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A Seminar Report On



VII SEMESTER B. TECH. (Department of Chemical Engineering)
(Chemical Engineering) L. I. T., Nagpur.




This is to certify that Ms. Pranali K. Narayane has

completed seminar entitled ‘Hydra Cell Pumps ’ under
the supervision of Dr. K.V. Koranne. This work is
submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Chemical
Engineering of Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur
University, Nagpur.


Place: Nagpur (Department of Chemical


I wish to avail this opportunity to express my

gratitude towards my guide DR.K.V. KORANNE for his help
and suggestions, which lead to the improvement of the work
and without whose help this work, would not have been
And last but not the least I am thankful to all other
teachers for their cooperation and concern.

Place: Nagpur.
Date: Pranali Narayane

Sr. No. Topics Page
1. What are pumps 5
2. Classification of pumps 5
3. Hydra cell Pumps 6
4. Hydra-cell features 7
5. Working 7-9
6. Various hydra-cell pumps 10
7. Specification 11-12
8. Design specifications 13-17
9. Key benefits 18-20
10. Case studies 21-22
11. Applications 23
12. Conclusion 24
13. Bibliography 25


What Are Pumps?

A pump is a mechanical device used for

transportation of fluids from one location to another
location. In pumps the mechanical energy is converted
into pressure energy. A wide variety of pumps are used for
transportation of fluids.

Classification of Pumps:-

Hydra Cell Pumps:-

For more than 25 years Wanner Engineering has

been manufacturing a truly unique and one-of-a-kind
industrial pump - The Hydra-Cell.

The Wanner Engineering Hydra-Cell Pump is a

unique, sealless, positive displacement pump for
demanding industrial applications. It was designed, in-
part, as an alternative to pumps that have cups, packing
and mechanical seals - which are the most troublesome
parts of most positive displacement pumps.

Hydra-Cell's are available in both horizontal and

vertical configurations and are used to provide flow rates
from 0.1 to 38 GPM at pressures from 50 to 2500 PSI.

The unique design of the Hydra-Cell Pump is not

dependent on the fluid being pumped for internal

lubrication. In-fact, all the bearings and moving parts are
isolated from the fluid being pumped. This is why we can
reliably pump chemicals, abrasives, slurries, viscous
products, seawater, re-circulated water and many other
fluids, either hot or cold. Pumps are available with both
metallic and non-metallic pump ends and can be direct
driven with electric, pneumatic or hydraulic motors.

Hydra-Cell Features:

1. Flows from 0 - 37 GPM at pressures to 2500 PSI can

be handled.
2. Wide choice of materials for pump heads,
diaphragms and valve assemblies.
3. Short lead times.
4. Robust construction for long life in difficult industrial
5. Runs dry indefinitely.
6. Sealless design provides leak-free operation.
7. Non-pulsing flow eliminates expense of pulsation
dampeners and reduces pipe strain.
8. Accurate, repeatable and linear flow.
9. High volumetric efficiencies.
10. Low power consumption.
11. Minimal maintenance - no cups, packing or seals
12. Hydraulically balanced unstressed diaphragms
13. Low repair costs.

Working :- ( fig.1)
The drive shaft (1) is rigidly supported by (2) a large
tapered roller bearing at the rear of the shaft and a
smaller bearing at the front of the shaft. Sandwiched
between another pair of large bearings is (3) a fixed angle
cam or wobble plate. As the drive shaft turns, the wobble

plate moves, oscillating forward and back (converting
rotary motion into linear motion). This complete pumping
mechanism is submerged in a lubricating oil bath.

The Hydra-Cell pistons (4) are alternately displaced by the

wobble plate. The pistons are filled with oil on their
rearward stroke. A ball check valve in the bottom of the
piston ensures that the Hydra-Cells remain full of oil on
their forward stroke. The oil held in the Hydra-Cell
pressurizes the back side of the diaphragms (5) and
causes them to flex forward and back as the wobble plate
moves, thus providing the pumping action.

To provide long trouble free diaphragm life, the Hydra-Cell

hydraulically balances the diaphragm over the pump's
complete pressure range. The diaphragm actually faces
only a 2 PSI pressure differential no matter at what
pressure the fluid is being delivered.

Each diaphragm has its own pumping chamber which

contains an inlet and outlet self-aligning check valve
assembly (7). As the diaphragms retract, fluid enters the
pump through a common inlet (6) and passes through one
of the inlet check valves. On the forward stroke, the
diaphragm, equally spaced 120° from one another,
operate sequentially to provide a constant, virtually pulse-
free flow of fluid.

