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Tableau des distribution ELECTROSTATIQUE

charge force Electrostatique le potentiel électrique Champ électrostatique Energie électriques


𝒒𝒒 ����⃗
𝑭𝑭 𝒒𝒒′
distributions Visualisation Densité 𝑽𝑽 = �⃗ = 𝒆𝒆 =
𝑬𝑬 �⃗
𝒖𝒖 FLUX 𝟏𝟏
𝒏𝒏

𝑸𝑸 = 𝒏𝒏. 𝒆𝒆 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝒓𝒓 𝒒𝒒 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐 𝑬𝑬𝒑𝒑 = . � 𝑸𝑸𝒊𝒊 . 𝑽𝑽𝒊𝒊


𝒆𝒆 𝟐𝟐
𝑬𝑬 �����������⃗𝑽𝑽 = −𝜵𝜵
�⃗ = −𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈 ��⃗. 𝑽𝑽 𝒊𝒊=𝟎𝟎

𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
la charge Q est 𝝀𝝀 = 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒒𝒒 = 𝝀𝝀. 𝑳𝑳 𝑽𝑽 = 𝑲𝑲. 𝝀𝝀. � �⃗ = 𝑲𝑲. 𝝀𝝀. �
𝑬𝑬 �⃗
𝒖𝒖
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝒓𝒓 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐 𝟏𝟏
linéique répartie sur un fil 𝝀𝝀 = Deux charge ����⃗
𝒅𝒅𝚽𝚽 = �𝑬𝑬⃗. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝑬𝑬𝒑𝒑 = . � 𝝀𝝀. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝑽𝑽
de longueur L 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝝀𝝀. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝝀𝝀. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝒆𝒆 𝟐𝟐
𝝀𝝀 ≠ 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒒𝒒 = � 𝝀𝝀. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝑽𝑽 = 𝑲𝑲. � �⃗ = 𝑲𝑲. �
𝑬𝑬 �⃗
𝒖𝒖
𝒓𝒓 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐
𝒒𝒒. 𝒒𝒒′
����⃗𝒆𝒆 =
𝑭𝑭 �⃗
𝒖𝒖 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
la charge Q est 𝝈𝝈 = 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒒𝒒 = 𝝈𝝈. 𝑺𝑺 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐 𝑽𝑽 = 𝑲𝑲. 𝝈𝝈. � �⃗ = 𝑲𝑲. 𝝈𝝈. �
𝑬𝑬 �⃗
𝒖𝒖
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝒓𝒓 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐 Surface 𝟏𝟏
surfacique répartie sur une 𝝈𝝈 = 𝑬𝑬𝒑𝒑 = . � 𝝈𝝈. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝑽𝑽
surface S 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝝈𝝈. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝝈𝝈. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 quelconque 𝒆𝒆 𝟐𝟐
𝝈𝝈 ≠ 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒒𝒒 = � 𝝈𝝈. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝑽𝑽 = 𝑲𝑲. � �𝑬𝑬⃗ = 𝑲𝑲. � �⃗
𝒖𝒖 𝚽𝚽 = � �𝑬𝑬⃗. ����⃗
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
𝒓𝒓 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝑸𝑸
𝝆𝝆 = 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒒𝒒 = 𝝆𝝆. 𝑽𝑽 𝑽𝑽 = 𝑲𝑲. 𝝆𝝆. � �𝑬𝑬⃗ = 𝑲𝑲. 𝝆𝝆. � �⃗
. 𝒖𝒖 𝚽𝚽 =
la charge Q est 𝒓𝒓 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝟏𝟏
volumique répartie dans un 𝝆𝝆 = sphère 𝑬𝑬𝒑𝒑 = . � 𝝆𝝆. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝑽𝑽
volume V 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝝆𝝆. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝝆𝝆. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝒆𝒆 𝟐𝟐
𝝆𝝆 ≠ 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒒𝒒 = � 𝝆𝝆 . 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝑽𝑽 = 𝑲𝑲. � �⃗ = 𝑲𝑲. �
𝑬𝑬 �⃗
. 𝒖𝒖
𝒓𝒓 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐
𝒏𝒏 𝒏𝒏 𝒏𝒏

