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MUSIC OF THE 20TH CENTURY -Primitivistic music is tonal through the stressing of one note
as more important than the others
MUSICAL STYLES: -primitivism combines two familiar or simple ideas together
-impressionism, expressionism, neo-classicism, avant-garde creating new sounds
music, modern nationalism -primitivism has links to Exoticism through the use of
materials from other cultures, to Nationalism through the use
IMPRESSIONISM of materials indigenous to specific countries, and to Ethnicism
-one of the earlier forms clearly declaring the entry of 20 th through the use of materials from European ethnic groups
century music -two well-known proponents: Stravinsky and Bela Bartok
-they mainly showed & expressed moods & impressions
-there was an extensive use of diff. timbres & effects, vague BELA BARTOK
melodies, & innovative chords and progressions -was born in Nagyszentmiklos, Hungary (now Romania) on
-was an attempt to suggest reality not to depict it March 25, 1881 to musical parents
-it was meant to create an emotional mood rather than a -as a neo-classicist, primitivist, and nationalist composer,
specific picture Bartok used Hungarian folk themes and rhythms
-impressionistic forms were translucent and hazy, as if trying -he utilized changing meters and strong syncopations
to see through a rain-drenched window -his compositions were successful because of their rich
-the sounds of different chords overlapped lightly with each melodies and lively rhythms
other to produce new subtle musical colors -700 musical compositions


-was born in St. Germain-en-Laye in Framce on August 22, -was a moderating factor between the emotional excesses of
1862 the Romantic period and the violent impulses of the soul in
-1 of the most important & influential of the 20 th century expressionism
-he was the primary exponent of the impressionist movement -it was a partial return to an earlier style of writing,
and the focal point for other impressionist composers particularly the tightly-knit form of the Classical period, while
-“Father of the Modern School of Composition” combining tonal harmonies with slight dissonances
-total more or less 227 music compositions -it adopted a modern, freer use of the seven-note diatonic
-was born in Ciboure, France to a Basque mother and a Swiss SERGEI PROKOFIEFF
father -is regarded today as a combination of a neo-classicist,
-was a perfectionist and every bit a musical craftsman nationalist, and avant-garde composer
-his compositional style is mainly characterized by its uniquely -his style is uniquely recognizable for its progressive
innovative but not atonal style of harmonic treatment technique, pulsating rhythms, melodic directness, and a
-60 works/ compositional output resolving dissonance
-born in the Ukraine in 1891, Prokofieff set out for the St.
COMPARATIVE STYLES OF DEBUSSY AND RAVEL Petersburg Conservatory equipped with his great talent as a
-Debussy was more spontaneous and liberal in form while composer and pianist
Ravel was very attentive to the classical norms of musical -he became prolific in writing symphonies, chamber music,
structure and compositional craftsmanship concerti, and solo instrumental music
-Debussy was more casual in his portrayal of visual imagery -was highly successful in his piano music
while Ravel was more formal and exacting in the
development of his motive ideas FRANCIS JEAN MARCEL POULENC
-was one of the relatively few composers born into wealth
ARNOLD SCHOENBERG and a privileged social position
-was born in a working-class suburb of Vienna, Austria on -he was a member of the group of young French composers
September 13, 1874 known as “Les Six”
-his music gradually turned to the dissonant and atonal, as he -his compositions Had A coolly elegant modernity, tempered
explored the use of chromatic harmonies by a classical sense of a proportion
-he is credited w/ the development of the 12-tone system -He was a successful composer for piano, voice, and choral
-his music is extremely complex, creating heavy demands of music
hostility & enthusiasism from the audience -Poulenc’s vocal works reveal his strength as a lyrical melodist
-213 musical compositions -his choral works tended to be more somber and solemn
-185 musical compositions
-he was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), Russia on OTHER MEMBERS OF “LES SIX”
June 17, 1882 > George Auric- wrote music for the movies and rhythmic
-he adapted the forms of the 18th century with his music with lots of energy
contemporary style of writing >Louis Durey- used traditional ways of composing and wrote
-despite its “shocking” modernity, his music is also very in his own way, not wanting to follow form
structured, precise, controlled, full of artifice, and >Arthur Honegger- liked chamber music & the symphony
theatricality >Darius Milhaud- was a very talented composer who wrote in
-127 works/ musical outputs several different styles like jazz. Some of his music uses
bitonality and polytonality
OTHER MUSICAL STYLES >Germaine Tailleferre - was the only female in the group. She
-Primitivism, Neo-classicism, Avant-garde music, Modern liked to use dance rhythms, she loved children & animals and
nationalism wrote many works about them
-the avant-garde movement dealt with the parameters or the -CHANCE MUSIC
dimensions of sound in space
-the avant-garde style exhibited a new attitude toward
musical mobility
-IMPROVISATION was a necessity in this style -electronic machines such as synthesizers, amplifiers, tape
-the unconventional methods of sound and form, as well as recorders, and loadspeakers to create different sounds were
the absence of traditional rules governing harmony, melody, put to creative use by 20th century composers
and rhythm, make the whole concept of avant-garde music -music that uses tape recorder is called MUSIQUE CONCRETE
quite strange to ears accustomed to traditional compositions or CONCRETE MUSIC- the composer is able to experiment
-composers: George Gershwin, Leonard Bernstein, Philip with different sounds that cannot be produced by regular
Glass, John Cage, Olivier Messiaen, and Pierre Boulez musical instruments such as the piano or the violin
-the composer records different sounds that are heard in the
GEORGE GERSHWIN environment and these sounds are arranged by the composer
-was born in New York to Russian Jewish immigrants in different ways
-his melodic gift was considered phenomenal, as evidenced
by his numerous songs of wide appeal EDGARD VARESE
-he is a true “crossover artist”, in the sense that his serious -was born on December 22,1883
compositions remain highly popular in the classical -“innovative French-born composer”
repertoire, as his stage and film songs continue to be jazz and his musical compositions are characterized by an emphasis on
vocal standards timbre and rhythm
-“Father of American Jazz” -he invented the term “organized sound” which means that
-his mixture of the primitive and the sophisticated gave his certain timbres & rhythms can be grouped together in order
music an appeal that has lasted long after his death to capture a whole new definition of sound
-369 musical compositions -his use of instruments and electronic resources earned him
the title “Father of Electronic Music”
LEONARD BERNSTEIN -also described as “The Stratospheric Colossus of Sound”, his
-Born in Massachussetts, USA musical compositions total around 50
-he endeared himself to his many followers as a charismatic
conductor, pianist, composer, and lecturer KARLHEINZ STOCKHAUSEN
-his philosophy was that the universal language of music is -is a central figure in the realm of electronic music
basically rooted in tonality -born in Cologne, Germany
-he achieved preeminence in two fields: conductions and -his music was initially met with resistance due to its heavily
composing for Broadway musicals, dance shows, and concert atonal content with practically no clear melodic or rhythmic
music sense, still, he continued to experiment with concrete music
-he is best known for his compositions for the stage -around 31 works/musical compositions
-around 90 musical compositions
PHILIP GLASS -refers to a style in which the piece sounds different at every
-one of the most commercially successful minimalist performance because of the random techniques of
composers and is also an avant-garde composer production, including the use of ring modulators or natural
-he explored territories of ballet, opera, theater, film, and elements that become a part of the music
even television jingles
-his distinctive style involves cell-like phrases emanating from JOHN CAGE
bright electronic sounds from one pattern to the next in a -was known as one of the 20th century composers with the
very repetitious fashion widest array of sounds in his works
-his music is often criticized as uneventful and shallow, yet -he was born in Los Angeles, California, USA on September 5,
startlingly effective for its hypnotic charm 1912 and became one of the most original composers in the
-170 musical compositions history of Western music
-he challenged the very idea of music by manipulating musical
MODERN NATIONALISM instruments in order to achieve new sounds
-a looser form of 20th century music development focused on -he experimented with what came to be known as “chance
nationalist composers and musical innovators who sought to music”
combine modern techniques with folk materials -Cage also advocated bringing real-life experiences into the
concert hall
-Cage influenced the development of modern music since the
2OTH CENTURY MUSICAL STYLES: -he was considered more of a musical philosopher than a
-the musical styles that evolved in the modern era were -his conception of what music can and should be has had a
varied profound impact upon his comtemporaries
-new inventions and discoveries of science and technology -he was active as a writer, presenting his musical views with
have led to continue developments in the field of music both wit and intelligence
-electronic devices have been increasingly used for creating -Cage was an important force in other artistic areas especially
and recording music that is meant to be added to or to dance and musical theater
replace acoustical sounds made with traditional instruments -229 musical compositions
-electronic devices such as: early cassette tape recorders,
CDs, VCDs, DVDs, MP3 and MP4, ipod, karaoke players,
mobile and android phones, synthesizers
- a popular musical genre from Salvador, Bahia,
2 Quarter and Brazil
- fuses the Afro-Caribbean styles of the marcha,
MUSIC NOTES reggae, and calypso, and is played by carnival
Music bands

