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Lecture 2

Loads & Actions

PREPARED BY:
ENGR. TIMOTHY JOHN S. ACOSTA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DISCUSSION OUTLINE

I. LOAD PATHS
II. TRIBUTARY AREAS
III. CODES AND SPECS FOR LOADS
IV. DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES (LRFD)
I. LOAD PATHS
LOAD PATH
LOAD PATH
LOAD PATH

GRAVITY LATERAL
Roof deck transfers load to
Each joist supports an supporting joists.
area equal to its span
times half the distance to
the joist on either side.

Load rests on roof deck

The joists transfer their The pier supports half the area
loads to the supporting supported by the truss girder plus
truss girders. areagirder
from supports
other structural
Each truss an areaelements
equal tothat it supports.
its span times half the
distance to the girder on either side.
The truss girders transfer
their loads to the
supporting piers and
columns.

Long Span Roof Load Path


The girders are not single span The area tributary to a joist
so the tributary area for the equals the length of the joist
columns cannot be graphically times the sum of half the
determined distance to each adjacent joist.

The area tributary to a girder equals


the length of the girder times the sum
of half the distance to each adjacent
girder.

Columns Support Girders Girders Support Joists


Metal Deck/Slab System Supports Floor
Loads Above

Joists Support Floor Deck

Mezzanine Floor System


II. TRIBUTARY AREA
Tributary Area
The tributary area of a member (such as a beam or
column) is the loaded area that directly contributes to
that member.

It is best defined as the area that is bounded by lines


located halfway to the next beam/column.
Tributary Area

ONE-WAY LOAD
DISTRIBUTION
Tributary Area

TWO-WAY LOAD
DISTRIBUTION
Tributary Area
Example:

• A typical floor plan subjected to a pressure load of


20psf

• Also, we'll assume that the building has three


equally-loaded stories
Floor Beam
Tributary Area
Tributary Area
Tributary Area
Tributary Area
Interior Girder
Tributary Area
Interior Girder
Tributary Area
Tributary Area
Tributary Area

Interior
Girder
Tributary Area
Tributary Area
Tributary Area
Tributary Area
Interior Column
Tributary Area (Column B2)

P = 2 Rbeam + 2 Rgirder
Tributary Area (Column B2)
III. CODES AND SPECS FOR LOADS

Attendance!
TYPES OF LOADS

Earthquake Loads Wind Loads


TYPES OF LOADS
I. Dead Loads (Gravity)

fixed-position gravity service load, usually known accurately but not until
the design is completed

Structure Self Weight

Interior Floor Finishes

Ceiling and Utilities

Interior and Exterior Partitions


Dead Loads

Superimposed DL~1.78kPa
Dead Loads (Gravity)
Dead Loads (Gravity)
II. Live Loads (Occupancy)

Gravity loads acting when the structure


is in service, but varying in magnitude
and location

Due to safety concerns, live loads for


design purposes are prescribed by state
and local building codes (usually
empirical and conservative)
Live Loads (Occupancy)
Live Loads (Occupancy)
III. Highway Loads

highway vehicle loading standardized


into standard truck loads and lane
loads that approximate a series of
trucks (AASHTO)
IV. Impact Loads

Impact – refers to the


dynamic effect of a
suddenly applied load.
Any live load that can
have a dynamic effect
should be increased by
an impact factor.
Impact Loads

In buildings, ASCE 7-05 requires an increase in the maximum live load by the
following percentages to account for the magnification of imposed loads
due to impact:
V. Wind Loads (Envi Load)

When structures block the flow of


wind, the wind’s kinetic energy is
converted to potential energy of
pressure, which causes wind loading.
SECTION 207A.1.2.1

◉ Wind loads for Main Wind Frame Resisting System shall be


determined using one of the following procedures:

PROCEDURE: REFERENCE:
1. Directional Procedure for buildings of all heights (Section 207B)
2. Envelope Procedure for low-rise buildings (Section 207C)
3. Directional Procedure for Building Appurtenances and Other structures (Section 207D)
4. Wind Tunnel Procedure (Section 207F)
VI. Earthquake Loads (Envi Load)

When the ground under a structure


suddenly moves, the inertia of the
mass of the structure tends to resist
the movement, causing the
development of a shear force
between the ground and the
structure.
Earthquake Loads

Earthquakes produce loadings on a structure through its interaction with ground and its
response characteristics. These loadings result from the structure’s distortion caused by the
ground’s motion and lateral resistance of structures. Their magnitude depends on the amount
of ground accelerations and the mass and stiffness of the structure.
SECTION 208.4.8 SELECTION OF LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE

PROCEDURE: REFERENCE:
1. Simplified Static (Section 208.5.1)
2. Static (Section 208.5)
3. Dynamic (Section 208.5.3)
4. Alternative (Section 208.4.8.4)
Procedures
EQ LOADS NSCP 2015

Vertical
Distribution of
Force
VII. Rain Loads (Envi Load)

Rain load is the weight of rainwater that


accumulates on a roof. This type of load
is typically an issue only on very low-
slope roofs.
VIII. Flood Loads (Envi Load)

Flood load is the pressure exerted on


a structure when it obstructs the flow
of moving water.

