10. Chapter Nine: At-Tashahud – Its meaning [Audio # 28]  P. # 49 to 52
11. Chapter Ten: Sunnah Acts of As-Salah [Audio # 29]  P. # 53 to 54
12. Chapter Eleven: Invalidators of Salaah [Audio # 30]  P. # 55

Appendixes
1. Traveling without Mahram for Women is Haram By Shaykh Saleh as Saleh  P. # 57
2. TV - Yes or No? By Shaykh Saleh as Saleh  P. # 58
3. Wedding – Marriage & Its Rules and Issues By Shaykh Muhammad al-Uthaymeen  P. # 59 to 68
4. Marriage is Half of the Deen – what does it mean? By Shaykh Saleh as Saleh  P. # 69 to 70
5. Advices to sisters before Marriage By Shaykh Saleh as Saleh  P. # 71 to 72
6. A Successful Marriage By Shaykh Muhammad Al-Malki  P. # 73 to 76
7. How to purify yourselves for the prayers? By Abu Muhammad Al-Magribee  P. # 77 to 80
8. Text of the book, “Important Lessons for the Ummah” By Shaykh Ibn Bazz  P. # 81 to 97

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Preface

Bismillah  Walhamdulillah  
Assalamualikum  warahma  tullahi  wabaraka  tuhu  
 
This  small  effort  consist  of  transcribe  notes  [not  word  for  word  transcription],  and  summary  of  a  small  book  that  were  
covered  in  the  “Muslim  Sisters  Study  Circle”  at  City  College  of  New  York.  The  main  work  was  done  by  Sister  Nasrin  Akther  and  
then  proofreading  was  done  by  her  sisters  in  Islam  and  from  them  are  “Al-­‐Mujahidah”,  “Salafisister”,  “Areesa  B.”,  “Umm  
Abdillh  Ndao”,  and  “TkMauri”.  May  Allah  reward  every  single  of  the  sisters  for  their  efforts  in  this  blessed  project.    
 
Even  after  proofread,  there  still  could  be  errors  in  the  file.  Thus,  we  request  you  if  you  come  across  any  errors  or  typos  or  
mistakes,  please  leave  a  comment  @  http://msscofccny.multiply.com/  stating  what  needs  to  be  amended.  InshaaAllah.    
 
We  ask  Allah  to  make  this  little  effort  of  ours  sincerely  for  His  Face  and  make  it  a  benefit  for  us  and  for  Islam  and  Muslim.    
 
Jazakumul  Allahu  khayran  kathiran  Wa  Baaraka  Allahu  feekum  Jiddan  
Was-­‐salamualikum  warahma  tullahi  wabaraka  tuhu  
Nasrin  As-­‐Salafiyah  

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Chapter Two: Shahaadah – Testimony and its Nullifiers [Audio # 13]

Meaning of first testimony (Shahadah): laa ilaha illa Allah

Meaning of “laa ilaha” is negating of the shirk in all its kinds entailing disbelief in shirk and all that is
worshipped beside Allah or to the exclusion of Allah, and the meaning of “illa Allah” is affirmation of all
worship to Allah alone having no partner nor associate. Therefore the meaning of of laa ilaha illa Allah is the
firm conviction and attestation that none deserves to be worshipped except Allah and adherence to that and
acting upon it. This is the meaning of laa ilaha illa Allah. Evidences for this is the saying of Allah, “[Soorah
Muhammad 047:019] So know (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) that Lâ ilâha illallâh (none has the
right to be worshipped but Allâh), and ask forgiveness for your sin…”

Meaning know that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah alone, this is the meaning in this verse.
And this meaning, this affirmation and this negation came in the Book of Allah in “[Soorah Al-Baqarah
002.256] Whoever disbelieves in Tâghût and believes in Allâh, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that
will never break. And Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.”

Question: What is the meaning of Taghoot?


Answer: Taghoot: is derived from the word togyan in Arabic – which means exceeding the limits. Categories
of taghoot are:

1. Whatever is worshipped instead of or to the exclusion of Allah is a Taghoot


a. Ex: human being who is pleased to be set as object of worship is a taghoot
2. The one who exceeds the limits concerning following and obedience to other than Allah and in setting
others as rivals to Allah then himself is a taghoot.
3. Istihlal: those who make istihlal making permissible what Allah has made impermissible and vice versa
and are obeyed for that are taghoot because they are being set as Lords beside Allah; obeying istihlal is of
three types and they are:
a. If the person obeys them while pleased and content by their saying, giving precedence to their
judgment and discontent with Allah’s ruling then he is a kafir.
b. The person obeys them while accepting Allah’s ruling and knowing that it is the best and most
fitting to men but due to lowly desires in himself he chooses otherwise. For example: he
maybe seeking a job and so forth. In this case, it is not kufr rather he is a fasiq – meaning
rebellion disobedient.
c. The person obeys them due to ignorance thinking that their rulings are those of Allah’s. This is
subdivided into two cases.
i. This person is able to know the truth by himself but he is negligent. In this case, he is
sinful because Allah ordered to ask the people of knowledge when matters are not
known.
ii. The person is not knowledgeable and is unable to learn but he follows them by way of
blind following believing that it is the truth. In this case there is nothing upon him
meaning not held blameworthy.
4. Taghoot also covers all that which opposes Allah’s judgment and this is of different levels and ranks, some
lead to exiting the fold of Islam while others don’t. Some examples on taghoot: soothsayers, magician and
“evil scholars” are taghoots, those (not clear) for being worshipped beside Allah as well as idols are
taghoots. And taghoot maybe also shaytan and/or anyone who is worshipped other than Allah and is
pleased for that and/or calls for it.

Here one should remember a very important benefit explaining the issue of taghoot which is often
misunderstood by enthusiastic young Muslims and this matter and this benefit was mentioned by Shaykh
Sulayman ibn Samhan who said, “It should be known that the one who seeks judgments from the taghoot or
the ruler or rather rules by other than Allah’s rule while believing that these judgments are more perfect and
better than the judgment of Allah and His Messenger then this is disbelief – kufr of creed that takes a person

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out of the fold of Islam as it is mentioned in the ten nullifiers of Islam. However, as the one who does not
believe as such but resorted to the taghoot judgment while believing it to be false then this is of the practical
type of disbelief, alkufrul amali – the practical type, which is a lesser type that does not take a person from
Islam. In addition, anyone – a ruler or ruled who equates the judgment of Allah and His messenger to that of
man or believe that the rules of man are more fitting to our time than the Islamic laws commits kufr.

It is therefore conclude (this is the point of benefit): that the term taghoot in itself does not necessarily translate
into major disbelief and apostasy since every kufr is taghoot but not every taghoot is kufr.

Imam Ibnul Qayyem rahimahu Allah said consider for example that figurative interpretation of Allah’s
Names and Attributes through scholastic ways and giving precedence to the intellect over the legal text as
taghoot, certainly none considers every level of these distortions as a major kufr.

Now continuing with the meaning of laa ilaha illa Allah, the explanation of the verse mentioned, “[002.256]
Whoever disbelieves in Tâghût and believes in Allâh” This is the meaning of laa ilaha illa Allah, denial of
taghoot and affirmation of tawheed. Also, same meaning is in surah Az-Zukruf, “[043:026-027] And (remember)
when Ibrâhîm (Abraham) said to his father and his people: "Verily, I am innocent of what you worship, Except Him (i.e. I
worship none but Allâh Alone) Who did create me; and verily, He will guide me."” Look at the denial – “I am innocent
of what you worship” and affirmation – “except Him who did create me…”.

Meaning of second testimony (Shahadah): Muhammad Rasul Allah

Muhammad Rasul Allah means: Obeying him in that which he enjoins or commands, believing in
that which he related, avoiding all that which he forbade and called us to abstain from, and that Allah should
not be worshipped except in the way that he sallallahu alayhe wa sallam explained and prescribed, legally
prescribed. [Mentioned by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab in “Three fundamental principles”. Therefore the
obedience to the Messenger is the obedience to Allah.

Pillars of this testimony are two:

1. Believing in his message


2. Believing that he is a slave worshipper of Allah as he sallallahu alayhe wa sallam mentioned,
“Verily, I am only a slave, so therefore say, slave of Allah and His Messenger.”

So he sallallahu alayhe wa sallam is not to be lifted to a rank above his rank such that he maybe looked up to
possess qualities of divinity or that he knows of the absolute unknown – in absolute sense knowing everything
of the unseen or that he benefits and harms or that he fulfills the needs when asked, and relieves the distress
and Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam was described by uboodiyyah – by slavery to Allah in the most
honorable stations.

1. Sending of revelation: Surah Al-Furqan: “[025:001] Blessed is He Who sent down the Criterion (of right and
wrong, i.e. this Qur'ân) to His slave (Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) that he may be a warner to the
'Âlamîn (mankind and jinn).”
2. Great journey of honor: Surah Al-Isra: “[017:001] Glorified (and Exalted) is He (Allâh) [above all that (evil) they
associate with Him] Who took His slave (Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) for a journey by night from
Al-Masjid Al-Harâm (at Makkah) to Al-Masjid Al-Aqsâ (in Jerusalem), the neighborhood whereof We have blessed,
in order that We might show him of Our Ayât (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.). Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the
All-Seer.”
3. In the station of salaah and invocation: Surah Al-Jinn: “[072:019] And when the slave of Allâh
(Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) stood up invoking Him (his Lord – Allâh) in prayer they (the jinn)
just made around him a dense crowd as if sticking one over the other (in order to listen to the Prophet's recitation).”

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Conditions of “laa ilaha illa Allah” are eight and they are:

First: Knowledge as oppose to ignorance: It is a must to have knowledge of it as to what it means, entails,
indicates, affirms, and negates. Allah says, “[Soorah Muhammad 047:019] So know (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu
'alayhi wa sallam]) that Lâ ilâha illallâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh), and ask forgiveness for your
sin…”

And “[Soorah az-Zukhruf 043:086] except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly (i.e. believed in the Oneness of
Allâh, and obeyed His Orders), and they know (the facts about the Oneness of Allâh).” Meaning believing in the
tawheed of Allah and they know, they know what it means, they testify by their tongues while they know the
facts in their hearts as to what their tongues testify to.

Hadith of Uthman radi Allahu anhu who said, the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “No one
dies while knowing that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah will enter Jannah.”

Many of the people nowadays utter this by their tongue and they know nothing or almost nothing about what
it means and that’s why they fall into shirk while they utter it, while the Mushrikeen (disbelievers) of the time
of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam knew well what means and requires and that’s why they said as
“[Soorah Saad 038:005] "Has he made the âlihah (gods) (all) into One Ilâh (God – Allâh). Verily, this is a curious
thing!"”

Second: Certainty as oppose to doubt: Meaning who utters the testimony of laa ilaha illa Allah, he utters that
certain as to what it means having no doubt so if there is only doubt and uncertainty in his heart concerning
what it entails then it would be of no benefit to him. Allah described the believers saying, “[Soorah al-Hujuraat
049:015] Only those are the believers who have believed in Allâh and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not...”

So they are certain, perfect certainty, as for those in doubt are the hypocrites, Allah says about them,“[Soorah
at-Towbah 009:045] It is only those who believe not in Allâh and the Last Day and whose hearts are in doubt that ask
your leave (to be exempted from Jihâd). So in their doubts they waver.”

And in the hadith of Abu Hurayra radi Allahu anhu that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “Whoever
says none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and I am the messenger of Allah, no one shall meet Allah with this
conviction and not doubting that except that he will be admitted to Jannah.” And in another hadith from Abu
Hurayra radi Allahu anhu that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “Whoever you meet outside of this
garden, who testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah with certainty in his heart, give him the glad
tidings of Jannah.”

Third: Sincerity as oppose to shirk: This kalimah of tawheed does not benefit the one who utters that without
sincerity, Allah says, “[Soorah al-Bayyinah 098:005] And they were commanded not, but that they should worship
Allâh, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him), and perform As-Salât (the prayers)
and give Zakât (obligatory charity), and that is the right religion.”

Also, Abu Hurayra radi Allahu anhu narrated that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “The most happy
ones to receive my intercession are those who said none has the right to be worshipped except Allah with sincerity from their
hearts.” Also, in the hadith of Uthman radi Allahu anhu that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “Allah
has forbade for the hellfire anyone who says none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and they says this seeking the
Face of Allah.”

Forth: Truthfulness as oppose to lying (dishonesty and hypocrisy concerning what it means and entails): The person
must utter with truthfulness, truly from his heart. Proof is the saying of Allah, “[Soorah al-'Ankaboot 029:001-
003] Alif-Lâm-Mîm. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe," and will not be tested. And
We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allâh will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true,

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and will certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars, (although Allâh knows all that before putting
them to test).”

Imam Bukharee reported from Muadth radi Allahu anhu that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “No
one bears testimony there being no one worthy of worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s slave and
Messenger sincerely and truly from heart except that Allah makes hellfire forbidden for him.”

Fifth: Love as oppose to hate: Love of this kalimah which oppose hating or disliking what it implies, so he loves
this kamilah of tawheed and what it entails and loves those who comply with it and with what it entails, Allah
says, “[Soorah al-Baqarah 002.165] But those who believe, love Allâh more (than anything else)...” And Allah says,
“[Soorah al-Maaidah 005:054] O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion (Islâm), Allâh
will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him…”

Sixth: Complete submission (compliance) as oppose to rebellion: So the believer must comply and submit to what
it means and what it implies from the outward and inward actions, so he must comply and submit outwardly
and inwardly for what it means and what it entails. Allah says, “[Soorah an-Nisaa 004:125] And who can be better
in religion than one who submits his face (himself) to Allâh; and he is a Muhsin (a good-doer).”

And Allah says, “[Soorah Luqmaan 031:022] And whosoever submits his face (himself) to Allâh, while he is a Muhsin,
then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold…” And Allah says, “[Soorah an-Nisaa 004:065] But no, by your
Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) judge in all disputes
between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.”

Seventh: Acceptance as oppose to rejection: So the person must accept what it entails from the worship to Allah
and abandoning any worship to other than Allah, so anyone who says this kamilah and does not accept this
and adheres to it, then he will be like those about whom Allah says in “[Soorah as-Saaffaat 037:035 - 036] Truly,
when it was said to them: "Lâ ilâha illallâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh)," they puffed themselves up
with pride (i.e. denied it). And (they) said: "Are we going to abandon our âlihah (gods) for the sake of a mad poet?"”

So this kamilah (statement) must be accepted in the heart and on the tongue and anyone who does not accept
it and rejects it and acts arrogantly regarding it and arrogantly rejects that, then he is a kafir, as the kuffar of
Quraish rejected it out of arrogance and disdainfulness.

Eighth: Disbelief of everything that is worshipped beside Allah or to the exclusion of Allah: There must be a denial
all these false worship and affirming the worship to Allah alone. And the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam
said, “Whoever says none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and denies whatever is worship beside Allah, then
his wealth and blood are protected and his accounting is with Allah.”

These conditions that you have heard, they are deducted by the scholars from the Book and the Sunnah and
the scholar Shaykh Abdurrahman bin Hasan Ali-Shaykh mentioned them in his book Fathul Majed.

Conditions of second testimony: Muhammad Rasul Allah

1. Accepting and believing in his message by the heart and uttering it on the tongue
2. And following that which he commanded, and abstaining from that which he forbade
3. And believe what he informed from the former matters that were unknown to us and from the
future matters which Allah told him about and
4. Loving him more than the person loves himself, his wealth, parents, children, and rest of mankind
5. And giving precedence to his saying above saying of anyone
6. And acting according to his sunnah

There are certain nullifiers of this testimony of tawheed: Allah has made it very clear that mankind must
follow Islam and hold to it and dissociate from whatever contradicts it. Declaration – there is none that has

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the right to be worshipped except Allah – not only negates all false deities and confirms worships to Allah; it
also requires complete dissociation from any form of worship to any false deities. Furthermore, the
declaration – Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and slave of Allah – this requires the belief that
Muhamamd sallallahu alayhe wa sallam is trusted by Allah to deliver the message and that Muhammad
sallallahu alayhe was sallam is to be followed and obeyed because Allah decreed in the Quraan as in “[Soorah al-
Hashr 059:007] And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) gives you, take it; and
whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). And fear Allâh; verily, Allâh is Severe in punishment.”

All the ways and methods that is needed to fulfill this declaration of tawheed are explained in the Quraan and
in the Sunnah. Allah and His Messenger warned that there are ways that lead to shirk, kufr and rejection of
faith, and the Muslims must be very knowledgeable about tawheed so that he does not indulge in practices
and concepts that contradicts the essence of Islam, the most dangerous and widely existing ways that nullify
the tawheed are:

First: Shirk in worship of Allah: Meaning associate something or anyone in the worship of Allah. Allah says,
“[Soorah an-Nisaa 004:116] Verily, Allâh forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners (in worship) with Him, but He
forgives whom He wills, sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allâh, has indeed strayed far
away.”

Second: To set up intermediate between a person and Allah is disbelief: Calling upon them and seeking their
intercession and depending upon them. Those who do this are taking associates with Allah and this is shirk
and Allah says,“[Soorah al-Baqarah 002.022] Then do not set up rivals to Allâh (in worship) while you know (that He
Alone has the right to be worshipped).”

The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam was asked, which sin is the gravest? He said, that you set up rivals unto Allah
despite the fact that He has created you.

Third: Believing that the Mushriks those who commit shirk are not kafir or doubting their disbelief or depending
them or correcting their belief is kufr. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Maaidah 005:051] And if any amongst you takes them as
Auliyâ', then surely, he is one of them.” This is one of the greatest contradictions to tawheed and here it is
important to caution that many Muslims are reluctant and feel ashamed to say the word kafir to describe a
disbeliever or to point out their act of shirk, some even look at the kuffar with great deal of admiration, fear
and obedience, those have an inferior complex that leads to them to become blind followers and defenders of
the kuffar and their ways. They are at great danger since this may melt their identity. The Muslims’ position
about these matters must be dissociation from kufr and shirk and love for Allah and His Prophet and
believers. Allah says in the Quraan, “[Soorah Aal-'Imraan 003:028] Let not the believers take the disbelievers as
Auliyâ (supporters, helpers) instead of the believers, and whoever does that, will never be helped by Allâh in any way,
except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allâh warns you against Himself (His punishment), and to Allâh is the
final return.”

Forth: The belief that guidance by someone other than the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam is better or that
ruling by other than the rule of Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam is better, then this is kufr. The rule of
Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam is the rule of Allah, Allah says, “[Soorah an-Nisaa 004:065] But no, by
your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) judge in all
disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full
submission.”

Some examples of this: like the belief that system and laws made by men/human beings are better than or
equal to the Shari’ah of Islam, or that Islamic system is not suitable for the contemporary time and that the
Islam is the cause of backwardness of Muslim or the belief that enforcing the punishments prescribed by Allah
such as cutting the hand of a thief or stoning of an adulterer is “not suitable” for this day and age.

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Fifth: Hating any command or anything of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam’s message despite practicing it is
kufr. Allah says, “[Soorah Muhammad 047:009] That is because they hate that which Allâh has sent down (this Qur'ân
and Islâmic laws); so He has made their deeds fruitless.”

Sixth: Mocking any part of Islam or any of Allah’s Names and Attributes is kufr. Allah says, “[Soorah at-Towbah
009:065 - 066] Say: "Was it at Allâh [Subhânahu wa Ta'âla], and His Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs,
revelations, etc.) and His Messenger [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam] that you were mocking?" Make no excuse; you
disbelieved after you had believed. If We pardon some of you, We will punish others amongst you because they were
Mujrimûn (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, criminals).”

Seventh: Involvement in Magic. Considering it permissible to practice and spread ways that may sway man
from the good things he likes example using magic to saw discord between a man and his wife or to reduce
man to do what he dislikes or is bad for him. These ways of magic are satanic. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Baqarah
002.102] And they followed what the Shayâtîn (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaimân
(Solomon). Sulaimân did not disbelieve, but the Shayâtîn (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that
came down at Babylon to the two angels, Hârût and Mârût, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things)
till they had said, "We are for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us)."”

Today we see many people seek help from the so-called fortunetellers, they believe that these tellers know
what will happen this is kufr. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam warned in the hadith which is authentic
and it is reported in the Sahih Al-Jamee’, ““whoever goes to a priest or soothsayers or a fortunetellers and believes him
in what he says, has committed kufr and denied what was revealed to Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam.”

Eighth: Standing by disbelievers, supporting them and helping them against Muslims so they will be the prevalent
one, this is kufr. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Maaidah 005:051] O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as
Auliyâ' (friends, protectors, helpers), they are but Auliyâ' of each other. And if any amongst you takes them as Auliyâ',
then surely, he is one of them. ”

Ninth: Believing that some special people do not have to follow the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, this is kufr
because this negates the second part of the declaration of tawheed – muhammadur rasul Allah. Since this constitutes
desiring a religion other than Islam and Allah says, “[Soorah Aal-'Imraan 003:085] And whoever seeks a religion
other than Islâm, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.”

Tenth: Completely turning away from the deen of Allah, from Allah’s religion, not learning it and practicing is kufr
(disbelief). Allah says, “[Soorah as-Sajdah 032:022] And who does more wrong than he who is reminded of the Ayât
(proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of his Lord, then turns aside there from? Verily, We shall exact
retribution from the Mujrimûn (criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners).” And Allah also says, “[Soorah al-Ahqaaf
046:003] But those who disbelieve, turn away from that whereof they are warned.”

And it should be pointed out finally that there is no difference in accountability between the one who
seriously commits any of these actions or the one who claims to be just joking, playing or mocking, only
exception is when someone commits any of these acts under compulsion even then his heart must be filled
with faith and tawheed of Allah. And another serious matter is the issue of declaring someone kafir – rulers or
ruled, is not left for the unlearned of the common Muslims or heads hizbi groups or partisan groups or the
likes, it is to be left to the reliable scholars who follow the Quraan and the authentic sunnah in the context of
the salaf’s way of understanding the deen not to innovators and the politically or emotionally driven one. We
must fear Allah in this matter, which has caused and still causes deviation in the ummah at large.

And also a very important matter related to this. Regarding # 1 general statements of imputation of kufr – this
is known as general statement of imputation of kufr (itlaaqut takfeer) – stating in the general sense such as to
say, whoever does or says such and such from what is known to be kufr then he is a kafir. Now its
applicability on a particular person, this is known as takfirul mu3ayyen – applicability of declaring someone in
person as a kafir, it is to impute what is generally stated to be kufr on a particular person. This can be

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established only after conditions of takfir of imputing kufr as well as all impediments, which may hinder the
imputing of kufr are met.

And there remains – who are the ones who advice on this enormous matter? The imputation of kufr is very
serious and it is not left for common Muslims or the students of knowledge to decide, surely the reliable
scholars following the path of the salaf are the ones who can advice concerning this immense issues. So
people should refrain and hold themselves so as not to hasten to impute kufr on a particular person before the
evidences are established and the impediments are removed and Allah is the most High knows best and in
Him see seek help.

~:~ End ~:~

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Chapter Three: Pillars of Faith [Audio # 14]

One should know Emaan as defined by Ahlus Sunnah: is utterance and attestations by the tongue,
and the conviction and the belief in the heart, attestation of the heart, and the actions of body parts and that it
increases with obedience and decreases with disobedience. Based on the hadith of Jibreel alayhe assalam found
in Sahih Muslim – Pillars of Emaan are six and they are:

1. Belief in Allah
2. His Angels
3. His books
4. His Messengers
5. The Last Day
6. Belief in the Pre-Decree – its Good and its bad

Belief in Allah consists of four matters:

1. His Existence: it is proven by fitrah upon which man is created because he has been created on
this natural inclination to belief in the existence of Allah, his Creator. Also, it is proven by
intellect, shari’ah, and perception.
2. His Lordship: That He is alone the true Lord, without a partner, that He is the Creator, the One
who runs the affairs, causes death and brings to life, that He is the Most Powerful and Most
Strong, and He is the Sustainer of everything. No one denies Allah’s Rububiyah except a
disdainful and arrogant person, Allah says about Firoun (Pharaoh), “[027:014] And they denied them
(those Ayât) wrongfully and arrogantly.” Meaning those signs that were given to Firoun
3. Tawheed of Ulohiya: To single out Allah in His worship, the only true God worthy of being
worship in His divinity, to singling Him in His divinity, singling Him in His worship, no one
deserves to be worshipped except Him.
4. Tawheed of Asma was Sifat: Believe in Allah’s names and attributes by affirming what Allah
affirmed to Himself in His Book or in the Sunnah of His Messenger sallallahu alayhe wa sallam
from the names and attributes in the way that best fits His Majesty, without distortion nor
negation nor assigning a how nor resemblance or setting equivalence to Allah.

Belief in Angels: The angels are

• A world from the world of the unseen


• Allah created them from light as came in hadith of Sahih Muslim
• Slaves of Allah
• Do not disobey Allah in any commands
• And they have no particular share of Allah’s Lordship nor of His Divinity
• So many, only Allah knows how many they are and only Allah enumerates them

Belief in Angels comprises of four matters:

1. Their Existence
2. Belief in the names of those whose names Allah informed us of like Jibraeel, Mikayel specifically,
and those whose names we don’t know, we believe in them generally
3. Belief in their qualities, description as Allah mentioned in the Quraan, “[Soorah Faatir 035:001] All
praise and thanks are Allâh's, the (only) Originator [or the (Only) Creator] of the heavens and the earth, Who
made the angels messengers with wings, two or three or four. He increases in creation what He wills. Verily,
Allâh is Able to do all things.” Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam saw Jibraeel in his real form upon
which he was created, and the angels have the ability to take different forms, they came as guest to

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Prophet Ibrahim alayhe assalam Lut, Jibraeel alayhe assalam used to come to our Prophet sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam in different ways and forms.
4. We believe in that which we know of their deeds like their worship and their tashbeeh – like Allah
is above ever imperfection, Allah says in “[Soorah al-Anbiyaa 021:019 - 020] To Him belongs whosoever
is in the heavens and on earth. And those who are near Him (i.e. the angels) are not too proud to worship
Him, nor are they weary (of His worship). They (i.e. the angels) glorify His Praises night and day, (and) they
never slacken (to do so).” Some of them have particular tasks like
A. Jibraeel is entrusted with wahi – revelation
B. Israfeel is entrusted with the blowing of the trumpet
C. Mikayel is entrusted with rain
D. Ridhwaan is the keeper of Jannah
E. Malik is the keeper of Hell
F. And from them are those carry the Throne of Allah
G. For each person there are angels in succession as guard from before and behind them
as Allah says in the Quraan, “[Soorah ar-Ra'd 013:011] For him (each person), there are
angels in succession, before and behind him. They guard him by the Command of Allâh.”
H. There are those who record the deeds of the servants of Allah, as Allah says in the
Quraan, “[Soorah Qaaf 050:017] (Remember) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive
(each human being), one sitting on the right and one on the left (to note his or her actions).”