- has always been an important part of the daily Jit

life of the African people, whether for work, - a hard and fast percussive Zimbabwean dance
religion, ceremonies, or even communication music played on drums with guitar
Essential to Many African Ceremonies: accompaniment, influences by mbira-based
guitar styles
- singing
- dancing Jive
- hand clapping - a popular form of South African music featuring
- beating of drums a lively and uninhibited variation of the
African Ceremonies: jitterbug, a form of swing dance

- birth Juju
- death - a popular music style from Nigeria that relies on
- initiation the traditional Yoruba rhythms, where the
- marriage instruments are more Western in origin
- funerals
Used Along with the Traditional Dun-Dun (talking drum
Music and Dance or squeeze drum):
- important to religious expression and political - drum kit
events - keyboard
African Music - pedal steel guitar
- accordion
- a collective result of the cultural and musical
diversity of the more than 50 ethnic divisions of Kwassa kwassa
the continent - a dance style begun in Zaire in the late 1980s
- has a basically interlocking structural format, - popularized by Kanda Bongo Man
due mainly to its overlapping an dense texture - in this dance style, the hips move back and forth
as well as its rhythmic complexity while the arms follow the hip movements
African Traditional Music Marabi
- largely functional in nature, used primarily in - a South African three-chord township music of
ceremonial rites, such as birth, death, marriage, the 1930s-1960s which evolved into African
succession, worship, and spirit invocations music
TRADITIONAL MUSIC OF AFRICA - makes use if a keyboard style that combines
American jazz, ragtime, and blues with African
Afrobeat roots
- characterized by simple chords in varying
- a term used to describe the fusion of West
vamping patterns and repetitive harmony over
African with black American music an extended period of time to allow the dancers
Apala (Akpala) more time on the dance floor

- a musical genre fron Nigeria in the Yoruba tribal LATIN AMERICAN MUSIC INFLUENCES BY AFRICAN
style, used to wake up the worshippers after MUSIC
fasting during the Muslim holy feast of Reggae
- a Jamaican musical style that was strongly
Percussion Instrumentation: influence bus the island’s traditional mento
- rattle (sekere) music, as well as by calypso, African music,
- thumb piano (agidigbo) American jazz, and rhythm and blues
- bell (agogo)
One of Reggae’s Most Distinctive Qualities:
- two or three talking drums
- offbeat rhythm
- staccato chord - who paraded with a drumming ensemble
numbering up to 100, accompanied by a singer,
Salsa a chorus, and a coterie of dancers
- Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Colombians dance Musical Instruments used in Maractu:
- comprises various musical genres including the - alfaia
Cuban son montuno, guaracha, chachacha, - tarol
mambo, and bolero - caixa-de-guerra
- gongue
Samba - agbe
- a Brazilian musical genre and dance style - miniero
- roots can be traced to Africa via the West Alfaia
African slave trade and African religious
traditions particularly in Angola and the Congo - a largely wooden drum that is rope-tunned,
- the basic underlying rhythm that typifies most complemented by the tarol which is a shawllow
Brazilian music snare drum, and the caiza-de-guerra which is a
- had a lively and rhythmical beat with three war-like snare
steps to every bar, making the samba feel like a
timed dance Shakers

