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Test No.

IAS Prelims - 2020 6


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GENERAL STUDIES

GEOGRAPHY - III

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(OCEANOGRAPHY, CLIMATOLOGY, BIO-GEOGRAPHY)

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Answer Key

Q. 1 (c) Q. 21 (c) Q. 41 (d) Q. 61 (c) Q. 81 (b)


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Q. 2 (a) Q. 22 (d) Q. 42 (b) Q. 62 (a) Q. 82 (a)
Q. 3 (b) Q. 23 (c) Q. 43 (c) Q. 63 (d) Q. 83 (d)
Q. 4 (d) Q. 24 (d) Q. 44 (a) Q. 64 (c) Q. 84 (b)
Q. 5 (b) Q. 25 (a) Q. 45 (d) Q. 65 (b) Q. 85 (a)
Q. 6 (c) Q. 26 (d) Q. 46 (c) Q. 66 (d) Q. 86 (d)
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Q. 7 (d) Q. 27 (b) Q. 47 (c) Q. 67 (d) Q. 87 (b)


Q. 8 (a) Q. 28 (c) Q. 48 (d) Q. 68 (c) Q. 88 (c)
Q. 9 (c) Q. 29 (d) Q. 49 (d) Q. 69 (c) Q. 89 (d)
Q. 10 (c) Q. 30 (a) Q. 50 (a) Q. 70 (d) Q. 90 (a)
Q. 11 (b) Q. 31 (c) Q. 51 (a) Q. 71 (b) Q. 91 (a)
Q. 12 (c) Q. 32 (c) Q. 52 (b) Q. 72 (a) Q. 92 (b)
Q. 13 (b) Q. 33 (d) Q. 53 (b) Q. 73 (c) Q. 93 (c)
Q. 14 (a) Q. 34 (c) Q. 54 (b) Q. 74 (d) Q. 94 (c)
Q. 15 (b) Q. 35 (d) Q. 55 (d) Q. 75 (b) Q. 95 (a)
Q. 16 (c) Q. 36 (d) Q. 56 (b) Q. 76 (a) Q. 96 (a)
Q. 17 (b) Q. 37 (b) Q. 57 (b) Q. 77 (b) Q. 97 (b)
Q. 18 (d) Q. 38 (b) Q. 58 (d) Q. 78 (d) Q. 98 (c)
Q. 19 (a) Q. 39 (c) Q. 59 (a) Q. 79 (d) Q. 99 (a)
Q. 20 (a) Q. 40 (c) Q. 60 (c) Q. 80 (a) Q. 100 (d)

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1. Correct Option: (c) 2. Correct Option: (a)
Explanation: Explanation:
 Option (c) is correct:  Option (a) is correct: Temperature in the
List I List II ionosphere layer starts increasing with
height.
A. Subtropical Desert 3. BWh
B. Humid Subtropical 1. Cfa Supplementary notes:
C. Tropical Monsoon 4. Am Ionosphere
D. Highland 2. H  The ionosphere is located between 80 and
Supplementary notes: 400 km above the Mesopause.

Koeppen’s Climatic Classification  It contains electrically charged particles


known as ions, and hence, it is known as
Climatic Groups According to Koeppen
the ionosphere.
Group Characteristics  Radio waves transmitted from the earth are
Average temperature of the reflected back to the earth by this layer.
A. Tropical
coldest month is 18o C or higher

