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Catholic University of Mozambique

Faculty of Tourism Management and Information Technology


Department of Information Technology

Monograph Guide
2010

Catholic University of Mozambique


Faculty of Tourism Management and Informaation Technology
Pemba, Cabo Delgado
Tel. 00258-27221969
Fax: 00258-27221720
fgti@ucm.ac.mz / vjoao@ucm.ac.mz

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Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION _______________________________________________________ 3
1.1 Objectives of writing a monograph ___________________________________________ 3
1.2 Why this handbook? _______________________________________________________ 4
2 THE ELEMENTS OF YOUR MONOGRAPH ________________________________ 5
2.1 Title page ________________________________________________________________ 5
2.2 Declaration of originality of research _________________________________________ 5
2.3 Table of contents __________________________________________________________ 6
2.4 List of tables _____________________________________________________________ 6
2.5 List of figures_____________________________________________________________ 7
2.6 Acknowledgments _________________________________________________________ 7
2.7 List of abbreviations (glossary) ______________________________________________ 7
2.8 Abstract _________________________________________________________________ 8
2.9 Introductory chapter _____________________________________________________ 10
2.10 Literature review _______________________________________________________ 10
2.11 Research Methodology __________________________________________________ 13
2.12 Data analysis and interpretation __________________________________________ 13
2.13 Conclusions ___________________________________________________________ 14
2.14 Reference list (and information about how to refer in your text) ________________ 14
2.15 Appendices ____________________________________________________________ 16
2. STAGES IN THE MONOGRAPH PROCESS ______________________________ 17
3 MONOGRAPH SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS ___________________________ 20
3.1 Academic writing ________________________________________________________ 20
3.2 Lay-out requirements _____________________________________________________ 20

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1 INTRODUCTION

The monograph marks the culmination of the student’s development in research skills.
Students must devise a research project of their own and conduct the whole process with
professionalism over a sustained period, to produce conclusions of relevance to the
technology industry. This is a major academic challenge but allows students to demonstrate
their capabilities to the fullest.

The Monograph is a testimony of a student’s ability to work independently and professionally,


developing their knowledge and understanding of a chosen aspect of Information
Technologies. It is an opportunity for students to develop specialist knowledge in an area of
IT that reflects their own interests and aspirations.

1.1 Objectives of writing a monograph

The general objective is to develop a student's initiative and ability to work independently on
a project of his or her own choice.

In particular, to develop the student’s abilities to:


• Identify and define a "problem" area and suitable research questions;
• Select and apply an appropriate methodology;
• Collect and evaluate relevant material;
• Present coherent and structured arguments;
• Exercise critical judgment.

Students will also be required to:


• Explain how their own findings relate to, build on, or differs from previous work done in
the field;
• Comment on the practical value of the research and its contribution to knowledge in the
chosen field of study;
• Comment on problems encountered in conducting the research and present a balanced,
objective criticism of how these may affect the findings of their own monograph.

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1.2 Why this handbook?

Your monograph should be presented in a manner which reflects well on the large amount of
work that you have put into conducting your research and writing up your findings.
Your monograph should be word-processed and the final printout should be of high quality.
Handwritten documents are not acceptable.

This handbook will help you write your monograph as it gives clear guidelines on which
elements to include in your monograph.

The general structure of your monograph should be as follow:

- title page
- declaration of originality
- table of contents
- list of tables (if applicable)
- list of figures (if applicable)
- acknowledgements
- glossary / list of abbreviations (if applicable)
- abstract / summary
- introductory chapter
- background (literature review)
- research methodology
- data analysis and interpretation
- conclusions
- reference list
- appendices (if applicable)

In chapter 2 of this handbook, each of the above elements will be described.

Chapter 3 will give you an overview of the contact moments you will have with your
supervisor as well as the process you have to follow when doing the research.

In chapter 4, more information will be given about the lay-out and appearance of your
monograph.

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2 THE ELEMENTS OF YOUR MONOGRAPH

In this chapter, you will find all information regarding the content of your monograph.

2.1 Title page

The title page includes:


- the full title of your monograph;
- your name and previous degrees or qualifications;
- the name of the university and faculty and the degree for which you are
submitting the monograph;
- the month and year of submission.