- represented by the agbe – agourd shaker covers

by beads, and the miniero or ganza – a metalo
- also known as the “soul of calypso” cylindrical shaker filled with metal shot or small
- originated as a fusion of calypso with Indian dried seeds
rhythms, thus combining the musical traditions
of the two major ethnic groups of Trinidad and
Tobago - a musical form of the late 19th century that has
- a modern Trinidadian and Tobagonian pop had deep roots in African-American
music combining soul and calypso music communities
- can communicate various emotions more
effectively than other musical forms
- Muslim music often performed as a wake-up
Deep South
call for early breakfast and prayers during
Ramadan celebrations - where the communities are located of in the
- relying on pre-arranged music United States
- fuses the African and European music styles
Noted Performers of the Rhythm and Blues Genre:
- Ray Charles
- fast, carnival-like rhythmic music, from the - James Brown
Creole slang word for “party” - Can Calloway
- originated in the Caribbean Islands of - Aretha Franklin
Guadaloupe and Martinique and was - John Lee Hooker
popularized in the 1980s - B.B. King
- has a pulsating beat supplied by the gwo ka and - Bo Diddley
tambour bele drums, a tibwa rhythmic pattern - Erykah Badu
played on the rim of the snare drum, a rhythm - Eric Clapton
guitar, a horn section, and keyboard - Steve Winwood
synthesizers - Charlie Musselwhite
- Jimmie Vaughan
Maracatu - Jeff Baxter

- first surfaced in the African state of Pernabuco, Examples of Blue Music:

combining the strong rhythms of African
percussion instruments with Portuguese - Early Mornin’
- A House is Not a Home
- Billie’s Blues
Nacoes (nations)
- maracatu groups
- a popular music genre of the 1950’s and 1960’s
- combines elements of African-American gospel INSTRUMENTS
music, rhythm and blues, and often jazz
Innovators Who Contributed to the Emergence of Soul
Music: - percussion instruments that are either struck
with a mallet or against one another
- Clyde McPhatter
- Hank Ballard Balafon
- Etta James - a West African xylophone
- Ray Charles - a pitched percussion instrument with bars
- Little Richard (who inspired Otis Redding) made from logs or bamboo
- James Brown
James Brown
- originally an Asian instrument that follows the
- known as the “Godfather of Soul” structure of a piano
- came from Madagascar to Africa, then to the
Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson
Americas and Europe
- acknowledged as “soul forefathers”
Examples of Soul Music:
- made of seashells, tin, basketry, animal hoofs,
- Ain’t No Mountain horn, wood, metal bells, cocoons, palm kernels,
- High Enough or tortoise shells - may range from single to
- Ben several objects that are either joined or
- All I Could Do is Cry suspended in such a way as they hit each other
- Soul to Soul
- Becha by Golly
- Wow - is a single bell or multiple bells that had its
origins in traditional Yoruba music and also in
the samba baterias (percussion) ensembles
- refers here to a Negro spiritual - called “the oldest samba instrument based on
- a song form by African migrants to America who West African Yoruba single or double bells
became enslaved by its white communities - has the highest pitch of any of the bacteria
Examples of Spiritual Music:
Atingting Kon
- We are Climbing Jacob’s Ladder
- Rock My Soul - slit gongs used to communicate between
- When the Saints Go Marching In villages
- Peace Be Still - carved out of wood to resemble ancestors and
had a “slit opening” at the bottom
Call and Response
Slit Drum
- a succession of two distinct musical phrases
usually rendered by different musicians, where - a hollow percussion instrument
the second phrase acts as a direct commentary - not a true drum but is an idiophone
on or response to the first - usually carved or constructed from bamboo or
- forms a strong resemblance to the verse-chorus wood into a box with one or more slits in the
form in many vocal compositions top

Examples of Call and Response Song: Djembe

- Mannish Boy (Muddy Waters) - one of the best-known African drums is

- School Day – Ring - shaped like a large goblet and played with bare
- Ring Goes the Bell (Chuck Berry) hands
- the body is carved from a hollowed trunk and is
- includes strings, winds, and percussion, along Shekere
with a tremendous variety of specific African
musical instruments for solo or ensemble - a type of gourd and shell megaphone from
playing West Africa, consisting of a dried gourd with
beads woven into a net covering the gourd
Agbe metal, or rattan tongues), plus an additional
resonator to increase its volume
- another gourd drum with cowrie shells usually - played by holding the instrument in the hands
strung with white cotton thread and plucking the tines with the thumbs,
Axatse producing a soft plucked sound

- a small gourd, held by the neck and placed Chordophones

between hand and leg - instruments which produce sounds from the
Rasp vibration of strings
- these include bows, harps, lutes, zithers, and
- a hand percussion instrument whose sound is lyres of various sizes
produced by scraping the notches on a piece of
wood (sometimes elaborately carved) with a Musical Bow
stick, creating a series of rattling effects - the ancestor of all string instruments
Membranophones - the oldest and one of the most widely-used
string instruments of Africa
- instruments which have vibrating animal - consists of a single string attached to each end
membranes used in drums of a curved stick, similar to a bow and arrow
- their shapes may be conical, cylindrical, barrel,
hour-glass, globular, or kettle, and are played PRINCIPAL TYPES OF MUSICAL BOW:
with sticks, hands, or a combination of both - earth bow
African Drums - mouth bow
- resonator-bow
- usually carved from a single wooden log, and
may also be made from ceramics, gourds, tin earth bow/ ground bow/ pit harp
cans, and oil drums - consist of a hole in the ground, a piece of
Examples of African Drums: flexible wood and a piece of chord

- entenga (Ganda) Lute (konting, khalam, and nkoni)