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 The temperature here starts increasing
Potential evaporation exceeds
B. Dry Climates with height.
precipitation
The average temperature of  The uppermost layer of the atmosphere
C. Warm the coldest month of the [Mid- above the ionosphere is known as the
Temperate latitude] climates years is higher Exosphere.
than minus 3o C but below 18o C
D. Cold Snow The average temperature of the All changes in climate and weather take
Forest coldest month is minus 3o C or
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Climates below
E. Cold Average temperature for all
Climates months is below 10o C 3. Correct Option: (b)
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F. High Land Cold due to elevation
Explanation:
 Statement 1 is incorrect: West coasts of
Climatic Types according to Koeppe
the continents in tropical and subtropical
Lett- latitudes (except close to the equator) are
Group Type er Characteristics bordered by cool waters.
code
Tropical wet
No dry season Supplementary notes:
A-Tropical Tropical Af
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Monsoonal, short
Humid monsoon Am Ocean Currents
dry season
Climate Tropical wet Aw
Winter dry season  Ocean currents are like river flow in oceans.
and dry
Subtropical Low-latitude semi- They represent a regular volume of water in
steppe arid or dry a definite path and direction.
Subtropical Bsh Low-latitude arid
B-Dry desert BWh or dry  Effects of Ocean Currents
Climate Mid-latitude BSk Mid-latitude semi-
 Ocean currents have a number of direct
steppe BWk arid and dry
Mid-latitude Mid-latitude arid and indirect influences on human
desert or dry activities.
Humid No dry season, West coasts of the continents in
C-Warm 
subtropical warm summer
Temperate Cfa tropical and subtropical latitudes
Mediterr- Dry hot summer
(Mid- Cs (except close to the equator) are
anean No dry season,
latitude) Cfb
Marine warm and cool bordered by cool waters. Their
Climates
west coast summer average temperatures are relatively
D-Cold No dry season, low with a narrow diurnal and annual
Humid
Snow- Df severe winter
Continental ranges. There is fog, but generally the
Forest Dw Winter dry and
Subarctic areas are arid.
Climates very severe
E- Cold Tundra ET No true summer  West coasts of the continents in the
Climates Polar ice cap EF Perennial ice middle and higher latitudes are bordered
Highland with by warm waters which cause a distinct
H-Highland Highland H
snow cover marine climate. They are characterised
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by cool summers and relatively mild  A distinctive layer arrangement which
winters with a narrow annual range of looks like a canopy as seen from above.
temperatures. Since the trees cut out most of the
sunlight, the undergrowth is not dense.
 Warm currents flow parallel to the east
coasts of the continents in tropical and  Multiple species: Unlike temperate
subtropical latitudes. This results in forests, trees of tropical rain forests are
not found in strands of single species.
warm and rainy climates. These areas lie
This makes commercial extraction of
in the western margins of the subtropical timber unviable.
anti-cyclones.
 Tropical Rain forests are cleared for
 The mixing of warm and cold lumbering or for shifting cultivation. When
currents help to replenish the these clearings are abandoned, less luxuriant
oxygen and favour the growth of secondary forests called belukar in Malaysia
planktons, the primary food for fish spring up. These are characterized by short
population. The best fishing grounds trees and very dense undergrowth.
of the world exist mainly in these
mixing zones. 5. Correct Option: (b)
Explanation:

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4. Correct Option: (d)
 Statement 1 is incorrect: There is a
Explanation: gradual decrease of organic matter with
increasing depth.
 Statement 1 is incorrect: Commercial
extraction of timber is difficult because Supplementary notes:
the trees do not occur in homogenous strands, Soil Profile and Horizon
there are no frozen surfaces to facilitate
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logging and the tropical hardwoods are  A soil profile is a display of vertical section
from the ground surface down to the
sometimes too heavy to float in the rivers.
parent rocks. Thus, a soil profile denotes
Supplementary notes: the vertical distribution of soil components
(e.g: the living organisms-flora and fauna-
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Hot and Wet Equatorial Climate and organic matter, the inorganic minerals,
the soil solution and the attributes of soil
 This type of climate is found between 5° and atmosphere) and various associations of
10° north and south of the equator. the properties of these components. The
 Within the tropics, the equatorial highlands soil profile is characterized by the following
common properties:
have a distinctively cooler climate, modified
by altitude.  On average, there is gradual
decrease of organic matter, number
The temperature remains uniform
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 of living organisms, activity of living


throughout the year with very little organisms, etc. with increasing
variation. Cloudiness and precipitation depth in the soil profile.
moderates the daily temperature. There are
 The level of aeration of the
no winters in this region.
soil decreases from the surface
 There is heavy precipitation which is well downwards in the soil profile.
distributed throughout the year. Hence  There is an increase in the number and
there is an absence of distinct dry season variety of parent minerals from the
like in Savannahs or Tropical Monsoon surface downward in the soil profile up
Climate. to the base of parent rocks.
 There are two periods of maximum rainfall,  There is no definite trend of either
in April and October. The double rainfall increase or decrease in the content of
peaks coinciding with the equinoxes are a soil water with depth because there is a
lot of fluctuation in water content. The
characteristic feature of equatorial climates
content of soil water is determined by:
not found in any other type of climate
 The location of groundwater
 High temperature and abundant rainfall
support a luxuriant type of vegetation  Nature of the movement of
characterized by: groundwater
 Frequency and amount of rainfall
 A great variety like hardwood evergreen
trees, palm trees, epiphytic and parasitic  Absorptive characteristics of different
plants, ferns orchids, etc. horizons of the soil profile.
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6. Correct Option: (c) Supplementary notes:

