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Blood type
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A blood type (also called a blood group) is a


classification of blood based on the presence or
absence of inherited antigenic substances on the
surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These
antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates,
glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the
blood group system. Some of these antigens are
also present on the surface of other types of
cells of various tissues. Several of these red
blood cell surface antigens that stem from one
allele (or very closely linked genes), collectively
form a blood group system.[1] Blood types are
inherited and represent contributions from both
parents. A total of 30 human blood group
systems are now recognized by the International
Blood type (or blood group) is determined, in part, by the ABO blood
Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).[2]
group antigens present on red blood cells.
Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a
different blood type from their own, and the mother can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal
antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in
turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn, an illness of low fetal blood counts that ranges from mild to severe.[3]

Contents
1 Blood group systems
1.1 ABO blood group system
1.2 Rh blood group system
1.3 ABO and Rh distribution by country
1.4 Other blood group systems
2 Clinical significance
2.1 Blood transfusion
2.2 Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
2.3 Blood products
2.4 Red blood cell compatibility
2.5 Plasma compatibility
2.6 Universal donors and universal recipients
3 Blood group genotyping
4 Conversion
5 History
6 Cultural beliefs and other claims
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links

Blood group systems

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A complete blood type would describe a full set of 30 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual's blood
type is one of the many possible combinations of blood-group antigens.[2] Across the 30 blood groups, over 600
different blood-group antigens have been found,[4] but many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic
groups.

Almost always, an individual has the same blood group for life, but very rarely an individual's blood type changes
through addition or suppression of an antigen in infection, malignancy, or autoimmune disease.[5][6][7][8] An example of
this rare phenomenon is the case of Demi-Lee Brennan, an Australian citizen, whose blood group changed after a liver
transplant.[9][10] Another more common cause in blood-type change is a bone marrow transplant. Bone-marrow
transplants are performed for many leukemias and lymphomas, among other diseases. If a person receives bone marrow
from someone who is a different ABO type (e.g., a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient's blood
type will eventually convert to the donor's type.

Some blood types are associated with inheritance of other diseases; for example, the Kell antigen is sometimes
associated with McLeod syndrome.[11] Certain blood types may affect susceptibility to infections, an example being the
resistance to specific malaria species seen in individuals lacking the Duffy antigen.[12] The Duffy antigen, presumably as a
result of natural selection, is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria.[13]

ABO blood group system

Main article: ABO blood group system

The ABO system is the most important blood-group


system in human-blood transfusion. The associated anti-
A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually
Immunoglobulin M, abbreviated IgM, antibodies. ABO
IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by
sensitization to environmental substances such as food,
bacteria, and viruses. The O in ABO is often called 0
(zero, or null) in other languages.[14]

Phenotype Genotype
A AA or AO
B BB or BO
ABO blood group system: diagram showing the
AB AB carbohydrate chains that determine the ABO blood group
O OO

Rh blood group system

Main article: Rh blood group system

The Rh system is the second most significant blood-group system in human-blood transfusion with currently 50 antigens.
The most significant Rh antigen is the D antigen because it is the most likely to provoke an immune system response of
the five main Rh antigens. It is common for D-negative individuals not to have any anti-D IgG or IgM antibodies,
because anti-D antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances. However, D-
negative individuals can produce IgG anti-D antibodies following a sensitizing event: possibly a fetomaternal transfusion
of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs.[15] Rh disease can
develop in these cases.[16] Rh negative blood types are much less in proportion of Asian populations (0.3%) than they
are in White (15%).[17] In the table below, the presence or absence of the Rh antigens is signified by the + or - sign, so
that for example A- group does not have any of the Rh antigens.