Fruits of belief in the Angels:

1. Knowing the Greatness of Allah and His Magnificence because the greatness of the created indicates
the Greatness of the Creator
2. Giving thanks to Allah and having gratitude to Him for His care concerning the children of Adam
where Allah has assigned those who guard the slaves of Allah and those who record their deeds.
3. Loving the angels for what they do from the worship of Allah because they are from the ibaadah of
Allah, slave believers of Allah
4. This also teaches us to be patient on the acts of worship and to have tranquility in executing them
because when the Muslims knows the conditions of the angels and their state of obedience to Allah so
he would feel comfort and at ease when alone when he believes that Allah has created those who
guard him from the angels.

Belief in the Books: These the books sent down upon the Messengers as guidance for the creation and as
mercy to them, Allah says, “[Soorah ash-Shooraa 042:015] "I believe in whatsoever Allâh has sent down of the Book
[all the holy Books, – this Qur'ân and the Books of the old from the Taurât (Torah), or the Injîl (Gospel) or the Pages of
Ibrâhîm (Abraham)] and I am commanded to do justice among you."”

Belief in the Books comprises of four matters:

1. To believe that they are truly sent down from Allah


2. Believing in those names, names of Books, which Allah informed us of like Quraan, Injeel, Jabur,
Tawrah as to those, which we don’t know their names, then we believe in that in general.
3. Believing in the news therein like: all the news in the Quraan and the information in the Quraan and
also the news from the early scriptures that were not changed or altered and checking on this is by
way of our Book, the Quraan.
4. Acting according to the rulings in the Quraan except for what is abrogated. As to the former Books,
the Quraan abrogated them all. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Maaidah 005:048] And We have sent down to you
(O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) the Book (this Qur'ân) in truth, confirming the Scripture (Books)
that came before it and Muhaiminan (trustworthy in highness and a witness) over it (old Scriptures).”

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Belief in Messengers:

First of the messengers was Noah alayhe assalam, proof is the long hadith of Sahih Bukhari on
intercession, “Then they will go to Adam and say, 'You are Adam, the father of the people. Allah created you with His
Own Hand and made you reside in His Paradise and ordered His angels to prostrate before you, and taught you the names
of all things, will you intercede for us with your Lord so that He may relieve us from this place of ours? Adam will say, 'I
am not fit for this undertaking.' He will mention his mistakes he had committed, i.e., his eating off the tree though he had
been forbidden to do so. He will add, 'Go to Noah, the first Messenger sent by Allah to the people of the Earth.'” [Sahih Al-
Bukhari]

Final and last Messenger is our Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, Proof is the saying of Allah,
“[Soorah al-Ahzaab 033:040] Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam] is not the father of any of your men, but he is
the Messenger of Allâh and the last (end) of the Prophets. And Allâh is Ever All-Knower of everything.” Messengers are
the best slaves of Allah and the best creation. Allah says after mentioning some of them names, “[Soorah al-
An'aam 006:086] And Ismâ'îl (Ishmael) and Al-Yasaa' (Elisha), and Yûnus (Jonah) and Lût (Lot), and each one of them
We preferred to the 'Âlamîn [mankind and jinn (of their times)].”

And the sending of Messengers is a blessing and a favor from Allah upon mankind because the need of
mankind to the messengers and the message and since they carry the message from Allah is more than their
need of food and drink and more than the need of ill person to his doctor, Allah says, “[Soorah al-Baqarah
002.213] Mankind was one community and Allâh sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent
down the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed.”

And the best of them are those firmly established on Deen and the steadfastness in deen and they are five:
Noah, Musa, Isaa, Ibrahim, Muhammad alayhim assalatu was salam, and the best of five are Muhammad and
Ibrahim, and the best of the two is Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, therefore he is the best of all
Prophets and Messengers.

Belief in the Last Day: It is called the Last Day since there is no day after it. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Baqarah
002.004] And who believe in that (the Qur'ân and the Sunnah) which has been sent down (revealed) to you (Muhammad
[sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) and in that which was sent down before you [the Taurât (Torah) and the Injîl (Gospel)]
and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter. (Resurrection, recompense of their good and bad deeds, Paradise and
Hell).”

Belief in the Last Day Comprises of three matters:

1. Belief in resurrection after death: Proofs are the saying of Allah, “[Soorah at-Taghaabun 064:007] The
disbelievers pretend that they will never be resurrected (for the Account). Say (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi
wa sallam]): "Yes! By my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be informed of (and recompensed
for) what you did; and that is easy for Allâh."” And also Allah says,“[Soorah al-Muminoon 023:015 - 016]
After that, surely you will die. Then (again), surely you will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection.”
2. Belief in recompense: Proof is the saying of Allah, “[Soorah al-Ghaashiyah 088:025 - 026] Verily, to Us
will be their return; Then verily, for Us will be their reckoning.”
3. Belief in what will occur on the Day of Resurrection such as:
a. Intercession (safa)
b. Scale (Mizan)
c. Pool (Haud)
d. Giving records
e. Bridge (Sirat)

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Intercession taking place on the Day of Resurrection are of six types:

1. Greatest intercession: this concerns the people gathering and waiting the decree of Allah judging
them, mankind will suffer greatly on the Day of Resurrection and as result they will look for someone
to intercede with Allah on their behalf so Allah starts taking the account of their deeds and they will
go to Adam asking him to intercede and he will excuse himself and direct them to Noah, who will
direct to Ibrahim who will direct them to Musa and he will direct them to Isa who will say like those
before him that Allah is today angry like He has never been before nor will He ever be angrier and Isa
alayhe assalam will instruct them to go to Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam who will take the
responsibility and intercede with Allah on their behalf and Allah will give him permission and then
Allah will begin taking accounts of their deeds. The detail of this is found in Sahih Al-Bukhari in the
long hadith of intercession.
2. Intercession for people of Jannah to be admitted to it
3. Intercession of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam on behalf of his uncle Abu Talib asking Allah to
lighten his punishment because of the position of Abu Talib’s support of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe
wa sallam ****(these three types of intercession are for our Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam Only)****
4. Intercession for those who deserve to enter Hell that they do not enter Hell
5. Intercession for those who will be admitted to Hell that they be taken out from it
6. Intercession for the people of Paradise that their rank in Jannah be raised high

Conditions for Intercession are two:

1. Permission from Allah for the intercessor to intercede


2. The Pleasure of Allah for the one on whose behalf intercession is sought

Pool (Haud):

• Great mass of water given to the Prophet by Allah and


• This ummah will attend to it on the Day of Resurrection and
• Whoever deviated from the sunnah will be prevented from drinking its water

As to the description of the pool:

• Its water is whiter than milk


• Sweeter than honey
• It has as many cups as the stars in the sky
• Its length and width is distance of a month’s journey
• It is already in existence
• Whoever drinks from it once will never feel thirsty again

A Bridge over Hell (Sirat): It is the bridge extended over hell and the people will pass over the bridge and the
pace of people on that bridge will be in accordance with their deeds. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam
said, as-sirat is a bridge extended over hell on which feet shall not be firm. It has thorns and hooks as those of
assa’dan, these are trees that has a lot of thorns and it is sharper than sword and thinner than hair, on each
side are hooks to pull down whoever it is commanded to pull down, people will pass on it in accordance to
their deeds:

• Some of them will cross the bridge very fast like lightening
• Others like wind
• Others like a good horse
• Others like those who walk
• Some like those who crawl
• Others will cross it sustaining scratches and cuts

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• While the rest will land in hell

Scale (Mizan): It will be set on the Day of Resurrection weighing man’s deeds and it is a true and real scale
with two actual sides on it. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Anbiyaa 021:047] And We shall set up Balances of justice on the
Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We
will bring it. And Sufficient are We to take account.”

He whose good deeds are more than his bad deeds shall prosper and go to Jannah and he whose are bad
deeds are more than his good deeds, will suffer miserably in the Hellfire. The people whose good and evil
deeds are equal, then Allah has referred to them as people of ‘Araf, as came in Surah Al-‘Araf. They neither
deserve Hell nor Jannah due to either of their deeds, good or evil. But finally they will be admitted to paradise
after forgiving their offenses, which they dealt with one another in this world. Disbelievers and hypocrites
have no good deeds to weigh for them, their good deeds are like ashes blown away in a windy day, scattered
dust. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Furqaan 025:023] And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (disbelievers, polytheists,
sinners) did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust.” And also Allah says in“[Soorah
Ibraaheem 014:018] The parable of those who disbelieved in their Lord is that their works are as ashes, on which the wind
blows furiously on a stormy day; they shall not be able to get aught of what they have earned. That is the straying, far
away (from the Right Path).”

Handing of Records: This would be the record the angels have written and enumerated there and recorded
what man has done in his life. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Israa 017:013 - 014] And We have fastened every man's deeds
to his neck, and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall bring out for him a Book which he will find wide open. (It will be
said to him): "Read your Book. You yourself are sufficient as a reckoner against you this Day."”

The Questioning (Hisaab): Proof is the saying of Allah, “[Soorah al-Ghaashiyah 088:025 - 026] Verily, to Us will
be their return; Then verily, for Us will be their reckoning.” Those who get their records on right hand will be the
successful ones; those who get on left hands or behind their neck are miserable ones.

Al-‘Ard: Display and reckoning. All mankind will be displayed before Allah. Allah says in “[Soorah al-Kahf
018:048] And they will be set before your Lord in (lines as) rows, (and Allâh will say): "Now indeed, you have come to Us
as We created you the first time. Nay, but you thought that We had appointed no Meeting for you (with Us)."” In a
hadith found in Sahih Al-Bukhari and Muslim, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said that Allah will speak to
everyone of you directly without a translator.

Signs of the Final Hour: There are major and minor signs; some of them already took place, such as:

1. Life and death of our Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, his sending and his prophet-hood
2. Conquest of Jerusalem (Al-Quds)
3. Trail and affliction of first century of Hijrah

Other Minor signs are:

1. Building of fancy Masjid


2. Prevalence of afflictions, alcohol consumption and promiscuity
3. Excessive massacre – killing
4. Shepherd competing in erecting tall buildings

Major signs are:

1. Al-Mahdi: A just ruler. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, were there only one day left
from the life of this world, Allah would have extended it until He sends a man from me or from
my household whose name is like mine and whose father name is like my father name, so it’s
going to be Muhammad ibn Abdullah; and this Mahdi mentioned in this hadith is not the

15
mythical Mahdi of the Rafidah of the Shi’a who believe that he is trapped or hidden in a tunnel for
over 1,000 years and whose name is Muhammad bin Hasan bin Hasan Al-Askari. This is a myth.
2. Dajjal: the most serious test that all Messengers warned their people about.
3. Blowing of the Trumpet: A day will come when every living creature will die, then after a certain
period of time Allah will revive His slaves and they will be assembled naked, bear footed and
uncircumcised, the way they were born, to question them about what they did in the world after
that they will end up in the final abode, Jannah or the Fire, this day is called the Day of
Resurrection. Allah says, “[Soorah az-Zumar 039:068 - 069] And the Trumpet will be blown, and all who
are in the heavens and all who are on the earth will swoon away, except him whom Allâh wills. Then it will
be blown a second time, and behold they will be standing, looking on (waiting). And the earth will shine with
the light of its Lord (Allâh, when He will come to judge among men), and the Book will be placed (open), and
the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward, and it will be judged between them with truth, and
they will not be wronged.”

Belief in Death: This is the minor resurrection.

Belief in affliction and questioning in the grave: When the dead is buried; two angels will attend him; who
will make him sit and question him angrily: Who is your Rabb? What is your Deen? Who is your Prophet?
For the believer, this will be the last test he will under go. Allah says, “[Soorah Ibraaheem 014:027] Allâh will
keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allâh Alone
and none else), and in the Hereafter. And Allâh will cause to go astray those who are Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong
doers), and Allâh does what He wills.” So the believer will answer, my Lord is Allah, my deen is Islam, and my
messenger is Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, so Allah will announce, my slave has told the truth, give
him bedding from Jannah, clothe from Jannah and open for him a gate to Jannah.

As for the hypocrites and disbelievers, they will answer with confusion saying, Ah! Ah! I don’t know, I heard
people say something so I repeated it. So Allah will announce, my slave has lied, give him bedding from fire
and open for him a gate to fire and thereupon such will be struck with iron (rod) and he will give out an
extremely loud scream, which will be heard by everything except for men and jinn. Were they to hear it, they
will drop dead. And Abu Dawud and others report this and it is authentic.

Pre-Decree – its good and its bad (Al-Qadr): Pre-ordainment of Allah concerning all the creation in
according with His foreknowledge and as necessitated by His Wisdom. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Furqaan
025:002] He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Who has begotten no son (children or
offspring) and for Whom there is no partner in the dominion. He has created everything, and has measured it exactly
according to its due measurements.”

Types of Qadr are four:

1. General Qadr: Decree of Allah concerning everything meaning He knew of it, He wrote it, willed
it and created it. This is Takdirul ‘Amma. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, Allah pre-
decreed due measures for all creations before He created the heavens and the earth by 50,000 years and His
Throne was on water.
2. Takdir Al-Umri: This is the decree as to what will occur to the slave in his life until his death.
Proof for this is the hadith of Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam where he said, “Verily the creation of
each one of you is brought together in his mother's womb for forty days in the form of a nutfah (a drop), 'Then
he becomes an `alaqah (clot of blood) for a like period, then a mudghah (morsel of flesh) for a like period,
'Then there is sent to him the angel who blows his soul into him 'And who is commanded with four matters:
to write down his rizq (sustenance), his life span, his actions, and whether he will be happy or unhappy (i.e.
whether or not he will enter Paradise).” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
3. Annual Takdir: this takes place in the night of Qadr, Allah says, “[Soorah ad-Dukhaan 044:004]
Therein (that night) is decreed every matter of ordainments.” Allah decrees every matter of ordainment
in this night such as giving death, honor, might etc.

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4. Takdirul Yawmi – Daily pre-ordainment: Allah, the Exalted says, “[Soorah ar-Rahmaan 055:029]
Every day He is (engaged) in some affair (such as giving honor or disgrace to some, life or death to some)!”

Stages of Qadr are four:

1. Knowledge: the foreknowledge of Allah, meaning Allah Knows everything that took place or will
take place from past and future, nothing is hidden from Him, He Knows everything in detail and
in general
2. Wrote down: to believe that Allah Wrote everything in the preserved tablet. Proof is the saying of
Allah, “[Soorah al-Hajj 022:070] Know you not that Allâh knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth?
Verily, it is (all) in the Book (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz). Verily, that is easy for Allâh.”
3. Willed: to believe that all creation does not come to exist except by Allah’s Will and nothing take
place in the heavens or in the earth without the Will of Allah and His Wish. Proof is the saying of
Allah, “[Soorah Yaaseen 036:082] Verily, His Command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to
it, "Be!" – and it is!”
4. Created: to believe that all creation is the creation of Allah. Proof is the saying of Allah, “[Soorah
ar-Ra'd 013:016] "Allâh is the Creator of all things..."” And also in“[Soorah az-Zumar 039:062] Allâh is
the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakîl (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian) over all things.”

~:~ End ~:~

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Chapter Four: Tawheed – Shirk Opposes Tawheed [Audio # 15]

Tawheed is of three categories:

1. Tawheed Ar-Rububiyyah: It means singling Allah alone as the Creator and as the Possessor of the
kingdom and to Him belongs the creation and the commandment and He is the One that runs all the
affairs. And this type of tawheed the mushrik, the pagans attested to it, as Allah tells us in“[Soorah al-
Muminoon 023:086 - 087] Say: "Who is (the) Lord of the seven heavens, and (the) Lord of the Great Throne?"
They will say: "Allâh." Say: "Will you not then fear Allâh (believe in His Oneness, obey Him, believe in the
Resurrection and Recompense for every good or bad deed)?"”
2. Tawheed Al-Uluhiyyah: It means singling Allah alone in all worships, having done that sincerely for
Him only like invocation, making vows, sacrifices and so forth and this is the message of all the
messengers from first to the final and last one Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam. In the past, they
called their respective nations to that and in the message of the Muhammad sallalhu alayhe wa sallam is
for all mankind calling them to single Allah alone as the only true God worthy of being worship,
Allah says,“[Soorah an-Nahl 016:036] And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a
Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allâh (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Tâghût (all false deities, i.e. do
not worship anything besides Allâh)."”
3. Tawheed Al-Asma was-Sifat: Singling Allah alone as the One qualified with the most perfect
attributes and names, affirming all of His Names and Attributes to Him in the manner that suits His
Majesty resembling Him to no one or to anything, affirming them without figurative interpretation,
without distortion of their meaning, without negating their meaning, without describing a manner nor
likening Him to anything as He the Most High asserted in “[Soorah ash-Shooraa 042:011] There is nothing
like Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.”

These are the categories of tawheed and the thing that opposes tawheed is known as shirk and shirk means
directing any kind of worship to other than Allah like invocation, seeking help, seeking refuge, making vows
from other than Allah or to other than Allah or in other than Allah in that which is only Allah is able to do or
deliver.

Categories of Shirk are three:

1. Greater Shirk
2. Lesser Shirk
3. Hidden Shirk

In origin people were on Tawheed as Ibn Abbas radi Allahu anhuma said, between Adam alayhe assalam and
Noah alayhe assalam there were 10 generations, all of them were upon Islam. Ibnul Qayyem said, this saying is
the correct one and Ibn Kathir considered this to be the correct saying. First occurrence of Shirk first took
place in the people of Noah alayhe assalam.

Major shirk requires the invalidity of deeds and eternal punishment in hell if the person dies upon that. Allah
says, “[Soorah al-An'aam 006:088] But if they had joined in worship others with Allâh, all that they used to do would
have been of no benefit to them.” And it is the greatest sin.

When Abudullah ibn Masud asked the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam which sin is the greatest? The
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, that you set up as a rival to Allah while He is the One created you. It is the
great injustice, oppression and transgression. This is concerning the greater shirk. It nullifies the deeds and
renders them futile. It is replete in the Quraan. Anyone who dies on this sin, then he will not be forgiven and
the Jannah will be forbidden for him, Allah asserted, “[Soorah an-Nisaa 004:048] Verily, Allâh forgives not that
partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills; and whoever
sets up partners with Allâh in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.”

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And “[Soorah al-Maaidah 005:072] Verily, whosoever sets up partners (in worship) with Allâh, then Allâh has forbidden
Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong doers) there are no helpers.”
As Ibn Masud radi Allahu anhu related that the the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “Whoever dies while
invoking others beside Allah will be admitted to Hellfire.”

From the types of Major Shirk are:

1. Invoking the dead and the idols, Allah reminds us concerning the pagans – the expression of the
pagans regarding their object of worship in, “[Soorah az-Zumar 039:003] "We worship them only that they
may bring us near to Allâh.”
2. Seeking deliverance and rescue in these objects of worship, Allah said warning about this in, “[Soorah
Yoonus 010:106 - 107] "And invoke not besides Allâh any such that will neither profit you nor harm you, but if
(in case) you did so, you shall certainly be one of the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong doers)." And if Allâh touches
you with harm, there is none who can remove it but He”

Difference between seeking deliverance and rescue and dua (invocation) is that Dua is general regarding all
situations, however istigacha (seeking deliverance and rescue) it is invocation of Allah at times of distress and
hardship.

3. Making vows to these objects of worship and sacrificing for them because making vows is worship
and also slaughtering is worship and offering sacrifice is worship, which cannot be directed except to
Allah. In the hadith of Ali radi Allahu anhu that he said the Prophet sallallahu alayeh wa sallam told me
four words:
a. Curse of Allah is upon the one who sacrifices for other than Allah
b. Curse of Allah is upon the one who curses his/her parents
c. Curse of Allah is upon the one who gives protection and helps to an innovator (who causes mischief or
innovates in the deen)
d. Curse of Allah is upon one who changes the landmark’s limit.

Lesser Shirk: This refers to that which is affirmed in the Quraan and Sunnah, affirmed as being shirk but not
as of the type of the major one like

1. Showing off
2. Swearing by other than Allah
3. Saying: Allah wills and such and such wills

And lesser shirk covers every means and ways that leads to greater shirk – from intentions, sayings, and
actions which do not reach the level of worship.

The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “The thing I most fear for you is lesser shirk”, he was asked what’s that? He
said, “It is Riya” meaning showing off and it is a major defect, which requires treatment and training of the self
upon ikhlas (sincerity). The Riyah – showing off is of different levels and they are:

1. Like the One who intends other than Allah in his deeds but he wants people to know that he is like
them (he is doing these things) meaning like the one who prays in front of people and amongst them but
if he is alone he does not pray, this is a kind of hypocrisy in fact. Allah says, “[Soorah an-Nisaa 004:142]
Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allâh, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up for As-Salât
(the prayer), they stand with laziness and to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allâh but little.”
2. His intention is for Allah, but if people see him, then he becomes motivated in the worship and
beautifies it, in a hadith narrated by Muhbub bin labid that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, O
people be aware of the shirk that is hidden, they said, O Messenger of Allah, what is this shirk? He said, the person
stands to pray, then beautifies his prayer because when he sees people are looking at it, this is the shirk that is
hidden. This hadith Imam Adhdhahabee graded as good and also hasan by Shaykh Albanee. So this

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kind of show off relates to the description of ibadah, its quality, not its origin, it is forbidden because it
reflects the magnification of the created
3. The person’s intention is Allah in addition to showing off to the people and does not refrain from
showing off, this is the kind, which invalidates the deed
4. A person indulges in the worship and leaves it and then people praise him, there upon he settles for
their praise and is pleased by that. And this takes of him from the hardship of the worship and looks
for the praise of people and this indicates a hidden riya in his heart and people differ in terms of the
extent of the fourth type.

As to people praising the person upon a righteous deed, which he did without him seeking their praise, then
this is not riya. So if the person does an action sincerely for Allah and people praise Him while he does not
really like for them to know of his actions but he is pleased by the favor of Allah upon him and His tawfeeq
and His favor of success upon him. There is no harm in that. Allah says, “[Soorah Yoonus 010:058] Say: "In the
bounty of Allâh, and in His Mercy (i.e. Islâm and the Qur'ân); – therein let them rejoice." That is better than what (the
wealth) they amass.” Hadith of Abi Dhar radi Allahu anhu, he said O Messenger of Allah, you see the person doing good
actions and good deeds and people praise him for that, so the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, it is the glad
tidings for the believer.

Swearing by other than Allah: The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, anyone who swears by other than
Allah then he commits shirk. Reported by Imam Ahmed with a good chain of narration. Also, reported by Abu
Dawud and At-Tirmidhi with authentic chain from the hadith of Umar radi Allahu anhu who said, the Propeht
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, whoever swears by other than Allah then commits kufr or shirk. And this is of the
lesser shirk, which the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam forbade. Also, from the hadith of Ibn Umar radi
Allahu anhuma raised to the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, Allah forbids you that you swear by your fathers,
whoever wants to swear let him swear by or otherwise keep silent.

And the people of knowledge are upon ijma (agreement) that it is forbidden to swear by other than Allah.
Imam Abdul Bar said, it is not permissible to swear by other than Allah by way of agreement. And this could
turn to be a greater shirk if the one who makes swearing believes that the one he swears upon has certain
qualities of divinity thus he magnifies him to the extend that he swears by him. This can take one out of the
fold of Islam because this constitutes greater shirk.

Shirk in wording and statement: Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, don’t say what Allah willed and such and
such willed but say, what Allah willed then such and such willed. Reported by Abu Dawud from Hudayfa radi
Allahu anhu with an authentic chain of narration. It was also called shirk in one narration from Katilah radi
Allahu anhu, he mentioned that a Jew came to the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam and said you commit shirk when
you say, “What Allah willed and I willed” and that you say, “by the kaba”, so the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam
commanded them if they wanted to swear, to swear saying, “by the Rabb of the Kabaa” and he commanded them to say,
“What Allah willed then you willed.” Ibn Kathir said that chain of narration of this report is disputed, there is
difference of opinion regarding its isnad and Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar considered its good as in Al-Isaba and
Shaykh Muqbil said, its sahih as in his Sahih al-Musnad.

Also from the similar type of wording is for the person to say, “Had it not be for Allah and such and such”
and the correct wording is to say, “Had it not be for Allah then such and such” and also like saying, “I seek
refuge in Allah and you” but the correct wording is to say, “I seek refuge in Allah then in you.” Also, adding
certain things and their occurrence to other than Allah for example, “Had it not been for the guard the thief
would have come” or “Had it not been for medicine, I would have been destroyed.” All of these oppose the
perfection of Tawheed; so all these must be added to the Will of Allah and to Allah initially and if the cause is
to be mentioned and its benefit, then the person should say, “If it were not for Allah then such and such”
why? Because as Imam As-Sadi said, so that it will be known that causes are linked to Allah’s pre-decree.

So the lesser shirk does not necessitate apostasy nor does it necessitate eternal stay in hell if the person is
punished for it, but it opposes the perfection of the obligated tawheed. So these are the three categories of the
lesser shirk:

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1. Swear by other than Allah
2. Riya (showing off)
3. Hidden shirk

It is permissible as Shaykh Ibn Bazz said, it is permissible to divide shirk into two types only: greater and
lesser and the hidden shirk is part of both, it occurs in the greater shirk like the shirk of the hypocrites because
they conceal their futile creeds and put in the outward Islam as way of show off and fearing for themselves
and it is also part of lesser shirk as in the hadith described earlier. And this categorization was done earlier by
Imam Ibnul Qayyem rahimahu Allah and Shaykh Ibn Bazz preponderated it.

And one should be very much concerned with lesser shirk especially the aspect that we talked about which is
the hidden shirk where the person maybe indulging in it while he feels not because it is more hidden than
what we often think and thus we must strive to shun off this hidden aspect of shirk and seeking refuge in
Allah and seeking His help in that. And in one narration from Abu Musa Al-Asari reported that the Prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam admonished us in one sermon saying, “O people fear this type of shirk for it is more hidden
than the creeping of the ant, so someone said, how can we protect ourselves when it is more hidden than creeping of the ant
O Messenger of Allah, He said, say,

‘O Allaah, I take refuge in You lest I


should commit shirk with You
knowingly and I seek Your
forgiveness for what I do
unknowingly.’ [Reported by Imam
Ahmed]

~:~ End ~:~

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Chapter Five: Pillars of Islam – 1 – Belief in Allah [Audio # 16]

First Pillar of Islam: laa ilaha illa Allah wa anna muhammadur rasul Allah, which means that none
has the right to be worshipped except Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s slave and Messenger. So what’s the
meaning of laa ilaha illa Allah? The meaning of laa ilaha illa Allah is the conviction and firm attestation that
no one deserves to be worshipped except Allah, and abiding by that and acting accordingly. So worshipping
Allah and staying away from associating partners with Him in worship, this is the real meaning of laa ilaha
illa Allah.

And unfortunately, many, many Muslims in our time don’t know the meaning of laa ilaha ill Allah, and in
fact Allah asserted to His Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam the importance of knowing the meaning of laa
ilaha illa Allah, when He said, “[Soorah Muhammad 047:019] So know (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa
sallam]) that Lâ ilâha illallâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh), and ask forgiveness for your sin…” So this
means, know O Muhammad, that none deserves to be worshipped except Allah, the true God and seek Him
for forgiveness.