Example of the title page:

The problem of low computer literacy in underdeveloped courtiers


Esperanca Valerie Mahonie, BA

A Monograph submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Licentiate /


Bachelors* Information Technology at the Faculty of Tourism management and Information
Technology of the Catholic University Mozambique

August 2010
* choose which one is applicable

2.2 Declaration of originality of research

You should include at the front of your monograph that your research is original and has not
previously been submitted for another academic award. A suggested wording is as follows:

I certify that the research described in this monograph has not already been submitted for any other
degree.
I certify to the best of my knowledge that all sources used and any help received in the preparation of
this monograph have been acknowledged.

Signature

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2.3 Table of contents

This should clearly indicate the structure of your monograph.


Make sure the chapters, paragraphs and sub-paragraphs page numbers are correct!!
Use the automatic way of defining and updating your table of contents instead of doing this
manually! Doing it automatically is not only much easier, but will also prevent you from
making mistakes.

The table of contents should show the chapter titles, paragraphs and subparagraphs in the
chapter, their page numbers, appendices and other sections of the document in an organised
and neat way.

DO NOT use MORE THAN 2 numbers for the subparagraphs. Example:

Good example
2.3 Causes of rotten network………………………………………………...15
2.3.1 Viruses ……………………………………………………………………17
2.3.2 Intrusions………………………………………………………………….18
2.3.3 Denial of Services..………………………………………………………18

DO NOT USE more than 2 subparagraphs as this will confuse the reader and put the
page numbers in a neat way!!
Bad example
2.3. Causes of rotten network ……………………………………….15
2.3.1.1 Viruses………………………………………………………………………..17
2.3.1.2 Intrusions…………………………………………………………….18

2.4 List of tables

If you include tables in your monograph, you should summarise all tables used in the “list of
tables” at the beginning of your report. This should list – in order of appearance! – the table’s
number, title and page reference for all tables in your monograph. The numbers and titles of
the tables in the “list of table” should correspond with the number and title of the table in your
report (see example on next page of “List of Tables”)

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Table I Computer growth trends 2004 – 2020………………..………………………...10
Table II Hardware and Software requirements for server computers…..…………….12
Table III Number and names of virus detection in DOC workstations ...…..………….22

2.5 List of figures

This should list in order of appearance the numbers, titles and page references for all
diagrams, figures etc in your monograph. Number them in one continuous sequence (Figure
1, Figure 2, etc) through the whole document and the list should correspond to the numbers
and titles that appear as headings with the figures themselves.

2.6 Acknowledgments

Acknowledge here the participation of all individuals and organisations that have helped you
with your research (for example: the persons who were filling in your questionnaires or the
organisations who were participants in your interviews / observations).

Also indicate the kind of assistance received, for example the supervision of your research,
cooperation with data collection, advice on data analysis or help with editing, translating or
proof-reading your text.

It is usual to acknowledge people by name.

2.7 List of abbreviations (glossary)

In case you use a large number of special terms, abbreviations or acronyms, include them in
a glossary. Your readers may NOT be familiar with the abbreviations you use, so you have to
explain the definition. Place this at the beginning (after table of contents) or end (before
reference list) of your monograph.

Example:
DBMS Database Management System
OS Operating System
IT Information Technology
HCI Human-Computer Interaction

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If you do NOT have many abbreviations for a special list of abbreviation but you use some in
your research, make sure that the FIRST TIME you use the word, you write it out to the
fullest with the abbreviation in blankets. After that, you can use the abbreviation.

Example:

The World of Information Technologies (IT) explains in an article that Relational Database
Management System (RDBMS) can be one of the tools to manage corporate data.

2.8 Abstract

Write this section only when you finished writing your monograph, after you have done
all the work, as this section summarises your research project. It should include :
- brief information about the topic
- objectives
- hypothesis (if applicable)
- methodology and data findings
- conclusions and implications

It should not be longer than one A4 page, preferably in one-and-a-half line spacing!

Basically, if the reader does NOT want to read your report, the abstract should give him or
her adequate information necessary to understand the topic and its results!

Do NOT include irrelevant or too detailed information.

A summary does NOT have a title!