- dundun (Yoruba) - originating from the Arabic states, is shaped like
- atumpan (Akan) the modern guitar and played in similar fashion
- ngoma (Shona) - has a resonating body, a neck, and one or more
Body Percussion strings which stretch across the length of its
body and neck
- creates exciting rhythms which also stir them to
action Kora

Talking Drum - Africa’s most sophisticated harp while also

having features similar to the lute
- used to send messages to announce births, - its body is made from a gourd or calabash
deaths, marriages, sporting events, dances, - held upright and played with the fingers
initiation, or war
- also contain gossip or jokes Zither
- can carry direct messages to the spirits after the - a stringed instrument with varying sizes and
death of a loved one shapes whose strings are stretched along its
- Example: luna body
- a set of plucked tongues or keys mounted on a - raft or Inanga zither from Burundi
sound board - tubular or Valiha zither from Malagasy
- known by different names according to the - harp or Mvet zither from Cameroon
regions such as mbira, karimba, kisaanj, and
likembe Zeze

Mbira (hand piano or thumb piano) - African fiddle played with a bow, a small
wooden stick, or plucked with the fingers
- African origin and is used throughout the - has one or two strings, made of steel or bicycle
continent brake wire
- consists of a wooden board with attached - from Sub-Saharan Africa
staggered metal tines (a series of wooden,
- also known by the namestzetze and dzendze, - one of the primary instruments used by
izeze and endingidi; and on Madagascar is traditional music ensembles in Morocco
called lokanga (or lokango) voatavo - featured in the Lord of Rings soundtrack,
specifically in the Mordor theme
- instruments which are produced initially by
trapped vibrating air columns or which enclose - found throughout the continent may be made
a body of vibrating air of wood or other materials
- flutes in various sizes and shapes, horns, - short pieces of horn
panpipes, whistle types, gourd and shell - often with a short tube inserted into the
megaphones, oboe, clarinet, animal horn and mouthpiece
wooden trumpets fall under this category
Pottery Whistles
- sometimes shaped in the form of a head, similar
- widely used throughout Africa and either to the Aztec whistles of Central America and
vertical or side-blown Mexico
- usually fashioned from a single tube closed at
one end and blown like a bottle
- can be constructed wherever reeds or bamboo - made of wood, metal, animal horns, elephant
grow tusks, and gourds with skins from snakes,
- Examples: atenteben (Ghana), Fulani flutes zebras, leopards, crocodiles and animal hide as
ornaments to the instrument
- mostly ceremonial in nature, often used to
- consist of cane pipes of different lengths tied in announce the arrival or departure of important
a row or in a bundle held together by wax or guests
cord, and generally closed at the bottom
- blown across the top, each providing a different
note - made of lumber or bamboo
Horns Animal Horns
- found almost everywhere in Africa - used as trumpets while animal hides
- commonly made from elephant tusks and
animal horns Lizard and Snake Skin

Kudu Horn - can function as decorations as well as provide

the membranes for drum heads
- one type of horn made from the horn of the
kudu antelope Laces made of Hides and Skins
- releases a mellow and warm sound that adds a
- used for the strings of harps, fiddles, and lutes
unique African accent to the music
- comes in a set of six horns Bamboo
- reflects the cross of musical traditions in Africa
- can also be seen in football matches, where - used to form the tongues of thumb pianos, the
fans blow it to cheer for their favourite teams frames of stringed instruments, and stamping
Single-Reed Pipes
Gourds, seeds, stones, shells, palm leaves, and the hard-
- made from hollow guinea corn or sorghum shelled fruit of the calabash tree
stems, where the reed is a flap partially cut
from the stem near one end - made into rattles
- the vibration of this reed that causes the air
Ancient Africans
within the hollow instrument to vibrate, thus
creating the sound - made musical instruments from human skulls
decorated with human hair while singers use
Cone-Shaped Double-Reed
their body movements to accompany their
- similar to the oboe or shawm singing
- most well-known is the rhaita or ghaita, an
Modern Africans
oboe-like double reed instrument from
northwest Africa

Rhaita or Ghaita
- make use of recycled waste materials such as are traditionally made out of the same aquatic
strips of roofing metal, empty oil drums, and tin canes
cans - largely functional in nature
- being used for religious worship and
Music of Latin America ceremonies
- product of three major influences – Indigenous, Quenas
Spanish-Portuguese, and African
- sometimes called Latin music - played during the dry season
- includes the countries that have had a colonial
history from Spain and Portugal The Use of Instruments as well as Singing and Dancing

- served to implore the god for good harvest,

Divided into the following areas:
victory in battles, guard against sickness and
Andean Region natural disasters, and of course provide
- a mountain system of western South America
along the Pacific coast from Venezuela to Tierra Native American/ Indian Music
del Fuego
- Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, and - share many similar yet distinctive music
elements pertaining to melody, harmony,
rhythm, form, and dynamics
Central America - includes courtship songs, dancing songs, and
popular American or Canadian tunes like
- Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Amazing Grace, Dixie, Jambalaya, and Sugar
Honduras, and Panama Time
Carribean - many songs celebrate themes like harvest,
planting season or other important times of
- Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, year
Martinique, and Puerto Rico
Afro-Latin American Music
- most pronounced in its rich and varied rhythmic
Commonly populated by Five Major Ancestral Groups as patterns produced by the drums and various
follows: percussion instruments

Indian Descendants of the original Native Americans Euro-Latin American Music

- who were inhabitants of the region before the - melodies of the Renaissance period were used
arrival of Christopher Columbus in Southern Chile and the Colombian Pacific
coasts, while step-wise melodies were
African Descendants
preferred in the heavily Hispanic and Moorish-
- Western and Central Africa influenced areas of Venezuela and Colombia
- from unaccompanied vocal solos to those
European Descendants accompanied by stringed instruments

