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Distinguish between TQM and BPR :-

Attribute TQM BPR

meaning TQM means reducing or BPR means innovation in

eliminating errors existing process (in term
thereby improving the of cost, quality, service
overall quality. and speed )
Scope Narrow Broad
Level of change Includes incremental Includes radical redesign
change and gradual and drastic improvement.
Participation Involved all employees. Involves selected few
Flexibility There is standardization There is flexibility in
/standardization of process. operations.
Existing/ new process Involves changing of Involved introducing of
existing process. new process.
Tools Statistical process control Complete IT
Top management Top level management is Top level is required
important during the throughout the BPR
initial stages of TQM. process.
Risk and rewards Low or moderate. High.
Focus on Current practice Start things again
Investment Low High
Speed Smaller steps Longer steps
Approach Bottom -up Top-down
Attribute TQM BPR

/communication flow
Duration Short term process. Long term process.

Short notes :-

Just-in-time :-

There are two types of inventory systems in any organizations. One is push
(supply) and other is pull (demand) driven. In push System inventory is supplied as
and when manufactured/bought whereas under pull system, the inventory is
delivery when it is needed. Pull’ (demand) driven inventory system in which raw-
materials are delivered just when demand arises by the user and neither sooner
nor later. Its main objective is to eliminate extra inventory. IIT (Just in Time)
inventory strategy was developed and perfected by Taiichi Ohno of Toyota
Corporation during 19605 and 19708 to meet fast changing consumer demands
with minimum delays. It was first used in the US by the Ford motor' company.

JIT is a philosophy of continuous improvement in which nonvalue-adding activities

(or wastes) are identified and removed  the purposes of: -

 Reducing cost
 Improving quality
 Improving performance
 Improving delivery
 Adding flexibility
 Increasing innovation

JIT IS not about automation. JIT eliminates waste by providing the environment to
perfect and simplify the processes. JIT is a collection of techniques used to
improve operations. JIT principles can be applied to all parts of an organization:
order taking, purchasing, operations, distribution, sales, accounting, design, etc.

An example would be a car manufacturer that operates with very low inventory
levels, relying on their supply chain to deliver the parts they need to build cars.
The parts needed to manufacture the car do not arrive before nor after they are
needed, rather they arrive just as they are needed. It reduces the cost of holding
inventory in advance, before the car is manufactured. 


A process is a sequence of interdependent procedures that consume resources to

convert inputs into outputs. Output at one stage can be used as input for the next
stage until the final goal is reached. To graphically or symbolically represent a
process is known as a ’flow chart’. Each step in the process is represented by a
different symbol and contains a short description of the process step. The flow
chart symbols are linked together with arrows showing the process flow direction.
Frank Gilbreth, an American engineer, is widely believed to be the first person to
document a process flow. In 1921, he introduced the concept to the American
Society of Mechanical ‘ Engineers. People working in industrial engineering and
manufacturing quickly adopted the approach, .and now organizations use flow
charts for a wide variety of reasons. Flow charts are easy-to-understand diagrams
that show how the steps 'in a process fit together. Their simplicity makes them
useful tools for communicating how processes work, and for documenting how to
do a particular job. Flowcharts are used to:

 Define and analyse processes

 Communicate steps to other people involved in a process
 Standardize a process
 Improve a process
 Identify bottlenecks, or troubleshoot a problem.
Flowchart symbols :-
Name Symbol Use in flowchart
Oval Denotes the begaining or end a program.

Flow line Demotes the direction of logic flow in


Parallelogram Denotes either an input operation or an

output operation .

Rectangle Denotes a process to be carried out (e.g,

an addition )

Diamond Denotes a decision (or branch ) to be

made.the program should continue along
one of two routs. (Eg.IF/THEN/ELSE