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Example

Abstract

The rapid growth of international tourism does not only result in positive boosts. One of the
negative social-cultural impacts of tourism is sexual exploitation of children. This
phenomenon is a fundamental violation of children’s rights which de-humanizes children and
treats them as commercial objects. For those working in the tourism industry it is important to
develop an understanding of the sexual exploitation of children in tourism and to identify
ways how the industry can take positive actions to end it. As Mozambique is a growing
tourism destination, it is important to look if sexual exploitation of children in tourism is
occurring. Therefore, this research focuses on the phenomenon in Maputo, the capital city of
Mozambique: does it occur and at what scale, who is involved, why does it happen, what are
the consequences and what actions can be taken to stop it. In order to get an insight into the
topic, interviews were made with 20 children, living on the streets of Maputo. Besides that,
actors in the tourism industry were interviewed, among them travel agencies, tour operators
and a numerous of 4- and 5-star hotels in the capital. Surprisingly, there was a different
vision found between the children and the actors in the tourism industry. The actors were
convinced sexual exploitation of children in tourism does not take place. However, 5 children
who were interviewed confirmed they were involved in commercial sexual activities with
foreigners. It can therefore be concluded that the issue of sexual exploitation of children in
tourism is an issue that takes place outside the knowledge of the public. Although the
outcome of this research is that sex-tourism with children in Maputo takes place at a small
scale, cautious should be taken not to underestimate the situation due to the fact that most of
the times it does take place in anonymous situations. The tourism industry in Mozambique
has yet not taken an active approach to avoid sex-tourism. An active attitude is needed from
the actors in the tourism industry in order to increase the knowledge among service providers
as well as to set up educational programmes to make children aware of the dangers.

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2.9 Introductory chapter

In this chapter, background information should be given about:

- the topic / justification of the study


- description of the present situation
- the reasons for choosing the topic
- problem statement
- aims and objectives
- who will benefit and how
- research questions
- hypothesis (if applicable)

The information in the introductory chapter should be much more detailed than the abstract.

2.10 Literature review

In this part, you will look for literature that will help you – as a researcher – to know more
about what is already written about your topic. This is an intensive process which costs a lot
of time as you need to look for different (academic) sources, and after you have found
sources, they may refer you to other sources. So this searching process is extensive and
should not be seen as a simple process.

What is a literature review?

- a critical analysis and discussion of ideas and debates mentioned by other


researchers about the topic (this means the researcher should develop his/her
own opinion about certain theories / models / assumptions made in literature,
using arguments in that literature!);
- a demonstration of what the relevance and significance of the provided
sources is for your own research (in other words: do not just mention the
theories that exists, but explain why the chosen theory or the chose case
study is important for your research);
- helping to place your research in a context by analysing what is already
known about the topic;
- helping to provide a rationale and justification for your study.

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The Do’s and Dont’s of literature review

DO NOT: DO:
COPY AND PASTE EXISTING EXPLAIN EXISTING MATERIAL IN
LITERATURE YOUR OWN WORDS AND USE TOPIC-
RELEVANT EXAMPLES
SIMPLY DESCRIBE WHAT BOOKS AND • DISCUSS AND CRITICALLY
OTHER SOURCES SAY ABOUT YOUR ANALYSE EXISTING THEORIES
TOPIC AND MODELS
• DISCUSS STRENGTHS AND
WEAKNESSES OF EXISTING IDEAS
LIST ALL MATERIAL BEING PUBLISHED EVALUATE EXISTING MATERIAL AND
ONLY SELECT WHAT IS RELEVANT
ACCORDING TO YOUR RESEARCH
QUESTIONS
SUMMARIZE ONE PIECE OF LITERATURE ORGANISE THE LITERATURE REVIEW
AFTER ANOTHER INTO SECTIONS THAT PRESENT
THEMES

Why a literature review?

1) to discover what has been written about a topic already and what are its strengths
and weaknesses of these different ideas
2) to determine what each source contribute to your topic and how
3) to understand the relationship between various sources, identify and (possibly)
resolve contradictions, determine gaps and unanswered questions.

What should you do in order to write a literature review?

1) research : discover by using a wide variety of sources what has been written about
the topic
2) critical appraisal: evaluate the literature, determine the relationship between sources,
conclude what has been done already by others and what research still needs to be
done
3) writing: explain what you have found

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How to write the literature review?