- Mainly from Span and Portugal but also Mixed American Music
including the French, Dutch, Italian, and British
- the diversity of races and cultures from the
Asian Descendants Native Americans, Afro-Latin Americans, and
Euro-Latin Americans account for the rich
- from China, Japan, India, and Indonesia/Java
combinations of musical elements including the
Mixed Descendants melodic patterns, harmonic combinations,
rhythmic complexities, wide range of colors and
- from the above-named groups dynamics, and various structural formats
- further enriched by the instruments brought by
the African slaves
Indigenous Latin-American Music
Popular Latin American Music
- natives were found to be using local drum and
- much of its popular music has in turn found its
percussion instruments such as the guiro,
way to the many venues and locales of America,
maracas, and turtle shells, and wind
Europe, and eventually the rest of the world
instruments such as zampona (pan pipes) and
- Examples: tango, bossa nova, samba, son, and
quena (notched-end flutes) remain popular and
Samba - a hand percussion instrument whose sound is
produced by scraping a group of notched sticks
- a dance form of African origins around 1838 with another stick, creating a series of rattling
which evolved into an African Brazilian effects
invention in the working class and slum districts
of Rio de Janeiro Huehueti
- meant to be executed for singing, dancing, and
parading in the carnival - a Mexican upright tubular drum used by the
Aztecs and other ancient civilizations
- has a number of variations, so that there is no
clear-cut definition of a single samba form - made of wood opened at the bottom and
standing on three legs cut from the base, with
Bantucada its stretched skin beaten by the hand or a
wooden mallet
- referring at once to a large percussion
ensemble of up to a hundred players, a jam Whistles
session, or an intensely polyrhythmic style of
- instruments made of natural elements such as
bone from animals
Eagle-Bone Whistle
- a fusion of the popular music or canciones
(songs) of Spain and the African rumba rhythms - the most common whose function is to help
symbolize the piece’s purpose
of Bantu origin
- originating in Cuba Incan Instruments:
- usually played with the tres (guitar), contrabass,
bongos, maracas, and claves (two wooden sticks Ocarina
that are hit together)
- an ancient vessel flute made of clay or ceramic
- its most important legacy is its influence on
with four to 12 finger holes and a mouthpiece
present-day Latin American music, particularly
that projected from the body
as the forerunner of the salsa
Panpipes (Zamponas)
- ancient instruments tuned to different scalar
- a social dance with marked influences from
varieties, played by blowing across the tubetop
Cuba and Puerto Rico that started in New York
in the mid 1970’s Andean Instruments:
- its style contains elements from the swing
dance and hustle as well as the complex Afro- Pitus
Cuban and Afro-Carribean dance forms of
- side-blown cane flutes that are played all year
pachanga and guaguanco
Wooden Tarkas
- vertical duct flutes with a mouthpiece similar to
- a flute variety from the Aztec culture made of that of a recorder, used during the rainy season
clay with decorations of abstract designs or
images of their deities
- vertical cane flutes with an end-notched made
from fragile bamboo
- a Mexican slit drum hollowed out and carved - used during dry season
from a piece of hardwood
- decorated with designs in relief or carved to
represent human figures or animals to be used - a ten-stringed Andean guitar from Bolivia
for both religious and recreational purposes - the size of a ukulele and a smaller version of the
mandolin, imitating the early guitar and lute
brought by the Spaniards
- a wind instrument made from a seashell usually - produces bright sounds and is often used in
of a large sea snail serenades in Southern Peru
- prepared by cutting a hole in its spine near the
apex, then blown into as if it were a trumpet
- an extremely popular band in Mexico whose
original ensemble consisted of violins, guitars,
harp, and an enormous guitarron (acoustic bass - contains jazz elements that became a model for
guitar) the cha cha, mambo, and other Latin American
Mariachi Music - used for concert music, as it appeared in the
- extremely passionate and romantic with their Second Piano Concerto of the French composer
blended harmonies and characterized by catchy Darius Milhaud
rhythms Bossa Nova
- its musicians are distinctly adorned with wide-
brimmed hats and silver buttons - originated in 1958-59 as a movement effecting
a radical change in the classic Cuban samba
VOCAL AND DANCE FORMS OF LATIN AMERICAN - contains themes centering on love, women,
MUSIC longing, nature, and youthfulness
Cumbia - emerged in the 1950’s when a slower, gentler
version of the samba became popular with the
- originating in Panama and Colombia upper and middle class sectors of societymusic
- became a popular African courtship dance with for easy and relaxed listening, conducive to
European and African instrumentation and romantic dates and quiet moments at the
characteristics lounges
- contained varying rhythmic meters among the
major locations – meter in Colombia; , , and Bossa
meters in Panama, and meter in Mexico - comes from the Brazilian capital of Rio de
Tango Janeiro, which means either “trend” or
“something charming,” integrating melody,
- may have been of African origin meaning harmony, and rhythm into a swaying feel,
“African dance” or from the Spanish word taner where the vocal style is often nasa
meaning “to play” (an instrument)
- a foremost Argentinian and Uruguayan urban Antonio Carlos Jobim
popular song and dance that is related to the - who became famous with his song Desafinado
Cuban contradanza, habanera, and Cuban (1957)
tango, and remains a 20th century nationalistic - collaborated with Vincius de Moraes in the play
Argentinian piece of music that is most Orfeu da Conceicao (1956), musical recording of
expressive Cancao do Amor Demais (1958), and the song
Cha Cha Garota de Ipanema or Girl from Ipanema (1962)
that turned bossa nova’s popularity into a
- a ballroom dance the originated in Cuba in worldwide phenomenon
1953, derived from the mambo and its
characteristic rhythm of 2 crochets – 3 quavers Sitti Navarro
– quaver rest, with a syncopation on the fourth - is a singer who has become known as the
beat “Philippines’ Queen of Bossa Nova”
- may be danced with Cuban music, Latin Pop, or - Her songs: Para sa Akin, Hey Look at the Sun,
Latin Rock Lost in Space, and Kung Di Rin Lang Ikaw
Cuban cha cha Reggae
- considered more sensual that may contain - an urban popular music and dance style that
polyrhythmic patterns originated in Jamaica in the mid 1960’s
- has a normal count of ‘two-three-chachacha’ - contained English text coupled with Creole
and ‘four and one, two, three’ expressions that were not so familiar to the
Rumba non-Jamaican
- a synthesis of Western American (Afro-
- popular recreational dance of Afro-Cuban American) popular music and the traditional
origin, performed in a complex duple meter Afro-Jamaican music, containing a western-style
pattern and tresillo, which is a dotted quaver – melodic-harmonic base with African sounds and
dotted quaver – dotted semiquaver rhythm characteristics, American pop and rock music
- normally used as a ballroom dance where a solo mannerisms, and a preference for a loud
dancer or couple would be in an embrace volume in the bass
though slightly apart, with the rocking of the
hips to a fast-fast-slow sequence and often Bob Marley
containing cross rhythms
- a Jamaican singer-songwriter, musician, and - refers to a large ensemble form originating in
guitarist the United States in the mid 1920’s closely
- achieved international fame and acclaim for associated with the Swing Era with jazz
songs such as: One Love, Three Little Birds; No elements
Woman, No Cry; Redemption Song; and Stir It - relying heavily on percussion (drums), wind,
Up rhythm section (guitar, piano, double bass,
vibes), and brass instruments (saxophones),
Foxtrot with a lyrical string section (violins and other
- a 20th century social dance that originated after string instruments) to accompany a lyrical
1910 in the USA melody
- executed as a one step, two step and - originated in the United States and is associated
syncopated rhythmic pattern with jazz and the swing
- gave rise to other dances such as the black Five Saxophones
bottom, Charleston, and shimmy
- most often two altos, two tenors, and one
Paso Doble baritone
- meaning “double step” Four Trumpets, Four Trombones
- a theatrical Spanish dance used by the
Spaniards in bullfights, where the music was - often including one bass trombone
played as the matador enters (paseo) and
during passes just before the kill (faena) Four-Piece Rhythm Section
- arrogant and dignified with a duple meter, - composed of drums, acoustic bass or electric
march-like character, where the dancer takes bass, piano and guitar
strong steps forward with the heels
accompanied by artistic hand movements, foot Glenn Miller Orchestra
stomping, sharp and quick movements, with the
- A String of Pearls, Moonlight Serenade, In The
head and chest held high
Mood, American Patrol, and Smoke Gets in Your