There are two pillars for first testimony – laa ilaha illa Allah – and they are:

1. Laa ilaha – Negation: ascribing partners in all forms and all ways rejecting disbelief in anything
worshipped beside or to the exclusion of Allah
2. Illa Allah – Affirmation: this affirms that none deserves to be worshipped except Allah.

This meaning came in the Book of Allah; “[Soorah al-Baqarah 002.256] Whoever disbelieves in Tâghût and believes
in Allâh, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.”

“Whoever disbelieves in Tâghût” – this is negation, “and believes in Allâh” – this is affirmation. So this is the
meaning of Laa ilaha illa Allah. 8

Question: What is the meaning of second testimony – Muhammad Rasul Allah?


Answer: It means to obeying him in that which he commanded, to believing him in that which he reported,
and keeping away from that which he forbade and called us to stay away from and that Allah is to be
worshipped only in that which he – Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam prescribed. This is the meaning of
Muhammad Rasul Allah and again this meaning is understood by few, whom Allah’s mercy is upon.

Obedience to the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam is from obedience to Allah. Allah says, “[Soorah Aal-
'Imraan 003:031] Say (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam] to mankind): "If you (really) love Allâh, then follow
me (i.e. accept Islâmic Monotheism, follow the Qur'ân and the Sunnah), Allâh will love you and forgive you your sins.
And Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."” It is a test for those who claim that they follow Allah, test is: if you
really love Allah and you claim you love Him, love His Messenger, then follow me, then what will be
consequence of that Allah will love you and forgive you of your sins. It also means to believing in the
messenger in that which he related and informed of the past news and of the future ones that which he told
about matters of the unseen which Allah informed either in some details in some case or in general, This is
from the great obligation. And also to keep away from that which he sallallahu alayhe wa sallam commanded
us to stay away from, this is vividly stated in“[Soorah al-Hashr 059:007] And whatsoever the Messenger
(Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). And fear
Allâh; verily, Allâh is Severe in punishment.”

Also, the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, in any matters which I command you to do, then do of it
what you are able to, and that which I forbade you to stay way from, then keep away from it. And that from the
meaning is that we worship Allah in that which the Messenger sallallahu alayhe wa sallam prescribed and that’s
why one of the condition of acceptance of deed is the following of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam.

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Every action must therefore fulfill two conditions:

1. Sincerity in deeds meaning deeds to be done for the Pleasure of Allah,


2. Following the way of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa sallam because he sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam said, “whoever does something which is not in accordance to our way, will have it rejected.”

So this is the meaning of laa ilaha illa Allah and the pillars of laa ilaha illa Allah are two and this is the
meaning of Muhammad Rasul Allah.

The second testimony – Muhammad Rasul Allah – has two pillars:

1. Attesting and ascribing to His Message


2. Believing that he is a slave of Allah

As he sallallahu alayhe wa sallam asserted in the hadith when he said, “Verily I am a slave then say slave of Allah and
His Messenger” when referred to him. So we don’t raise him above his honorable rank and we don’t exaggerate
in him and one should not be excessive regarding him sallallahu alayhe wa sallam as those who give him certain
divine attribute, they fall in the same error done by others who ascribe divinity to certain object of worship or
to human or angels or created objects, so we know that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam is a human,
slave of Allah, and Messenger of Allah and a prophet. And we believe that he causes no harm nor brings a
benefit to invoke him, call him, seeking him, calling upon him for help so as to execute certain things, or to
lift certain calamities and we believe that he does not know the absolute unseen rather he knows of the unseen
that which Allah enabled him to know, and therefore, this is the real position of the believer toward the
Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam. And this is the great honor and respect that the believer gives
his Messenger.

This testimony laa ilaha illa Allah wa muhamamd rasul Allah is the key to Jannah, but this key has its ridges
without which the door does not open. This constitutes the conditions of laa ilaha illa Allah, if fulfilled then
this is the great blessing on the believers. These conditions are summarized as follows:

1. Knowledge as oppose to ignorance: to fulfill the true meaning of laa ilaha illa Allah the believer acts
to know what it means knowledge by what it means and by what it entails, we know earlier verse
from, “[Soorah Muhammad 047:019] So know (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) that Lâ ilâha
illallâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh), and ask forgiveness for your sin…” So, we must know
in our hearts what it means, and we know when we utter it on our tongues what it means and that’s
why the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam in the hadith reported in Muslim from the hadith of
Uthman radi Allahu anhu, he sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “whoever dies while knowing that none has the
right to be worshipped except Allah, will enter Jannah”

Many in our times utter by their tongues, laa ilaha illa Allah and they don’t know or they know
nothing of what it means, and that’s why they fall in to shirk in ascribing partners to Allah in their
intentions and in their works, in their worships, the Mushrik – the pagans of the time of the Prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam knew what it meant and what it entails and that’s why as Allah tells us,
“[Soorah Saad 038:005] "Has he made the âlihah (gods) (all) into One Ilâh (God – Allâh). Verily, this is a
curious thing!"

They knew what it meant, it meant unifying the heart, actions and the deeds on singling Allah alone
as the true God worthy of worship.

2. Certainty as oppose to doubt: When the person says this kalimah – this testimony should be certain
of what it necessitates and entails, if there is only uncertainty and doubt in his heart as to what it really
tells and means its of no benefit to him. Allah says in describing the believers in “[Soorah al-Hujuraat
049:015] Only those are the believers who have believed in Allâh and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not but

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strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allâh. Those! They are the truthful.” So they (believer)
did not have doubt, they were certain about what they were saying and uttering. The doubtful ones
are the hypocrites.

Allah says in, “[Soorah at-Towbah 009:045] It is only those who believe not in Allâh and the Last Day and
whose hearts are in doubt that ask your leave (to be exempted from Jihâd). So in their doubts they waver.” In a
hadith narrated by Abu Hurayra radi Allahu anhu that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “I bear
witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and I am the messenger of Allah, none meets Allah
with this testimony without doubting (in them and what they mean) except that he will enter Jannah.”

3. Sincerity as oppose to shirk: this kalimah is of no avail to its utter-er (sayer) without sincerity. It is
the toughest part of it all – sincerity. Allah says in, “[Soorah al-Bayyinah 098:005] And they were
commanded not, but that they should worship Allâh, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing
partners to Him), and perform As-Salât (the prayers) and give Zakât (obligatory charity), and that is the right
religion.”

Also in the Hadith of Abu Hurayra radi Allahu anhu that the Prophet sallallahu alahe wa sallam said, the
happiest people to attain deservingly my intercession is the one who says none has the right to be worshipped except
Allah sincerely from his heart. Reported by Sahih Al-Bukhari. Also the hadith of Uthmaan radi Allahu
anhu that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, Allah has forbade for the hellfire anyone who says there
is nothing that has the right to be worshipped except Allah and says so desiring the Face of Allah.

4. Truthfulness as oppose to falsehood: So the person must be true in attesting to this testimony of
tawheed from his heart, Allah says in, “[Soorah al-'Ankaboot 029:001 - 003] Alif-Lâm-Mîm. Do people think
that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe," and will not be tested. And We indeed tested those who
were before them. And Allâh will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly
make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars, (although Allâh knows all that before putting them to
test).” Every believer must give attention to these verses.

Hadith of Muadth ibn Jabal radi Allahu anhu who said from the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said,
“whoever bears testimony that there is nothing that has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that
Muhammad is Allah’s slave and Messenger truthfully from the heart except that Allah makes the hellfire forbidden
for him.”

5. Love as oppose to hate: it’s a must that this testimony be beloved, loving it, what it means and loving
the people who act upon it truly. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Baqarah 002.165] But those who believe love Allâh
more (than anything else).” And Allah says, “[Soorah al-Maaidah 005:054] O you who believe! Whoever from
among you turns back from his religion (Islâm), Allâh will bring a people whom He will love and they will love
Him…” So, the one who turns back on his religion is harming himself, he is the loser.

6. Submission as oppose to rebellion: So there must be a submission to what it entails, laa ilaha illa
Allah, Allah commands such and such we submit, Muhammad Rasul Allah, Muhammad sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam prescribe such and such, we comply. There must be submission to what it means, and
to what it entails, openly, outwardly and inwardly. Allah says, “[Soorah az-Zumar 039:054] "And turn in
repentance and in obedience with true Faith (Islâmic Monotheism) to your Lord and submit to Him (in Islâm).”

Inabah means to turn in repentance to Him, aslimula – to Him meaning to His commands. And Allah
says, “[Soorah an-Nisaa 004:125] And who can be better in religion than one who submits his face (himself) to
Allâh (i.e. follows Allâh's religion of Islâmic Monotheism); and he is a Muhsin (a good-doer.).”

And Allah says, “[Soorah Luqmaan 031:022] And whosoever submits his face (himself) to Allâh, while he is a
Muhsin, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold [Lâ ilâha illallâh (none has the right to be
worshipped but Allâh)]. And to Allâh return all matters for decision.” And Allah says, “[Soorah an-Nisaa

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004:065] But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi
wa sallam]) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and
accept (them) with full submission.”

7. Acceptance as oppose to rejection: It’s an obligation to accept what it necessitates from worshipping
Allah alone ascribing no partners to Him, so whoever says this but does not accept this and what it
entails then they will be fit to be described by what Allah described in “[Soorah as-Saaffaat 037:035 -
036] Truly, when it was said to them: "Lâ ilâha illallâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh)," they
puffed themselves up with pride (i.e. denied it). And (they) said: "Are we going to abandon our âlihah (gods) for
the sake of a mad poet?"”

The Conditions of second testimony – Muhammad Rasul Allah – are:

1. Attesting to his message and believing in it in the heart


2. Uttering this and attesting to it by the tongue
3. Following the Messenger sallallahu alayhe wa sallam by abiding by the truth he brought and
abandoning what he forbade from falsehood
4. Believing in what he informed of the past and the future news and information
5. Loving him more than loving oneself, wealth, children, and the whole of mankind
6. Giving precedence to his saying over the saying of anyone else and acting by his sunnah

This testimony when understood correctly in accordance to what is described earlier then it is a glad tiding
because it incites to act according to what it entails and once we know the meaning of this testimony we
should be able also to know what contradicts it and what may negate it and what therefore may take the
person out of Islam if he opposes this testimony. These are acts that nullify one’s Islam and we have discussed
them in a full article on the site, it’s important that people refer to that in order to be aware what negates this
testimony.

Second Pillar of Islam: Establishment of the salah (prayer). In the Arabic language, “Salah” means:
Dua (Invocation). Allah says in, “[Soorah at-Towbah 009:103] And invoke Allâh for them. Verily, your invocations are
a source of security for them.” In the Islamic Shari’ah, it (salah) means: the worship of Allah through (certain
specific) sayings and actions beginning with Takber (Allahu Akbar – Allah is Greater) and end with Taslim
(asalamualikum warahma tullahi – may Allah’s salah be upon you and His mercy – to the right and left). This is the
meaning of assalah Islamically.

Salah is an obligation. Allah obligated it upon His slaves and made it a criteria between Islam and disbelief.
Allah says, “[Soorah at-Towbah 009:005] But if they repent [by rejecting Shirk (polytheism) and accept Islamic
Monotheism] and perform As-Salât (the prayers), and give Zakât (obligatory charity), then leave their way free.”

Also, in the hadith of Muadth radi Allahu anhu when the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam sent him to
Yemen, he told him, you will come to meet the people from the people of the book, invite them to “laa ilaha illa Allah –
that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah” if they obey you in that, then
tell them Allah ordained upon them five prayers in everyday and night. Also the hadith of Muadth said that the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “the head of the matter is Islam and its pillar is prayer and its pick is Jihad.”
Reported by Imam Ahmed and At-Tirmidhi.

And anyone who rejects the obligation of salah is a disbeliever by agreement (ijma). As to the one who
abandons the salah due to negligence and laziness while attesting to its obligation then the correct saying of
the sayings of the people of knowledge is that he commits kufr by that because of the hadith of Jabir ibn
Abdullah radi Allahu anhuma that he said, I heard the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa sallam say, “Between
the man and shirk and kufr is abandonment of salah.” Also, the hadith of Buraidah radi Allahu anhu he said, the
Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, the covenant between them and us is salah, whoever abandons it has
disbelieved. Reported by Ahmed and Ahlus Sunnan.

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From the narration of Shakik bin Abdullah, a tabee’ upon whom there is agreement on his great status, he
said, the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam did not see to anything from the actions whose
abandonment is disbelief except salah. Allah has ordained and obligated salatul Jama’ah (congregational) in
masjid upon men but not upon women, men who reached the age of puberty. Allah says in, “[Soorah al-
Baqarah 002.043] And perform As-Salât (the prayers), and give Zakât (obligatory charity), and bow down (or submit
yourselves with obedience to Allâh) along with Ar-Râki'ûn.”

And Allah says, “[Soorah an-Nisaa 004:102] When you (O Messenger Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) are
among them, and lead them in As-Salât (the prayers), let one party of them stand up [in Salât (prayer)] with you taking
their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party
come up which have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you taking all the precautions and bearing arms.”

So if Allah has ordained the Jama’ah prayer in time of war, then what about the times of peace? The evidence
for congregational prayer being mandatory are replete and in fact the companions considered those staying
behind and not joining Jama’ah prayer without an excuse as a quality of hypocrites. The Prophet sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam did not excuse the blind man when he told him, “if you hear the adhan then respond, I don’t
find for you a permit.” The merits of salatul jama’ah are numerous and these merits do not in any way negate
its obligation. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, the prayer of jama’ah is better than the prayer done alone
by a degree equivalent to 27 times.

From the congregational (Jama’ah) prayer is:

1. Jumu’ah prayer – the Friday Prayer: This salah is binding upon those on whom the Jama’ah prayer is
binding if they are residing in a town and from its conditions are
a. It should be done on its time
b. That it’s in a town – therefore residence
c. It’s to be preceded by two khutbahs (sermons)
d. Sufficient to hold salatul Jumu’ah is to have three legally responsible men in residence present.
Conditioning 40 for that is weak because the narration is weak
e. Those who are legally excused from attending the Friday prayer like: women, those who are ill
and those who may miss it due to legal excuse, so they pray four rakat of Zuhr prayer.
f. It is from innovation (bid’ah) to pray Zuhr prayer after Jumu’ah prayer.
g. This prayer is two rakat and Imam leads this prayer reciting loudly in them.
h. It is sunnah to recite surah in it: Soorah al-Jumu'ah (# 62); Soorah al-Munafiqun (# 63); Soorah al-
Ghaashiyah(# 87); and Soorah al-A'laa (# 88)
i. The two khutbahs come before the salah as the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam did:
admonishing the people in that which is beneficial to them, calling them to fear Allah, teaching
them their deen, not making it a platform for the political agendas as it is the case in many
masajid unfortunately, the Imam incites the people to learn their deen, teaching what beneficial
for them in this duniyah and in the akhira, and try to address some of the issues that need to be
addressed in their lives without transgressing but not making it a platform to address political
agenda and motives. You can hear some of these sermons whereby the Imam sounds like he is
reading a newspaper.

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j. It is Sunnah to shorten the khutbah and lengthen the prayer. It is a sign of fiqh (understanding) of
Imam as Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said in the hadith reported by Sahih Muslim.
k. It is praiseworthy to come to this prayer early and to take a bath and to put perfume for men
(musk), and putting the best of clothes on because it is the weekly Eid of the Muslims as came in
the sahih hadith about its merits.
l. There is no introductory sunnah specific for the Jumu’ah as regular sunnah as it is the case with
respect to the five obligatory prayers, rather if the person comes to the masjid, he prays as much as
he can, then he sits and recites Quraan or make dhikr until the Imam comes. As to afterward, if he
prays in the masjid, he prays four rakah and if he prays at home, he prays two rakah because there
is evidence for this.
m. A person is considered to have attained the Jumu’ah by attaining one rakah of the two, but if he
does not attain that, then he prays salah as four rakah as Zuhr.
2. Two Eid Prayers – Eidul Adha & Eidul Fitr:
a. It is sunnah to have it in a open space because this is what the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam
did in praying the salatul Eid of Fitr and Adha as came in the agreed upon hadith. However, if it
is needed, then it is permissible to pray in the masjid, for example for rain or too much cold or too
much heat.
b. It is sunnah to do salah of Eidul Adha early and to delay the salah of Eidul Fitr
c. The manner of praying these two rakat is: in the first rakah, after the first takbirul ihram follow it
up with seven takbirat while standing – raising hands with each takbir. In the second rakah, make
five takbirat before reciting from the Quraan.
d. It is sunnah to recite surah Al’Ala, Al-Ghasiyah.
e. Then Imam gives one khutbah after the prayer.
f. It is sunnah to take a bath, to put on perfume, and to wear new clothes or clean clothes on the Eid
g. It is also sunnah to go to prayer in one way and to come back in another way
h. There is no sunnah prayer before or after this prayer.
i. If the person misses the Eid prayer, then he can make it up.
j. And it is sunnah to make takbir the night before the Eid day to until the Eid salah time of the
Eidul Fitr, as with the Adha the general open takbir begins from on first day of 10th of tenth of
Dhul Hijjah until the last days of tashreek – the 13th of Dhul Hijjah, as to the dhikr which is
restricted to the end of the prayer, then this is done by person who is not performing the Hajj from
the Fajr of Day of Arafah until the Asr prayer of the last day of Tashreek, as to the person
performing the Hajj, then after throwing the Jamaratul Aqabah with the pebbles until the last day
of Tashriks
k. It is sunnah to congratulate each other for the Eid and the Sahabah radi Allahu anhum used to say
to each other, “Taqabbala Allahu Minna wa minkum – may Allah accept from us and you”

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3. Jama’ah Prayer of Eclipse:
a. It is an affirmed sunnah legalized if an eclipse of the sun or the moon takes place because the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said that if you see any that meaning eclipse, then perform the
salah until it clears. This is narrated by Muslim
b. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam did not say if you see something of this nature then go and
invite people to watch, and clap, and take pictures, and make a festival because this is a sign from
Allah for people to contemplate and think about the horrors of the Day of Resurrection when this
world will come to and end, these are close signs for people to think and contemplate and to check
for their sins and seek forgiveness and hasten to give charity. This is what the Prophet sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam admonished people at times of eclipses and in our time we see people in
“happiness”, inviting tourists to their land to check for “phenomena”.
c. This salah is two rakat; in the first rakah: one recites openly (loudly) surah Al-Faatihah and a long
surah and then he goes in ruku for a long period and then lifts up from ruku saying sami Allahu
liman hamiah and does not make sujud rather stands up recites surah Faatihah and another long
surah and then makes ruku then stands up again then makes two lengthy prostrations. This is the
complete rakah in salatul eclipse. Then he makes the second rakah: in the manner similar to the
first one, then sits for tashahud and makes taslim.
d. And this salah is not to be made up for the person missing it, if missed, either he misses a rakah
from it, then he makes up other rakah in the same manner and completes the salah.
e. This salah can be done in times when it is prohibited to pray because it is linked to a cause; when
it is present, it can be made.
f. It is sunnah for the Imam to admonish the people and to remind them and incite them to make
tawbah and make istighfar – seeking repentance from Allah and His forgiveness.
4. Prayer of seeking rain from Allah:
a. It is an affirmed sunnah in congregation, however it’s to be done by the permit of the Imam, the
Muslim leader in the country, not for anyone to decide.
b. And the way and the manner is like salatul Eid because of the hadith of Ibn Abbas radi Allahu
anhuma reported in At-Tirmidhi that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam prayed this prayer like the
prayer of two Eids.
c. When the Imam goes out for this prayer he admonishes the people and reminds them about the
matter of tawbah and to relieve themselves from injustices and wrong doings.
d. And the person cleans himself for this salah but does not put perfume and does not put clothes of
beautification because it is a day of calmness and tranquility and the person goes as the Prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam went to the salah humble, in humility and tranquility seeking Allah as
reported in At-Tirmidhi

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e. After the prayer, the Imam gives one khutbah seeking a lot of forgiveness then raises hands
towards the heavens making dua, then turns toward the qiblah and says secretly, “O Allah, You
commanded us to invoke You and You promised us of Your response and thus we invoked You
as You commanded us, so respond to us and answer us as You promised us”, then he flips his
cloak other way (other side - flips up side down).

Voluntary Prayers (Salat At-Tatawwa): The merits of the voluntary prayers are numerous because they are
considered as completion to the obligatory ones. And they can be classified as follows:

1. The Regular Sunnah – Sunnah Ar-Rawatib: they are 12 rakat, The mother of the believer, Umm
Habibah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wasallam say, no Muslims praying for Allah
every day 12 rakah – voluntary other than the obligatory except that Allah builds for him a house in Jannah.”
[Sahih Muslim]

Their manner is: (*) 4 rakat before Zuhr prayer and (*) 2 rakat after Zuhr prayer, the 4 rakat are to be
made as 2 with taslim and then 2 with taslim. This came in the hadith of Aysha radi Allahu anha that
the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam used to pray at his home 4 rakat then leave for salah and prays
leading the people then enters the home and prays 2 rakah

So the sunnah with regard to this is that they are to be made at home. As reported by Aysha radi
Allahu anha there are: (*) 2 rakat after Magrib, (*) 2 rakat after Isha and (*) 2 rakat before salatul Fajr.
These two rakat before the obligatory Fajr prayer have specific merits, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam kept doing them in travel and in residence.

In Summary: the regular sunan are

a. Fajr: 2 rakat before it


b. Zuhr: 4 rakat before it and 2 rakat after it
c. Magrib: 2 rakat after it
d. Isha: 2 rakat after it
2. General Nawafilah:
a. 2 rakah between every Adhan and Iqamah
b. 4 rakat before Asr prayer usually as came in the hadith of Ibn Umar radi Allahu anhu that the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “may Allah have mercy on the one who prays 4 rakat before
Asr prayer.” These are done as 2 rakat with taslim and then 2 rakat with taslim
c. 2 rakat before Magrib, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “Pray before Magrib, Pray before
Magrib, pray before Magrib for whoever wishes”.
3. Witr Prayer: The night prayer is done in twos, 2 with taslim, then 2 with taslim. The Prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam did not exceed in Ramadan nor other than Ramadan 11 rakat and the
manner to perform this is: 5, 5, then 1 odd rakah, OR 4, 4, then 3 odd rakat, Or other ways.

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Witr prayer is the most affirmed voluntary prayers and of the best and the Muslims should be keen
about them. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam held to them in travel and in residence; if the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam missed his witr, he would pray from the day 12 rakah. So if your
regular witr is 3 rakat, and if you missed them, then make them up as 4 rakat, 2 with taslim, 2 with
taslim, if 5, then as 6 rakat and so on. [So witr is to be made up if missed as EVEN number]

~:~ End ~:~

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Chapter Five: Pillars of Islam – 5 – Fasting [Audio # 20]

It is the fourth pillar of Islam. Fasting the month of Ramadan is an obligation based on the Book of
Allah, and in the authentic sunnah of Messenger sallallahu alayhe wa sallam and by the Muslims’ agreement.
Allah says, “[Soorah al-Baqarah 002.183 - 185] O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you
as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious).[Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed
number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for
those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskîn (needy person)
(for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you if only you
know. The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'ân, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the
guidance and the Criterion (between right and wrong). So, whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the
month (of Ramadan, i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the
same number [of days which one did not observe Saum must be made up] from other days. Allâh intends for you ease, and
He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that
you must magnify Allâh [i.e. to say Takbîr (Allâhu Akbar: Allâh is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you
may be grateful to Him.” Before reading the translation of verse 2:185, shaykh said, “So now it becomes an obligation.”

This is from the Quranic text and from the Sunnah, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said Islam is built upon
five pillars, testifying that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and
establishment of prayer, giving the annual due charity, visiting the house, the ka’ba and fasting the month of Ramadan.
[Agreed upon hadith]

And all Muslims are on agreement that the fasting of the month of Ramadan is an obligation, so whoever
denies that, he is apostate kafir, he is to be given respite to repent, if he repents and attests to its obligation
then this is what is required, otherwise his punishment is to be (voice went blank). Fasting of Ramadan was
obligated on the 2nd year of Hijrah, after the migration of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam.

Fasting has conditions for its obligation:

1. Islam: so fasting is not an obligation on the kafir, the disbelievers and it is not accepted from him until
he becomes a Muslim.

2. Reaching the age of puberty: Therefore, it is not an obligation on the child. However, the children
maybe commanded and trained on the obedience so that they have familiarized themselves with the
fasting and thus it would be easier for them later.

And with respect to the attainment of the age of puberty, this is attained by:

1. Reaching the 15 years of age

2. Growth of hair

3. Ejaculation by way of wet dream or otherwise

And this is common for males and females and there is an additional one for females and this is the
occurrence of the menstruation. So if anyone of these matters are attained or occurred with respect to
a growing child reaching the age of puberty then in this case it becomes an obligation.

3. Being sane: so fasting is not obligated upon the insane and also in situations where by the person
reaches an age where he or she cannot discriminate things or cannot distinguish things. So there is no
fasting upon them and there is no expiation upon them.

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4. Ability to fast: all of these pertains to resident person, so the person who is unable to fast due to old
age or due to an illness, incurable illness, then in this case he does not fast, then expiates by feeding
for each day ½ saa of food to poor, and a saa is 2400 grams, so half of that would be a kilo plus, 1200
grams of food.

Certainly fasting has many wisdoms behind it, from the wisdoms is that it is a worship set as means of
nearness to Allah, where the person abandons that which he naturally inclined to, like from food, drinks,
sexual intercourse with the wife so that he attains the pleasure of Allah. So therefore, through this it becomes
clear through the fasting that he abandons that which is beloved to him in this life and prefers over it and give
precedence to that which is beloved to Allah and of great benefit in the hereafter.

So therefore, he gives precedence to that which beloved by Allah over his own inclinations and desires. And
from the wisdom of fasting that it is a cause for attainment of taqwah if the fasting person establishes what is
obligated upon him. As Allah said in the previous verse in “[Soorah al-Baqarah 002.183] O you who believe!
Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-
Muttaqûn (the pious).”

So the fasting person is commanded to have taqwah so

• Question: What is Tawqa?


• Answer: Ascribing to the command of Allah and abstaining from His prohibition..

This is the greatest objective behind fasting. And the objective is not to make the self suffer by abandonment
of food, drinks, and sexual relationship between the wife and the husband, and that’s why the Prophet sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam said, “the one who doesn’t abandon saying of falsehood and acting on it…”

What does “saying falsehood” mean? It means everything, which is haram from lying, backbiting, insult, and
“acting on falsehood”: doing things that are haram, cheating, treachery, confiscating people’s wealth unjustly,
and the like. Also, including in this is listening to that which is unlawful from music and so forth. And also
the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “wal jahl”, and this is foolishness, which means not paying on
soundness in saying and action. This is foolishness; this is which is referred in the hadith, al-jahl. Then the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam continued, “the one who doesn’t leave these things, then Allah is in no need for him
to abandon his food and drink”.