ABO and Rh distribution by country


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ABO and Rh blood type distribution by nation (population averages)
AB+ O-
Country Population[18] O+ A+ B+ A- B- AB-

Australia[19] 21,262,641 40% 31% 8% 2% 9% 7% 2% 1%


Austria[20] 8,210,281 30% 33% 12% 6% 7% 8% 3% 1%
Belgium[21] 10,414,336 38% 34% 8.5% 4.1% 7% 6% 1.5% 0.8%
Brazil[22] 198,739,269 36% 34% 8% 2.5% 9% 8% 2% 0.5%
Canada[23] 33,487,208 39% 36% 7.6% 2.5% 7% 6% 1.4% 0.5%
Denmark[24] 5,500,510 35% 37% 8% 4% 6% 7% 2% 1%
Estonia[25] 1,299,371 30% 31% 20% 6% 4.5% 4.5% 3% 1%
Finland[26] 5,250,275 27% 38% 15% 7% 4% 6% 2% 1%
France [27] 62,150,775 36% 37% 9% 3% 6% 7% 1% 1%
Germany[28] 82,329,758 35% 37% 9% 4% 6% 6% 2% 1%
Hong Kong SAR[29] 7,055,071 40% 26% 27% 7% 0.31% 0.19% 0.14% 0.05%
Iceland[30] 306,694 47.6% 26.4% 9.3% 1.6% 8.4% 4.6% 1.7% 0.4%
India[31] 1,166,079,217 36.5% 22.1% 30.9% 6.4% 2.0% 0.8% 1.1% 0.2%
Ireland[32] 4,203,200 47% 26% 9% 2% 8% 5% 2% 1%
Israel[33] 7,233,701 32% 34% 17% 7% 3% 4% 2% 1%
Netherlands [34] 16,715,999 39.5% 35% 6.7% 2.5% 7.5% 7% 1.3% 0.5%
New Zealand[35] 4,213,418 38% 32% 9% 3% 9% 6% 2% 1%
Norway[36] 4,660,539 34% 42.5% 6.8% 3.4% 6% 7.5% 1.2% 0.6%
Poland[37] 38,482,919 31% 32% 15% 7% 6% 6% 2% 1%
Portugal[38] 10,707,924 36.2% 39.8% 6.6% 2.9% 6.0% 6.6% 1.1% 0.5%
Saudi Arabia[39] 28,686,633 48% 24% 17% 4% 4% 2% 1% 0.23%
South Africa[40] 49,320,000 39% 32% 12% 3% 7% 5% 2% 1%
Spain[41] 40,525,002 36% 34% 8% 2.5% 9% 8% 2% 0.5%
Sweden[42] 9,059,651 32% 37% 10% 5% 6% 7% 2% 1%
Taiwan[43] 24,000,000 43.9% 25.9% 23.9% 6.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.01% 0.02%
Turkey[44] 76,805,524 29.8% 37.8% 14.2% 7.2% 3.9% 4.7% 1.6% 0.8%
United Kingdom[45] 61,113,205 37% 35% 8% 3% 7% 7% 2% 1%
United States [46] 307,212,123 37.4% 35.7% 8.5% 3.4% 6.6% 6.3% 1.5% 0.6%

Population-weighted (total population =


36.44% 28.27% 20.59% 5.06% 4.33% 3.52% 1.39% 0.45%
mean 2,261,025,244)

Racial and ethnic distribution of ABO (without Rh) blood types [47]
(This table has more entries than the table above but does not distinguish between Rh types.)

People group O (%) A (%) B (%) AB (%)

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Aborigines 61 39 0 0
Abyssinians 43 27 25 5
Ainu (Japan) 17 32 32 18
Albanians 38 43 13 6
Grand Andamanese 9 60 23 9
Arabs 34 31 29 6
Armenians 31 50 13 6
Asian (in USA—general) 40 28 27 5
Austrians 36 44 13 6
Bantus 46 30 19 5
Basques 51 44 4 1
Belgians 47 42 8 3
Blackfoot (N. Am. Indian) 17 82 0 1
Bororo (Brazil) 100 0 0 0
Brazilians 47 41 9 3
Bulgarians 32 44 15 8
Burmese 36 24 33 7
Buryats (Siberia) 33 21 38 8
Bushmen 56 34 9 2
Chinese-Canton 46 23 25 6
Chinese-Peking 29 27 32 13
Chuvash 30 29 33 7
Czechs 30 44 18 9
Danes 41 44 11 4
Dutch 45 43 9 3
Egyptians 33 36 24 8
English 47 42 9 3
Eskimos (Alaska) 38 44 13 5
Eskimos (Greenland) 54 36 23 8
Estonians 34 36 23 8
Fijians 44 34 17 6
Finns 34 41 18 7
French 43 47 7 3
Georgians 46 37 12 4
Germans 41 43 11 5
Greeks 40 42 14 5
Gypsies (Hungary) 29 27 35 10
Hawaiians 37 61 2 1
Hindus (Bombay) 32 29 28 11
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Hungarians 36 43 16 5