Ragtime Count Basie Orchestra

- an American popular musical style mainly for - April in Paris

piano, originating in the AfroAmerican
Benny Goodman Orchestra
communities in St. Louis and New Orleans
- style was said to be a modification of the - Sing, Sing, Sing
“marching mode” made popular by John Philip
Sousa, where the effect is generated by an Cab Calloway
internally syncopated melodic line pitted
- Minnie the Moocher
against a rhythmically straightforward bass line
- music is written unlike jazz which is mainly Doris Day
improvised, and contains regular meters and
clear phrases, with an alternation of low bass or - Stardust, I’m in the Mood for Love
bass octaves and chords
- influenced a number of classical composers,
among them Erik Satie, Claude Debussy, and Roy Eldridge
Igor Stravinsky, who injected ragtime rhythmic
elements in their compositions Bebop

Jelly Roll Morton - a musical style of modern jazz which is

characterized by a fast tempo, instrumental
- an American ragtime and early jazz pianist and virtuosity, and improvisation that emerged
composed Frog I More Rag during World War II
- main exponents were trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie,
Scott Joplin
alto sax player Charlie Parker, drummers Max
- composed the popular Maple Leaf Rag, Solace, Roach and Roy Haynes, pianists Bud Powell and
and The Entertainer Thelonius Monk; guitarist Charlie Christian;
- also knows as the “King of Ragtime” tenor sax players Dexter Gordon and Sonny
Rollins, who was also a composer; and
Big Band trombonist JJ Johnson

Jazz Rock
- the music of 1960’s and 1970’s bands that followed by a refrain/chorus part of 16 or 32
inserted jazz elements into rock music bars in AABA form
- a synonym for “jazz fusion” - The Man I Love (George Gershwin), Always
- a mix of funk and R&B (“rhythm and blues”) (Irving Berlin), and In a Sentimental Mood (Duke
rhythms, where the music used amplification Ellington)
and electronic effects, complex time signatures,
and extended instrumental compositions with B Section
lengthy improvisations in the jazz style - acts as the bridge, and the piece normally ends
Popular singer/songwriters: with a brief coda

Pop and Rock Ballads

- Joni Mitchell
- Tim Buckley - an emotional love song with suggestions of folk
- Van Morrison music, as in the Beatles’ composition “The
Some popular groups that emerged using the above Ballad of John and Yoko” and Billy Joel’s “The
Ballad of Billy”
music styles were the following:
- sometimes applied to strophic story-songs, such
- Grateful Dead as Don McLean’s “American Pie”
- Cream
- Blood, Sweat, and Tears Standards
- Santana - used to denote the most popular and enduring
- Traffic songs from a particular genre or style, such as
- Chicago those by Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and Rodgers
- Steely Dan and Hart
- Lighthouse - style is mostly in a slow or moderate tempo
- Frank Zappa with a relaxed mood
- Soft Machine - features highly singable melodies within the
- Hatfield and the North range and technical capacity of the everyday
Popular Music