So it is not a matter of making the self suffer, and therefore when the person acts according to what is truly the
object of fasting as stated in the hadith and as stated earlier in the verse of suratul Baqarah then the fasting
becomes a real educational and self discipline upon uprightness, such that the month of Ramadan would be a
real turning point in one’s life, affected by it himself, his manners, and in his character.

And from the wisdoms of fasting is that the rich would know the favor of Allah upon him where Allah made
it easy for him to attain what he likes from food and drinks and marriage etc.. Therefore, he gives thanks to
Allah upon this favor and remembers the poor and thus would give from what Allah had bestowed upon him
by way of charity and by way of goodness.

And from the wisdom of fasting is the training upon self-discipline and control to lead one’s life in a direction,
which brings goodness and happiness for it in the life and in the hereafter. And therefore, distance himself
from animalistic life whereby he cannot refrain himself from its enjoyment and desires. But rather he regulates
this drive of the self, lest it gradually takes him to destruction. Therefore, he distance himself from an
animalistic way – animal like way of life, where by he cannot refrain himself from the enjoyment and self
drives towards lust and desires.

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Also from the wisdom of fasting is that the fasting leads to health benefit where the food intake is minimized
and brings rest to the stomach and relieves the body from toxic waste and poisonous matters. These are few
wisdoms from the many wisdoms of fasting.

So, Fasting is worshiping Allah by refraining from eating and drinking and legal sexual intercourse and from
all the invalidators of fasting from dawn until sunset.

Fasting is two types:

1. Obligatory

2. Optional

Fasting of Ramadan is an obligation (fard), the fasting person avoids all forms of invalidators of fasting
and these include:

1. Legal sexual intercourse: this invalidates the fasting and it becomes an obligation on the person who
indulges on this to make up the day and expiate and the expiation is a stringent one and it is freeing a
believing slave, and if he does not find then fasting 2 consecutive months, and if he is unable, he feeds
60 poor people in addition to repentance.

2. Deliberate semen discharge: by self-stimulation or due to sexual advancement kissing, hugging that
leads to ejaculation. Then one must make up for this day. Hugging and kissing without ejaculation
does not invalidate the fasting. However, it is preferable for the fasting person to leave that because
this is the means, which lead to occurrence of that which is forbidden, which may lead him to indulge
in actual sexual intercourse or lead him to ejaculation. However, ejaculation by way of wet dream or
mere thinking then this does not invalidate the fasting.

3. Eating and drinking: willful consumption of food and drinks, also that which is an alternative which
takes the same effect through for example nutrient injection or intravenous feeding then these are also
invalidators as to injections, which are meant as medication but not nutritional then these do not
invalidate fasting.

4. Cupping: Releasing the blood through the mechanism of cupping. There is difference of opinion on
this and the precautionary thing is to avoid it during the month of Ramadan and the strong opinion is
that it does not invalidate fasting but it is precautionary not to do during the month of Ramadan.

The release of blood from the nose or due to teeth removal or a wound, these do not invalidate the
fasting and even if it comes in large quantity according to the correct opinion.

With respect to blood donation, this would be a situation analogous to the difference of opinion
concerning cupping.

Shaykh Uthaymeen is with the opinion that if it necessitates the weakness of the body, then it is an
invalidator because its effect in this case would be the same as that of cupping.

Accordingly Shaykh rahimahu Allah went to opinion that it is not permissible for a fasting person
making an obligatory fast to donate sizable amount of blood which would affect his body unless there
is a necessity which cannot be warded off except by his donation. And in this case, he said that it is
permissible under such a situation, therefore, he breaks his fast and makes up this day.

5. Deliberate self-induced vomiting: and therefore un-deliberate does not invalidate the fasting.

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6. Menses and postnatal blood discharge.

Some of the contemporary matters, which are related to the invalidation/validation of fasting, they are:

1. Medication for bronchial asthma – the inhalers: there is a difference of opinion on this and the
closest opinion: they don’t invalidate the fasting.

2. Pills: which are placed under the tongue those who take them for cardiac problem like nitroglycerin
pills, these are taken under the tongue so these don’t invalidate the fasting.

3. Gastroscopy: Stomach examination by way of introducing fiber optic tube method known as
gastroscopy by way of mouth, correct opinion is that it doesn’t invalidate fasting unless a medication,
which may have fat ingredient which they may put in the tube like nutritional type, if it is put on the
tube and it reaches stomach then it invalidates the fasting because it is nutritional, it doesn’t have
anything to do with the tube itself. So its invalidation will be due to it having a nutritional aspect.

4. Endoscopy: does not invalidate the fasting, because it is not meant to be as nutrition nor
strengthening of the body and it does not even reach the stomach.

5. Nose drops: the majority of the scholars are with opinion that it invalidates the fasting, Shaykh
Uthaymeen rahimahu Allah is with opinion that that it invalidates the fasting if it reaches stomach.

6. Eardrop: it does not invalidate the fasting

7. Eye drop: The majority of the scholars are on the opinion that eye drops don’t invalidate the fasting
and this is the closest opinion.

8. Nasal spray: The preponderating opinion is that it does not invalidate the fasting

9. Medical injections: intervenes / muscular or subcutaneous according to the majority of the


contemporary scholars they do not invalidate the fasting this is the correct opinion.

10. Intravenous nutritional injection: invalidates the fasting, this is the correct opinion and this is the
majority opinion. *** Point of benefit: medical injection by of intravenous, muscular, or
subcutaneous like pain medicine, insulin all of these they don’t invalidate the fasting, but Intravenous
Nutritional injections invalidate the fasting.

11. Medical creams, ointments, plastic medication put on joints and the like: they do not invalidate the
fasting

12. Arterial catheterization: do not invalidate the fasting

13. Catheterization leading to the bladder: also, they do not invalidate the fasting. These are the urinary
catheterizations

14. Kidney dialysis: if it is accompanied with nutritional additives, then it invalidates the fasting

15. The enema: if it contains water or nutritional additive absorbed by stomach, then it invalidates the
fasting, because through this there would be strengthening of the body.

16. Suppositories: do not invalidate the fasting

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17. Regular blood analysis: does not invalidate the fasting

18. Oxygen needed to be taken by an ill person: This is air so it has no effect, it dos not invalidate the
fasting

19. Smelling the regular perfume: does not invalidate the fasting because the fragrance here does not
have a mess. However, the burning the incense or Indian costs, then some of the scholars are with the
opinion that this invalidates the fast because it has a mess that reaches the stomach

20. Taking shower: during hot time while fasting, does not invalidate the fasting

21. Using siwak: at the beginning of the day or at the end of the day is a sunnah, does not invalidate the
fasting. Brushing the teeth with or without toothpaste does not invalidate the fasting as long as there is
no food additive or the like in it, therefore in this case it is better to avoid lest it reaches the stomach.

22. Applying Kohl: to the eyebrow or eyelashes for medication or for beautification purposes does not
invalidate the fasting

With respect to the invalidators, if someone takes the invalidators due to forgetfulness or ignorance, or
being forced, then this does not invalidate the fasting.

If someone forgets to eat or drink then this does not invalidate the fasting, and if he eats or drinks
thinking that the sun has already set or that dawn did not break yet, then this does not break the
fasting because of ignorance. If he washes his mouth, then some of the water goes to his throat
unintentionally then this does not invalidate the fasting, because this is not deliberate. And having a
wet dream, this does not invalidate fasting because this is not under one’s choice.

It is permissible for the fasting person to intend the fasting even if he is in a state of sexual impurity,
and then takes the bath after dawn break, before making the salatul fajr. Also, if a woman becomes
pure in the month of Ramadan from menses or post-natal bleeding before fajr, then she fasts even
though she takes the bath after daybreak, after dawn.

It is permissible for the fasting person to wet the lips if they become too dry, and to wash his mouth
without being extensive in that if his mouth is too dry without gurgling.

From the sunnah of fasting is to:

1. Hasten breaking the fast when the sun sets.

2. And to delay the late meal – suhur close to fajr.

3. It is also sunnah to break the fast on fresh dates, if the person does not find, then regular dates –
dry dates, if he doesn’t find that then water because it is the sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe
wa sallam

4. Also to make dua at iftaar.

Rulings on Making up the missed fasting:

1. With respect to the old who reached an old age unable to distinguish matters then it is not an
obligation upon him to fast nor to expiate by feeding the poor

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2. The one who is continuously unable to fast like an elderly person or an ill person having an incurable
disease, then in this case he feeds for each day a miskeen – poor person half a saa’ of food.

3. Traveler: he makes up when he turns to residence all days he broke fasts in his travel

4. With respect to the ill person whose illness is hopeful to be cured, it is hoped that his illness is curable,
then in the case when he is cured, he makes up all the days which he missed during his state of illness.

5. Menses and postnatal bleeding: makes up the days that they missed once they are ritually pure from
the blood.

6. Pregnant women and breast-feeding women, if they fear for themselves or for their load or children
then they break the fast and in accordance with one opinion they make the days, and the other
opinion is that they feed instead of making up.

7. And whoever needs to break a fast to ward off a necessity, then he makes up that day.

Fasting of a traveller has 3 [three] situations:

1. If it is hard upon him to make the fast, intense hardship upon, then it is forbidden upon him to fast.

2. If it is hard upon him but it is not intensely hard, then it is disliked for him to fast because he is not
taking by the permit that Allah gave him while having hardship upon himself

3. If it is not hard upon him, then in this case he does that which is easier for him fasting or not fasting

a. So if the situation is same, then fasting is better because this is the action of the prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam in this case.

Virtuous Acts:

1. Fasting in itself is a great merit

2. Night prayer: the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wasallam said whoever establishes the night prayer in Ramadan
upon faith and seeking reward, then Allah will forgive his past sins.

3. Reciting Quraan: because it is the month of Quraan, Allah says, “[Soorah al-Baqarah 002.185] The
month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'ân, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance
and the Criterion (between right and wrong).

4. Charity: this is the month of spending in the way of Allah and doing good and the Prophet sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam was most generous during the month of Ramadan.

5. Umrah: visiting the house of Allah in Makkah, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “a umrah
in Ramadan is equal to Hajj with me.”

6. Ittikaf – seclusion: in last the 10 nights of the month of Ramadan anticipating the night of decree –
Laylatul Qadr, seeking the night of Qadr in prayers at night because this is a great reward, the Prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said anyone who establishes the night prayers on the night of Qadr upon faith and
seeking rewards, then his past sins will be forgiven. [Bukhari & Muslim]

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7. Providing breakfast for those who are fasting: as in the hadith the person who does will receive the
reward, same reward of the fasting person.

Voluntary fasts:

1. Fasting the day of Monday and Thursday, this was the sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam

2. Fasting three [3] days in each month: it is preferable that they are on the white days (13, 14, 15 of each
month), if he spreads them, no harm.

3. Fasting on the day of Arafah and Ashura

4. Fasting on the month of Muharram and fasting in Sha’baan

5. Fasting the 6 days of Shawwal

6. Fasting in the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah

~:~ End ~:~

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Chapter Six: Conditions of Salaah [Audio # 25]

Conditions of salah are nine and they are:

1. Islam
2. Sanity – Al-Aql
3. Reaching the age of discernment – At-Tamyez
4. Lifting of the ritual impurity – Raful Hadath
5. Removal of filth – Izalatun Nazacha
6. The covering of the Awrah – Satrul Awra
7. Entrance of time – Dukulul Wakt
8. Directing one’s self in the direction of the Qiblah – Istiqbalul Qiblah
9. Intention – An-Niyaa

Condition # 1 – Al-Islam: so in principle and in origin salah is not acceptable from a kafir because his
actions are rejected. Allah says, “[Soorah at-Towbah 009:017] It is not for the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters,
pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh) to maintain the mosques of Allâh (i.e. to pray and worship Allâh therein, to
look after their cleanliness and their building), while they witness against their own selves of disbelief. The works of such are
in vain and in Fire shall they abide.” This is if they die on the state of kufr, but if they accept Islam, salah
becomes binding upon them. So, upon belief in Islam, the person is commanded to pray, so he takes a bath
and prepares himself for the prayer that’s time has commenced when he enters Islam, unless he is in a state of
like a woman in a state of ritual impurity like in menses then she waits till she gets pure.

Condition # 2 – Sanity: Opposite to sanity is in sanity, and the insane, the pen is lifted, meaning their actions
are not recorded, three of them as came in hadith, the pen has been lifted from three, meaning three whose
actions are not recorded, not held accountable: the sleeper until he wakes, the insane until he recovers, and the child
until he reaches the age of puberty.

Condition # 3 – Reaching the age of discrimination and distinction: Some scholars had defined this to be
seven years of age, and that every child who is able to understand what he is addressed by and returns the
response then he has reached the age of discrimination. So this is a criteria, every child who is able to
understand what he is addressed with and then he responds, then he has reached the level of discrimination.
And some of the scholars have limited this to seven, because this is most often to be the case, most often they
reach this ability when they are seven.

Therefore, at this level his salah is correct from him because of his correct intention. And he is commanded to
do the salah but it is not obligatory upon him until he reaches the age of puberty. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe
wa sallam said, “Command your sons (includes both, male and female) to perform the prayer at the age of seven, and beat
them if necessary at the age of ten, and separate them in beds (that they do not sleep on the same bed).” This beating is to
discipline, and the separation of the bed does not mean to separate rooms, as some people understand.

Condition # 4 – Lifting the ritual impurity: so this means purification because the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam said, “Allah does not accept the salah of any of you without being in a state of purity.: Reported by Muslim.

The purification (tahara) is of two types:

1. Purification from the minor ritual impurity – al-wudhu


2. Purification from the major ritual impurity – al-ghusl

Ghusl: is to wash entire body with water together with rinsing the mouth and the nose.

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• Question: What are the things that necessitate the ghusl?
• Answer: The things that necessitate the ghusl are the:
1. Excretion of semen due to sexual pleasure where it is gushes due to that. And this is not required
in case it occurs while the person is sleeping, which is referred to as wet dream, once the semen is
observed then during the sleep even if it gushes without any sexual desire, then it obligates the
ghusl.
2. Having actual sexual intercourse with the wife. This is due to the hadith narrated by Abu Hurayra
radi Allahu anhu in Al-Bukhari that the Messenger sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “If one of you sits
between her legs (meaning the women) and penetrates her, the ghusl is obligatory.” Imam Muslim added,
“even if he does not ejaculate”. This is sometime confusing; some people think that since he did
not ejaculate then there is no bath. This is wrong as long as there is penetration that necessitates
ghusl.
3. Death necessitate ghusl of the deceased
4. Menses and post-natal bleeding

Ghusl is of two types:

1. The perfect ghusl: This one is as narrated by Aysha radi Allahu anha that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe
wa sallam took a bath after Janabah (sexual intercourse) he would begin by washing his hands, then pour water
with his right hand on his left hand, and wash his sexual organ, he would then perform ablution, then take some
water and run his fingers through the roots of his hair, and then pour three handfuls on his head and then pour
water over the rest of his body, and subsequently wash his feet. This is the agreed upon hadith and this
version is that of Muslim. In the wording of Sahih Al-Bukhari, the washing of the feet is not at the end.

So after washing the private part, the person makes wudhu, complete wudhu, and then pours the
water on his head, penetrates the hair then pours the water over his body, beginning with the right
side of the body and then the left side of the body three times, then he is done. This is the perfect way
of performing the ghusl.

2. Sufficient ghusl: It is pouring water over the body with rinsing of the mouth and washing the nose
(snipping water in and then taking it out)

Taking a ghusl a bath from Janabah – after sexual intercourse lifts the major and minor state of
impurity even if the person does not intend the lifting of the minor. According to the preponderating
opinion, if the person does not intend to lift the minor one, then the bath is sufficient for both, even if
he does not intend it to be for the minor lifting of the ritual impurity.

Desirable Times of Ghusl: there are other baths which are recommended, and some there is a difference of
opinion whether they are praise worthy only or obligated from that is:

1. Ghusl on the day of Jumu’ah: Two opinions on this, one is that it is an obligation and second is that
it is an affirmed sunnah.
2. After washing the dead: according to the hadith, “Whoever washes a dead, then let him take a bath.” This
is reported by Imam Ahmed and Abu Dawud with an authentic chain of narration.
3. Ghusl for two Eids: it is reported from some of the companions, a man asked Ali radi Allahu anhu
about the ghusl, he mentioned to him the day of Jumu’ah, the day of Arafah, and the days of sacrifice
(Eidul Adha) and the day of fitr following Ramadan (breaking the fast – i.e. Eidul Fitr) and the chain of
narration of this is authentic.
4. Also from the praiseworthy type of ghusl is after regaining consciousness, if a person goes
unconscious and regains it then he takes a bath and this is in accordance to an agreed upon hadith

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5. Also upon entering the state Ihram for Hajj and Umrah. There is a hadith reported by At-Tirmidhi,
which is hasan sahih where it says the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam took bath upon entering the state
of Ihram.
6. Upon entering Makkah: Ibn Umar radi Allahu anhu did not enter Makkah except that he took a
shower and he mentioned that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa sallam did so.

Condition # 5 – Removal of filth: This covers the removal of filth from the body of the praying person or his
garment, and the place where he performs the salah in.

Removal of filth is of three types:

1. Rigorous removal: It requires rigorous way to remove and this is the one occurring upon the licking
of dogs of utensil because the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said if a dogs licks the utensils of you, let
him wash it seven times and one of them with earth. This is therefore referred to as severe. Some people
have also said the same thing is applicable to the pig if it licks the utensils but the correct opinion is
that it is not. Why we call it severe? Because the removal is rigorous, intense, and hard.
2. Medium: This covers the rest of filth where what is required is the removal of the effect of the filth
and whatever removes it is considered whether the removal takes place by steam, by wind, by rain, of
if it removed the first time or the second or the third or the fourth is irrelevant, the point is to remove
it
3. Light: Like the urine of the boy who did not eat regular food, it is sufficient is to sprinkle the water on
the urine of the boy – no need for rubbing. However, with respect the girl, it is to be washed who did
not take the regular food yet.
a. Light spots of blood: It is pardonable
b. Mazi: This is the prostatic fluid discharge due to sexual excitement. It is enough to wash the
private parts and then make wudhu

If the filth is on the ground, then it is either of the two types:

1. It has a body mass, then its essence must be removed and then it should be drained with water.
Ex.: Like one sees on the bed a kind of dung then this needs to be removed and the place should
be drained with water, so the water must be more than the essence of this filth or in case if one
finds clotted blood on bed, this must be removed first, then drained with water, water must be
more than the amount of this filth. This is if it is of this type when it has body mass
2. If it is fluidity in nature that does not have a body mass, here if it is wet then it is dried by sponge
or something in order to minimize it, then you drained it with water and again the water must be
more than the amount of this filth. If it is more to being a dry, then in this case sufficient is to
drain it and cover it with water.

Why we say that the water must be more? Because in the hadith of the Beduin who urinated in
the Prophet’s masjid and the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam ordered for a bucket of water that
is much more than the amount of urine which he urinated in that place.

If moist, not yet dry, if it is wet the person uses something to absorb with sponge or cloth in order
to minimize it. If it is dry, then sufficient that you put water on it more than the amount of filth.
You don’t need to wipe it or absorb it or anything.

What is the daleel that water must be more? The hadith of the Beduin who urinated in the masjid.

The Beneficial Point on the removal of filth: there is no intention needed in the removal of filth, you don’t
need to establish an intention in order to remove the filth because this is from abandonment, getting rid of
(Turuk). It gets purified even if you do not intend.

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• Question: So if some filth touches your garment or your dress, then it becomes pure by way of rain,
can you pray with it even if you didn’t intend to remove it or not? Can you pray with it?
• Answer: Yes, you can pray with it.

The situation is opposite in the case of making the purification because making the purification is from what
is commanded and it is different from the removal of filth and filth is from the things to be removed,
abandonment etc. Doing the purification is from the commands and this requires intention.

In case of removal of filth a person maybe excused in case of ignorance or forgetfulness but in case of
purification he is not. For example, you see filth on your dress or on your garment after the salah, is your
salah correct or not? It is correct. What is the proof for this? Proof for this is the hadith of Jibrael alayhe
assalam when he informed the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam during the salah of filth on his shoes. Did the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam redo the salah? He didn’t. He took them off during the salah.

• Question: How about someone was praying and after he finished he remembered that he did not pray
in state of wudhu, is his salah correct or invalid?
• Answer: He must repeat. It is invalid.

You are praying and you find during the salah [if you find] filth on your head cover – on your hat, then you
have to take off your hat.

Condition # 6 – Covering of the Awrah: Awrah is the source of attraction. With respect to man, the awrah
is from navel to knees and with respect to the woman, the whole of women is awrah except her face in salah
according to the correct opinion but if she is praying in presence of non-mahram, then she covers her face.

Also it is required for men to cover shoulders, or one of them during the salah, so both if the person is able, if
he is unable then there is nothing upon him because Allah says, fear Allah to the best of your ability. So if the
person is able to cover shoulders or one of them, he must do that in accordance with the correct opinion.

Dress is of three types:

1. First type is halal for both men and women and this is the origin. In origin, all dresses in origin and in
principle are lawful except those, which the Legislator stated to be otherwise. So the first type is halal
for both men and women because Allah created that and this is the origin of all dresses unless there is
a specific prevention or prohibition by the Legislator.
2. Second type is that which is haram for males and females like abducted, taken by force, like stolen,
like that which resembles the kafirs, like that which is particular for women and worn by men and the
opposite. And here it should be mentioned putting some of these clothes on our kids those which
resembles the kafir is also forbidden and one who does this for the kid, he is held accountable because
these kids will get accustom to these clothes and it will be difficult later to rid them off of such clothes
and therefore who are guardian are held accountable for the types of dresses they give to their
children or make their children put on.
3. Forbidden for males, permissible for females like silk, silk is forbidden for males except in situations
when there is a need. Like someone suffering from dermatological disease, itching and skin disease
and gold.
4. That which is common, we can mention this as fourth type like socks, some kind of under wear like
upper shirt. It could be common but not everything, shoes but not with hills, imagine a man putting
women’s shoe and walking the street with hills and making all these display of noise and stuff like
that. Some do and they think this is hip. This is trans-insanity. Also, wearing tight cloths, which
describes private parts or transparent then this is not permissible to put on in salah.

Condition # 7 – Entrance of time: Allah says, “[Soorah an-Nisaa 004:103] Verily, As-Salât (the prayer) is enjoined
on the believers at fixed hours.” And the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam gave us the timing and in this there is

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several narrations on the describing the timings of salah and from one of them is comprehensive narration
that of Abdullah ibn Amr in Sahih Muslim.

Abdullah ibn Amr said that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “The time of Zuhr is when the sun
passes the zenith, until the shade of a man equals his length whence time for ‘Asr commences. And the time of Asr is as long
as the sun’s light has not turned yellow. And the time of Magrib lasts as long as the redness has not vanished from the sky.
And the time of ‘Isha is until the middle of the night. And the time of Fajr is from the first appearance of dawn and lasts as
long as the sun has not yet risen. If the sun starts to crest the horizon, refrain from praying because it rises between Satan’s
two horns.” [Sahih Muslim]

1. Zuhr: When sun passes the meridian and a man’s shadow is of the same length as his height, it last
until the time of the Asr prayer.
2. Asr: Time of the Asr prayer is as long as the sun has not become yellow.
3. Magrib: As long as the twilight has not disappeared – meaning as long as there is twilight, then there
is the timing for Magrib.
4. Isha: It is up to middle of the night
5. Fajr: From the appearance of dawn as long as sun has not risen.

Middle of the night: From the sunset time to the time of dawn, take it and divide by two and then add that
time to sunset time to find the middle of the night. 12:00 am is not middle of the night as it is thought.

For example: 5 pm sunset and Fajr is at 5 am, so what is the time in total in here, 12 hours, divide by 2, 6
hours is half, then add this 6 hours to sunset time 5 pm + 6 hours = 11 pm is the middle of the night when
Isha time is over.

It is permissible to combine Magrib and Isha prayer and Zuhr and Asr prayer in case of illness, travel, rain, or
fear either at the time of first salah or at the time of second salah. If a person sleeps on a salah, he misses the
salah then when he wakes up, he makes up that salah and this is his expiation. If he forgets a salah, then he
makes that salah when he remembers as the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, there is no expiation for it
except that. One can combine salah if he knows he will miss salah due to surgery or similar reasons.

Condition # 8 – Facing the Qiblah: Allah says, “[Soorah al-Baqarah 002.144] Verily, We have seen the turning of
your (Muhammad's) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please
you, so turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid Al-Harâm (at Makkah). And wheresoever you people are, turn your
faces (in prayer) in that direction.” And the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, in correcting the person who
did not perform his salah properly he told him, when you stand to establish the salah, complete your wudhu,
and then face the Qiblah, then make takbeer. And this is in Bukhari and Muslim.

And if the person does not know the direction of the Qiblah then he strives and puts the best effort and ask
those may know until he is guided to it and if there are no people around to ask, then he puts the effort and
exerts the effort to know and Allah does not burden a soul beyond its scope. In case the person is praying in
the Haram and he sees the Kabah, he must look at the kabah, at its essence. So therefore, in this case it is a
must. But if he does not see the kabah, then sufficient is the direction, because the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam said concerning the Qiblah of the people of Madinah between the east and west there is a Qiblah.

Condition # 9 – Intention: Place of the intention is the heart; it is the origin for every worship. The Prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said every actions are by intentions and each person will have that which he
intended as in the agreed upon hadith. And the intention of the salah differentiates between the obligatory
and the voluntary salah and also differentiates between the types of obligatory and the types of voluntary
salah themselves. And it is an innovation to utter the intention while intending to perform salah standing and
say, “O Allah, I intend to perform such and such”. This is an innovation. This is rejected.

• It is permissible for the person to pray Zuhr prayer behind someone who is praying Asr

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• It is permissible that one praying voluntary prayer to follow an Imam who is performing an obligatory
prayer
• Also, halal to change his intention from being an imam to being a ma’mum – lead instead of leading
• It is halal to change from being a single to a state to being an ma’mum, for example, you are praying
alone and then you see a group of people coming to the masjid while you are praying, so you can join
them now in the jama’ah prayer, now you changed from being single to a ma’mum state
• Also halal to change from being a ma’mum – for example the imam designates a person to lead the
prayer so he changes from being lead to being leading.
• Also, changing from being lead to being single
• Also single person may change intention to be an imam if someone joins him
• Also, someone who is an imam may change into a single state, you pray with someone and then he
leaves you because of an excuse and you were the imam and now you end up being single
• Also you may change from being an imam, leading the prayer to lead, if the regular imam comes after
being delayed, then he assumes the imama and then you become ma’mum.

~:~ End ~:~

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Chapter Seven: Pillars of Salaah [Audio # 26]

Pillars of Salah are fourteenth. The term rukun means a pillar and in salah this refers to that part
which does not drop due to forgetfulness or by deliberately acting upon it or by ignorance rather the rakah in
which this part was dropped becomes invalid. This is the meaning of rukun in salah.