Icelanders 56 32 10 3
Indians (India—general) 37 22 33 7
Indians (USA—general) 79 16 4 1
Irish 52 35 10 3
Italians (Milan) 46 41 11 3
Japanese 30 38 22 10
Jews (Germany) 42 41 12 5
Jews (Poland) 33 41 18 8
Kalmuks 26 23 41 11
Kikuyu (Kenya) 60 19 20 1
Koreans 28 32 31 10
Lapps 29 63 4 4
Latvians 32 37 24 7
Lithuanians 40 34 20 6
Malaysians 62 18 20 0
Maori 46 54 1 0
Mayas 98 1 1 1
Moros 64 16 20 0
Navajo (N. Am. Indian) 73 27 0 0
Nicobarese (Nicobars) 74 9 15 1
Norwegians 39 50 8 4
Papuas (New Guinea) 41 27 23 9
Persians 38 33 22 7
Peru (Indians) 100 0 0 0
Filipinos 45 22 27 6
Poles 33 39 20 9
Portuguese 35 53 8 4
Romanians 34 41 19 6
Russians 33 36 23 8
Sardinians 50 26 19 5
Scots 51 34 12 3
Serbians 38 42 16 5
Shompen (Nicobars) 100 0 0 0
Slovaks 42 37 16 5
South Africans 45 40 11 4
Spanish 38 47 10 5
Sudanese 62 16 21 0

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Swedes 38 47 10 5
Swiss 40 50 7 3
Tartars 28 30 29 13
Thais 37 22 33 8
Turks 43 34 18 6
Ukrainians 37 40 18 6
USA (US blacks) 49 27 20 4
USA (US whites) 45 40 11 4
Vietnamese 42 22 30 5

Mean 43.91 34.80 16.55 5.14


Standard deviation 16.87 13.80 9.97 3.41

Blood group B has its highest frequency in Northern India and neighboring Central Asia, and its incidence diminishes
both towards the west and the east, falling to single digit percentages in Spain.[48][49] It is believed to have been entirely
absent from Native American and Australian Aboriginal populations prior to the arrival of Europeans in those
areas.[49][50]

Blood group A is associated with high frequencies in Europe, especially in Scandinavia and Central Europe, although its
highest frequencies occur in some Australian Aborigine populations and the Blackfoot Indians of Montana.[51][52]

Other blood group systems

Main article: Human blood group systems

The International Society of Blood Transfusion currently recognizes 30 blood-group systems (including the ABO and
Rh systems).[2] Thus, in addition to the ABO antigens and Rh antigens, many other antigens are expressed on the RBC
surface membrane. For example, an individual can be AB, D positive, and at the same time M and N positive (MNS
system), K positive (Kell system), Lea or Leb negative (Lewis system), and so on, being positive or negative for each
blood group system antigen. Many of the blood group systems were named after the patients in whom the
corresponding antibodies were initially encountered.

Clinical significance
Blood transfusion

Main article: Blood transfusion

Transfusion medicine is a specialized branch of hematology that is concerned with the study of blood groups, along with
the work of a blood bank to provide a transfusion service for blood and other blood products. Across the world, blood
products must be prescribed by a medical doctor (licensed physician or surgeon) in a similar way as medicines.

Much of the routine work of a blood bank involves testing blood from both donors and recipients to ensure that every
individual recipient is given blood that is compatible and is as safe as possible. If a unit of incompatible blood is
transfused between a donor and recipient, a severe acute hemolytic reaction with hemolysis (RBC destruction), renal
failure and shock is likely to occur, and death is a possibility. Antibodies can be highly active and can attack RBCs and
bind components of the complement system to cause massive hemolysis of the transfused blood.