- literally means “music of the populace” Frank Sinatra

- similar to traditional folk music of the past - known as “Ol Blue Eyes ” “Chairman of the
- generally consisted of music for entertainment Board,” or “The Voice”
of large numbers of people, whether on radio - his genre was categorized as traditional pop and
or in live performances jazz
- a successful singer, actor, producer, director,
and conductor
- originated as an expressive folksong in narrative - his hit singles include My Way and Strangers in
verse with text dealing typically about love the Night
- the word is derived both from the medieval
Nat King Cole
French “chanson balladee” and “ballade” which
refers to a dancing song - American balladeer
- used by poets and composers since the 18th - an accomplished pianist
century, it became a slow popular love song in - owes most of his popular musical fame to his
the 19th century soothing baritone voice, which he used to
- now refers to a love song in a slightly pop or perform in big band, vocal jazz, swing.
rock style traditional pop, and jump blues genres
Blues Ballads - the first black American to host his own
television show and maintained worldwide
- a fusion of Anglo-American and Afro-American popularity over 40 years past his death
styles from the 19th century that deals with the - widely considered “one of the most important
anti-heroes resisting authority musical personalities in United States history”
- the from emphasizes the character of the - hit songs include Unfogettable, Mona Lisa, and
performer more than the narrative content Too Young
- accompanied by banjo or guitar
Matt Monroe
Pop Standard and Jazz Ballads
- an English singer who became one of the most
- a blues style built from a single verse of 16 bars popular entertainers in the international music
ending on the dominant or half-cadence, scene during the 1960s
- filled cabarets, nightclubs, music halls, and Lennon – Paul McCartney
stadia in Australia, Japan, the Philippines, and
Hong Kong to Africa, the Middle East, Europe, - one of the most celebrated songwriting
partnerships of the 20th century
and the Americas
- his hit singles included Portrait of My Love, Lennon’s Hit Compositions for The Beatles:
Softly as I Leave You, the James bond theme
From Russia with Love, Born Free, which - Strawberry Fields Forever
became his signature song, and Walk Away - Help
- In My Life
Other popular singers of standards: - Tomorrow Never Knows
- Rain
- Perry Como
- Bing Crosby - Norwegian Road
- I am the Walrus
- Andy Williams
- Sammy Davis Jr. - Come Together
- You’ve Got to Hide Your Love Away
- Doris Day
- Patti Page - Happiness is a Warm Gun
- Barbra Streisand Lennon’s Top Billboard Hits:
- Paul Anka
- Imagine
Rock and Roll - Mind Games
- a hugely popular song form in the United States - Power to the People
- Dream
during the late 1940’s to the 1950’s
- combined Afro-American forms such as the - Nobody Told Me
- Watching the Wheels
blues, jump blues, jazz, and gospel music with
the Western swing and country music - Woman
- Whatever Gets You Through the Night
- lead instruments were the piano and
saxophone, but these were eventually replaced - Instant Karma
by modern instruments James Paul McCartney (1942)
- employed one or two electric guitars (lead,
rhythm), a string bass or bass guitar, and a set - an English singer, songwriter, multi-
of drums that provided the rhythmic pattern instrumentalist, co-writer, and composer
- derived its name from the mot of a sonhip on - gained worldwide popularity and fame as a
the ocean, “rock and roll” member of The Beatles, which included John
Lennon, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr
Elves Prisley - recognized as one of the most successful
- his hit songs such as Heartbreak Hotel and Blue composers and performers of all time, with 60
gold discs and sales of over 100 million albums
Suede Shoes were complemented by his good
looks and elaborate movements that included and 100 million singles of his work with the
Beatles and as a solo artist
hugging the microphone as he sang
- his style was the precursor of the British band - a two-time inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall
of Fame as a member of The Beatles in 1988,
known as The Beatles
and as a solo artist in 1999
The Beatles - a 21-time Grammy Award winner having won
both individually and with The Beatles
- whose compositions further boosted rock and - written or co-written 32 songs that have
roll as the favorite genre of the times reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100
- I Saw Her Standing There, Get Back, While My - had sold more than “15.5 million RIAA-certified
Guitar Gently Weeps, Rock and Roll Music, and units” in the United States
Ticket to Ride - knighted in England for his services to music
- one of the most influential groups in the history
of pop music McCartney’s Top Hits of The Beatles:

John Lennon (1940-1980) - Hey Jude

- Fool on the Hill
- an English musician, singer, performer, - I’ll Follow the Su
songwriter and co-songwriter - I Will
- born and raised in Liverpool, England - I Saw Her Standing There
- rose to worldwide fame as a founder member - All My Loving
of the rock band The Beatles, which was - Paperback Writer
considered as “the most commercially - Michelle
successful band in the history of popular music”
- Eleanor Rigby - an American recording artist, entertainer,
- We Can Work It Out singer-songwriter, record producer, musical
- And I Love Her arranger, dancer, choreographer, actor,
- Here, There, and Everywhere businessman, and philanthropist
- Penny Lane - made his debut as an entertainer in 1968 as a
member of The Jackson 5
Disco - began a solo career in 1971 while still a member
- pertained to rock music that was more of the group and was referred to as the "King of
danceable, thus leading to the establishment of Pop" in subsequent years
venues for public dancing also called discos - became a dominant figure in American popular
- originated from the French word “discotheque” music and culture
which means a library for phonograph records - the first African American entertainer to amass
- style had a soaring and reverberating sound a strong crossover following on MTV
rhythmically controlled by a steady beat for 21st Century Music Groups:
ease of dancing, and accompanied by strings,
horns, electric guitars, and electric pianos or - Black Eyed Peas K Pop (Korean)
synthesizers - My Chemical Romance
- Fall Out Boys
Famous Figures of Disco: - The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus
- ABBA - Souja Boy
- Donna Summer (“The Queen of Disco”) - Train
- The Bee Gees - Maroon 5
- Earth, Wind, and Fire - One Direction
- KC and the Sunshine Band Solo Performers:
- The Village People
- Gloria Gaynor - Adele
- Taylor Swift
Other Pop Music Superstars: - Ed Sheeran
- Neil Sedaka (Laughter in the Rain) - Rihanna
- Diana Ross and the Supremes(Stop in the Name - Chris Brown
of Love) - Ariana Grande
- Olivia Newton John (Hopelessly Devoted to You) - Justin Beiber
- Stevie Wonder (You Are the Sunshine of My - Miley Cyrus
Life) - Katy Perry
- Elton John (Skyline Pigeon) - Nikki Minaj
- The Carpenters (We’ve Only Just Begun) - Selena Gomez
- Barry Manilow (Mandy) Hip hop
Solo Artists: - a stylized, highly rhythmic type of music that
- Celine Dion (My Heart Will Go On) usually (but not always) includes portions of
- Madonna (Material Girl) rhythmically chanted words called “rap”
- Whitney Houston (I Will Always Love You) - arose in the 1970s within the Afro-American
- Mariah Carey (Hero) and Latino youth in the Bronx area of New York
- Justin Timberlake (Justified) City
- Britney Spears (Oops, I Did It Again) - has since evolved into a subculture that
- Beyonce (Irreplaceable) encompasses music (rapping, DJing, scratching,
- Lady Gaga (Bad Romance) and beatboxing); a nearly acrobatic style of
- Bruno Mars (Just The Way You Are) dancing, called break dancing; a distinct manner
of dress; and graffiti-style artwork
Vocal Groups
Hip hop Artists:
- Boyz II Men (Four Seasons of Loneliness)
- The Backstreet Boys (I Want It That Way) - LL Cool J
- N’Sync (This I Promise You) - Run-D.M.C
- Destiny’s Child (Survivor) - Beastie Boys
- Eminem
Michael Joseph Jackson - Kanye West