Pillar # 1 – Standing for those who are capable of doing so: This is known as standing upright but this is
conditional upon those who have the ability to do so. Allah says, “[Soorah al-Baqarah 002.238] And stand before
Allâh with obedience [and do not speak to others during the Salât (prayers)].” Also the saying of the Prophet sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam to Umran bin Husayen “Pray standing upright, in case you are not capable of doing so, then while
sitting, then on your side if you are not able.” Reported by Al-Bukhari.

So this standing is a pillar in the fard – obligatory prayer, and according to ability of the person, as to the
optional prayer, it is not a rukun, it is not a pillar in the optional prayer, and in the hadith of Umran bin
Husayn, he asked the Prophet sallallahu alaye wa sallam concerning the salah of the person sitting, he said, “whoever
prays standing upright, it’s better, and whoever prays sitting, then he would receive the reward of half, half the reward of
the one who stands up, and whoever makes salah while laying on his side, then he will have the half reward of the sitting.”
Here this refers to the nafilah – optional prayers. And we know that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam
prayed the nafilah on his mount, had this been a rukun in the nafilah, he would not have done so, he would
have performed that on the ground.

Pillar # 2 – Takbiratul Ihram (Opening takbir): Takberah is to say Allahu Akbar, which means Allah is
Greater. Now why is it called Takbiratu tahreem or ihram (the prohibitive tahreem)? It is called that because it
prohibits the person in salah from saying or doing anything extraneous to the prayer. This is the meaning of
takbiratul ihram.

Pillar # 3 – Recitation of the Fatiha (the opening chapter of the Quraan): The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam
said, “whoever does not recite fatiha in his prayer, his salah is invalid.” And the fatiha is a rukun in every rakah,
whether it is with Imam or whether it is for the Imam or one praying alone or one led in the prayer. The
imam, the munfarid, and the ma’mum, for each one of them it is a rukun. As to the one who may have stayed
– who came late, then if he attains the rukuh, then it drops.

What about if the person is unable to recite the Fatiha? Then it is an obligation to learn it and if he is unable
to learn it right away, then he makes takbir, he makes takbir of Allah, and says “laa ilaha illa Allah”, and
praises Allah (i.e. says Allahu Akbar, laa ilaha illa Allah, Alhamdulillah) that would be sufficient until he learns
the fatiha. This is important for the one who is new to Islam, who accepts Islam, to know this and to help
them by letting them perform the salah right away with these easy to learn remembrances and they can do
that in the salah. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said to the one who did not perform his salah properly, “if
you know of the Quraan, then recite, otherwise you say: Alhamdulillah, Takbir [Allahu Akbar], laa ilaha illa Allah then
bow.”

Pillar # 4 – Ar-Ruku (Bowing): Allah says, “[Soorah al-Hajj 022:077] O you who have believed! Bow down, and
prostrate yourselves…” Also the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said to the person who did not perform his salah
properly, “then bow until you feel calmness throughout your rukuh.”

Pillar # 5 – Rising from the bowing state till standing state this is called Arraf3u minhu: so he must intend
arraf3u minhu – minhu meaning from it, meaning from rukuh, it should be pointed that out the person
intends this in fact, so if he for example stands upright frighten from something, then this is not called legal
standing, so the person should have intention to have this position correctly done.

Pillar # 6 – Standing upright after Ruku: So rising from the bowing position (#5 pillar) and the next one is
standing upright after bowing. And in the hadith of Abu Humayd who described the salah of the Prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “when he lifted his head, he went into an upright position until each bone returns to its

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place”. So this is the sixth one. The rukuh – bowing, rising from rukuh, and then being in an upright standing
position. And in the Hadith of Aysha radi Allahu anha, “when he lifted his head from rukuh, he did not go to the
prostration until he stood upright” as in sahih Muslim.

Pillar # 7 – The Sajda upon seven parts of the body: The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “I have been
commanded to prostrate on seven bones.” This is reported in al-Bukhari and Muslim. What are these seven bones?
These are:

1. The forehead along with the tip of the nose


2. Both hands
3. Both knees
4. And Toes of both feet

Pillar # 8 – And Rising from it (Sajda): Because of the hadith of Aysha radi Allahu anha, she said, “the Prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam when he lifts his head – rises his head from the prostration he did not go for the 2nd prostration,
until he sits straight. This is agreed upon hadith. So this is the rising from the sujud – prostrations.

Pillar # 9 – Sitting position between the two Sajda: and in the hadith of Aysha mentioned above “until he sat
straight.”

Pillar # 10 – Calmness throughout the salah – throughout the pillars: in each pillar, the one praying returns
to his former position, and its bone returns to its position, and the person feels at ease, and calmness and the
one who does not establish this calmness, then there is no salah for him because the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam informed the person who did not perform the salah properly, “return and do the salah, for in fact you did not make
your salah” because there was a lack of calmness, which is known as attomaninah.

Pillar # 11 – The final Tashahud: because of the saying of Ibn Masud as in the hadith of Ibn Masud radi
Allahu anhu, “we used to say before the tashahud was made obligatory upon us (this is the point of evidence) Assalam to
Allah from His slaves, assalam to Jibrael, assalam to Michael… so the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “do not
say, Assalam upon Allah, but rather say, At-Tahiyatu lilla…” So therefore we take from this evidence the tashahud
that it is a pillar.

Pillar # 12 – And sitting for it (The final tashahud): Because in the hadith of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, when one of you sit in the salah meaning for the tashahud, then let him say “At-
tahiyatu lilla…”

Pillar # 13 – Assalat upon the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam: Recitation of assalah alibrahimiyah upon
the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, this is known as a pillar and being famous with some schools of
thought, and this is what Imam As-Shafee considered to be a pillar and also Imam Ahmed in his school of
thought, famous in his school of thought, but before a group of the companions and others considered this to
be a pillar, so some of the scholars considered this to be a pillar.

The other opinion, that the salah upon the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam is wajib – obligation but not a
pillar, because the saying in the hadith, kulu alla humma salli ‘ala Muhammad, when they asked him how to
perform salah upon him, he said, kulu alla humma salli ‘ala Muhammad – say, O Allah make Your salah on the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam. This is therefore it’s possible that this could refer to educating and teaching
them and guiding them but not necessarily an obligation.

This is the 2nd opinion, and the third opinion is that the salah upon the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam is
neither a rukun nor a pillar but rather it is a sunnah, because the evidence for its being a pillar or obligatory
are not apparent, and to this opinion, Shaykh Saleh al-Uthaymeen rahimahu Allah went. He said that the
evidences are not apparent and in principle the person is free responsibility and he said that the correct or the
preponderating opinion because there is no clear or apparent evidence for that. And he cited that the saying of

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the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam “kulu - say” this is for israd – for direction, for educating, for making
them [the sahabah] know but not for even obligation. And there is no evidence other than this to direct this
matter to be an obligatory matter or a pillar.

Pillar # 14 – Taslim: and this is the saying of the one praying, “asalamualikum wa rahma tullah” because in
the hadith, “and ending it meaning the salah is taslim”

Pillar # 15 – Order: some of the scholars mentions, “the orderly performance of the salah procedure”. They
considered this as a pillar.

~:~ End ~:~

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Chapter Eight: Waajibaat of Salaah [Audio # 27]

Obligation of salah is eight. What is wajibat (of Salah)? Wajib in salah is that action or saying if
dropped can be compensated, dropped due to forgetfulness can be compensated by performing the sujud of
forgetfulness, and you heard me saying if dropped by way of forgetfulness but does not drop if done
intentionally, they are eight.

Obligation # 1 – All the takbirat other than the takbiratul Ihram: Because the takbiratul Ihram is a pillar.
And this is based on the hadith of Abdullah ibn Masud who described seeing the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam making takbir in every movement going down, and every lifting, and every standing upright and every sujud and
every sitting. These takbirat are also known as takbiratul intikal, intikal meaning movement from a position to
another, and also the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “If the Imam makes takbir then you do the
same, you make “takbir” and the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam continued to make the takbir in all of his
prayers, so these are the takbirat of movement upon moving from a position of rukun to another position of
rukun.

Obligation # 2 – Saying “Sami Allahu Liman Hamidah”: this is for the Imam and for the one who prays
alone, and there is an opinion that it is also for the ma’mum. This is a wajib – an obligation after lifting from
rukuh and the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam used to say that as in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah in Al-
Bukhari and Muslim. In sahih al-bukhari, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, if he – meaning the Imam
says “sami Allahu liman hamida” then say, “rabbana wa lakal hamd.”

Obligation # 3 – Saying “Rabbana wa lakal Hamd”: It is for all, for the Imam, for the ma’mum, for the one
praying alone. Because of the hadith of Abu Hurayrah radi Allahu anhu, “When the Imam during the prayer says,
Allah hears him who praises him, say, Our Lord, all the praises are for you. So if the saying of any one of you coincides
with the saying of the angels, his past sins will be forgiven.” So what is the meaning of “sami Allahu liman
hamida”? It means, Allah has certainly heard him who praises Him, who praises Allah. And what does
“rabbana wa lakal Hamd” mean? It means, and to You meaning Allah, our Rabb the praise is due.

Obligation # 4 – Saying “Subhana Rabbi Al-‘Azeem”: Saying it in ruku (bowing). What does it mean? It
means, far removed from every imperfection is my Rabb, the Great. It is to be said in the rukuh based on the
hadith of Hudayfa radi Allahu anhu who said I prayed with the Messenger sallallahu alayhe wa sallam and he used to
say in his rukuh, “subhana Rabbi Al-‘Azeem” – meaning declaring Allah, far removed from every imperfection is
my Rabb, the Great.

Obligation # 5 – Saying “Subhana Rabbi Al-‘Ala”: Saying it in Sujud (Prostration). What does it mean? It
means, far removed from every imperfection is my Rabb, the Supreme, the Most High. And this is based
upon the hadith of Hudayfah, where he mentioned that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said this in his
sujud in his prostration.

It is affirmed from seven of the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam that he use to say in his
rukuh “subhana Rabbi Al-‘Azeem” three times and it has been also confirmed from seven of the companions of the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam that he used to say in his sujud, “subhana Rabbi Al-‘Ala” three times.

Obligation # 6 – Saying “Rabbig firli”: Saying it in the sitting between two prostrations. This is also based
on the hadith of Hudayfa radi Allahu anhu which is reported in An-Nasaee and Ibn Majah that he sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam used to say, “Rabbig firli, Rabbig firli, Rabbig firl – my Rabb forgive me, my Rabb forgive me, my Rabb
forgive me between the two prostrations.”

Obligation # 7 – The first tashahud: which is the recitation of the first Tashahud, based on the hadith, he
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam used to recite after two rakah recite at-tahiyah, and in his saying, “when you sit after each
two rakah, then you recite attahiyat” as related in An-Nasaee and Ahmed.

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Obligation # 8 – Sitting for the first tashahud: Because he sallallahu alayhe wa sallam commanded the person
who did not perform his salah properly to do so. And he sallallahu alayhe wa sallam used to sit in the Tashahud
after finishing the 2nd rakah as reported in an-Nasaee with good chain of narration.

~:~ End ~:~

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Chapter Nine: At-Tashahud – Its meaning [Audio # 28]

It has several versions of it which are authentic and sunnah is to diversify reciting them so that the
person revives the sunnah and follows the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam and this also takes away any
kind of boredom if the person sticks to a certain one and begin not to feel what it means, so the diversification
is good and very beneficial and we will go with one of them.

“At-Tahiyyaat is for Allaah. All acts of worship and good deeds are for Him. Peace and the mercy and blessings of Allaah
be upon you O Prophet. Peace be upon us and all of Allaah’s righteous servants. I bear witness that none has the right to be
worshipped except Allaah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.”

“O Allaah, send prayers upon Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad, just as You sent prayers upon Ibraaheem
and upon the followers of Ibraaheem. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty. O Allaah, send blessings upon

49
Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, just as You sent blessings upon Ibraaheem and upon the family of
Ibraaheem. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty.” [This supplication is known as “Salatul Ibrahimiyah”]

This is at-tahiyat. Meaning:

At-tahiyaat: Magnification

At-tahiyaatu Lillahi: Magnification belongs to Allah, the dominion belongs to Allah, Kingship belongs to
Allah, freedom from all evils or imperfections, salutations and benediction are all due to Allah, He deserves
them all, bowing, prostrations, existence all of these meanings are included in the term at-tahiyaat literally
salutations. This comprehensive meaning of attahiyat, it is important that we know this because we
contemplate while we recite.

Wattayyebaatu: All good deeds are all due to Allah

Assalamu ‘3alayka Ayyuhan Nabiyyu wa rahma tullahi wabaraka tuhu: This means you invoke Allah to
bestow safety upon the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, and to render him safe from every derogative things
and also to render his message safe from all evils, this is the meaning of “Assalamu ‘3alayka Ayyuhan
Nabiyyu” “wa rahma tullahi” and the Mercy of Allah upon you, this is invocation, the person is invoking
Allah, “walbarakah” and the blessings.

Assalamu ‘3alayna Wa ‘3ala ibaadillahis salihin: here you make salam upon yourself, you invoke Allah to
bestow safety and security from evil, and grant you that and also for the righteous of Allah. This is the
invocation upon yourself and upon righteous slaves of Allah.

Ashadu Al-la ilaha ill Allah: I testifying that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah

Wa Ash-hadu an-na muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluhu: I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of
Allah and His slave, A messenger that is not belied, a messenger that is obeyed and followed, honored by
being a slave worshipper of Allah.

Allahumma salli ‘ala Muhammad wa ‘ala Aale Muhammad kamaa sallayta ‘ala ibraahim wa ‘ala aale
Ibrahim: O Allah have Your praise upon the Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam before the
highest companions – from the angels. The Aal here refers to the household of the Propeht sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam from Bani Hashim and Bani Muttalib and his wives, this is the Aale Muhammad – as you praised
Ibrahim and the household of Ibrahim – and the household of Ibrahim are the believers of his offspring, and
from them are the prophets and the best of them is Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam.

Innaka hamidum majed: Verily You are the praised and You are glorified.

Wa barik ‘ala Muhammad wa ‘ala aalee Muhammad kama Barakta ‘ala Ibrahim wa ‘ala aalee Ibrahim
innaka hamidum majed: And grant Muhammad and the household of Muhammad the honor and reverence
as you granted Ibrahim and the household of Ibrahim. Verily, You are the praised and You are glorified.

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After you recited the Tashahud (what came above), you seek protection with Allah from the following:

“O Allaah, I take refuge in You from the punishment of the grave, from the torment of the Fire, from the trials and
tribulations of life and death and from the evil affliction of al-Maseeh ad-Dajjaal.”

Some of the salaf mentioned that this dua is obligatory. Then afterward the person may choose what he
wishes, what he likes from the good of this life and of the hereafter before concluding the salah especially that
which came from the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam

‘O Allaah, help me to remember You, to thank You, and to worship You in the best of manners.’

As the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam recommended Muadth ibn Jabal radi Allahu anhu to say that or the
person may say,

“O Allaah, I have indeed oppressed my soul excessively and none can forgive sin except You, so forgive me a forgiveness
from Yourself and have mercy upon me. Surely, You are The Most-Forgiving, The Most-Merciful.”

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This dua the Prophet sallallahu alahe wa sallam taught to Abu Bakr as in the agreed upon hadith. There are
other narrations that came with other duas, but this is sufficient and the person may make dua from that
which he knows.

~:~ End ~:~

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Chapter Ten: Sunnah Acts of As-Salah [Audio # 29]

What are the sunan of salah? First we need to remember that these refer to those actions which the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam did in his salah but are not obligatory upon the person to do but rather it’s a
sunnah. So, if the person does not do them deliberately or due to forgetfulness then there is no sin upon him
or her. This is the meaning of sunan of salah.

1. The opening dua – supplication: there are different opening dua that came in the sunnah.
2. Putting the Right hand over the left on the chest while standing
3. Also raising the hands and the fingers neither spaced apart nor tightly together and putting them to the
level of one’s shoulder or raising them until the level of tops of the ears are reached. This is upon the
first takbir, and also upon rukuh, and upon lifting from rukuh and upon standing from the first
Tashahud to do the third rakah. In all of these takbir, raising the hands is performed.
4. Also from the sunan is what exceeds the one tasbih (subhana Rabbi al’Azeem in ruku and subhana Rabbi
al’ala in sajda) in ruku and in sujud. So obligatory is to say that once, and what exceeds the once is a
sunnah.
5. Also what exceeds saying “Rabbig firli” once, between the two prostrations, wajib is to say once, what
exceeds that is sunnah. So if you say, Rabbig firli twice, then the second is a sunnah.
6. Also, leveling the head and the back during Rukuh as came in the sunnah, spreading ones back and
making it leveled with the head, not raising the head nor lowering it down as well as having the sight
fixed toward the ground. This is from the sunnah.
7. During Sujud, keeping or raising one’s forearms above the ground and keeping them away from his
sides such that the whiteness of one’s arm feet would be seen from behind and also the abdomen being
away from the thighs.
8. Laying one’s foot along the ground and sitting on it relaxed and having the right foot upright while
laying the left foot along the ground and sitting on it relaxed, and having the right foot upright toes in
the direction of the Quilah in the first Tashahud and between two prostrations. This is iktirash.
9. Tawarruk in last Tashahud and it has different ways and from that is one would have his left foot
under his right thigh and shin while his right foot is upright with the toes in the direction of the Qiblah
and the buttock on the ground.
10. Making salah and the blessings (Salatul Ibrahimiyah) on the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam and his
household and upon Ibrahim and family of Ibrahim.
11. And the Dua on last the Tashahud (i.e. at the end of the tashahud before taslim)
12. Looking at the index finger while pointing in sitting position for the Tashahud
13. Putting the end of the arms upon the thighs in the Tashahud and in the sitting between the two
prostrations based upon the hadith of Wail bin Hajr radi Allahu anhu
14. And to make abundant dua in prostrations based on the hadith of Ibn Abbas and Abu Hurayra radi
Allahu anhuma in Sahih Muslim

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15. During Ruku’ placing the palms on the knees with fingers spaced out as if grasping the knees based on
the hadith of Abu Humayd as-Sa’di radi Allahu anhu
16. During prostration, pointing the fingers and all of the toes toward the Qiblah, based on the hadith of
Abu Humayd as-Sa’di radi Allahu anhu
17. Putting one’s fingers together during prostrations based on the hadith of Wail bin Hajr radi Allahu
anhu
18. During prostrations, placing one’s palms leveled with the shoulders and sometimes leveled with the
ears based on the hadith of Abu Humayd and Wail and Al-Bara radi Allahu anhum
19. Keeping elbows away from one’s side during rukuh based on the hadith of Abu Humayd as-Sa’di radi
Allahu anhu
20. To have loud recitation in salatul Fajr and in the first two rakat of Magrib and Isha and to have secret
recitation in Zuhr, Asr, and in the third of Magrib and the last two of Isha. Imam Ibn Qudamah
rahimahu Allah said loud recitation in places of loud recitation and secret recitation in places of secret
recitation. It is agreed upon that this is recommended and the Muslims did not differ as to its places
and principle in that is the action of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam and this has been affirmed
from the salaf. He reported this in Al-Mubni vol. 2, p. 270
21. Also, reciting more than the Fatiha from the Quraan is sunnah. Imam Ibn Qudamah said reciting a
surah after the fatiha is sunnah in the two rakah of each salah, and we have no knowledge of
disagreement regarding this. And he reported this in Al-Mugni vol. 2, p. 272

There are other sunan but there is some difference of opinion about them but this is most of them.

~:~ End ~:~

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Chapter Eleven: Invalidators of Salaah [Audio # 30]

Invalidators of the salah are those actions, which nullify one’s salah therefore the person must redo
the salah.

1. Willful talking in salah concerning that, which is not related to be a benefit in salah. So if a person
talks in salah out of forgetfulness or ignorance then in accordance with the correct opinion his salah is
not nullified. Now the evidence for the nullification or the invalidity of the salah due willful talking in
salah is the report from Zayd bin Arkam who said, “we used to talk in salah, the person would talk to
his neighbor in salah until the following verse was revealed, “[Soorah al-Baqarah 002.238] And stand
before Allâh with obedience [and do not speak to others during the Salât (prayers)].”

So we were commanded not to speak to each other in salah. The one who speaks due to forgetfulness
or ignorance, his salah is not invalid. The evidence for this is in the story of Muwawiyah ibn Hakam
as-Solami radi Allahu anhu when he spoke in the salah due to ignorance, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam admonished him and said, “in this salah nothing from what goes on between people in speech is valid in it,
verily it is tasbih, and takbir and the recitation of the Quraan,” this is reported in sahih Muslim. The point of
evidence is that he sallallahu alayhe wa sallam did not command him to redo the salah although he
spoke in the salah out of ignorance.

2. Laughing in salah: Ibn Mundir said, the scholars were upon agreement that the laughing invalidates
the salah
3. Willful eating and drinking: It is also reported that Ibn Mundir said, it is unanimous from those whom
we preserve – meaning people of knowledge – that whoever eats and drinks in the fard salah
deliberately then he has to repeat or redo the salah.
4. The appearance of one’s private parts that must be covered, in other words, uncovering of the awrah –
This is because this is a condition from the conditions of salah. So if the awrah becomes uncovered
deliberately then this invalidates the salah.
5. Too much deviation or diverging from the direction of the Qiblah because facing the Qiblah is one of
the condition of salah. So if he diverges away from this direction deliberately, then his salah is invalid
6. Nullification by wudhu. So wudhu must be valid because wudhu is a condition from the conditions of
the salah where salah is not valid unless there is purification. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam
said, “Allah does not accept the salah of any one of you if he breaks the wudhu due to ritual impurity until he
makes wudhu.”

~:~ End ~:~

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Appendixes

56
Traveling without Mahram for Women is Haram By Shaykh Saleh as Saleh

First it should be noted, Islamic Share'ah is based upon bringing benefits and good, and warding off
harm, and from its necessitated objective is preservation of lineage and honor. And it is affirmed in the Book
and Sunnah in replete evidences and clear ones that all the ways that lead to loss of honor, and lineages and
mixing of lineages are haram, from that is seclusion with the non-mahram women, exposition of her beauty to
other than her husband and her mahrams as mentioned in Surah An- Nur and also like the command to lower
the gaze.

And from the means, which may lead to fahisa – to sins and mixing of lineages and disgrace and dishonor is
the travel of the woman unaccompanied by those legally legislated as company from her husband or one of
her mahrams and that’s why it is Haram.

Because in the hadith reported by Ibn Umar radi allahu anhuma that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said,
no women should travel for a distance of 3 days except that she has with her a mahram.

Also, in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, no women should travel a
distance of half a day except that she has a mahram. Reported by Abu Dawud and Al-Hakim.

Also, in the hadith of Ibn Abbas who said, I heard the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam say while giving a
sermon, no man should be in seclusion with a woman except with a mahram, having a mahram with her and no one
should travel except with a mahram so a man stood and said O Messenger of Allah, my wife went for hajj and I have been
assigned to share in such and such battle, so the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam commanded him saying, Go and
make hajj with your wife. Reported by Ahmed, Sahih Al-Bukhare and Sahih Muslim.

In some of the narrations, it came restricted to a distance of one day, in some one night, in some three miles
(and a mile is about 1.6 kilos), and in some for two days

The restriction is not intended however this is an expression on something factual so there is no action on its
mafhom (what understood), then another thing, it is opposed by that which is stated in the hadith of Ibn Abbas
radi Allahu anhuma, where it has been absolutely generalized, “No woman should travel except with a
mahram”, whether this is a short or long, few nights or few days or many, whether she is young or old,
whether this is on land or by ship or by air.

And whoever restricts this prohibition by saying this is applicable as long as she may have a safe company, so
in case of a safe company, it is allowed. Then, his saying or this statement is rejected by the general wording
of hadith of Ibn Abbas because it is unequivocal uttered, and it takes precedence over what is understood in
the number in the other narrations and this is the correct understanding and correct opinion regarding this
matter.

So in short, the hadith of Ibn Abbas is mamtuk (explicit meaning) defined as being that which is indicative of
the ruling due to the wording of the text, and the other texts fall under what is known as mamhum – implied
meaning. And Allah knows best.

~:~ End ~:~

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TV - Yes or No? By Shaykh Saleh as Saleh

In general almost every house has a television, especially in western countries, if not in all (countries).
Unlawful things (are shown on the television), like music (with different musical instruments), so therefore, television
contains and shows: Unlawful music, Violent and criminal series and shows Superstitious and imaginative
unrealistic things, Free mixing of sexes, Nakedness and tight clothes, Gays and lesbians, Distorted
information about Islam and Muslims.

In many “so called” soap operas you witness cheating, a man cheats on his wife and she cheats on him with
unlawful relations, Drinking of haraam, Women singing half naked without anything covering their breasts.
The extent of the above varies from one program to another, but in many cases all of the above exists.

There is no doubt that anyone who uses the television for any of the above reasons then it is forbidden for him
to keep it (the television) and forbidden for him to see. Anyone who brings the television (into the home), while
knowing, or thinks that it is most likely that he cannot avoid the programs that are mentioned then he is
insisting on haraam.

Anyone who brings the television (into the home) to his family and his children and leaves them to use it
openly despite all of these programmes, even though he may not see them himself, then in this case he is
committing haraam and accumulating sins because he is helping in haraam and will be held accountable on
the Day of Resurrection.

Watching television without owning it is divided into three categories:

1. Watching that which is of benefit for one's religion and beneficial matters of this life. However it is
conditional on it not becoming a means to see the haraam, for example, the woman sits looking at
and enjoying seeing the man giving the news, because this would be fitnah. The same applies to the
man looking at a beautiful woman giving the news with enjoyment this is a fitnah.

2. Seeing that which is harmful to one's religion is haraam because the believer is obligated to protect
himself and his family in the religion.

3. That which is of no benefit or no harm is nonsense, which does not befit the believer and the believer
should not waste his time with it.

This is what has been discussed by our Shaykh, Muhammad ibn Saalih al- ‘Uthaymeen rahimahu Allah.

The Permanent Committee of Scholars have stated (in a fatwa) that the television is an instrument that in and
of itself has no ruling regarding it; rather, the ruling applies to its use, if it is used for haraam, like singing,
showing haraam pictures, foolishness, lying, cheating, deviant creeds (beliefs), altering realities, inciting fitan,
then it is haraam. If it is used in that which is good, like recitation of the Quraan, making the truth clear,
enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, then it becomes useful and permissible from this angle.

In the case that the two matters become equal or the level of evil exceeds the level of good then the television
becomes haraam.