Foundations must be designed


adequately to resist these forces. Also
included are hydrostatic loads due to
the difference in elevation between
the water inside and outside the
structure. This also can cause uplift
on slabs and floor systems.
IX. Earth Pressure (Envi Load)

Earth load is the lateral pressure on


the foundation wall due to the
height of the backfill.
III. Design Philosophies
The Goal of Structural Design
Codes and Specs

Building Codes
Codes and Specs

Building Code

a broadly based document, either legal document such as a national


building code, or a document widely recognized even though not legal
which covers the same wide range of topics as the national building code

generally treats all facets relating to safety (structural design, architectural


details, fire protection, heating and air conditioning, plumbing, sanitation,
lighting)
Codes and Specs

Specifications

refer to rules set forth by the architect or


engineer that pertain to only one particular
building while under construction

The designer has the ultimate


responsibility for a safe structure.
Basic Design Principle

Capacity  Demand
Resistance  Load
R  Q
PHILOSOPHIES OF DESIGN

Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

Load and Resistance Factor


Design (LRFD)
Definitions

LRFD – designing members and connections using loads and


resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is
reached when subjected to appropriate load combinations

ASD – designing members and connections such that


calculated stresses do not exceed specified material
stresses when subjected to appropriate load
combinations
Definitions
Uncertainties in Design

The way in
We
which we
Uncertainty compensate
compensate
exists in for these
is different
everything uncertainties
between
we design. in our design
LRFD and
codes.
ASD.
Additional Uncertainties

• Design errors

• Construction errors
These cannot be incorporated
into the design codes but are
addressed through proper
quality assurance techniques.
Definitions
Limit State

Definition:

Conditions of a structure at which it


ceases to fulfil its intended function

(Note: Rather than “failure,” the term


“limit state” is preferred.)
Limit State

2 Categories:
1. Strength Limit State – maximum ductile
strength, buckling, fatigue, fracture,
overturning and sliding
2. Serviceability Limit State – deflection,
vibration, permanent deformation,
cracking

LRFD is included in Limit State Design


procedures, namely: ultimate strength design,
strength design, plastic design, and load
factor design.
LRFD vs. ASD

◉ LRFD ◉ ASD

1. Nominal Capacities and Resistance Factors 1. Factor of Safety


○ for uncertainties in material a single variable is used to handle
properties, construction tolerances, uncertainty in both load and capacity
etc.

2. Load Factors
○ for uncertainties in variable loads
LRFD vs. ASD

• LRFD • ASD

Rn  Ru =   i Qi
Rn
  Qi
FS
Rn nominal Resistance Rn Nominal Resistance
 resistance factor < 1.0 FS Factor of Safety > 1.0
Ru Ultimate Resistance Qi Various load effect
i load factor associated with the
ith load > 1.0
Qi Various load effect
Notice that different factors are used to account for Notice that only one factor is used to account for
uncertainties in resistance and for different types of loads, uncertainties and that the nominal load effects are just added.
i.e., D, L, W, E, etc.
LRFD Statistical Model

Assuming Load and Resistance


are Random Variables

Normal Distributions for Load


Q and Resistance R
LRFD DESIGN
LRFD Statistical Model
LRFD Statistical Model
LRFD Statistical Model
LRFD Statistical Model
Reliability Index

b = Reliability index

The larger the b, the greater is the margin of safety.


Frequency

ln(R/Q) R Q
VR = and VQ =
Rm Qm
Reliability Index
Factors of Safety – ASD and LRFD Compared

LRFD 𝑅𝑛 − Δ𝑅𝑛 = 𝑄 + Δ𝑄

Δ𝑅𝑛 Δ𝑄 Δ𝑄
𝑅𝑛 1− =𝑄 1+ where = overload
𝑅𝑛 𝑄 𝑄
Δ𝑅𝑛
= understrength
𝑅𝑛

Δ𝑄
𝑅𝑛 1+ ൗ𝑄
ASD Factor of Safety =
𝑄
=
Δ𝑅
1 − 𝑛ൗ𝑅
𝑛
Δ𝑄 Δ𝑅n
Assuming = 40% and = 15% Without identifying the factors
𝑄 𝑅𝑛 contributing to either value
1 + 0.4
Factor of Safety = = 1.65 Note: The traditional AISC value
1−0.15 of FS = 1.67 used in the ASD
Reliability Index