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Patients should ideally receive their own blood or type-specific blood products to minimize the chance of a transfusion
reaction. Risks can be further reduced by cross-matching blood, but this may
be skipped when blood is required for an emergency. Cross-matching
involves mixing a sample of the recipient's serum with a sample of the donor's
red blood cells and checking if the mixture agglutinates, or forms clumps. If
agglutination is not obvious by direct vision, blood bank technicians usually
check for agglutination with a microscope. If agglutination occurs, that
particular donor's blood cannot be transfused to that particular recipient. In a
blood bank it is vital that all blood specimens are correctly identified, so
labeling has been standardized using a barcode system known as ISBT 128.

The blood group may be included on identification tags or on tattoos worn by


military personnel, in case they should need an emergency blood transfusion. Main symptoms of acute hemolytic
Frontline German Waffen-SS had blood group tattoos during World War II. reaction due to blood type
mismatch.[53][54]
Rare blood types can cause supply problems for blood banks and hospitals.
For example Duffy-negative blood occurs much more frequently in people of
African origin,[55] and the rarity of this blood type in the rest of the population can result in a shortage of Duffy-negative
blood for patients of African ethnicity. Similarly for RhD negative people, there is a risk associated with travelling to
parts of the world where supplies of RhD negative blood are rare, particularly East Asia, where blood services may
endeavor to encourage Westerners to donate blood.[56]

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

Main article: Hemolytic disease of the newborn

A pregnant woman can make IgG blood group antibodies if her fetus has a blood group antigen that she does not have.
This can happen if some of the fetus' blood cells pass into the mother's blood circulation (e.g. a small fetomaternal
hemorrhage at the time of childbirth or obstetric intervention), or sometimes after a therapeutic blood transfusion. This
can cause Rh disease or other forms of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the current pregnancy and/or
subsequent pregnancies. If a pregnant woman is known to have anti-D antibodies, the Rh blood type of a fetus can be
tested by analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma to assess the risk to the fetus of Rh disease.[57] One of the major
advances of twentieth century medicine was to prevent this disease by stopping the formation of Anti-D antibodies by D
negative mothers with an injectable medication called Rho(D) immune globulin.[58][59] Antibodies associated with some
blood groups can cause severe HDN, others can only cause mild HDN and others are not known to cause HDN.[3]

Blood products

To provide maximum benefit from each blood donation and to extend shelf-life, blood banks fractionate some whole
blood into several products. The most common of these products are packed RBCs, plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate,
and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). FFP is quick-frozen to retain the labile clotting factors V and VIII, which are usually
administered to patients who have a potentially fatal clotting problem caused by a condition such as advanced liver
disease, overdose of anticoagulant, or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

Units of packed red cells are made by removing as much of the plasma as possible from whole blood units.

Clotting factors synthesized by modern recombinant methods are now in routine clinical use for hemophilia, as the risks
of infection transmission that occur with pooled blood products are avoided.

Red blood cell compatibility

Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, and their blood serum
does not contain any antibodies against either A or B antigen. Therefore, an individual with type AB blood can
receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), but can donate blood only to another type AB
individual.
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Blood group A individuals have the A antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM
antibodies against the B antigen. Therefore, a group A individual can receive blood only from individuals of
groups A or O (with A being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type A or AB.
Blood group B individuals have the B antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM
antibodies against the A antigen. Therefore, a group B individual can receive blood only from individuals of
groups B or O (with B being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type B or AB.
Blood group O (or blood group zero in some countries) individuals do not have either A or B antigens on the
surface of their RBCs, but their blood serum contains IgM anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies against the A
and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group O individual can receive blood only from a group O individual,
but can donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (i.e. A, B, O or AB). If anyone needs a blood
transfusion in an emergency, and if the time taken to process the recipient's blood would cause a detrimental
delay, O Negative blood can be issued.