théorème de superposition ����⃗𝒆𝒆 = 𝒒𝒒 � ���⃗


𝑭𝑭 𝑬𝑬𝒊𝒊 𝑽𝑽 = � 𝑽𝑽𝒊𝒊 �⃗ = � ���⃗
𝑬𝑬 𝑬𝑬𝒊𝒊
𝒊𝒊=𝟏𝟏 𝒊𝒊=𝟏𝟏 𝒊𝒊=𝟏𝟏
Expression des éléments

repaire Longueur : 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅


����⃗ ����⃗
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 dv �����������⃗ 𝑽𝑽
�⃗ = −𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈
𝑬𝑬 Intégrales important Capacité

𝑸𝑸
𝑪𝑪 =
∆𝑽𝑽
�⃗ = −𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈. 𝑽𝑽
𝑬𝑬
𝝈𝝈 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
𝜺𝜺
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 � 𝟎𝟎 � = − � 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 �
𝑬𝑬𝒙𝒙 = − 𝟎𝟎 𝟎𝟎
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐
𝟎𝟎 𝟎𝟎
����⃗ ����⃗
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 Cercle � 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = � 𝑹𝑹. 𝑶𝑶 = 𝑹𝑹. � 𝑶𝑶 plan 𝝈𝝈
rectangulaire ����⃗𝒙𝒙 + 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒆
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒆 ����⃗𝒚𝒚 + 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒆
���⃗𝒛𝒛 ����⃗𝒙𝒙 ∧ 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒆𝒆
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒆𝒆 ����⃗𝒚𝒚 ∧ 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. ���⃗
𝒆𝒆𝒛𝒛 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝑬𝑬𝒚𝒚 = −
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 linéique 𝟎𝟎 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = . 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
cerceau 𝑳𝑳 = 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝝈𝝈 𝑬𝑬
𝑬𝑬𝒛𝒛 = − [𝑽𝑽]𝟏𝟏𝟐𝟐 = . [𝒙𝒙]𝟐𝟐 𝑬𝑬
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 −
𝟐𝟐
𝝈𝝈. 𝑬𝑬
∆𝑽𝑽 = 𝑽𝑽𝟏𝟏 − 𝑽𝑽𝟐𝟐 =
𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎
𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝑺𝑺
𝑪𝑪 =
𝑬𝑬

Théorème de gauss
∑ 𝑸𝑸
�⃗ . ����⃗
� 𝑬𝑬 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 =
𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎

Exemple Un fil charger vers ∞


� 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = � 𝝆𝝆. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
Coordonne cylindrique
𝒗𝒗 Système de coordonnée
𝑹𝑹 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 𝒉𝒉
(𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆
�����⃗ ∙ 𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆
�����⃗ ∙ 𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆
����⃗)
= � 𝝆𝝆. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 . � 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. � 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
Volumique Volume du cylindre ����⃗ =
𝑸𝑸𝑬𝑬
𝟎𝟎
𝑹𝑹
𝟎𝟎 𝟎𝟎 �⃗ . 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
� 𝑬𝑬
𝝆𝝆𝟐𝟐 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎
𝑽𝑽 = � � . [𝝋𝝋]𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 𝒉𝒉
𝟎𝟎 . [𝒁𝒁]𝟎𝟎 𝑸𝑸𝟏𝟏
𝟐𝟐 𝟎𝟎 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 𝒛𝒛 = 𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍 𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊 𝑬𝑬. 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 =
Etude d’invariance 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎
𝟐𝟐
𝑽𝑽 = 𝑹𝑹 . 𝝅𝝅. 𝒉𝒉 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 𝝋𝝋 = 𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍 𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊
𝑸𝑸𝟏𝟏
𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 𝝆𝝆 = 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒗𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂 �⃗ =
𝑬𝑬
�⃗ = 𝑬𝑬(𝝆𝝆). 𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐
Alors : 𝑬𝑬 �����⃗
�����������⃗ 𝑽𝑽
�𝑬𝑬⃗ = −𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈𝒈
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
Surface latérale � 𝑺𝑺𝑳𝑳 = 𝝆𝝆 � 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 . � 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 �⃗ ∈ 𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷𝑷 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔
𝑬𝑬
𝝆𝝆 = 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝑺𝑺𝑳𝑳 = 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 �⃗ ∈ 𝟐𝟐 𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔
𝑸𝑸𝟏𝟏 ⎛ 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 ⎞
𝑬𝑬
𝜺𝜺
� 𝟎𝟎 . 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 � = −⎜ ⎜ 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 ⎟
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 ≡ �𝑬𝑬⃗ 𝒍𝒍′ 𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒕𝒕𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊𝒊 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅~𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑𝒑 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 𝟎𝟎 ⎟
𝑬𝑬𝝆𝝆 = − ⎜𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆⎟
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 � 𝒅𝒅𝒔𝒔𝒃𝒃 = � 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝝆𝝆. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 Etude de symétrie plan 1 : 𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆�����⃗ �����⃗
𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆 𝟎𝟎 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
����⃗ ����⃗𝝆𝝆 ∧ 𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝒆𝒆
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒆 ����⃗ ���⃗𝒛𝒛
𝝋𝝋 ∧ 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒆 𝟏𝟏 𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 plan 1 : �����⃗
𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆 ����⃗
𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆
cylindrique ����⃗ = 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒆
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 ����⃗𝝆𝝆 + 𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝝆𝒆𝒆
����⃗ ���⃗𝒛𝒛
𝝋𝝋 + 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒆 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = 𝝆𝝆. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝑬𝑬𝝋𝝋 = − Surface de la base ⎝ 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 ⎠
𝝆𝝆 𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝑺𝑺𝒃𝒃 = � 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝝆𝝆 . � 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 �⃗ ∈ �(𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆
𝑬𝑬 𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆 ∩ (𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆
�����⃗ �����⃗) �����⃗ ����⃗)�
𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝑸𝑸𝟏𝟏
𝒛𝒛 = 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = −
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 Alors : 𝑬𝑬 �⃗ = 𝑬𝑬(𝝆𝝆). 𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆 �����⃗ 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐. 𝒁𝒁
𝑬𝑬𝒛𝒛 = − 𝑺𝑺𝒃𝒃 = [𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝝆𝝆]𝑹𝑹𝟎𝟎 . [𝝋𝝋]𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐 𝟐𝟐
𝟎𝟎 = 𝑹𝑹 𝝅𝝅
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝑸𝑸𝟏𝟏
𝑽𝑽𝟐𝟐 − 𝑽𝑽𝟏𝟏 = − [𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍]𝟐𝟐𝟏𝟏
𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐. 𝝆𝝆
La surface de gauss vérifie 𝑸𝑸𝟏𝟏 𝝆𝝆𝟐𝟐
Choix de surface de En surface fermer ∆𝑽𝑽 = − . �𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍 �
𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐. 𝒁𝒁 𝝆𝝆𝟏𝟏
surfacique �⃗ ∥ ����⃗
𝑬𝑬 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
gauss 𝝆𝝆𝟐𝟐 = 𝝆𝝆𝟏𝟏 + 𝒆𝒆
�⃗ 𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆 𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄𝒄 𝒔𝒔𝒖𝒖𝒓𝒓 𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕𝒕 𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔
𝑬𝑬 𝝆𝝆𝟐𝟐 𝒆𝒆
= 𝟏𝟏 +
𝝆𝝆𝟏𝟏 𝝆𝝆𝟏𝟏
∑ 𝑸𝑸 𝑸𝑸𝟏𝟏 𝒆𝒆
� �𝑬𝑬⃗ . ����⃗
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = ∆𝑽𝑽 = − . 𝒍𝒍𝒍𝒍 �𝟏𝟏 + �
𝑺𝑺𝑻𝑻 = 𝑺𝑺𝑳𝑳 + 𝟐𝟐. 𝑺𝑺𝒃𝒃 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐. 𝒁𝒁 𝝆𝝆𝟏𝟏
Surface total 𝑺𝑺𝑻𝑻 = 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐. (𝒁𝒁 + 𝑹𝑹) ∑ 𝑸𝑸 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐. 𝒁𝒁. 𝝆𝝆𝟏𝟏 −𝑺𝑺. 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎
𝑬𝑬. 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐. 𝒁𝒁 = 𝑪𝑪 = − =
𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 𝒆𝒆 𝒆𝒆
𝑸𝑸𝑬𝑬 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
�⃗ . ����⃗
� 𝑬𝑬 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 =
𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 𝝀𝝀 =
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
� 𝑸𝑸 = 𝝀𝝀. 𝒁𝒁
𝝀𝝀
�⃗ =
𝑬𝑬 �����⃗
. 𝒆𝒆𝒆𝒆
𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐. 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎
𝑸𝑸𝑬𝑬
����⃗ =
�⃗ . 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
� 𝑬𝑬
𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎
𝑸𝑸
�⃗. 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐 =
𝑬𝑬
𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎
𝑸𝑸
�⃗ =
𝑬𝑬 �⃗
𝒓𝒓
𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
𝑸𝑸 ⎛ 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 ⎞
𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝟐𝟐 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
𝑬𝑬𝒓𝒓 = − 𝑽𝑽𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 = � 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐 . 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 �𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝒓𝒓 � = − ⎜ ⎜ 𝒓𝒓. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 ⎟

𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝟎𝟎 ⎜ ⎟
����⃗ ����⃗𝒓𝒓 ∧ 𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒆
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒆 ����⃗𝒐𝒐 ∧ 𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒆
���⃗𝒛𝒛 𝟏𝟏 𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝑹𝑹 𝝅𝝅 𝟐𝟐𝟐𝟐
𝟎𝟎 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
sphérique ����⃗ ����⃗𝒓𝒓 + 𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒆
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒆 ����⃗𝒐𝒐 + 𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒓𝒊𝒊𝒏𝒏𝒏𝒏𝒏𝒏𝒏𝒏𝒆𝒆
���⃗𝒛𝒛 𝟐𝟐
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = 𝒓𝒓 . 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝑬𝑬𝒐𝒐 = − Volumique 𝑽𝑽𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 = � 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐 . 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅. � 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 . � 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
𝑺𝑺 = 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐 𝒓𝒓 𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝟎𝟎 𝟎𝟎 𝟎𝟎
⎝𝒓𝒓. 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔. 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅⎠
𝟏𝟏 𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝟒𝟒 𝟑𝟑 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝑸𝑸
𝑬𝑬𝝋𝝋 = − 𝑽𝑽𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 = . 𝑹𝑹 𝝅𝝅 =−
𝒓𝒓. 𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔𝒔 𝝏𝝏𝝏𝝏 𝟑𝟑 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐
𝑸𝑸
𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅 = − 𝒅𝒅𝒅𝒅
𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 . 𝒓𝒓𝟐𝟐
𝑸𝑸 𝟏𝟏 𝟏𝟏
∆𝑽𝑽 = − � − �
𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 𝑹𝑹𝟐𝟐 𝑹𝑹𝟏𝟏
𝑸𝑸 𝟏𝟏 𝟏𝟏 𝑸𝑸 𝑹𝑹𝟐𝟐 − 𝑹𝑹𝟏𝟏
∆𝑽𝑽 = � − �= � �
𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 𝑹𝑹𝟏𝟏 𝑹𝑹𝟐𝟐 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎 𝑹𝑹𝟏𝟏 . 𝑹𝑹𝟐𝟐
(𝑹𝑹𝟏𝟏 . 𝑹𝑹𝟐𝟐 ). 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒. 𝜺𝜺𝟎𝟎
𝑪𝑪 =
𝑹𝑹𝟐𝟐 − 𝑹𝑹𝟏𝟏

𝑺𝑺
𝛀𝛀 =
𝑹𝑹𝟐𝟐

1 𝑄𝑄2
W= .
2 𝐶𝐶