Using the factored load combinations given in the code, the 1986 LRFD Specs were
calibrated to agree with past experience. Thus, the resistance factors  were set in LRFD
with the objective of obtaining the following values of b:

Load Combinations Objective Reliability index b

3.0 for members


Dead + Live load
4.5 for connections

Dead + Live + Wind load 2.5 for members


Dead + Live + Earthquake 1.75 for members
Comparison of LRFD and ASD for Tension
Members
Rn
From ASD : = D + L = D + 3D = 4 D
FS The original LRFD specification values were
calibrated to the 1978 ASD specification at
Rn = 4 D ( FS ) L=3D.

From LRFD : Rn = 1.2 D + 1.6 L = 1.2 D + 1.6(3D ) = 6 D


6D
Rn =

6D 1 1.5
Equating and solving for FS : FS =  =
 4D 
Therefore, for  = 0.9, the value of FS = 1.67 and  = 0.75, FS = 2.0.

A similar method was used to determine all the FS values throughout the specifications.
LRFD Resistance Factors
 = Resistance factor

The Resistance factor is < 1.0. Therefore, Tension Members


it’s an understrength factor. We’re
underestimating the nominal strength of t = 0.90 for tensile yielding limit state
the t = 0.75 for tensile rupture limit state
Member.

Compression Members
c = 0.90

Beams
b = 0.90 for flexure
v = 0.90 for shear

Welds
 = same as for the type of action, i.e. tension, shear, etc.

Fasteners in Tension and Shear


 = 0.75
NSCP SECTION 203.3.1

◉ BASIC LOAD COMBINATIONS:


1.4 (D+F) (203-1) D = dead load
E = earthquake load set forth in Section 208.6.1
1.2 (D+F+T) + 1.6 (L+H) + 0.5 (Lr + R) (203-2) F = load due to fluids with well-defined
H = load due to lateral pressure of soil and water in
1.2D + 1.6(Lr or R) + (f1L or 0.5W) (203-3) soil
L = live load
1.2D + 1.0W + f1L + 0.5 (Lr or R) (203-4) Lr = roof live load
P = ponding load
1.2D + 1.0E + f1L (203-5) R = rain load
T = self-restraining force and effects arising from
0.9D + 1.0W + 1.6H (203-6) contraction or expansion resulting from temperature
change
0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H (203-7) W = load due to wind pressure

Where:
f1 = 1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads in excess of 4.8 kPa, and for garage live loads
= 0.5 for other live loads
Why should LRFD be used?

1. LRFD is another “tool” for structural engineers to use in steel design.

2. Adoption of LRFD is not mandatory but provides a flexibility of options to the designer. The marketplace
will dictate whether or not LRFD will become the sole method.

3. ASD is an approximate way to account for what LRFD does in a more rational way. The use of plastic
design concepts in ASD has made ASD such that it no longer may be called an “elastic design” method.

4. The rationality of LRFD has always been attractive, and becomes an incentive permitting the better and
more economical use of material for some load combinations and structural configurations. It will also
likely produce safer structures in view of the arbitrary practice under ASD of combining dead
and live loads and treating them the same.

5. Using multiple load factor combinations should lead to economy.


Why should LRFD be used?

7. LRFD will facilitate the input of new information on loads and load variations as such information becomes
available. On the other hand, our knowledge of loads and their variation is much less. Separating the
loading from the resistance allows one to be changed without the other if that should be desired.

8. Changes in overload factors and resistance factors ф are much easier to make than to
change the allowable stress in ASD.

9. LRFD makes design in all materials more compatible. The variability of loads is actually unrelated
to the material used in the design. Future specifications not in the limit states format for any material will put
that material at a disadvantage in design.
Why should LRFD be used?

10. Future adjustments in the calibration of the method can be made without much
complication. Calibration for LRFD was done for an average situation but might be adjusted in the future.

11. Economy is likely to result for low live load to dead load ratios. For high live load to dead
load ratios there will be slightly greater costs.

12. Safer structures may result under LRFD because the method should lead to a better awareness of structural
behavior.

13. Design practice is still at the beginning with regard to serviceability limit states; however, at least LRFD
provides the approach.
REFERENCES

• Salmon, C.G., Johnson, J.E. and Malhas, F.A. (2009). Steel Structures
Design and Behavior, Prentice Hall, 5th edition.

• AISC – ASD/LRFD Steel Construction Manual, 13th edition

• NSCP 2015 Volume 1, Seventh Edition


Thanks!

ANY QUESTIONS?

You can find me at:


RM 206
tsacosta@upd.edu.ph