Hydra-Cell's are very efficient (typical operation is at or

above 85% efficiency) and can be driven (belt, gear, or
direct) by electric, air, or hydraulic motors. This allows
system designers ultimate flexibility in selecting drives for
their machines. The Hydra-Cell's efficiency offers
substantial energy savings to users when compared to
other types of positive displacements pumps. The pumps
are available in flow rates from 0.5 to 40 GPM (2 to 170
LPM) at discharge pressures from 30 to 2500 PSI (2 to 83



Specification of various Hydra-Cell pumps:-

Pump Maximu Maximu Typical No. ofHorizont
Mode m Flow m Applications diaphrag al /
l Pressur ms vertical
F20 1 GPM 1500 Precise metering1 Horizont
Serie PSI and injection al
D03 3 GPM 1200 Precise metering3 Horizont
Serie PSI and spraying al
D04 3 GPM 2500 Hot water pressure3 Horizont
Serie PSI washing, machine al
s tool coolant
D10 8 GPM 1000 Metering, washing,3 Vertical
Serie PSI transfer, our most
s versatile pump
D12 8 GPM 1000 Machine tool3 Horizont
Serie PSI coolant, the al
s "vertical version of
the D10"
D15/ 13 GPM 2500 Machine tool3 Horizont
17 PSI coolant, inlet al
Serie fogging, hot water
s pressure washing,
H25 20 GPM 1000 Lime slurry, spray3 Horizont
Serie PSI drying, wax and al
s resin pumping,
chemical transfer
D35 35 GPM 1200 Abrasive slurry5 Horizont
Serie PSI pumping, in-plant al
s cleaning systems,
vehicle washing,
paper mill
applications, gas


M03 3 GPM 1200 Precise metering3 Horizont

Serie PSI and spraying al

Design Specifications:-

1.Chemical Compatibility:-
Chemical compatibility of the pump materials of
construction with the pumped fluid is a critical design
consideration. Factors that must be reviewed as part of
chemical compatibility include:
1. Temperature
2. Concentration
3. Presence of other chemicals


Temperature is an involved issue in the selection of a
pump. Factors that must be reviewed as part of this
evalutation include:
1. Stability of fluid
2. Fluid end components
3. Hydraulic end lubricity
4. Vapour pressure

3.Inlet Pressure:-
Inlet pressure to the pump is determined by the design of
the pump system:
1. flooded (gravity fed)
2. suction lift
3. pressure fed.
The preferred design is a gravity fed flooded system.

4.NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head):-

Two NPSH values are involved in pump selection:
1. NPSHr (required head)
2. NPSHa (available head)
NPSHa must be equal to or greater than NPSHr. If not, the
pressure in the pump inlet will be lower than the vapor
pressure of the fluid, and cavitation will occur.

5.Calculating NPSHa:-
Following formula is used to calculate NPSHa:

NPSHa = Pt + Hz - Hf - Ha – Pvp
Pt = Atmospheric pressure
Hz = Vertical distance from the liquid surface to the pump
centreline (if liquid is below pump centreline, Hz is a
negative value)
Hf = Friction losses in suction piping
Ha = Acceleration head at pump suction
Pvp = Absolute vapour pressure of liquid at pumping

Calculating Accleration Head (Ha):-

Use the following formula to calculate Ha losses. Subtract
this figure from the NPSHa, and compare the result to the
NPSHr of the appropriate Hydra-Cell pump

Ha = L x V x N x C
Ha = Accleration head (ft of liquid)
L = Actual length of suction line (ft) – not
equivalent length
V = Velocity of liquid in suction line (ft/sec);
[V = GPM x (0.408 ÷ pipe I.D.2)]
N = RPM of crank shaft
C = Constant determined by type of pump:
(0.066 for the Hydra-Cell pump)
K = Constant of compensate for compressibility of the
fluid – use:
 1.4 for de-aerated or hot water
 1.5 for most liquids
 2.5 for hydrocarbons with high compressibility
G = Gravitational constant (32.2 ft/sec2)

Minimizing Acceleration Head:-
• Keep inlet lines less than 6 ft (1.8 m) long
• Use appropriate size I.D. inlet hose
• Use flexible hose (low pressure hose, non-collapsing) for
inlet lines.
• Minimize fittings (elbows, valves, tees, etc.)
• Use suction stabilizer on the inlet

6.Calculating Horsepower(kW):-

7.Material of construction:-

For F-series pumps :-

• Cast Iron to Polypropylene

For D-03, D-10, D-15, H-25, D-35, D-12;-

• Cast Iron
• Brass
• 316 Stainless Steel
• Hastelloy
• Polypropylene

**rpm equals pump shaft rpm. HP/kW is required

application power. Use caution when sizing motors with
variable speed drives.

Key Benefits:-

1.They are sealless:-

There are no cups, packing or mechanical seals
in Hydra-Cell Pumps. All the sliding and rotating parts are
isolated from the pumped fluid. This enables you to pump

solids laden (dirty) fluids, very hot or cold fluids and also
lets the pump run dry!

Hydra-Cell's have up to 30% fewer parts than
other common industrial pumps. Less parts equates to
less maintenance. If there are mechanical seal problems
or replacing stators and rotors on a regular basis one
ought to really consider switching to Hydra-Cell Pumps.