Taken from: Questions & Answers on Paltalk in the Understand Islam room under Social Issues,
7th Rajab 1427
Transcribed by Aboo Uthmaan
www.understand-islam.net

~:~ End ~:~

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Wedding – Marriage & Its Rules and Issues By Shaykh Muhammad al-Uthaymeen

Wedding – Marriage & Its Rules and Issues


Shaykh Muhammad bin Salih al-Uthaymeen
A Lecture given in a cultural program arranged by the Department of Islamic Law And the Department of the Arabic
Language of Qaseem

Attacks of Enemies & Protection from Them

Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahu Allah started with Khutbatul Hajjah that is to Praise Allah and sending Salah on
the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam and seeking refuge with Allah from the evil of our Deeds and souls and
uttering shahadatyn. Then Shaykh Uthaymeen started with an advice to the Muslims about their current
situations, the intellectual attacks, moral attacks and attacks of belief before he goes into the main topic of the
lecture which is Marriage – its rulings and issues. Shaykh Uthaymeen encouraged the leaders and scholars to
stand up united to secure the Muslims from the attacks of the enemies that are getting more and more severe.
Shaykh said, that we need:

1. United calling and delivery of the Deen


2. United effort and struggle
3. Not giving the enemy any opportunity to involve themselves in our affairs.

So we – Muslims can prevent the spreading of the attacks of the enemies of Islam. Shaykh emphasized the
importance of unity and working together very much because the case amongst the Muslim is such that two
people work toward the same goal yet not united in their work. Shaykh said that it is vital for the scholars to
unite on one platform and seriously examine these (3 attacks above) problems and issues and research them
well. This is because these issues and problems are extremely dangerous especially fundamental issues such as
media sources, general culture, and source of gaining knowledge, methodology of gaining knowledge, due to
which the general populations are turned away and distanced from the fundamentals of their Deen.

People of Knowledge Running After Dunya

Shaykh mentioned that one of the tragic realities that we are facing these days is that our students and people
of knowledge are turning away from their obligations and running after dunya and keeping themselves
occupied with the pursuit of the dunya. This problem in particular has on one hand removed the effect of their
Da’wah, and on the other hand has erased their acceptance and effect amongst the people.

Shaykh then mentioned that there is no doubt that the role-played by an Alim and his etiquettes have a great
effect on society. When the people see that there ulema are also running after the dunya like the common
people then most certainly their hearts will lose the respect for the ulema and their advice and exhortations
will have no effect on the people.

Support People of Solutions & Commitments

Shaykh states that it is important for us to lend support to the people of solutions and commitments. This is
because the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam has said, “The Deen is Naseeah”, and he said it three times
showing importance of it, so his companions asked, “for whom O Messenger of Allah?” So he replied saying,
“For Allah, for His Books, for His Messengers, and for all of the Muslims.” Shaykh mentioned that if people
from all over encourage, support, and advise them, then they will tread the correct path with the Tawfiq of
Allah.

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Ignorant & Uneducated Imams

Shaykh went on to state the problem people have stated that the Imams of the Masajid are ignorant and
uneducated, that they are not concerned with admonishing and advising the people neither meeting with
them. However, in the days of past before dunya was opened up for Muslims the Imams of the masajid used
to read certain books of the deen to the worshippers and would benefit them. However, today there is nothing
read in most masajid and the imams do not offer guidance to the people either. This is the reason for which
the general people are ignorant of the laws and issues related to their deen, this is due to the failures of the
responsible people of knowledge.

Barrier between Youth and Elders

Shaykh rahimahu Allah then talks about the long lasting barrier between the Youth and Elders, where elders
pays no attention to the youth no matter how corrector their speech may be. Shaykh mentions that it is vital
that we come together with the young men and we try and find out the reasons for their disinterest in the
Deen.

Shaykh states that the elders when they hear of some unpleasant characteristic or attribute about some young
men then we begin to suspect all young men and pay no attention to them but rather deviate from them and
bad mouth them in every place, and we do not take any interest in their affairs but rather look upon them with
contempt. Therefore, the youth become distant from the elders and the people of deen and knowledge so the
shaytan leads them astray in any direction he chooses. Shaykh further states that it has become vital that we
seriously consider this problem and give it satisfactory attention and not permit any more failures in this
matter to occur.

Responsibility of Teachers teaching Islam

Shaykh then went on saying that today there is a responsibility specifically on the teachers to try their utmost
to adorn their students with the Islamic culture and to induce within them the yearning for the teachings of
our Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam and to familiarize them with the truth of the Deen along with the rules
and regulations of Shari’ah also inform them about the secrets and wisdoms of the Shari’ah. This is because
the modern education is incomplete and the teachers presents the teachings in a dry manner and do not teach
rules and regulations with their evidences and wisdoms.

Shaykh states that although the state of the believer is such that they are constant to the laws of Allah and His
Messengers whether they know benefits and wisdoms behind them or not, yet knowing benefits and wisdoms
will increase their contentment and attention towards the Shari’ah. So the Shaykh encouraged the teachers to
present knowledge to students in a form which is fresh and lively, so then it stirs the heart, hastens the soul,
and expands the heart and the mind automatically incline towards it and the heart receives contentment and
satisfaction.

The Linguistic Meaning of Nikah

Nikah sometimes refers to marriage and sometimes to cohabitation. For Example, when it is said, “The
Nikah of so and so and the daughters of so and so”, this refers to marriage but when it is said, “The nikah of
the wife and husband”, this refers to cohabitation.

The Shar’ii Meaning of Nikah

In the Shar’ia, nikah means an agreement and bond between a man and a woman with the goal that the both
of them will find pleasure in each other and will establish a pious and righteous family, which will lead to a
chaste society. From this, it is clear that nikah is not just to find pleasure but also to build a righteous family
and chaste society. However, depending upon the individuals involved and the circumstances one of the two
goals overcomes the other.

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The Wisdom of Marriage

The marriage in itself is an action of Shari’ah and it is vital for all those who have sexual desire and means. It
is also one of the sunnah of the Messengers of Allah as Allah mentioned in Surah Ar-Rad: 38, “And Indeed we
sent Messengers before you (O Muhammad) and made for them wives and offspring”. Also our Prophet sallallahu alayhe
wa sallam said about himself, “I also get married to women, therefore whoever turns away from my sunnah, then he is not
of us.”

In view of some of the scholars, marriage is better than nawafil prayers for one who has desire because of the
great benefits it has. Marriage becomes wajib for one who is overcome by sexual desire and then there is fear
that if he/she doesn’t get married will do that, which is haram. Our Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said,
“Oh! Young men! Those of you who are able to marry should marry. And for him who does not have the
means to get married then let him fast.” This is because marriage is that, which lowers the gaze and protects
the private parts and fasting is a shield against sexual desire.

The Conditions of Marriage

Islam has certain conditions for all contracts and these contracts cannot be completed without these
conditions. This is a clear proof of the strength and stability of the Islamic system, and it is also a proof that
this sharia’ah is from a Wise and Knowing Being who is well aware of what is beneficial to the creation, so
that affairs are properly controlled and to prevent chaos. Marriage is also a part of these Islamic Contracts,
which has certain conditions.

First Condition of Marriage: The Willingness of the Husband and Wife

It is not correct to force a man to marry a woman whom he doesn’t like, in the same manner it is not correct
to force any women to marry a man whom she doesn’t like. Because Allah said, “O you who believe! You are
forbidden to inherit women against their will.” [Surah An-Nisa: 19] The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said,
“The widow will not be married without her permission, and the previously unmarried woman will also not be married
without her permission.” The Companion of the Prophet asked him, “O Messenger of Allah, how will she give her
permission?” He said, “Her silence will be her permission.” [Sahih Muslim]

Once a woman has refused to marry then it is not permissible for anyone to force her, even her father. Under
this circumstance if her father does not marry her off then there is no sin on him, because the woman has
herself refused but it is vital for the father to protect his daughter and keep her safely. If two men propose to
her and she says that she likes one of them but her wali says she should marry the other, then she will be
married to the man whom she likes. At this point, it will be seen if the one she likes is compatible1, and if he is
not then the wali has the authority to stop her and the wali will not be sinning in this case.

Second Condition of Marriage: Wali – Guardian

Without a wali the marriage is not correct because the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “There
is no nikah without a wali”. If a woman married herself off on her own then the marriage is void whether she
made the agreement by herself or through trustee – wakeel. The wali is an intelligent, adult, righteous,
kinsman of the woman such as:

1. Her father
2. Her grandfather
3. Her son

1
 Shaykh  fawazan  said  compatibility  is  categorized  into  five  aspects:  1.  Religion,  2.  Lineage,  3.  Freedom  [non-­‐enslaved],  4.  Occupation,  5.  Affluence  of  wealth  
in  accordance  to  what  is  required  for  her  of  the  dower  and  maintenance.  *Taken  from  book:  Marriage  published  by  Troid.org  –  page  11  

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4. Her grandson (son of her son)
5. Any male adult under her (i.e. her brother, step Brother from her mother’s previous marriage)
6. Her uncle (father’s real brother)
7. Father’s step brother and his sons

The closest relations come first in order, then her further ones. A stepbrother from her father’s previous
marriage cannot be her wali, nor his sons, neither can the woman’s maternal grandfather, nor her mother’s
brother, as they are not her close relations.

It is mandatory on the wali to be present in marriage and also to marry the women to the best of suitor who
proposed for the woman’s hand. It is a trust on the wali and it is obligatory on him to do proper execution of
this trust with great care. He should not marry the woman with unsuitable suitor due to some greed. This is
deception. If he reject proposal due to baseless reasons, his guardianship will be removed and it will be given
to the next wali in line.

Qualities to Look for in a Woman for Marriage

As mentioned before, marriage is entered into to find pleasure and also to bring about a righteous family and
chaste society. This is why it is important to marry who possesses the virtues to fulfill both objectives (i.e. she
possesses both outward and real beauty).

Outward Beauty

She should be physically healthy – this is because the more appealing a woman is to look at and the more
sweet her speech is, the more coolness the eyes will feel. The ears will automatically listen to her voice, due to
which the heart will feel happiness for her, and the soul will develop contentment, and the saying of Allah
will be affirmed: “And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find
repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy.” [Surah Rum: 21]

Real Beauty

There should be no lacking in her (woman to be married) Deen and manners. This is because the more
religious and moral a woman will be the more beloved she will be with her heart and soul and she will also be
safe in terms of her end. The religious woman will be one who follows the command of Allah, will be a
protector of her husband, children and wealth and in obedience to Allah will be a helper of her husband. A
respectful woman will try and be as close to her husband as possible, if the husband forgets then she will
remind him.

The Messenger of Allah said in regard to which woman is best to marry: “The one, who pleases him when he
looks at her, obeys him when he orders her and does not oppose him regarding herself or his wealth (and property) with
what he dislikes.” And also said in another place, “Marry those who are loving and fertile in having children for indeed
I will be multiplied (with followers) and be able to boast among the prophets (or he said nations)” When such a woman
is found having these outer and inner beauty, then with the tawfiq of Allah this is true completion and
happiness.

The Women who become forbidden upon Marriage

From amongst the limit of Shari’ah, which Allah has appointed is marriage, from a halal and haram point of
view. Due to nearness, fostering, or genealogy, certain women are considered haram for the man. There are
two categories of forbidden women. The first category is of those women who are forbidden unconditionally
or for all times, and the other category is of those women who are forbidden for an appointed time.

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Unconditionally Forbidden Women

These women are of 3 types:

a. Women of blood relations: these are those women who the Qur’an mentions in Surah an-Nisa: 23
1) Mothers: included amongst them are grandmothers whether they are paternal or maternal
2) Daughters: included amongst them are daughters from the man’s loins, daughters of the sons,
daughters of the daughters in a descending order
3) Maternal Sisters: included amongst them are maternal full sisters, maternal and paternal half-sisters.
4) Paternal Aunts: included amongst them are the paternal aunts of the man and his father and his
grandfather, the paternal aunts of his mother and his grandfather.
5) Maternal Aunts: included amongst them re maternal aunts of the man and his father, his grandfather,
the maternal aunts of his mother and his grandmother.
6) Daughters of the Brother: included amongst them are daughters of the full brother, half brother –
from the father or mother – and the daughters of their sons and their daughters in a descending order.

b. Women forbidden due to a foster relationship: these are exactly like the women of blood relations
because of the hadith of our Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, where he said, “The women who are
forbidden due to blood relations are also forbidden due to foster relations.” There are certain conditions to foster
relationship which must exist and they are as follow:

• There should be five sips or more because of the verse in Qur’an and ruling of which was narrated
to us by Aisha radi allahu anha.
• The fostering must take place before the child stopped drinking milk. The child must take all five
sips before this period. Once the conditions for fostering are complete then this child is the
woman’s son and the woman’s sons are his brothers, whether these sons are prior to this child’s
fostering or they came after his fostering. Also the children of the husband of this woman will all
become this child’s brothers, whether they are from the womb of this woman or other women.
Also important to note is that other than the children of this foster child, his other close relations
have nothing to do with the fostering relationship. So it is permissible for this child’s blood
brothers to marry his foster mother or his foster sisters, however the children of the foster child are
like the children of the foster mother and her husband as if they are his own foster parents.

c. Women forbidden due to in-law relationship:


a) The wives of fathers and grandfathers no matter how high up in lineage they go, and the same rule
applies to foster relationships and relations on the mother’s side. So when a man marries a women
this women becomes haram for all of his sons, grandsons, and those below them, whether
marriage is consummated or not.
b) The wives of one’s sons, no matter how far down one goes in lineage. So when a man marries a
woman then she becomes haram for his father, grandfather, great grandfather, whether on the
mother or father side. Prohibition applies whether marriage is consummated or not, it is effective
from the signing of marriage contract.
c) The wife’s mother, grandmothers, great grandmothers (both parents side) etc. So when a man
marries a woman then the woman’s mother, grandmothers of both parents side all become haram
on the man from the time of signing of the marriage contract whether marriage is consummated or
not.
d) The daughters of the wife, the daughters of the son of the wife, the daughters of the daughter of
the wife, no matter how low one goes in lineage whether they are from the previous husband or
later husband are all haram with the condition that marriage has been consummated.

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Forbidden for an Appointed Time

I. Women forbidden for a specific period of time


1) The wife’s sister and aunt from both parents side, these women are haram for the man so long the
man is married to the woman and no separation took place (i.e. divorced and iddah period over)
2) The women is completing her iddah period from her last marriage, no one is allowed to marry her
during this period nor send proposal for marriage until the iddah period is over.

II. Women forbidden due to Hajj and ‘Umrah


a. A woman cannot be married in this state of Hajj and Umrah until she is no longer in the state
of Ihram.

Menstruation is not barrier to marriage, so wedding contract may proceed while women in her menses but
consummation of the marriage may not occur until menses of the woman is over and she took ghusl.

Permissible Number of Times One Can Marry

The Islamic Shari’ah has permitted polygyny for man, however has limited this to a maximum of four wives.
This is because by staying within this limit a man can maintain justice and equality; he can fulfill the rights of
the wife. Proof for this is the saying of Allah, in Surah Nisa: 3, “…Marry other women of your choice, two or three,
or four, but if you feel that you shall not be able to deal justly with them, then only one.”

The Benefits and Virtues of Limiting the Number of Wives to Four

1. Sometimes polygyny becomes a necessity, i.e. when the wife becomes old or always sick. If a man
tries to keep content with an old or sick wife then he will face many challenges in suppressing his
desire, and there is serious danger of falling into adultery. And if he divorces her then he separates the
poor women from her children.

2. Marriage is an excellent way of establishing relationships and connections. Polygyny creates


relationships between many families and makes pairs from amongst them.

3. A large number of women are protected by polygyny and their needs of alimony and shelter are
fulfilled. In the same way, an abundance of children and lineage is also something desired and
beloved in shari’ah.

4. Some men have an extremely strong sexual desire and one woman does not fulfill it, while the man
is really Allah fearing as well and does not want to fall into adultery but wish to attain pleasure
through halal means. Thus Allah in His Mercy has opened the door of polygyny for these people.

The Wisdom and Prudence behind Marriage

All Sharia of Islam are based on wisdom and none of them are just in vain or in namesake because they are
all from the All Wise and All Knowing. However, we are not aware of all wisdoms as our knowledge,
thought, intelligence is limited. Allah has mentioned that, “And of knowledge, you – mankind – have been given
only a little.” [Surah Al-Isra: 85]

Some of the Wisdoms behind Marriage

1. Defense and protection for both the husband and wife.


2. Saving society from wickedness and the morals from deteriorating. If the marriage did not exist then
wickedness and vanity would become the norm between men and women.

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3. The finding of benefits and pleasure for both husband and wife from each other. Thus, the man
provides security to the woman and also provides alimony such as food, drink, shelter, and clothing.
At the same time, the woman, by preparing and maintaining the necessities of the household,
provides security to the man.
4. The strengthening of ties between families and tribes.
5. The correct and safe method for the continuation of the human species.

If marriage is not present then the appearance of two illnesses is certain:

1. The end of mankind


2. Or the corruption of the lineage of man, in which there is confusion as to a man’s ancestry due to an
immoral means of reproduction

Birth Control

Birth control via specifying the number of children goes completely in the face of the demands of the Shar’ah,
because our Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam commanded us to marry those woman who would produce
more children. The reason for this was that the Ummah of our Prophet would be greater in number than other
Prophets. Also the scholars of fiqh have said to marry women who are known for giving birth to the most
children.

The Necessity for Birth Control

a) Question: Is it due to fear of shortage of good?


• Answer: If birth control is done out of fear of shortage of food then this constitutes harboring
incorrect thoughts about Allah, this is because when Allah creates any being then He also always
provides it with its sustenance as came in “[Soorah al-'Ankaboot 029:060] And so many a moving (living)
creature carries not its own provision! Allâh provides for it and for you. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-
Knower.”

b) Question: Is it due to difficulty in raising the children?


• Answer: If it is for this reason then, this is an obvious mistake. Many parents have few children,
and they have hard time to take care of them. However, there are many other parents who have many
children and they are able to fulfill their parental duties very easily. Thus, the upbringing of children is
dependent upon ease being bestowed from Allah. Therefore, the more an individual fears Allah in his
duties and ensures that all his actions are in accordance with shari’ah, the more easy Allah will make
all his affairs. Allah says in “[Soorah at-Talaaq 065:004] and whosoever fears Allâh and keeps his duty to
Him, He will make his matter easy for him.”

Birth control is completely haram in the Shari’ah of Islam. Now if there raises the question about woman’s
health issue, then practicing some reasonable form of family planning does not fall within the category of
birth control. What is meant by family planning is that both husband and wife or one of the two takes a
certain action by which pregnancy is delayed for some time and this is permitted. Such as if the wife is ill or
fears illness and weakness then using birth control pill with the permission of her husband to prevent
conceiving for some time is permissible. Also, the Sahabah used to use the coitus interrupts method and they
were not prevented of this, which took place during the time of Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam. So coitus
interrupts is one method of preventing pregnancy.

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Some of the Wisdoms and Issues in Connection with Marriage

There are some wisdoms and issues related to marriage, these are as follow:

• The Obligation of Mahr (Dowry): Giving dowry to the wife becomes an obligation upon marriage,
whether it was placed as a condition or not. Dowry is the wealth given to the wife due to marriage
contract. If dowry is agreed upon, then she will receive what is agreed upon. If it was not settled, and
nikah took place, then husband must give wife a “mahr nithl” which is the amount customarily given
to such a woman among his paternal family.

Any wealth that has monetary value can become a dowry. Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam married a
woman to a man with the condition that he teaches her some of the Qur’an, which was her dowry. As far as
the shari’ah is concerned, then dowry should be modest. The most blessed marriage is that which is least
expensive or extravagant. Also, it is in obedience to the Messenger of Allah, and a source of blessings. In
these days, due to high amount of dowry, many men and women are prevented from marriage, which lead to
many tribulations. Some of these are as follow:

• Many men and woman avoid getting married


• The girl’s families are only looking at the smallness or largeness of the dowry. If they see large dowry,
they marry the girl and do not look at the results of their action. And they refuge to marry the girl with
small dowry even if the man is upright and religious.
• When the relationship between husband and wife sours, the husband cannot divorce the wife because
of high dowry so he treats her harshly, thus she is willingly to give back some of what he gave her.

If people were moderate in setting dowry, these problems would not take place and the society will receive
much benefit, and the modesty of man and women will be protected. However, it is sad people don’t do it
rather they compete with each other in increasing the dowry each year. People of past used to be easy on
setting dowry and they would perform marriage by agreeing that the dowry would be of such and such
amount, half of which will be paid at this time and the other half will be paid in one year or before that.

• Maintenance of wife: It is mandatory on the husband that he heartily spends on his wife and provides
for her food, drink, and shelter. And if he is miserly in providing her necessities then he will be sinful.
And it is mandatory on the wife that she spends her husband’s wealth carefully, to the extent of
thriftily, and if she takes a loan from her husband then returning that is mandatory.

Amongst the expanse of marriage is also the Walima, it is that feast that the husband prepares and feeds the
people during the days of the marriage. The Messenger of Allah has done this and also commanded it.
However, some men spend lavishly and this is not correct, this is wastage of wealth.

Rather spending should be in accordance with one’s capability and should not go to the extent of something
haram.

• The relationship between the relatives of the husband and wife: Allah has caused affection, love,
friendship and a part of mercy to grow between the husband and wife, and at the same time this
inclination of love and affection often demands certain rights to be fulfilled. Thus, whenever some
relationship comes into being then in accordance with that relationship certain rights become
obligatory.
• Chastity: The man becomes mahram for the mothers and grandmothers of his wife, and in the same
way he becomes mahram for the daughters and grand daughters of his wife under the condition that
he has gone into their mother. In the same way, the wife has become mahram for the fathers,
grandfathers, sons and grandsons of the husband.
• Inheritance: Whenever a man legally marries a woman then inheritance becomes stipulated between
them, because of the saying of Allah in “[Soorah an-Nisaa 004:012] In that which your wives leave, your

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share is half if they have no child; but if they leave a child, you get a fourth of that which they leave after payment
of legacies that they may have bequeathed or debts.” Whether sexual relationship took place or not with
wife, this does not make any difference.

The Shar’ii Ruling Regarding Divorce and Its Rights, which must be fulfilled

Talaq – divorce is leaving off wife, and also the word implies freeing. In the Shari’ah of Islam, divorce is
something hated because due to it benefits of marriage comes to an end, and also the bond of marriage breaks.
In a hadith reported by Sunah Abu Dawud, it says, “The most hated thing amongst those things which is halal is
divorce.” However, sometimes divorce becomes unavoidable then there is no sin on the wife or husband.
However, while giving divorce the man must abide by the following commands:

1. The impermissibility of divorcing during the menstrual cycle: If a man divorces his wife during menses,
then he has sinned. It is obligatory upon him to take his wife back and keep her with him, and when she
becomes pure then he may divorce her. What is even better is that he keeps her with him until the 2nd
cycle of menses and then when she becomes pure from menses then he may keep her or divorce her.
2. Restraint from giving divorce during her clean phase: If the man had sexual relationship with his wife,
then he should restrain from divorcing her until it becomes clear she is pregnant or not. He should wait for
two menstrual cycles to be over and at this point he can divorce her before having sexual relationship with
her if he wants. If it becomes clear that she is pregnant, then there is no harm if he divorces her. Allah
said, “O Prophet! When you divorce women, divorce them at their iddah, and count their iddah periods…” [Surah
Al-Talaq: 1]
3. The impermissibility of issuing more than one divorce at one time: It is not permissible to say, “You are
divorce” either two or three times. It is forbidden to issue more than one divorce at a time. This is because
it is related from our Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam that he said in regards to a man who had divorced
his wife three times in a single occasion and the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, “is it that I am still
present and the Book of Allah is being played with?” Many people are not aware of the rules of divorce so they
issue divorce when they feel the need of it without giving consideration for the time or number. It is
obligatory on the people that they devoutly observe the boundaries of Allah and do not transgress them.
Allah said, “And whosoever transgresses the set limit of Allah, then indeed he has wronged himself.” [Surah Al-
Talaq: 1]

Some Regulations and Issues Related to Divorce

Because the wife is separated due to divorce then due to this separation many rules become incumbent. Some
of these are as follow:

1. If there was no sexual relationship between husband and wife, then there is no ‘iddah period. Due to
the saying of Allah in surah Al-Ahzab, aya 49, “When you marry believing women, and then divorce them
before you have sexual intercourse with them, no iddah have you to count in respect of them.”

The duration of ‘iddah period is three menstrual cycles if the women is of those who has menstrual cycles,
and if she has no menstrual cycles then three months, and if she is pregnant then until she becomes clear of
her pregnancy.

2. If the husband divorce his wife for the 1st time and then returns to her during ‘iddah period or after it,
and then divorce his wife again for 2nd time and then returns to her and then again divorce her for the
3rd time, after this the woman is forbidden for the man until the woman marries another man and
consummates the marriage with him. Now if this new husband of the woman divorce her or dies, then
she will be halal for her previous husband who issued divorce on her on three occasions.

This is because in the beginning of Islam men would divorce and return to women as many times as they
wished. On one occasion a man became angry with his wife and he said to her, “By Allah, I will never give
you refuge nor release you.” And she asked how he could do this, so he said he will divorce her and when

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waiting period was about to be over he will take her back and do this over and again, so she complained to
the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam about it and Allah revealed in this occasion the ayah that says, “The
divorce is on two occasions…” meaning the divorce with the permissibility to return is only twice. Thus to save
women from oppressive husband three divorce were appointed.

Ending Words of our Noble Imam Muhammad ibn Saleh al-Uthaymeen

Now Shaykh is concluding his speech stating that enough issues and commandments in relation to Nikah
have been brought to our attention, especially those that are necessary and pertinent. And his closing
supplication was, “We pray to Allah that the benefit of this talk reaches all. May Allah Accept this work in a
special way and make it in accordance with His pleasure. And May He bring about in this Ummah a
generation that is knowledgeable of His commands, protects the boundaries which Allah has laid down,
establishes what is good and forbids what is wrong, and are guided of how to worship Allah.

Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You
are the Bestower. [Surah Al-Imran: 3:8] O Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter and save
us from the torment of the fire.”

~:~ End ~:~

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Marriage is Half of the Deen – what does it mean? By Shaykh Saleh as Saleh

Why marriage is considered completing half of the Deen?

First of all, let’s examine the saying of Allah in “[Surah Al-Baqarah 2:187] It is made lawful for you to have sexual
relations with your wives on the night of As-Saum (the fasts). They are Libâs [i.e. body-cover, or screen, or Sakan (i.e. you
enjoy the pleasure of living with them] for you and you are the same for them.”

A person worships Allah as an individual, and attains to fulfill what Allah gave him, from the means to
manifest the purpose of existence on earth, and this purpose of existence for male and female is the worship of
Allah alone, and through the natural need for both there is an interaction that mirrors both in each other in
terms of support regarding the purpose of existence and in terms of support to safe guard from falling into
evil, when we examine the hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, “O Youth, whoever amongst you is able
to marry, should marry, and whoever is not able to marry, is recommended to fast because it is a protection for your sight
and a protection for your private part” lest the person falls in haram and this is needed by both, and this is a
completion from both parts to each other. Both are needed half and half in order to get the lawful enjoyment
thus protection from falling into sin, therefore protection for the deen for each part, and this is one objective.