- born on August 29, 1958 and died on June 25, Alternative Music
- an underground independent form of music - Dingdong Avanzado
that arose in the 1980’s - Janno Gibbs
- became widely popular in the 1990’s as a way - Ogie Alcasid
to defy “mainstream” rock music - Joey Albert
- known for its unconventional practices such as - Manilyn Reynes
distorted guitar sounds, oppressive lyrics, and
defiant attitudes Famous Solo Artists and Bands in 1990s:
- also characterized by high energy levels that - The Eraserheads
bred new styles such as new wave, punk rock, - Smokey Mountain
post-punk, indie rock, gothic rock, jangle pop, - Donna Cruz
noise pop, C86, Madchester, Industrial Rock, - Jessa Zaragoza
and Shoegazing - Ariel Rivera
- You Belong With Me, and Shake It Off - Southborder
- Afterimage
Original Pinoy Music/ Original Philippine Music/ OPM
- Andrew E.
- originally used to refer only to Philippine pop - Jaya
songs, particularly ballads, such as those - Rivermaya
popular after the collapse of its predecessor, - Parokya ni Edgar
the Manila Sound, in the late 1970s up until the
present Other OPM Stars:

- Yeng Constantino
The 1980s to 1990s are also regarded as the golden era
of Philippine ballads. Among the classics that emerged - Sarah Geronimo
- Aisa Seguerra
were those created by:

- Ryan Cayabyab (Kay Ganda ng Ating Musika, International Singers:

Kahit Ika’y Panaginip Lang) - Arnel Pineda (international rock group, Journey)
- George Canseco (Kapantay ay Langit, Kastilyong - Charice Pempengco
Buhangin, Tubig at Langis)
- Willie Cruz (Sana’y Wala Nang Wakas, Bituing Hahabol-habol (Hot Pursuit)
Walang Ningning)
- Bobby Gonzales
- Jose Mari Chan (Beautiful Girl, Please Be Careful
- a local version of the rock and roll songs of the
With My Heart, Constant Change)
- Gary Valenciano (Sana Maulit Muli)
OPM Solo Artists:
- Rico J. Puno
- Pilita Corales
- a local adaptation of The Way We Were
- Nora Aunor
- Basil Valdez Manila Sound
- Celeste Legaspi
- Hajji Alejandro - gave rise to songs using a colloquial language
- Leah Navarro called Taglish, a combination of Tagalog and
- Sharon Cuneta English
- Martin Nievera - among the proponents: Hotdog, Cinderella, The
- Gary Valenciano Rainmakers, and the Apo Hiking Society
- ZsaZsa Padilla
Boy Katindig
- Regine Velasquez
- Ogie Alcasid - jazz pianist and recording artist
- who comes from the well-known clan of
Popular artists between 1980s and 1990s:
musicians that includes jazz piano legend Romy
- Martin Nievera Katindig and saxophonist Eddie Katindig
- Gary Valenciano
Katinding Family
- Lea Salonga
- Regine Velasquez - pioneered Latin jazz in Manila
- Sharon Cuneta
- Vina Morales Filipino Jazz Musicians:
- Raymond Lauchengco
- Lito Molina
- Francis Magalona
- Angel Peña
- Pops Fernandez,
- Emil Mijares
- José Mari Chan
- internationally known jazz pianist Bobby - known as FrancisM, “Master Rapper,” and “The
Enriquez Man From Manila”
- a Filipino rapper, songwriter, producer, actor,
Folk Music director, television host, and photographer
- combined ethnic instrumentation with - often hailed as the “King of Pinoy Rap” and is
electronic accompaniment, while presenting considered a legend in the Philippine music
themes or issues of society and the community
environment - first Filipino rapper to cross over to the
Filipino Composers of this style: - credited for having pioneered the merging of
rap with Pinoy rock, becoming a significant
- Joey Ayala
influence on artists in that genre as well
- Grace Nono
- awarded a posthumous Presidential Medal of
- Edru Abraham of Kontragapi
Merit “for his musical and artistic brilliance, his
(“Kontemporaryong Gamelan Pilipino”)
deep faith in the Filipino, and his sense of
Filipino composers whose styles ranged from folk to national pride that continue to inspire us

- Freddie Aguilar, best known for his song Anak

- Yoyoy Villame, composer of Magellan
- Florante, composer of Ako’y Isang Pinoy
- Gary Granada, composer of Ka Bayani


- the birth of Philippine or “Pinoy” rock music

which successfully merged the rock beat with
Filipino lyrics

Juan de la Cruz Band

- Ang Himig Natin

- which had for its members Joey “Pepe” Smith,
Wally Gonzales, and the originator of Jeproks,
Mike Hanopol, who later became a major
symbol of Pinoy rock

Early Exponents of Pinoy Rock:

- Maria Cafra
- Sampaguita, the female rocker
- and folk-rock singer Heber Bartolome and his
Banyuhay band, whose songs expressed strong
messages of nationalism

Vocal Groups:

- River Maya
- The Dawn
- True Faith
- The Eraserheads
- Wolfgang
- Bamboo
- Parokya ni Edgar
- Hal
- Sandwich
- SugarFree
- Sponge Cola

Francis Magalona

- born on October 4, 1964 and died on March 6,