3.Smooth, Consistent Flow:-

Since Hydra-Cell's are positive displacement
pumps, each rotation displaces a fixed amount of fluid.
These pumps are often used in conjunction with variable
speed motor controls as metering pumps - reliably dosing
or transferring fixed amounts of fluid in a process. Unlike
piston pumps and other reciprocating pumps, Hydra-Cell's
provide a smooth, virtually pulsation-free flow rate. With
the exception of certain membrane and plastic piping
applications, pulsation dampeners are required

4.Multiple diaphragms reduces pulsation:-

Another commonality among most metering
pump designs is the single diaphragm configuration,
responsible for the non-linear flow accepted as a
“necessary evil” of metering systems. Hydra-Cell Metering
Solutions pumps have as many as five diaphragms per
liquid end, each with a corresponding set of valves and
pistons. The virtually “pulse-free” flow characteristics of
these multi-diaphragm pumps reduce acceleration losses
and pipe strain. This can remove the need for dampeners
in the system and expand application opportunities to
those requiring linear flow. To illustrate the effects of
pulsation, Wanner Engineering conducted a test of a
Hydra-Cell Metering Solutions multi-diaphragm pump and
a typical, single hydraulically balanced diaphragm
metering pump. Operating under identical flow and
pressure conditions to record the pressure traces, the

results were dramatic. (Figure 4)

Hydra-Cell pump is capable of producing the same

capacity ratings as large multiplex systems, while still
meeting performance standards for steady-state
accuracy, linearity and repeatability.

5. Life cycle cost:-

Life Cycle Cost is the measure of the true cost of a pump -

from purchase to scrapping. It includes energy
consumption and the costs of repair and routine
maintenance, as well as the original purchase outlay. Life
cycle cost of hydra-cell pumps is low as compared to other
pumps(Figure 1).

Why are Hydra-cell pumps preferred over
other pumps!

Let us consider some case studies wherein the hydra-cell

pumps are compared with various other pumps


1.Hydra-cell Vs Piston Pump:-

A Danish company making extrusion machinery for

production of animal feeds experimented for various
pumps which would effectively handle liquids which are
generally abrasives, some contain solids. Since flowrates
varied widely there was a necessity of a pump capable of
15:1 turndown ratio. None of pumps was satisfactory.
Piston pump was better but there were problems of seal

wear, consequent falling of accuracy and poor
repeatability. So the company was looking for a sealless
pump. Hydra-cell D-10 met the criteria and was fitted on
all extruders(home and export). This model is able to
pump full required range of liquids delivering output from
80-1225 l/hr

2.Hydra-cell Vs High pressure metering pump:-

In a German chemical plant a high pressure metering

pump was used. It was delivering aqueous emulsion with
40% solids to atomising nozzles at temp upto 80deg c but
was costing 10000 euros to maintain and repair. The
Hydra-cell D-25 pump that replaced it, delivered the same
60 bar pressure and flowrate, but with lower pulsation –
resulting in a more homogenous product
Following 3 month trial, it showed no signs of wear and
over next 2 years no repairs were needed.

3.Hydra-cell Vs Gear Pumps:-

A Mumbai manufacturer of heat exchangers used gear

pumps to handle a machine tool coolant in one of its
machining centres.
Though these pumps were of good quality, these high
pressure pumps were subjected to wear and tear caused
by metal particles in the fluid. Replacing gear pumps by
the D35 Hydra-cell pumps allowed no risk of contact
between drive end of pump and pumped fluid. It also
avoided the problems of wear thereby reducing machine
downtime, increasing operational efficiency and
generating cost savings.

4.Hydra-cell Vs Centrifugal pumps:-

German chemical company had been using a magnetic

drive centrifugal pump. This pump needed a 55kW motor
to transfer polystrol into a process line from a remote
storage tank over a distance of 5.8 km. However after a
careful consideration of several units, company replaced
this pump by Hydra-cell D35

This pump needed only a 13.2kW motor. It has a clear
price advantage and its pumping efficiency is double that
of its competitors

 Agriculture
 Chemical and General Industrial Processing
 Cleaning and Washing
 Emissions
 Food Industry AND Food Process/In-Plant Cleaning
 Hot Water
 Lawn Care
 Metering and Dosing
 Oil & Gas Production
 Paper Mill
 Pumping Abrasive Slurries
 Reverse Osmosis
 Salt Water
 Spray Drying Abrasives
 Water & Wastewater


 Sealless pumps enable charged and dirty liquids to be

processed without need for fine filtration
 Need little maintenance and can operate continuously
at high pressure.
 Pulsation is low, so dampeners may not be required
 Hydra-Cell Sealless pumps can handle solids up to
500 microns, or more

 System costs are reduced
 Maintenance is simplified.
 Energy savings-Compact and highly efficient (80-
85%), Hydra-Cell Sealless pumps can be fitted with a
smaller motor than would be required by many bigger
pumps for equivalent flows and pressures.
 The Hydra-Cell Sealless pumps are tolerant of small
solids, resistant to chemical and corrosive attack.


1)Chemical engineering world/June 2008/Pg.No.