And second objective is multiplication, something beloved in Islam, for therein is the strengthening of the
ummah and the prevalence of the deen, and this is the second objective that cannot be achieved except by
both.

And the thirdly is the society at large, righteous family, good society.

The people of knowledge assert that a person with desire getting married is better than optional prayers,
because there are so much benefit and good consequences, if he becomes negligence then she can complete
him by reminders and vice versa, the married in accordance with the way of the Sunnah are in a state of
contempt and content, we are talking about the overall situations, a marriage that brings people away from
Allah should be checked from the beginning, how did it start, did it start on the way of the sunnah in terms of
choice of either spouse, most often those who don’t get married yet they are able, often think of zina, the
haram relation, or haram means.

Is marriage an obligation or a Sunnah?

This is a matter of dispute between the scholars, some of the scholars went to the opinion that marriage is an
obligation [wajib] and they stated as evidence that it is from the way of the Messengers as Allah stated in the
Qur’an, “[Surah ar-Raad 013:038] And indeed We sent Messengers before you (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa
sallam]), and made for them wives and offspring.”

And they said because of the Command of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, “O youth, whoever of you is
able, let him get married…” So, this is a command and command necessitates obligation. However, they
conditioned that obligation is based upon two matters, first one is financial ability and second one is physical
ability, this is the first opinion and third condition however also is circumstantial ability meaning to be able to
offer the wife her rights, and to be just if he is married to more than one.

Second opinion is that marriage is a sunnah, and this is the opinion of the majority of the scholars, and they
reasoned that the ayah cited by the other scholars on the other opinion, “[Surah ar-Raad 013:038] And indeed
We sent Messengers before you (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]), and made for them wives and offspring”
they said this ayah there is no daleel – evidence in it on obligation rather this is a clarification that this is from
the way of the Prophets, indicating recommendation, not obligation. The second thing they said, in the
command of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam for the youth to get married, they said, this is a command
of direction not a command of obligation.

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Point of Benefit: Marriage however, the five rulings in Islam applies on marriage

1. It is an obligation if the person fears falling in haram,

2. Marriage is haram under certain circumstances, in the land where there is war, fearing for his family,
and in the case if he marries another one, and unable to be just then it is forbidden,

3. Marriage is disliked for the poor who has no lust, also because this person will burden himself with
poverty

4. Marriage is allowable for the person who has no lust and it is recommendable if he intends to protect
a woman in this case by marrying her, so if he doesn’t have desire for marriage, or sexual desire, in
this case allowable for him and it may be recommendable if he marries in order to protect a woman.

5. It is a sunnah for the person who has desires and is able to carry the marriage and this is in accordance
with the opinion of the majority of scholars.

~:~ End ~:~

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Advices to sisters before Marriage By Shaykh Saleh as Saleh

• Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam where he said, the best comfort in this world is a righteous woman,
so she is sought, the one who is a sound Muslim seeks the righteous woman, and one knows in her
righteousness, first and foremost, she complies with what Allah requires from her, as a result, this will
have impact on the relationship with the husband, the sound Muslim really is not interested in the
superficial physical beautify, superficial grace and elegance, which is the soul concern of empty headed
youngsters.

• The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said in the hadith, a woman maybe married for four things and
then his recommendation was “choose the one who is religious” and in other hadith, the Prophet sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam said, shall I tell you the most precious thing a man can have, it is a righteous wife, when he looks at
her, he is pleased, when he tells her to do something, she obeys, and when he is away, she is faithful and loyal to him.
And in the other hadith by Abu Hurayrah radi Allahu anhu, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said,
which woman is the best? The one who pleases him when he looks at her, who obeys him when he tells her to do
something, and who does not do something he dislikes with regards to herself and her wealth.

• This is what the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam described in terms of the personality of the woman,
and this could really bring a secure and pleasant home and Islam looks for a balance relationship between
spiritual, mental, physical and emotional needs, because in some cases the personality clashes could be so
strong and repulsive but the true Muslim will be guided by the Shari’a in all of his affairs.

• So my advice to this sister who is about to get married: is to put forward this issue, which the Prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam emphasized highly, because she will be the winner in this life and in the
hereafter and even during the hard times, because she will never be disappointed. Allah doesn't let the
believers who follow Him down, yes they will be tried and they will be tested and there will be calamities
and everything, none is free from that, mostly during these times and environments, the pressure of the
kafir environment, it has its toll on the relationship between Muslims in general, and between the
Muslims and society where they live and in the home, people are bombarded with so many things on
daily basis. So if they are not for each other on the deen, they will crack it.

• My advice therefore is to put forth this issue of obedience, the husband is not present to tell him what he
should do, what are duties upon him, the sister is present therefore we address that side. This is the
greatest thing of an advice for a sister to be told is to obey in accordance to the obedience to Allah and try
to at times of disagreement or difficulties discuss first with husband before taking them out, and to be
honest regarding any problem that may arise, and her objective should be if anything would arise and it is
expected to is to reconcile and make things work.

• And from the good things to keep at home is to keep a good Islamic library for both to read, and benefit
and to record points of benefit, mostly in terms of creed and relationships, this will bring openness and
will take any kind of fake attitudes out, because here you will find things according to Allah wants and
His Messenger sallallahu alayhe wa sallam commands. The other thing is if there are shortcomings in terms
of adherence to Islam with respect to the husband, these shortcomings can vary; some of them will be
grater magnitude than others so there should not be exaggeration in terms of these things when they are of
lesser magnitude.

• And from the things, which I would advise is let the issues and the problems be the last thing to talk out.
If the husband comes from work, the sister should be aware to use the proper wording of perception and

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the good word, and then when the time allows and atmosphere is clear, sound, appropriate to discuss
things, then she may open some of the details, but not all at once, one at a time that is appropriate and
fitting, so she needs to use some wisdom in that.

• Also, from the things which I would emphasize is to keep the home clean, the duty is fulfilled, this brings
harmony and appreciation and also in terms of this is something you know as woman is to look good to
the best of one’s ability and keep things neat and ordered.

• And also thing that is maybe overlooked by some is the issue of – this maybe looked up as small thing but
in reality it is not – present (gift), yes, every now and then given him a present and this brings love as the
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, this is from the means of love, “give gifts because it promotes
love”.

• One of the things, which are also useful to remember if it exist with anyone in general but I am talking
about the woman’s side, when taking permission, good advice is to be careful in the format, like for
example, don’t think yourself that you are giving permission when you say to your husband, “I think I am
going to be going to downtown today”, or “I might go downtown today”, thinking in this way she is now
asking for permission. So this is something in terms of the interactions and which may sound to be as an
excuse or rather seeking permission while in fact it is not, so these things the sister needs to be aware of
and I hope inshaaAllah she is. Because this brings ease in terms of communications and good
understandings.

• And let your tongue be sweet with the remembrance of Allah, if he says something good, you say
Alhamdulillah, if there is some kind of hardship, Alhamdulillah, if he sees this in you, then his respect for
you would be greater and it will grow. And when he sees a supporting wife that is something whereby you
bring to yourself honor and respect. We know of women who stood up for their husbands to a greater
extend whether in terms of physical needs, emotional needs, and support.

• Last thing I remind myself and you is don't forget the dua, before you step into this marriage, the dua,
when you are in it, the dua, and stay away from gossip and backbiting, you see this and you see that,
forget about that, if any of that come to your home, you stop it.

~:~ End ~:~

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A Successful Marriage By Shaykh Muhammad Al-Malki

10 Principles for the Happiness in the Muslim House

1. It is to fulfill the oneness of Allah in your heart, look at yourself: With the oneness of Allah and the
right of Allah in your heart, you, your wife, and your children, are you from that or are you in the house
something different, you don't mention tawheed except little, you don't remind yourself and your family
of the rights of Allah except little.

Then how can the mercy come to that house, mercy come from Allah. Mercy of Allah is given only to
those who believe, you need to exercise tawheed in your house, teach to your children and wife, as Allah
created mankind to worship Him, that's why Allah made marriage to be a legal way of increasing the
number of mankind, why? To worship Allah. Happiness in the house can only be found by learning the
Aqeedah.

Two books I recommend from that to be read in the house with family are: The three fundamental
principles and the kitab at-tawheed.

2. The right of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa sallam: Check your house, is it upon the way of
the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, yourself, your wife, your children, your housemaid, driver,
gardener, are they upon sunnah, if no, are you working in correcting them, or you say, he is a driver or
maid, I don't care, he/she is not member of my family, NO, he/she will affect your family. If you don't
teach him/her sunnah and she/he will eventually convey the bid’ah to your family members. So you need
to check that, and you need to check yourself and your family upon the worship and the delay by the scale
of Sunnah.

The best book to read on this is the Zaad al-Maad of Ibnul Qayyem, also a summarized version of it one
part by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab and you can read and see how the Prophet sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam was in his house.

It is part of the worship to know what the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam used to do in his house and
follow him on that. Aysha radi allahu anha said the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam used to take my tongue
and suck it. Why is she telling us this? Because we get our guidance from this house, she is our mother and
Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam is our father. She also narrated, I used to take shower with the Prophet
sallallahu alayhe wa sallam from the same bucket.

This shows how important it is to go back to the Prophet's sallallahu alayhe wa sallam house and take from
there even in worship it is important to return to his house, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, if one
of you goes to toilet, then do not face Qiblah nor give back to it, but Abdullah ibn Umar radi Allahu anhu said he
once climbed up the house of Hafsa radi Allahu anha saw the Prophet urinating facing Bayt al-Maqdis, giving
back to Qiblah - Kaba. So the matter is, if you are in the building or whatever else surrounds you, then you
can face any direction, but if you are outside, then you cannot face Qiblah nor give back to it and also, the
matter of Sunnan Ar-Rawatib 2 rakah before Fajr and 4 rakah before Zuhr and 2 rakah after it.

3. The Respect between the husband and wife: It is what will bring happiness. When you want happiness
then respect each other. If you want to call your wife, you don't say, Hey Fatimah! Come. No, but call by
Kuniyah - Umm Fatimah, Umm Hasan, etc or my darling or my sweet etc. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe
wa sallam used to use these things. Women likewise, it is not polite to call the husband by his name, Ya
Muhammad! Come, but call by Kuniyah, Abu Ahmad or my sweet, my love etc.

There must be some kind of respect between the husband and wife in a way that brings love and
happiness. And Remember by the time you start losing love, if the two, husband and wife live long

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together, they lose love. What to do then? Then regenerate it, by showing more respect to each other. And
it is better for the wife to call the husband with words that moves the heart emotionally.

4. Also, forgiveness one of the principle of the happiness in the house: No one is free of mistakes except
Rasul Allah, everyone makes them, the husband and wife need to forgive each other because both make
mistakes. So, you need to forget and practice forgiveness. Some people accumulate problems and then
blow up and start saying you did this and this. People forget so much even the children being in School
but they don't forget the mistake their wife made.

After you hold your anger and forget, then you do good to them. This is from the characteristic of the
Muhsin. In the house you can never run out of problems, like it is said, problems are like salt and peppers
in the food, but you need to maintain the amounts. A man comes home after work and no food is cooked,
what will happen? I know the qiyamah of the house will happen. This is bad. It is for us to go back to the
example of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, once the Prophet came to his house and asked for food, but
found no food, so the Prophet changed his niyah to fasting saying, “O Allah, I am indeed fasting.”

Another example: Wife made the husband really angry, what would he do? Look at the Prophet sallallahu
alayhe wa sallam as example. One day, a wife of the Prophet sent honey for him while he was in the house of Aysha
radi Allahu anha, so Aysha broke it so the prophet just said, your mother became jealous, and said to Aysha plate for a
plate. [Honey for me so no need to replace but plate for a plate]

Aysha radi Allahu anha never complained that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam was poor and has
nothing to eat, Abdullah ibn Zubayr radi Allahu anhu asked, what's your food in the house while the
prophet was alive? She said, A month or 2 or 3 would pass no fire will be in the house, i.e. no cooking in
the house, because there was no food. So he asked, what was your food? She said, the two black foods,
the date and water. Which wife would accept that?

5. Praising each other: Everyone likes that. So you as a husband like you as mechanic, you need to praise
your wife for what she did for you. Ex. one day husband came from work and started eating, the wife
didn't put the salt, the husband was saying the food is really good and tastes good, the wife came saying
sorry but the husband was like no, it is really good but if you would bring some salt. The wife liked the
way he dealt with her. Another husband, he throws the plate away. Husbands also need to be praised,
whoever doesn't thank people, doesn't thank Allah.

6. Trust - need to trust each other: You send your wife out and say I trust her. No, here you need to obey
Allah. This is not trust. But trust is for example, when you went to travel, you put camera and do this and
that, no, but you need to trust her that she fears Allah and obeys Him.

Also, trust the husband, wife once saw a message in husband's cell phone having love note, then wife
needs to trust the husband, it was a wrong #, change of one digit of phone # from the other side sent the
message to your husband #, and you got angry and things went as far as to divorce. Have you found your
husband once before cheating on you, she says No. So, you need to trust your husband.

So we have to trust each other. And some men lost trust in the wife; he doesn't let her pick up the phone.
And another husband didn't trust his wife to the extent that he locked the house when he went to work,
then fire got in the house and the wife and kids died. This is a case that happened.

If your wife makes a mistake, then every person can make mistakes, if your wife makes a mistake, then it
is not the end of the world. Then work on treating her, be her doctor, and treat her. If you are a good
doctor, then you will know how to treat her. As for wife, if the husband keeps watching TV etc, then you
need to be cleaver to know how to bring him out of that. Some wife complains, when we go out to doctor,
my husband looks at everything that comes in front of him,

So Ok, what did you do to stop that? She says, I told him to stop this and not to do that.

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No, You need to be Layla for him. A man in jahila time loved layla, he loved her until he became crazy
for her, her family didn't allow her to marry him. He said, I might pass by the town of layla, then I kiss the
wall, never I loved the wall but I loved the one who lived in the wall [inside the town], why loved her?
Because layla owns his heart.

Man and woman are very experts in attracting each other. If they interact before marriage, then if the girl
gives burned food to the man, he will say taste good but after marriage, it is awful, and woman used to
say, he is my hero, now [zero]. That’s bad. Because we are not following the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam.

7. It is to sacrifice: We must sacrifice. The husband needs to sacrifice and the wife needs sacrifice. For Ex.:
if your wife works, she cannot serve you as your friend's wife who doesn't work, but you agreed from the
beginning as a condition of marriage, now you say, what's this and what's that. So, why not now sacrifice.

Also, wife agreed from the beginning that husband works 12 hours, now why you complain as why I don't
see you, our neighbor takes the wife to the market this and that, you always work and work.

8. It is to accept the correction: If the wife corrects you and says, I think you are wrong in this, then don't
burn the house, you just have to sit and listen, say tell me why? I think my opinion is right and you say
wrong tell me why so she tells you, and brings the daleel, if you accept, then alhamdulillah, if not, then
you say, excuse me, I think my opinion is right and my daleel is this and this and that. If you both don't
agree, then return to Allah, so return to an alem or student of ilm or good person. As one-day Umar ibn
khattab radi Allahu anhu said, I plan to do this, so the wife said, no, no, no, he said, what? you are
correcting on me? This to the people of Makkah wasn't something acceptable. In the Jahiliyah time,
people of makkah never accepted correction from wife even if husband was wrong. So Umar wasn't
accepting her correction, so, his wife was like why not? If the wife of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa
sallam corrects him. So he asked her, do they do that? She said, yes. So he right away went to his daughter
Hafsa radi Allahu anha, and asked her, and she said yes, and then he realized.

9. The proper enjoyment for each other: Many men just see the wife as enjoyment, so what about her, she
is mankind like you, but she is female and you are male. That’s it, she has right to enjoy you, as you enjoy
her, not that you enjoy her and go. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam was always present in whatever
brings enjoyment to his wife, and said one of you should not leave until your wife finishes enjoying you in
whatever way she does. And also, in the way of dressing, Abdullah ibn abbas radi Allahu anhu, before he
comes home, he prepares himself, well dressed and cleans himself and uses miswak, so he was asked as to
why he does that? He said I like my wife to be attractive for me so I am always ready to attract her. If a
mechanic comes from work with all dirt, then finds his wife with little spot or onion smell, then says
what's this then what's that [that he has on him]?

If the wife knows husband coming at 4:00 pm then she needs to stop everything before that and take
shower and beautify herself really well, husband as well. [Sheikh said, he used to do this as well, before coming
home from work he would take shower and put on perfume, then come home, then sheikh said, you need to make sure
to make your wife understand, that you don't have a second house, otherwise she will go crazy.] This kind of thing
will bring love to the house. The last thing that can bring pleasure and love to the house is:

10. It is the giving of gifts: We need to start this technique, unfortunately the kuffar are using it, and it is part
of our religion. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, give gifts, you gain love. So we have to start
doing that. But don't bring every day, then she will think otherwise, Shaykh is saying if he does every day
then know he is going to marry 2nd wife, he is making excuses now.

Shaykh mentions something from his life, his wife knew he likes something, so she told her neighbor to
tell her husband to buy that thing and then gave to her daughter to hand to the father, so the daughter will
give the father and say, this is from my mother, so the Shaykh was like: Subhan Allah, she got for me

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until here. But you know, I like it. Because it is somebody thinking of you even if it is small. So if you give
your wife, even if it is small, then it is great to her, very, very great.

Shaykh is saying, he would call his wife when no brothers with him, and tell her of this and she likes that.
Your wife is like, if you smile to her, then she will come close to you, if you close your mouth, then she
will run away from you. Smile at her and give her some gifts and be nice and kind to her.

By the way, do not forget the children, Wallahi if the children see the father and mother, humbleness in
them, they will be humble.

~:~ End ~:~

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How to purify yourselves for the prayers? By Abu Muhammad Al-Magribee

Once again with Shaykh Saleh al-Fawzan book and he talks about the subject of purification for the
salah. Shaykh said, O mankind! Fear Allah, and you should know that purification is the key to the salah,
and from the main conditions that make from the salah to be correct is the purification. Then he brings the
ayah, “[Soorah al-Maaidah 005:006] O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salât (the prayer), wash your faces
and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to the
ankles. If you are in a state of Janâba (i.e. after a sexual discharge), purify yourselves (bathe your whole body). But if you
are ill or on a journey, or any of you comes from the Ghâ'it (toilet), or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual
intercourse), and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands.
Allâh does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favor to you that you may
be thankful.”

Shaykh Fawzan said in this noble ayah, there is a command from Allah that we should purify ourselves for
the salah, before the salah from the minor hadath (impurity), which requires the wudhu and major hadath,
which requires ghusl (whole body should be washed). Also in the ayah, is a daleel that the purification from
the two hadath, that which necessitate wudhu and the other one that necessitate the ghusl should be done by
clean water when it is found and when we have the ability to use it. There are three conditions that the
purification has to be done with water, that it has to be clean, and then it has to be found that the people have
the ability to have the water and use it, and they are able to use the water also.

Here the Shaykh points to the easiness of this religion and how this religion is the religion of ease, it’s not a
religion of difficulty and hardship. He said, if someone does not find water or maybe the water is found but
the person cannot use it because he is sick or maybe he got some water but he is in an area that he has only
little bit of water that is just enough for him to drink, just enough for him to do his affairs like to cook or
likewise. At that moment, he doesn’t put himself to the hardship to use that water for ghusl or use it for
wudhu and now he is going to die from thirst, or he is not going to find anything to give to his animals, his
beast that he use for his travels, his journeys, now at that moment here is the easiness of this religion,
therefore he makes the tayammum with dirt as instead using water.

So he said, this ayah it is showing clearly the easiness that Allah has legislated for His servants, and how
Allah does not want His servants to go through hardship in pertaining to that which Allah has legislated for
them from purification with water. Therefore, they can use dust they use the dirt if there is no water or if they
cannot use the water when it is at their disposition. And Allah by these legislations of the purification Allah
wants from it to purify His servants from the filth and the hadath and likewise Allah wants His servants to be
purified and purify themselves from sins and from the evil acts and bad manners. That’s why Allah said at
end of the ayah, Allah wants to purify you and complete His favors to you that you maybe thankful. This will
happen by Allah giving you permission to use the tayammum – the dirt instead of purification with the water.

Now a person, he may not find water or he may find water but water is not enough for him or he is sick he
cannot use the water, Allah brings the substitution, which is the tayammum so that the people gives thanks to
Allah for His favors for making it so easy. Allah ended the ayah saying, so you may give thanks to Allah and
be thankful upon His favors, the fact that He made these things easy upon us and He did not want us to go
through the hardship.

And how are we going to thank Allah? First of all by mentioning Allah, by remembering Him much, thanking
Him all the time, and by recognizing His bounties upon us and His mercy upon us, His blessings upon us, and
by submitting to His orders, by being obedient to Him.

Shaykh Fawzan said, also this aya shows, Allah specified the limbs that should be washed in wudhu and
these are the limbs: face, the two hands, the head, and the two feet. Also the aya made clear that which is
obligatory upon someone who wants to make the wudhu that he has to wash his face, his hands and his feet
and as for the head, it is not to be washed in wudhu rather it is to be wiped over its entirety.

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As for the major hadath, which necessitate ghusl at that time the entire body should be washed. As for how to
perform tayammum, which is a substitute for the water and the person makes tayammum not just like some
misconception, some people say that you can make tayammum only for the wudhu, no you make tayammum
whether for the wudhu or for the ghusl if you have the reasons to do so, and you have the permissibility to do
so.

So he said, as for the way the tayammum is described and how person should use the dust and dirt to make
the tayammum, it has been made clear by the sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam that how to do
is that you take two palms [two hands] and strike the surface that has dirt or another surface that has dust but
clean, it has to be clean, something that is going to stick on the hands, that’s when if you remove your hands
you will see dirt/dust on your hands, then you wipe over your face once, and wipe over his hands to the wrist
once. That’s it. Not like some people who go to wash their mouth and nose in tayammum with dust.

But if a person is an area where there is no dirt but if there is wall or furniture that may have some dust on
him, that he can use them. But if there is no dirt/dust and there is no land, no earth to be found, or on wall or
furniture or the likes have no dust then it is not permissible to use them as tayammum.

Then he said, O servant of Allah, now the shaykh is going to bring the description, how the wudhu should be
performed? Because we still see a lot of people go and make wudhu any way but there is a description and the
wudhu has been described by the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam:

First thing, the person before he makes the wudhu, you have to make the intention, and intention is in the
heart as people of knowledge have mentioned, that it is in the heart and it is a bid’ah to say, “I am intending
today, this place, at this moment using this pure water to purify myself…” No, this is innovation there is no
evidence for this in the Book and Sunnah. Rather he makes the intention in his heart that he wants to remove
himself from the state of impurity, to be on a state of purification of course this is after using the bathroom
because the istinja, clean his private part with left hand and clean himself, this is not from wudhu, this is from
the conditions of the wudhu.

Now he wants to start making wudhu, he says, bismillah, then he takes the water with his right hand and
wash his palms [hands] three times, wash his hands three times to the wrist, that’s the hand not to the elbow,
there is a difference. Then he takes water with his right hand and put half in his mouth and half in his nose at
one time as Shaykh Fawzan mentioned, as for those people that they wash their mouth three times first and
then they go wash their nose three times after that. He said, their wudhu is correct but they went against
sunnah. The sunnah is that with the same water half goes inside the mouth and half goes in the nose and take
it out with the left hand from the nose. And he should take the water in the mouth and then spit it out but he
should turn it around try to get the dirt out. Also, snip the water higher part of the nose except if one is fasting
then he washes his mouth and nose without being extensive in them out of fear that some of the water may go
pass his throat and nullify his fast.

Then he washes his face three times, starting from the tips of the hair, beginning of the hair of the head down
to his chin including the beard, if he has long beard, he goes and wash the face and pass over the beard
without putting fingers in the beard, it is not wajib to do it. But it is a sunnah and also it is hardship to go into
the beard with fingers each time one makes wudhu. There is no daleel into this that it is wajib. So the face in
lengthwise is from the beginning of the hairline to the chin and the widthwise from ear to the ear not
including the ears. This full face must be washed.

Then he washes his hands including the elbow three times. But some people made a mistake, they start from
wrist to the elbow, actually the washing of the hands is from the tip of the fingers as Shaykh uthaymeen
mentioned in many places. A lot of people think that they already washed their hands three times in the
beginning but that washing is a sunnah, now that which is fard which is mentioned by Allah in the Quraan.
So, he takes the water and washes the whole thing, make sure he runs between the fingers and tips of the
fingers everything, three times each hand. [Right hand washing comes first then left hand]

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Then he wipe over his entire head. So, he takes some water and he wet his hand and put his hands at the
beginning of the head together and go the whole way back to the end of the hair without touching the neck,
that is innovation then he go back to the beginning of the hair line. Also, wiping over the ear is part of the
head, inside and the outside, you put the index finger inside the ears [right index in right and left index in left]
and the thumbs in the back and you wipe inside and outside one time.

Then he washes his feet three times to the ankles. Now you will make sure to start from the tip of the toes,
every single toe to the ankles and don’t forget about heel. Some people forget about the heel and just are
concerned about the front and they think just because a lot of water is running that it’s ok. Shaykh will point
that out later on.

So the water must run in all parts of wudhu and washed them all. If there is any trace or spot that is not
touched by water, then the wudhu is not complete, it is not correct. If wudhu is not correct, then salah is not
correct. Shaykh uthaymeen said that if someone does not perform the wudhu correctly, even if he prays sixty
years, he got no salah because he had no wudhu.

Umar radi Allahu anhu said, a man when he made the wudhu, he forgot a spot on his right foot as big as finger
nail, and the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam saw the dry spot and commanded the man to go back and
perfect your wudhu. This hadith is reported by Muslim.

If there is a cut/wound in one of the limbs that is washed in wudhu, if water is touched then it may delay the
cure, then he would make wudhu but he would touch that spot with the water [the cut/wounded spot].
Rather he completes the wudhu and makes tayammum over that part. He washes what he can from that limb
without touching the wounded part with the water if it is exposed/uncovered but he makes tayammum for
that part. But if it is covered, then he wipe over it with water.

If he has socks on his feet, at that moment it would be enough for him to wipe over them if the socks cover
what should be washed in wudhu meaning from ankles and down, then shaykh said that he would wipe over
them with the condition that he put them on while he had wudhu.

And the duration for wiping over the socks is a day and a night for the residents, and for the traveler 3 days
and 3 nights, the traveler whose travel allows him to shorten his salah.

As for wiping over the cover that is over the wound or cast or bandage, there is no limit. He/she wipes over
them until there is no need for them the wound is healed. The watch and the ring one have to remove these
and make wudhu.

Now description of the ghusl after sexual impurities. One has to make intention to make ghusl from that state
of sexual impurity, then he says Bismillah, then he washes his hands three times, then he washes his private
parts and then he makes a complete wudhu like the one he does for the salah. Then he takes water and put on
his hand three times, and every time he makes sure the water reaches the roots of the hair. Then he puts water
on his entire body, making sure the water touch all parts of his body. He should not leave any part of the body
dry. Because if he left any part of his body even if it is small that the water does not touch, then his ghusl is
not valid and he needs to go back and wash.