I. Introduction
In the introduction, you give a brief description of the content of the chapter: what information
will be provided in this chapter and what is its relevance and importance towards answering
your problem statement / research questions.

II.Body text
Here, you discuss and analyse existing materials, NOT by addressing each source
separately, BUT by combining different existing sources, according to the theme of the
paragraph. In some cases, it can be helpful to give topic-relevant examples to make the
existing literature more accessible.

III.Conclusion
The conclusion should provide a summary of YOUR findings from the literature review. Once
you have read all existing literature about the topic, then explain what conclusions you can
draw from literature, what it provides and where it is lacking. You can also provide
suggestions for future research or explain how your research will fill the gaps in the existing
materials on your topic.

Other information on literature review


Internet, newspapers and magazines may be used, but the balance between such sources
and academic books and academic research journals must be maintained.

Although it is difficult to say how long the literature review must be because all monographs
are different, as a rough guide it can be said that literature review should be around 3000 –
4000 words, given your monograph is not more than 15,000 words (60-70 pages).

Be strict and punctual in referencing the sources in a correct way to avoid plagiarism.
THE PURPOSE OF LITERATURE REVIEW IS NOT TO SHOW THE READERS HOW
MUCH YOU HAVE READ ABOUT THE TOPIC OR TO DESCRIBE WHAT OTHER
RESEARCHERS HAVE REPORTED IN LITERATURE!

LITERATURE REVIEW IS TO PRESENT YOUR OWN ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE


IN SUCH A WAY THAT IS RELEVANT TO THE INVESTIGATION OF YOUR RESEARCH
QUESTION.

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2.11 Research Methodology

This chapter sets out in detail the methodology adopted for your monograph.
• The chapter will first introduce the problem statement / research focus, and the research
questions that stem from this. It may be necessary to explain the underlying principles
behind the selected questions.
• The chapter will then explain the planning of the primary research process, justifying why
particular methods were used and explaining how they were completed.
• It will then account for the process that actually occurred, admitting mistakes, problems,
obstacles, delays, etc. An objective evaluation of the research process should be
provided indicating where the main deficiencies exist, but also what is strong
• Each element of the research process should be explained in detail, including the
secondary research process. E.g. first the desk research, then the pilot study,
questionnaire survey (explaining the questions, etc) and then the interview survey, etc.
.

2.12 Data analysis and interpretation

 Introduce how many questionnaires or interviews were done, when and who were
questioned. Indicate the respons%. In the case of questionnaires, how many were
distributed, and how many were collected. In case of interviews, where were they
held, with whom, how did you do it?
 In the case of questionnaire, students should defend the size of the sample based on
the size of the population
 General information respondents: if applicable information about gender, age,
nationality, education, marital status etc. Otherwise, give a short background about
why a particular respondent was important for the research
 Each research question is answered in this chapter, using the results of primary
data!!!!
 The results of the different aspects of the research should be presented with some
commentary. Initially, the data should appear in a relatively 'raw' form - showing
cumulative totals and listing responses. Tables can be presented either in the text or
in an appendix. In the preceding sections, these can then be analysed and the results
of this represented, with comparisons being identified and interesting findings being
drawn out.

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In the case of quantitative research, do NOT include all SPSS results of all questions in this
chapter. You can refer the reader to the appendix. Only include the results which are relevant
for answering the research question!! Also, in case of interviews, do NOT simply provide
transcripts of the interview. The outcome of the interviews should be related to the research
question.

2.13 Conclusions

Your monograph should conclude with a chapter which summarises your main findings and
indicates areas for further research which you have identified in the process of your
research. This part should clearly indicate the significance of your findings in the light of the
literature you reviewed in the previous chapter. In other words, make a comparison between
your results and what literature says and see if there are differences or similarities.

State what new information has been found and how this will benefit the readers. Give
recommendations to beneficiaries (if applicable).

Also include the limitations of your research : what went wrong, what should be changed next
time, is the data accurate enough (sample large enough), how valid are your research
results. This part is a critical self-analysis about research limitations.

At last, give suggestions for further research, for example if someone else now is going to
continue the research, what can this person then do? Or what other topics can be
investigated on, all related to the situation of the company/topic being discussed.