Explanation: Types of Precipitation

 Both statements are correct  On the basis of origin, rainfall may be


classified into three main types:
Supplementary notes:
Convectional Rainfall
Land and Sea Breezes  This type of rainfall is most common in
 During the day, the land heats up faster regions that are intensely heated, either
and becomes warmer than the sea. during the day, as in the tropics, or in the
summer, as in temperate interiors.
 Therefore, over the land, the air rises giving
 When the earth’s surface is heated by
rise to a low-pressure area, whereas the sea
conduction, the air in contact expands,
is relatively cool and the pressure oversea is
become lighter and rises in a convection
relatively high. current.
 Thus, the pressure gradient from sea to  As the air rises it cools and when the
land is created and the wind blows from the saturation point is reached torrential
sea to the land as the sea breeze. downpours occur, often accompanied by
 In mid-latitudes, the Coriolis deflection thunder and lightning. The summer showers

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in temperate regions are equally heavy with
causes turning of a well-developed
occasional thunderstorms.
onshore sea breeze
 These downpours may not be entirely
 In the night the reversal of condition takes useful for agriculture because the rain is so
place. The land loses heat faster and is intense that it does not sink into the soil but
cooler than the sea. is drained off almost immediately.
 The pressure gradient is from the land to Orographic/Relief Rainfall
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the sea and hence it is known as a land
breeze.  When the saturated air mass comes across
a mountain, it is forced to ascend and as it
rises, it expands; the temperature falls, and
the moisture is condensed.
 Since it is caused by the relief of the land, it
is also known as relief rain.
 The chief characteristic of this sort of rain
is that the windward slopes receive greater
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rainfall. After giving rain on the windward


side, when these winds reach the other
slope, they descend, and their temperature
rises. Then their capacity to take in moisture
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increases and hence, these leeward slopes


remain rainless and dry. The area situated
on the leeward side, which gets less rainfall
is known as the rain-shadow area.
Cyclonic/Frontal Rainfall
 It is purely associated with cyclonic
activity whether in the temperate regions
(depressions) or tropical regions (cyclones).
 In temperate regions, it is due to the
convergence (meeting) of two different air
masses with different temperatures and
7. Correct Option: (d) other physical properties.
 As cold air is denser, it tends to remain close
Explanation:
to the ground. The warm air is lighter and
 Option (d) is correct: tends to rise over the cold air.

List I List II  In ascent, pressure decreases, the air


expands and cools, condensation takes place
A. Convectional 2. Intense rains and light showers called cyclonic or frontal
Rainfall rain to occur.
B. Relief Rainfall 3. Rain-shadow area  The heavier and colder air mass eventually
pushes up the warmer and lighter air and
C. Frontal Rainfall 1. Depressions the sky is clear again.
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8. Correct Option: (a) Supplementary notes:

Explanation: Characteristics of Monsoonal Rainfall


 Option (a) is correct:  Rainfall received from the southwest
monsoons is seasonal in character, which
Rivers Flowing into
occurs between June and September.
A. Lena 2. Arctic Ocean
 Monsoonal rainfall is largely governed
B. Amazon 4. Atlantic Ocean by relief or topography. For instance,
C. Tigris 1. Persian Gulf the windward side of the Western Ghats
register a rainfall of over 250 cm. Again, the
D. Narmada 3. Arabian Sea
heavy rainfall in the north-eastern states
can be attributed to their hill ranges and
9. Correct Option: (c) the Eastern Himalayas.
Explanation:  The monsoon rainfall has a declining
 Both statements are correct trend with increasing distance from
the sea. Kolkata receives 119 cm during
Supplementary notes: the southwest monsoon period, Patna

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Monsoon 105 cm, Allahabad 76 cm, and Delhi 56
cm.
 The basic cause of monsoon climates is the
difference in the rate of heating and cooling
of land and sea. 11. Correct Option: (b)
 In the summer, when the sun is overhead at Explanation:
the Tropic of Cancer, the great landmasses
of the northern hemisphere are heated. Option (b) is correct: Ozone layer acts as
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Central Asia, backed by the lofty Himalayan
ranges, is more than 15°F. hotter than its
normal temperature and a region of intense
low pressure is set up.

a filter and absorbs the ultra-violet rays
radiating from the Sun.