Red blood cell compatibility table [60][61]


Recipient[1] Donor[1]
O− O+ A− A+ B− B+ AB− AB+
O−
O+
A−
A+
B−
B+ RBC Compatibility chart
In addition to donating to the same
AB− blood group; type O blood donors can
give to A, B and AB; blood donors of
AB+
types A and B can give to AB.

Table note
1. Assumes absence of atypical antibodies that would cause an incompatibility between donor and recipient blood, as is usual for
blood selected by cross matching.

An Rh D-negative patient who does not have any anti-D antibodies (never being previously sensitized to D-positive
RBCs) can receive a transfusion of D-positive blood once, but this would cause sensitization to the D antigen, and a
female patient would become at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn. If a D-negative patient has developed anti-D
antibodies, a subsequent exposure to D-positive blood would lead to a potentially dangerous transfusion reaction. Rh
D-positive blood should never be given to D-negative women of child bearing age or to patients with D antibodies, so
blood banks must conserve Rh-negative blood for these patients. In extreme circumstances, such as for a major bleed
when stocks of D-negative blood units are very low at the blood bank, D-positive blood might be given to D-negative
females above child-bearing age or to Rh-negative males, providing that they did not have anti-D antibodies, to
conserve D-negative blood stock in the blood bank. The converse is not true; Rh D-positive patients do not react to D
negative blood. This same matching is done for other antigens of the Rh system as C, c, E and e and for other blood
group systems with a known risk for immunization such as the Kell system in particular for females of child-bearing age
or patients with known need for many transfusions.

Plasma compatibility

Recipients can receive plasma of the same blood group, but otherwise the donor-recipient compatibility for blood
plasma is the converse of that of RBCs: plasma extracted from type AB blood can be transfused to individuals of any
blood group; individuals of blood group O can receive plasma from any blood group; and type O plasma can be used
only by type O recipients.

Plasma compatibility table [61]


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Plasma compatibility table [61]
Recipient Donor[1]
O A B AB
O
A
B
AB

Table note
1. Assumes absence of strong atypical antibodies in donor plasma

Rh D antibodies are uncommon, so generally neither D negative nor D positive


blood contain anti-D antibodies. If a potential donor is found to have anti-D
antibodies or any strong atypical blood group antibody by antibody screening in
the blood bank, they would not be accepted as a donor (or in some blood banks Plasma compatibility chart
the blood would be drawn but the product would need to be appropriately In addition to donating to the
labeled); therefore, donor blood plasma issued by a blood bank can be selected to same blood group; plasma from
be free of D antibodies and free of other atypical antibodies, and such donor type AB can be given to A, B
plasma issued from a blood bank would be suitable for a recipient who may be D and O; plasma from types A, B
positive or D negative, as long as blood plasma and the recipient are ABO and AB can be given to O.
compatible.[citation needed]

Universal donors and universal recipients

With regard to transfusions of whole blood or packed red blood cells,


individuals with type O Rh D negative blood are often called universal donors,
and those with type AB Rh D positive blood are called universal recipients;
however, these terms are only generally true with respect to possible reactions
of the recipient's anti-A and anti-B antibodies to transfused red blood cells,
and also possible sensitization to Rh D antigens. One exception is individuals
with hh antigen system (also known as the Bombay blood group) who can
only receive blood safely from other hh donors, because they form antibodies
against the H substance.[62][63]
A hospital corpsman with the Blood
Donor Team from Portsmouth Naval
Blood donors with particularly strong anti-A, anti-B or any atypical blood
Hospital takes samples of blood from
group antibody are excluded from blood donation. The possible reactions of
a donor for testing
anti-A and anti-B antibodies present in the transfused blood to the recipients
RBCs need not be considered, because a relatively small volume of plasma
containing antibodies is transfused.

By way of example: considering the transfusion of O Rh D negative blood (universal donor blood) into a recipient of
blood group A Rh D positive, an immune reaction between the recipient's anti-B antibodies and the transfused RBCs is
not anticipated. However, the relatively small amount of plasma in the transfused blood contains anti-A antibodies,
which could react with the A antigens on the surface of the recipients RBCs, but a significant reaction is unlikely because
of the dilution factors. Rh D sensitization is not anticipated.