2.14 Reference list (and information about how to refer in your text)

List the bibliographic details of all sources which you have quoted in your monograph or have
consulted or been influenced by in the process of doing your research. Put the sources in
alphabetical order, in a consistent way, using the Harvard system.

• When quoting from or paraphrasing sources within your monograph, indicate the source
with the author’s surname and date of publication. Acceptable forms are :

Gordon E. Moore (1965) predicted that the number of transistors that can be
placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit has doubled approximately every
two years.

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Or

The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated


circuit has doubled approximately every two years. (Gordon E. Moore, 1965).

• Publications by 2 authors:
First reference : Jones and Walters (1992) found that…..
Later reference:Jones and Walters (1992) found that…….

• Publications by 3 or more authors:


First reference: Welborne, Terence and Moray (1992) found that…..
Later reference: Welborne et al. (1992) found that…..

• Publications by 4 or more authors it is accepted to use the following style: Welborne et al.
(1992)

• Reference to sources cited in other publications:


If you refer to sources which are cited in publications that you have read, but you yourself did
not ready the original source, make this very clear by using the following style:

Morenbray (1993) (as cited in Brendink & Ruben, 2007), found that …

The first source is the original source that you did not read, the second sources refers to the
book you read and which you are citing in your monograph. This second source will appear
in your reference list.

• The reference list should include: author name, title, year of publication, issue
number and date (for articles in magazines), publishes and place of publication.
• In case of internet source, mention the date when the information was retrieved and from
which web site.

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2.15 Appendices

In the appendix, there is space to include:


- example of your questionnaire or test questions for the interview
- transcripts of interview
- tables and figures of data analysis which are relevant but not required for the
body of your monograph.

Number the appendices and refer in your monograph chapters to the relevant
appendix!!

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2. STAGES IN THE MONOGRAPH PROCESS

Students are expected to follow a 4- or 5-stage supervisory process during the conducting of
the research and completion of their monograph.

Each student will be assigned to a supervisor who preferably has expertise in the topic of
your research. The supervisor can be internal from the faculty or external.

Students staying in Pemba will have face-to-face contact with their supervisor. For students
outside Pemba, it will be possible – although not very advisable - to have contact by email or
phone although in some cases (e.g. problems with language) it may be preferable that the
student will return to Pemba when the supervisor thinks this is better for the student.

PLAN YOUR CONSULTATIONS WITH YOUR SUPERVISOR IN ADVANCE! DO NOT


JUST WALK IN HIS OR HER OFFICE! YOUR SUPERVISOR IS BUSY WITH OTHER
THINGS TOO!

Consultation I – Research proposal

The first step in your research is to develop a research proposal. This should contain your
topic and the specific research questions you want to investigate. In max 5 pages you
present the following:

- This monograph proposal (projecto de pesquisa) should contain the following:

 Introduction
• Description of the present situation
• Justification of the study
• Problem statement
• Aims and objectives of the study
• Research questions
• Hypothesis

 Brief Literature review***


• An overview of the existing theories you want to use for your
research
• An overview of the existing and relevant information (e.g. case
studies) related to the topic of your study and how it can be
used in your research

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• *** Note about literature review: we don’t ask you to present a
whole chapter in this stage, but ONLY present us the literature
which you think can be interesting for your study!!

 Proposed methodology
• Information about the population and the sample relevant in
your study
• Which method will you use to answer the research questions +
justification
• Which techniques will you use to analyse the collected data
• A timeframe/planning

Send a copy to your supervisor BEFORE the first consultation as for the supervisor to
prepare.

VERY IMPORTANT:
- check the list in the library with previous topics of monographs and
monographs to avoid you choose an already existing research topic
- the supervisor has the right to turn down your proposal when (s)he thinks the
topic will not deliver new or undiscovered information
- therefore; do NOT continue with your research UNLESS you get an approval
from your supervisor about the topic

Consultation II – Data collection

In the second consultation, discuss the data you want to collect and the set up of the
research method. Send a copy of the questionnaire or interview questions or topics to your
supervisor BEFORE your meeting, as for the supervisor has the chance to review them
before your consultation.

The main aim of this consultation is to check if your research method is correct and is
covering everything in order to answer your research questions.

IMPORTANT : DO NOT START YOUR PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION UNLESS YOU


HAVE THE APPROVAL FROM YOUR SUPERVISOR ABOUT THE CONTENT OF YOUR
INTERVIEW / QUESTIONNAIRE!!!