And the wisdom and Allah knows best, in washing these parts of the wudhu is that they are the ones used
mostly and these are the limbs one uses to disobey Allah with or they may obey Allah with. So when the
person washes these parts in wudhu, Allah washes away the sins done by these limbs. When Allah ordered us
to wash these limbs in wudhu and also in ghusl, Allah said, “Rather Allah wants to purify you and complete
His favors upon you that you maybe thankful.” So Allah shows clearly the wisdom in that that He wants
Muslim to be pure and purify himself. He purifies himself from impurities and also from sins.

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The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said, this ummah will come on the day of Yamul Qiyamah while the
limbs of wudhu would be white and it will distinguish them from all the other nations. This shows the virtues
of wudhu and it shows the benefit the Muslim will gain from wudhu in this life and in the hereafter.

After one finishes the wudhu, it is recommended to say this dua:

‘I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, without any partner, and I bear witness that
Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.’

It is reported from Umar radi Allahu anhu who said that the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said there is not
any one of you that when he makes the wudhu and he made it correctly, then he says this dua except that all eight gates of
Jannah will be opened for him, and he will enter through which ever gates he wants. [Sahih Muslim and Imam Ahmed
also reported it]

Wudhu must be according to sunnah without any bid’ah in it. The wisdom behind saying this after the wudhu
so he can bring about purification of inside upon tawheed along with the purification of outside.

Shaykh then warned saying, O servants of Allah beware of being extravagant and excessiveness in using the
water when you make the wudhu and gushu because the Prophet sallallahu alayhe w sallam forbade such thing.
The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam used to make wudhu with a mud (one handful) and make ghusl with a
saa’ (four handfuls). Sometimes, a person is on misconception that if he used a lot of water then it must be
that he did a good job.

Shaykh warned the people to preserve the purification and that they have to obey Allah’s order and they have
to purify themselves as Allah commanded to and they have to follow the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam
not just go and do whatever they wish but they have to follow the steps Shaykh mentioned and we have to
follow the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam because Allah said, “[003:132] And obey Allâh and the Messenger
(Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam]) that you may obtain mercy.”

Purification is part of Emaan and an amanah (trust) between the servant and Allah. Allah will ask us about it.
As Allah mentioned in surah al-mu’minun, when Allah was saying, “Those who are faithfully truthful to their
amanah – all the duties that Allah ordained and those who strictly guard their salah at their times”.

So we have to do the purification faithful in the proper way but some people neglect it and they complete it as
Allah ordained and they may pray the entire life or most of it without purification so none of their salah
correct. Some people in county side make tayammum without excuse even if they have water thinking that it
is the same. But rather Allah made it a substitution for wudhu and ghusl because of a reason like not having
water and not being able to use it. Thus their wudhu is not valid so there is no salah because he prayed
without wudhu and because he left a condition of salah. If a condition of salah is missed, no salah is there.

The impurities must be removed from clothing, place and body with water. The salah must be on clean cloth
and clean place.

~:~ End ~

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Text of the book, “Important Lessons for the Ummah” By Shaykh Ibn Bazz

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Lesson One: Memorization of Suwar


Lesson Two: The Declaration of Faith
Lesson Three: The Articles of Faith
Lesson Four: The Categories of Tawhid
Lesson Five: The Pillars of Islam
Lesson Six: The Conditions of Prayers
Lesson Seven: The Pillars of Prayers
Lesson Eight: Obligations of Prayers
Lesson Nine: Tashahhud in Prayers
Lesson Ten: Sunan of Prayers
Lesson Eleven: Invalidators of Prayers
Lesson Twelve: Conditions of Wudu’
Lesson Thirteen: Obligations of Wudu’
Lesson Fourteen: Invalidators of Wudu’
Lesson Fifteen: Moral Values
Lesson Sixteen: Islamic Manners
Lesson Seventeen: Warning against committing Shirk and acts of disobedience
Lesson Eighteen: Preparing the deceased for burial

Lesson: One

Memorization of Suwar

To memorize Surat Al-Fatihah, and from Surat Az-Zalzalah to Surat An-Nas. Memorization of
these Suwar should be accompanied with a good recitation as well as a deep understanding of their
meanings.

Lesson: Two

The Declaration of Faith

To know the meaning of the Declaration of Faith: ‘Ash-hadu an la ilaha illallahhu, wa ash-hadu
anna Muhammadan Rasulullah’ and to know the conditions of the statement: ‘la ilaha illallahh.’
The meaning of the Declaration of Faith is: I bear witness that there is no god worthy of worship
except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Messenger. The phrase ‘La ilaha’ negates
the existence of all deities, while the phrase ‘ilallah’ confirms the right of Lordship and Godship to
Allah Who Alone deserves to be worshipped.

The conditions of this declaration are as follows:

1. Knowledge, which negates ignorance.


2. Certainty, which negates doubt.

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3. Sincerity of worship, which negates Shirk.
4. Truthfulness, which negates lying.
5. Love, which negates hate.
6. Complete submission, which negates rebellion.
7. Acceptance, which negates rejection.
8. Rejection of all those that are unjustly worshiped besides Allah, the All Mighty.

Muhammad Rasul Allah means: to believe in everything he informed, to obey him in what he
ordered, to leave of what he forbade and warned against, and that we must worship Allah only by
what He [Muhammad sallallahu alayhe wa sallam] legislated [i.e. by the rules and regulation] and
Allah legislated.

Lesson: Three

The Articles of Iman or Faith

The articles of Iman are six: Belief in:

1. Allah.
2. His Angels.
3. His revealed Books.
4. His messengers.
5. The Last Day, and
6. The Divine Preordainment, or Al-Qadar, the good of it and the bad of it.

Lesson: Four

The Categories of Tawhid

Tawhid has three categories:

1. Tawhid Ar-Rububiyyah, or Oneness of the Lordship of Allah. This means that Allah is the only
Lord of all the worlds. He is the Creator, the Sustainer, the Planner, the Organizer, the One Who
gives life and causes death, etc.

2. Tawhid Al-Uluhiyyah, or the Oneness of the worship of Allah. This means that no one has the
right to be worshipped but Allah.

3. Tawhid Al-Asma’i Was-Sifat, or the Uniqueness of the Names and Attributes of Allah. We must
believe in all of Allah’s Beautiful Names and Lofty Attributes; none can be named or given Allah’s
Attributes which He has stated in the Qur’an or mentioned through His Messenger Muhammad,
without changing them, ignoring them completely, twisting their meanings, or likening them to any
of those of His creatures.

Shirk also has three categories.

They are:

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1. Shirk Akbar, or major Shirk
2. Shirk Asghar, or minor Shirk
3. Shirk Khafiyy, or hidden Shirk

The major Shirk is bound to cause the good works of those who commit it to be vain and fruitless. It
is also bound to cause those who commit it to remain in Hell-fire for all eternity, as the Qur’an says:

“But if they were to join others with Allah in worship, all that they used to do would be of no benefit to them.”
(6:88)

“It is not for those who join others with Allah in worship to maintain the mosques of Allah while they witness
against their own souls to disbelief. The works of such are in vain, and in Fire shall they dwell.” (9:17)

“Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives anything else, to
whom He pleases.” (4:48)

“Verily, whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, Allah will forbid him Paradise, and the Fire will be his
abode. The polytheists and wrongdoers will have no helpers.” (5:72)

This type of Shirk is an unpardonable sin and includes, among other things, such acts as seeking
assistance from the dead and the idols, supplicating them, making vows in their names and offering
sacrifices to them.

The minor Shirk includes such things as showing off certain religious acts of worship, swearing by
other than Allah, and one’s saying “If Allah and so-and-so wills.”

At-Tabarani and Al-Baihaqi reported on the authority of Mahmud bin Labid Al-Ansari, with a good
chain of narrators, that the Prophet said: “What I fear for you most is the minor Shirk.”
When he was asked about what he meant by the minor Shirk, he replied, “Showing off.”

The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “Whoever swears by other than Allah has indeed committed Shirk.”

Imam Ahmad authentically narrated this tradition on the authority of ‘Umar, radiyallaho ‘anhu’
Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi also authentically reported on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar radiyallahu
‘anhu, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “Whoever swears by other than Allah has indeed
disbelieved or committed Shirk.”

Abu Dawud also authentically reported on the authority of Hudhaifah bin Al-Yaman, radiyallahu
‘anhu, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: Do not say, ‘What Allah wills and so-and-so wills’; you
should rather say, ‘What Allah wills, then what so-and-so wills.”

To commit this type of Shirk does not take one out of the fold of Islam, nor does it cause those who
commit it to abide in the Fire forever. It rather goes against the ideal principles of Tawhid.

The evidence for the third category of Shirk, namely Shirk Al-Khafiyy, or the Hidden Shirk, comes
from the prophetic tradition in which the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “Shall I not inform you
about what I fear more for you than Antichrist?” The Companions replied, “Yes, O Allah’s Messenger.” Then
he said, “It is the hidden Shirk. A person stands up in prayer and tries to make it perfect when he realizes that

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others are looking at him.” (Imam Ahmad reported this Hadith on the authority of Abu Sa’id Al-
Khudri, radiyallahu ‘anhu)

Shirk can also be divided into two categories only, namely, the major Shirk and the minor Shirk.
The hidden Shirk can occur in them both. It can be found in the major Shirk, like the type of Shirk
committed by the hypocrites, who reveal belief while concealing their false beliefs for fear of being
killed. It can also occur in the case of minor Shirk in the form of showing off, as evidenced by the
above-mentioned Hadith reported on the authority of Mahmud bin Labid.

Lesson: Five

The Pillars of Islam

Islam is based on the following five pillars:

1. To testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is His
Messenger. This declaration in Arabic reads: “Ash-hadu an la ilaha illallah, wa ash-hadu anna
Muhammadan Rasulullah.”
2. To offer the five compulsory prayers dutifully and perfectly.
3. To pay Zakah, or obligatory alms.
4. To observe fast during the month of Ramadan.
5. To perform Hajj, or pilgrimage to Makkah, for those who can afford it physically and financially.

Lesson: Six

The Conditions of Prayers

The conditions of prayers in Islam are nine. They are:

1. Islam.
2. Sanity.
3. Discernment.
4. Major and minor cleanliness.
5. Removal of impurity.
6. Covering the private parts.
7. Commencement of the actual time of prayer.
8. Facing the Qiblah.
9. Intention.

Lesson: Seven

Pillars of Salah, or Prayers

The pillars of prayers are fourteen. They are:

1. Standing with the ability to do so.

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2. The Takbir, which signals the commencement of prayers.
3. The recitation of Surat Al-Fatihah.
4. The act of bowing.
5. Rising from it (bowing).
6. Standing (all the way) upright after bowing.
7. Prostrating on the seven parts.
8. Rising from it (prostration).
9. Sitting between the two prostrations.
10. Deep concentration, peacefulness and tranquility during all acts of prayers.
11. The recitation of the final Tashahhud.
12. Sitting while reciting the final Tashahhud.
13. Invoking Allah’s blessing upon the Prophet, peace be upon him.
14. The pronouncement of the two Taslim.

Lesson: Nine

Tashahhud

The Tashahhud is as follows:

This means: “Greetings to Allah, and blessings and goodness, Peace and mercy and blessings of Allah be on
you, O Prophet. May peace be upon us and on the righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that there is no god
worthy of worship but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.

O Allah, send Your Favour (Graces and Honours) on Muhammad and on the family of Muhammad as You
have sent Your Favor (Graces and Honours) on Ibrahim and on the family of Ibrahim. You are the Most

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Praised, Most Glorious. O Allah, bestow Your Blessings on Muhammad and on the family of Muhammad as
You have blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. You are the Most Praised, Most Glorious.”

In the final Tashahhud, one should seek Allah’s refuge from punishment in the Fire, the punishment
in the grave, the trials and tribulations of life and death, and the trial of the Antichrist. Then one
should recite any supplications one desires, but preferably those that the Prophet, peace be upon
him, has taught us. The following two supplications provide an example:

This means: “O Allah, help me to remember You, to give You thanks, and to worship You in the best of
manners. O Allah.” “O Allah, I have wronged myself greatly and no one forgives sins but You. So grant me
forgiveness from Yourself and have mercy on me. Surely, You are the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful.”

Lesson: Ten

The Sunan of Prayers

These include the following:

1. The supplication of Istiftah, or the commencement of prayers.


2. Placing the palm of one’s right hand on the left hand over one’s chest in the standing position.
3. Raising one’s hands with the fingers joined together parallel to one’s shoulders or ears upon the
firs Takbir, upon bowing, rising from bowing, and upon standing to begin the third Rak’ah after
the first Tashahhud.
4. Pronouncing Tasbih more than once while bowing and prostrating.
5. One’s saying Rabbighfir li “Forgive me, my Lord” more than once while sitting between the two
prostrations.
6. Making one’s upper arms from one’s sides and one’s stomach from one’s thighs while
prostrating.
7. Lifting one’s arms and elbows from the floor while prostrating.
8. Lifting one’s arms and elbows from the floor while prostrating.

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9. Resting on one’s left leg while raising the right foot erect with the toes bent forward while reciting
the first Tashahhud and between the two prostrations.
10. Resting on one’s haunch during the final Tashahhud, while raising the right foot erect with the
toes bent forward.
11. Invoking Allah’s peace and Blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, and his family as
well as upon Prophet Ibrahim and his family in the first Tashahhud.

This reads:

This means: “O Allah, send Your Favor (Graces and Honors) on Muhammad and on the family of
Muhammad as You have sent Your Favor (Graces and Honors) on Ibrahim and on the family of Ibrahim. You
are the Most Praised, Most Glorious. O Allah, bestow Your Blessings on Muhammad and on the family of
Muhammad as You have blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. You are the Most Praised, Most Glorious.”
12. Supplications in the final Tashahhud.
13. To recite the Qur’an loudly in Fajr prayers as well as in the first two Rak’at of Maghrib and
‘Isha’ prayers.
14. To recite the Qur’an quietly in Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers, in the third Rak’ah of Maghrib prayer, and
in the last two Rak’at of ‘Isha’ prayer.
15. To recite any other Surah of the Qur’an besides Surah Al-Fatihah, while observing the rest of the
Sunan of the prayers other than what we have briefly mentioned here.

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Lesson: Eleven
Invalidators of Prayer

The invalidators of prayer are eight. They are as follows:

1. To talk intentionally while knowing that this act invalidates prayer. To talk out of ignorance or
forgetfulness does not, however, invalidate one’s prayer.
2. Laughter.
3. Eating.
4. Drinking.
5. Exposure of one’s private parts.
6. Extreme divergence from the direction of Qiblah.
7. Excessive and continuous movements during prayers.
8. The breaking of one’s Wudu’.
!!!

Lesson: Twelve

Conditions of Wudu’

The conditions of Wudu’ are ten. They are as follows:

1. Islam.
2. Sanity.
3. Discernment.
4. Intention.
5. Accompanying the ruling of the intention. This means that one does not intend to interrupt
Wudu’ until it is completed.
6. Complete cessation of that which requires one to perform Wudu’ (such as urine and stool).
7. Washing one’s private parts with water or a dry substance (i.e., soil, stones, toilet paper, etc.).
8. Purity and permissibility of the water with which one intends to perform Wudu’.
9. To remove anything that may prevent water from reaching the skin.
10. Commencement of the actual prayer time for those whose state of breaking Wudu’ is continuous
against their will.
!!!

Lesson: Thirteen

The Obligatory Acts of Wudu’

The obligatory acts of Wudu’ are six. They are as follows:


1. Washing the face including the mouth and the nostrils.
2. Washing the hands up to the elbows.
3. Passing wet hands over the head including the ears.
4. Washing the feet up to the ankles.
5. Observing the right order in Wudu’.
6. Observing constancy and continuity between the acts of Wudu’.
!!!

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Lesson: Fourteen

Invalidators of Wudu’

The invalidators of Wudu’ are six. They are:

1. Discharging anything from the two natural orifices.


2. Discharging anything from the body that is deemed filthy and impure.
3. Entering into a state of unconsciousness as a result of sleep or anything else.
4. Touching one’s private parts (the sexual organ or the rectum) without a ‘partition’ (such as
gloves).
5. Eating camel meat.
6. Apostasy from Islam (May Allah save the Muslims from falling into it).

Important Remarks

The act of washing the body of the deceased does not invalidate one’s Wudu’. This is the opinion of
the majority of Muslim scholars, as there is no textual evidence from the Qur’an or the Sunnah to
prove this. If the person who undertakes the washing accidentally touches the private parts of the
deceased without a covering (on his hand), then he or she should perform Wudu’.

The act of touching a woman does not invalidate one’s Wudu’, whether this is done with a lust or
not, as long as this does not result in a discharge. This is the opinion of the majority of Muslim
scholars. The evidence brought forward in this regard is that the Prophet, peace be upon him, kissed
some of his wives, then he prayed without performing Wudu’ again. The Qur’anic Verse: “...or if you
have been in contact with women.” (4:43) Simply means sexual intercourse. This is the most correct
opinion of the Muslim scholars, including that of ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas, May Allah be pleased with
him.

Lesson: Fifteen

Morals Every Muslim Must Observe

The morals that the Qur’an and the Sunnah call to are many. These include the following:

1. Truthfulness.
2. Faithfulness.
3. Chastity.
4. Modesty.
5. Bravery.
6. Generosity.
7. Fulfillment of trusts (obligations, payments, etc.).
8. Avoidance of all that Allah All Mighty has forbidden.
9. Good neighborliness, and 10. Giving assistance to the needy within one’s capacity

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Lesson: Sixteen
!!!
Islamic Manners

The Islamic manners penetrate all aspects of life and include the following:

1. Greeting others.
2. Cheerful demeanor.
3. Eating and drinking with the right hand.
4. Islamic etiquette upon entering and leaving one’s house or the mosque.
5. Islamic etiquette when travelling.
6. Displaying kindness to the parents, the relatives, the neighbors, the elderly, and the children.
7. Congratulating people on the occasion of having a new baby.
8. Giving condolences to the bereaved.
!!!

Lesson: Seventeen

Avoidance of all kinds of acts of Disobedience

These include the following:

1. Associating others with Allah the All Mighty in worship.


2. Sorcery
3. Killing someone except for a just cause (as defined by Islamic law).
4. Eating up the orphan’s property.
5. Dealing with usury and living on its income.
6. Refusing to join the Muslim army after its advancement with the Muslim leader.
7. Slandering chaste, virtuous and believing women.
8. Disobedience to the parents.
9. Severing the bonds of blood relationship.
10. Giving false testimony.
11. Perjury.
12. Harming the neighbors.
13. Wronging people and being unjust to them in matters of blood, property, and honor.

Lesson: Eighteen
Preparing the deceased for Burial

1. If someone is confirmed dead, his eyes have to be closed and his jaws have to be kept together.
2. Upon washing the body of the deceased, his private parts are to be covered, and his stomach is to
be gently pressed. The person who undertakes the washing of the body of the deceased should bind a
clean piece of cloth, or something similar to it, around his own hand with which to clean the private
parts of the deceased.

He then gives him a Wudu’ wash [like the one that is performed prior to offering prayer]. He then
washes his head and beard with water and sidr plant or something similar to it. Then he washes the

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rest of the body, beginning with the right side then the left side. He repeats this procedure two or
three times, each time gently pressing the deceased’s stomach.

If anything happens to come out of one of the two orifices, then he has to wash it off and then block
off the affected orifice with a piece of cotton wool or something similar to it. If this fails to work, he
can then use anything that can satisfactorily serve the purpose, such as the use of adhesive plaster
that is used in modern medical treatment.

He repeats the Wudu’ wash. If the body is not clean with three major washes, he then can wash it
five or seven times. He then wipes the body dry, puts perfume in his underarms, in the upper part
between the legs as well as those parts of the body that we put on the floor in the prostrating
position.

It is better to put perfume all over the body. His shrouds should be incensed with burned incense.
His moustache and nails should be trimmed if they are too long, and his hair should not be combed
or styled. If the deceased is a woman, her hair has to be made into three plaits and then let it hangs
loosely behind her.

3. Shrouding: It is better to wrap the body of the deceased in three white shrouds not including a
Qamis (shirt) or a turban if he is a man. There is no harm in shrouding him in a Qamis, Izar and a
large wrapper. If the deceased is a woman, her body has to be wrapped in five shrouds: a Dir’,
Khimar, Izar and two long wrappers. The young boy should be wrapped in one to three shrouds,
and the body of the young girl has to be wrapped in one Qamis and two long wrappers.

4. The person who is more entitled to undertake the washing of the body of the deceased is the one
appointed by him in the will to do so, then the father, the grandfather, then the next of kin.

The person more entitled to wash the body of the body of the deceased woman is the female person
appointed in the will to do so, then the mother, then the grandmother, and then the next of kin
amongst the female relatives. The man can wash the body of his wife and she can also wash the
body of her husband. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, was washed by his wife,
and ‘Ali bin Abu Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, washed his wife Fatimah, may Allah be
pleased with her.

The steps of performing Janazah prayer:

a. To say Allahu Akbar and to recite Surat Al-Fatihah. It is good to recite along with it a short
Surah, or a Verse or two, as evidenced by the Hadith narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah bin
‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him.

b. To say Allahu Akbar for the second time and invoke peace and blessings upon the Prophet, peace
be upon him:

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This means: “O Allah, send Your Favor (Graces and Honours) on Muhammad and on the family of
Muhammad as You have sent Your Favor (Graces and Honours0 on Ibrahim and on the family of Ibrahim.
You are the Most Praised, Most Glorious. O Allah, bestow Your Blessings on Muhammad and on the family of
Muhammad as You have blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. You are the Most Praised, Most Glorious.”

a. To say Allahu Akbar for the third time and then say;

This means: “O Allah, forgive our living and our dead, those who are with us and those who are absent, our
young and our old, our men and our women. O Allah, whomever You keep alive from among us let him be upon
Islam, and whomever You take away from among us, take him away in Faith. O Allah, forgive him and have

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mercy on him, pardon him, and make honorable his reception. Cause his entrance to be wide and cleanse him
with water, snow and ice. Cleanse him of sins as a white cloth is cleansed of stains. Exchange his home for a
better home, his family for a better family, and his spouse for a better spouse. Admit him into Paradise; protect
him from the punishment of the grave and the torment of the Fire. Enlarge for him his tomb and shed light upon
him in it. O Allah, do not deprive us of his reward and do not let us go astray after him.”

a. To say Allahu Akbar for the fourth time and then to say Assalamu ‘Alaikum on the right side
only.

It is commendable to raise one’s hands with each Takbir. If the deceased is a woman, then one
should change the ending of certain words thus:

This means: “O Allah, forgive our living and our dead, those who are with us and those who are absent, our
young and our old, our men and our women. O Allah, whomever You keep alive from among us let him be upon
Islam, and whomever You take away from among us, take him away in Faith. O Allah, forgive her and have
mercy on her, pardon her, and make honorable her reception. Cause her entrance to be wide and cleanse her with
water, snow and ice. Cleanse her of sins as a white cloth is cleansed of stains. Exchange her home for a better
home, her family for a better family, and her spouse for a better spouse. Admit her into Paradise; protect her from
the punishment of the grave and the torment of the Fire. Enlarge for her, her tomb and shed light upon her in it.
O Allah, do not deprive us of her reward and do not let us go astray after her.”

If the deceased are two persons, a few changes to some of the words have to be made:

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This means: “O Allah, forgive our living and our dead, those who are with us and those who are absent, our
young and our old, our men and our women. O Allah, whomever You keep alive from among us let him be upon
Islam, and whomever You take away from among us, take him away in Faith. O Allah, forgive them both, and
have mercy on them both, and keep them both safe, and pardon them both, and make honorable their reception.
Cause the entrance of both of them to be wide and cleanse them both with water, snow and ice. Cleanse both of
their sins as a white cloth is cleansed of stains. Exchange home of both of them for a better home, her family for a
better family, and her spouse for a better spouse. Admit both of them into Paradise; protect both of them from the
punishment of the grave and the torment of the Fire. Enlarge for her, her tomb and shed light upon both of them
in it. O Allah, do not deprive us of both of them reward and do not let us go astray after her.”

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If the deceased are more than two then we say:

This means: “O Allah, forgive our living and our dead, those who are with us and those who are absent, our
young and our old, our men and our women. O Allah, whomever You keep alive from among us let him be upon
Islam, and whomever You take away from among us, take him away in Faith. O Allah, forgive them both, and
have mercy on them both, and keep them both safe, and pardon them both, and make honorable their reception.
Cause the entrance of both of them to be wide and cleanse them both with water, snow and ice. Cleanse both of
them of sins as a white cloth is cleansed of stains. Exchange the home of both of them for a better home, their
families of better families, and their spouses for better spouses. Admit both of them into Paradise; protect both of
them from the punishment of the grave and the torment of the Fire. Enlarge for both of them their graves and
shed light upon both of them in their graves. O Allah, do not deprive us of the reward of both of them and do not
let us go astray after them.”

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If the deceased are more than two, then we say;

This means: “O Allah, forgive our living and our dead, those who are with us and those who are absent, our
young and our old, our men and our women. O Allah, whomever You keep alive from among us let him be upon
Islam, and whomever You take away from among us, take him away in Faith. O Allah, forgive them and have
mercy on them, keep them safe and pardon them, and make honorable their reception. Cause their entrance to be
wide and cleanse them with water, snow and ice. Cleanse them of sins as a white cloth is cleansed of stains.
Exchange their home for a better home, their family for a better family, and their spouse for better spouses. Admit
reception. Cause their entrance to be wide and cleanse them with water, snow and ice. Cleanse them of sins as a
white cloth is cleansed of stains. Exchange their home for a better home, their family for a better family, and their
spouses for better spouses. Admit them into Paradise; protect them from the punishment of the grave and the
torment of the Fire. Enlarge for them their tombs and shed light upon them in their graves. O Allah, do not
deprive us of their reward and do not let us go astray after them.”

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If the deceased is a baby or a child, we should pray for him thus:

This means: “O Allah, make him/her a preceding reward and a stored treasure for his/her parents and an
answered intercessor. O Allah, through him/her, makes heavy their Scales and magnify their reward. Unite him
with the righteous believers, place him/her under the care of (Prophet) Ibrahim, and save him/her by Your
Mercy from the torment of Hell.”

The Sunnah, or the Prophet’s way, to perform Janazah prayer is that the Imam should stand by the
head of the deceased if he is a man, or by the middle of the deceased if she is a woman. If there are
children amongst the dead, the boy is to be placed before the woman and the girl after her. The boy’s
head should be placed next to the head of the man, and the middle of the woman should be placed
next to the head of the man. If there is a girl amongst them, her head should be placed next to the
head of the woman. Those offering the janazah prayer should stand behind the Imam. If there is one
person with the Imam, then the former should stand on the right of the latter.

All praise is due to Allah and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger, his good family, and his
noble Companions.

~:~ End ~:~

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