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The Roman Empire (6.

2)

I) Republic Collapses

A) What Happened During the Economic Turmoil?


-By 100 B.C one third of the population were slaves
-Many found it difficult to compete with the wealthy land & slave owners.
-Most of the poor sold their land and headed to major cities to find work
-Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius tried to help the poor by proposing limiting
the land the rich own and giving the poor land too. They were violently killed
-A civil war started soon after their deaths

B) What Caused the Military Upheaval?


-Military generals started to seize power of the men they command.
-They also recruited the poor, promising them pay and land
-These generals started fighting to take over.

C) Why Does Julius Caesar Takes Control?


-In 60 B.C Julius, Crauss, a land owner and Pompey, a General join forces.
-For 10 years, these men dominated Rome together
- Caesar appointed himself the governor of Gaul (Current day France)
-Afterwards Pompey questions Caesar’s intentions and forces him to go away
-That night he attacks Pompey, destroying his army. Pompey escapes
-Caesar took over Pompey’s army in Greece, Asia, Spain and Egypt.
-He then returned to Rome with the support of his army and

D) How Does Caesar’s Reformation Effect Rome?


-Caesar rules Rome as a dictator
-He allows many people citizenship and invites his friends to senate
-He made jobs for poor, helped build villages, and increased pay for his soldiers
-Some senators were not happy about his power. They planned to assassinate
him. Led by Marcus Brutus and Cassius they stabbed him to death.

E) How Does the New Empire Begin?


-After Caesar’s death, the government republic was fell.
-Caesar’s grand-nephew and son Octavian joined General John Anthony and
politician Lepidus, and took control of what was left of the Roman Republic.
-Due to jealousy and violence, causing the alliance to break
-Lepidus is forced to retire, and Mark Anthony fell in love with Queen Cleopatra.
-Anthony used to use his and Cleopatra’s forces to destroy Octavian, but failed.
-Anthony and Cleopatra committed suicide due to their loss
-Octavian becomes the new ruler of Rome, gaining the title of Augustus
II) A Vast and Powerful Empire

-Rome’s Peak power was from 27 B.C to A.D 180

A) What Happened to Roma Afterwards?


-Augustus cleansed Rome, strengthening borders and making public buildings.
-He created a great government, surviving for centuries.
-After he died at A.D 14 the government survived till A.D 180

B) What Was the Effect Of Agriculture and Trade?


-90% of the population was engaged in agriculture
-Additional items were gained through trade
-The Romans had a large shipping network and road system

III) The Roman World

A) Describe the Slaves and Captivity?


-The Romans depended greatly on slaves
-The highest amount reached was 1/3rd of the population
-They were considered property of their owner
-Some strong and skilled slaves were made gladiators. They fought
In stadiums for entertainment.

B) How Did the Romans Worship Gods and Goddesses?


-The early Romans worshipped spirits, numina, which were all around them
-The Romans honored their gods to prevent misfortune
-To the Romans the government and religion are linked
-The most important gods were Jupiter, father of Gods and Minerva,
Goddess of wisdom
-Warship of the emperor became an official religion too

C) How Was Rome’s Society and Culture?


-The people got less and less in common, some were rich and some were
Poor
-The government supported the poor by providing rice rations
-They also provided free entertainment including games, gladiator battles
and fights between animals in a Colosseum.
-Soon a new religion started to form, Christianity.