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Consultation III – Your data, analysis and interpretation of data

The purpose of this consultation is to discuss:


- the data you collected
- the analysis of your data
- your findings and how will you interpret your findings
- how will you use your finding for your monograph

Before the consultation, send a copy of your analysis to your supervisor.

Consultation IV – Review of first draft

Send your supervisor a copy of the first draft of the whole monograph in advance to give him
or her adequate time to read it before you meet.

The purpose is that you receive comments and suggestions from your supervisor on refining
and finalising your monograph. The feedback should be focused on the content, but also on
matters of style and accuracy.

Consultation V – Optional

If the supervisor suggestions were only minor changes to your draft, you may not need to go
to consultation V and can finalise your monograph ready for submission.

If more substantial changes are required, you may need to submit a revised draft and have a
fifth consultation.

Oral presentation / defending your monograph

Your final step is to defend your monograph for supervisors as well as other students.
Only students whose monograph are marked will be allowed to present their results and
defend their work. Students who fail on the monograph, will not be afforded the opportunity to
go to oral presentation.
Even when your written work has been marked successfully, it is still possible to fail
when the student is not able to defend his/her work in a convincing way during the
oral presentation.

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3 MONOGRAPH SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS

3.1 Academic writing

The language and writing style you use in order to express your monograph is extremely
important. Inaccurate, clumsy or complex English will make it hard for the reader to
understand the content of your monograph. This will obviously affect how your work will
be assessed.

Pay attention to the following areas:

- accurate and consistent spelling


- consistency in headings, paragraphs etc
- avoid long sentences and complicated or technical words
- use footnotes (instead of endnotes at the end of the chapter) sparingly and
only if it is necessary to give additional information

3.2 Lay-out requirements

1. Word Limit
Monograph should have the minimum of 12,000 words. Meaning at least 40 pages excluding
the title page, the declaration, the abstract, the acknowledgements, the contents page, the
list of tables and figures, the reference list and the appendixes.

2. Binding
Once accepted, monograph should be bound in the approved style. The program accepts
soft-cover binding. The cover of the monograph must bear the full title (see title page layout).

3. Presentation
Monograph should be typed on A4 paper, 1.5 spacing, with a left hand margin of 40mm,
25mm at the fore-edge; 25mm at the head of the page; and 25mm at the tail. The text should
appear on the right hand side of the monograph only. It must be typed in Times New Roman
with font size of 12. Preferably print both sides of white A-4 paper!!

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Pages should be clearly numbered using numerals in one continuous sequence running
through all chapters. Title page and table of contents do NOT have a page number.
Preliminary parts (e.g. list of tables, list of figures, acknowledgements etc) can have roman
numerals (I, ii, iii)

If you want to use headers or footers, make sure it is NOT disturbing and the content of the
text is relevant. You can change the content of the header/footer according to the title of the
current chapter!

4. Headings
A systematic mode of headings should be employed in writing monographs, namely:

CHAPTER 1: CHAPTER TITLE (left hand margin, justified, capitals, NOT underlined)

Headings are written without full stops.

Typically, a chapter may include two or three sections, each with several subsections. You
must also start every chapter in a new page.

Every chapter should give a brief overview of information of what the specific chapter will
cover.

5. Referencing
The system used for referencing must be as according to the document you received during
the module Applied Research.

6. Figures and Tables


Figures and Tables should be used in moderation, with large examples on a separate page
(or in the appendices), small examples centred in the text.

7. Structure
All monographs should be organized as follows:

1. Title page (see below)


2. Declaration
3. Abstract (maximum one side A4)
4. Acknowledgements

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5. Contents page
6. List of tables and figures
7. Chapters
8. References / bibliography
9. Appendices

8. Avoid Plagiarism
Plagiarism includes the following practices:

- having someone else writing your monograph


- quoting from other sources without acknowledging that the material is taken
from elsewhere and making clear the author and source
- presenting the ideas of others – even rephrased in your own words! – as if
they were your own.

To avoid plagiarism it is important to provide full details of the source you are using.

9. Number of copies

Two copies of the monograph should be submitted to the Pedagogic Director. One copy will
be made available for future students for reference purposes.

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