Additionally, red blood cell surface antigens other than A, B and Rh D, might cause adverse reactions and sensitization,
if they can bind to the corresponding antibodies to generate an immune response. Transfusions are further complicated
because platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) have their own systems of surface antigens, and sensitization to platelet
or WBC antigens can occur as a result of transfusion.

With regard to transfusions of plasma, this situation is reversed. Type O plasma, containing both anti-A and anti-B

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antibodies, can only be given to O recipients. The antibodies will attack the antigens on any other blood type.
Conversely, AB plasma can be given to patients of any ABO blood group due to not containing any anti-A or anti-B
antibodies.

Blood group genotyping


In addition to the current practice of serologic testing of blood types, the progress in molecular diagnostics allows the
increasing use of blood group genotyping. In contrast to serologic tests reporting a direct blood type phenotype,
genotyping allows the prediction of a phenotype based on the knowledge of the molecular basis of the currently known
antigens. This allows a more detailed determination of the blood type and therefore a better match for transfusion, which
can be crucial in particular for patients with needs for many transfusions to prevent allo-immunization.[64][65]

Conversion
In April 2007, a method was discovered to convert blood types A, B, and AB to O, using enzymes. This method is still
experimental and the resulting blood has yet to undergo human trials.[66][67] The method specifically removes or
converts antigens on the red blood cells, so other antigens and antibodies would remain. This does not help plasma
compatibility, but that is a lesser concern since plasma has much more limited clinical utility in transfusion and is much
easier to preserve.

History
The two most significant blood group systems were discovered by Karl Landsteiner during early experiments with blood
transfusion: the ABO group in 1901[68] and in co-operation with Alexander S. Wiener the Rhesus group in 1937.[69]
Development of the Coombs test in 1945,[70] the advent of transfusion medicine, and the understanding of hemolytic
disease of the newborn led to discovery of more blood groups, and now 30 human blood group systems are recognized
by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT),[2] and across the 30 blood groups, over 600 different blood
group antigens have been found,[4] many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic groups. Blood types
have been used in forensic science and were formerly used to demonstrate impossibility of paternity (e.g., a type AB
father cannot be the father of a type O infant), but both of these uses are being replaced by genetic fingerprinting, which
provides greater certainty.[71]

Cultural beliefs and other claims


A popular belief in Japan is that a person's ABO blood type is predictive of their personality, character, and
compatibility with others. This belief is also widespread elsewhere in Asia, notably Taiwan.[72] Deriving from ideas of
historical scientific racism, the theory reached Japan in a 1927 psychologist's report, and the militarist government of the
time commissioned a study aimed at breeding better soldiers.[72] The fad faded in the 1930s due to its unscientific basis.
The theory has long since been rejected by scientists, but it was revived in the 1970s by Masahiko Nomi, a broadcaster
who had no medical background.[72]

References
1. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart,
Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-
981176-1.
2. ^ a b c d "Table of blood group systems"
(http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt%20pages/isbt%20terminology%20pages/table%20of%20blood%20group%20systems.htm)
. International Society of Blood Transfusion. October 2008.
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cells"
5. ^ Dean, Laura. "The ABO blood group" (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?
book=rbcantigen&part=ch05ABO) . Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=rbcantigen&part=ch05ABO. "A number of illnesses may alter a
person's ABO phenotype"
6. ^ Stayboldt C, Rearden A, Lane TA (1987). "B antigen acquired by normal A1 red cells exposed to a patient's serum".
Transfusion 27 (1): 41–4. doi:10.1046/j.1537-2995.1987.27187121471.x (http://dx.doi.org/10.1046%2Fj.1537-
2995.1987.27187121471.x) . PMID 3810822 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3810822) .
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January 25, 2008
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28. ^ Häufigkeit der Blutgruppen

This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.

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literature of blood groups and immunology. 1971 v. 4 (http://books.google.com/?id=ALilcA7Acd0C) . United States
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northern India, in Southern and Central China and in the neighboring Central Asiatic areas, we find the highest known
frequencies of B. If we leave this center, the frequency of the B gene decreases almost everywhere ... "
49. ^ a b Encyclopaedia Britannica (2002). The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (http://books.google.com/?
id=fpdUAAAAMAAJ) . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. ISBN 0852297874. http://books.google.com/?
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book=rbcantigen) . National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States Government. ISBN 1932811052.
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Europe. In countries such as Austria, Denmark, Norway, and Switzerland, about 45-50% of the population have this
blood type, whereas about 40% of Poles and Ukrainians do so. The highest frequencies are found in small, unrelated
populations. For example, about 80% of the Blackfoot Indians of Montana have blood type A ... "
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%20ABO%20system%20and%20subgroups.pdf) . Biotec. March 2005.
http://www.biotec.com/pdf/Technical%20Monograph%20No.%202%20-
%20ABO%20system%20and%20subgroups.pdf. "... The frequency of blood group A is quite high (25-55%) in Europe,
especially in Scandinavia and parts of central Europe. High group A frequency is also found in the Aborigines of South
Australia (up to 45%) and in certain American Indian tribes where the frequency reaches 35% ..."
53. ^ Possible Risks of Blood Product Transfusions
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rare amongst local nationals, this Agreement will be of particular value to Rhesus Negative expatriates and travellers"
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Further reading
Dean, Laura. "Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens, a guide to the differences in our blood types that complicate
blood transfusions and pregnancy." (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=rbcantigen) (HTML,
also PDF, Flash and PRC versions). National Center for Biotechnology Information.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=rbcantigen. Retrieved September 15, 2006.
Mollison PL, Engelfriet CP and Contreras M. Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine. 1997. 10th edition.
Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-86542-881-6.

External links
BGMUT (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gv/mhc/xslcgi.cgi?cmd=bgmut/home) Blood Group Antigen Gene
Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH has details of genes and proteins, and variations thereof, that are responsible
for blood types
Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 110300 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/110300) (ABO)
Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 111680 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/111680) (Rhesus
D)
Farr AD (April 1979). "Blood group serology--the first four decades (1900--1939)"
(http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1082436) . Medical History 23 (2):
215–26. PMID 381816 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/381816) .
"Blood group test, Gentest.ch" (http://www.gentest.ch/index.php?content=bloodtype&langchange=en) (HTML,
JavaScript). Gentest.ch GmbH. http://www.gentest.ch/index.php?content=bloodtype&langchange=en. Retrieved
2006.
"Blood typing systems other than ABO" (http://www.bloodbook.com/type-sys.html) . BloodBook.com. 2005-
09-10. http://www.bloodbook.com/type-sys.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
"Blood Facts - Rare Traits" (http://www.lifeshare.org/facts/raretraits.htm) . LifeShare Blood Centers.
http://www.lifeshare.org/facts/raretraits.htm. Retrieved September 15, 2006.
"Modern Human Variation: Distribution of Blood Types"
(http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://anthro.palomar.edu/vary/vary_3.htmhttp://web.archive.org/web/*/http://anthr
o.palomar.edu/vary/vary_3.htm) . Dr. Dennis O'Neil, Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_type 14/15
09/12/2010 Blood type - Wikipedia, the free encyc…
Marcos, California. 2001-06-06. Archived from the original (http://anthro.palomar.edu/vary/vary_3.htm) on
2006-02-21.
http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://anthro.palomar.edu/vary/vary_3.htmhttp://web.archive.org/web/*/http://anthro
.palomar.edu/vary/vary_3.htm. Retrieved November 23, 2006.
"Racial and Ethnic Distribution of ABO Blood Types - BloodBook.com, Blood Information for Life"
(http://www.bloodbook.com/world-abo.html) . bloodbook.com. http://www.bloodbook.com/world-abo.html.
Retrieved September 15, 2006.
"Molecular Genetic Basis of ABO" (http://abobloodgroup.googlepages.com/home) .
http://abobloodgroup.googlepages.com/home. Retrieved July 31, 2008.
Blood Type Calculator (http://www.etoolsage.com/Calculator/Blood_Type_Calculator.asp) -The calculator is
used to determine the blood type of child when the blood type of parents are known.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_type"
Categories: Blood | Genetics | Hematology | Transfusion medicine

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