Supplementary notes:
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 The seas, which warm up much slower, Ozone
remain comparatively cool.
 Ozone is an important component of the
 At the same time, the southern hemisphere atmosphere found between 10 and 50 km
experiences winter, and a region of high above the earth’s surface.
pressure is set up in the continental interior
of Australia.  It acts as a filter and absorbs the ultra-
violet rays radiating from the sun and
 Winds blow outwards as the South-East
prevents them from reaching the surface of
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Monsoon, to Java, and after crossing the


equator are drawn towards the continental the earth. It shields life on the earth from
low-pressure area reaching the Indian sub- an intense, harmful form of energy.
continent as the South-West Monsoon.
 The stratosphere contains the Ozone
Indian Ocean Dipole layer.
 The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is defined by Ozone depletion
the difference in sea tempreature between
Western pole in the Arbian sea and Eastern  When Chlorine and Bromine atoms
pole in the Eastern Indian Ocean, South of come into contact with Ozone in
Indonesia. Stratosphere, they destroy Ozone
molecules.
 Positive Indian Ocean diapole is good for
Indian monsoon.
12. Correct Option: (c)
10. Correct Option: (c) Explanation:
Explanation:  Statement 1 is incorrect: In semi-diurnal
 Option (c) is correct: The monsoon rainfall tide, there are two high tides and two low
has a declining trend with increasing tides each day.
distance from the sea. Kolkata receives
119 cm during the southwest monsoon  Statement 2 is incorrect: In Diurnal tide,
period, Patna 105 cm, Allahabad 76 cm, there is only one high tide and one low tide
and Delhi 56 cm. during each day.
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Supplementary notes: no major source regions in the mid-
latitudes as these regions are dominated
Tides by cyclonic and other disturbances.
 The periodical rise and fall of the sea level,
Fronts
once or twice a day, mainly due to the
attraction of the sun and the moon is called  When two different air masses meet,
a tide. the boundary zone between them is
called a front.
Types of Tides
 When the cold air moves towards the warm
 Tides vary in their frequency, direction and
air mass, its contact zone is called the cold
movement from place to place and also from
time to time. Tides may be grouped into front, whereas if the warm air mass moves
various types based on their frequency of towards the cold air mass, the contact zone
occurrence in one day or 24 hours or based is a warm front.
on their height on the basis of frequency  If an air mass is fully lifted above the land
types of tides are: surface, it is called the occluded front.
 Semi-diurnal tide: The most common
tidal pattern, featuring two high
tides and two low tides each day.
14. Correct Option: (a)

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The successive high or low tides are Explanation:
approximate of the same height.
 Option (a) is correct
 Diurnal tide: There is only one high
tide and one low tide during each List I List II
day. The successive high and low tides
are approximately of the same height. A. Isohels 2. Sunshine

 Mixed tide: Tides having variations B. Isonephs 4. Cloud Cover


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in height are known as mixed tides. C. Isohyet 1. Rainfall
These tides generally occur along the
west coast of North America and on D. Isotach 3. Wind Speed
many islands of the Pacific Ocean.
Supplementary notes:
Contour Lines in Geography
13. Correct Option: (b)
 Isohyet: For plotting in rainfall maps, places
Explanation: having the same mean annual rainfall are
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 Statement 1 is incorrect: Major regions joined by a line called an isohyet.


forming air masses are the high latitude
 Isobars: On maps places of equal pressure
polar region and low latitude tropical
reduced to sea level are joined by lines
region. There are no major source
regions in the mid-latitudes as these called isobars.
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regions are dominated by cyclonic and  Isotherm: A line on a map connecting points
other disturbances. having the same temperature at a given
Supplementary notes: time or on average over a given period.

Air Masses  Isohels: On maps, places with equal


sunshine duration are joined by isohels.
 When the air remains over a homogenous
area for a sufficiently long time, it acquires  Isonephs: On maps, places with an equal
the characteristics of the area. degree of cloudiness are joined by lines
known as isonephs
 The homogenous regions can be the vast
ocean surface or vast plains.  Isotach: An isotach is a line joining points
with constant wind speed.
 The air with distinctive characteristics in
terms of temperature and humidity is called  Isogon: It is the line of constant wind
an air mass. direction.
 It is defined as a large body of air having
little horizontal variation in temperature 15. Correct Option: (b)
and moisture.
 The homogenous surfaces, over which air Explanation:
masses form, are called the source regions.  Statement 1 is incorrect: Areas like the
 Major regions forming air masses are the Indian subcontinent, Burma, Thailand,
high latitude polar region and low Laos, Cambodia, parts of Vietnam and
latitude tropical region. There are south China and northern Australia are the
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tropical monsoon lands with on-shore wet  Approximately 70 percent of the annual
monsoons in the summer and off-shore rainfall is concentrated in the four summer
months.
dry monsoons in the winter
 Due to the steady influence of the trades, the
Supplementary notes:
Tropical Marine Climate is more favorable
Tropical Monsoon Climate for habitation, but it is prone to severe
tropical cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons.
 Further away from the equator,
the influence of the on-shore Trade
Winds gives rise to a modified type of 16. Correct Option: (c)
equatorial climate with monsoonal
influences. Explanation:
 Statement 1 is incorrect: Sunspots are
 Areas like the Indian subcontinent,
dark and cooler patches on Sun whose
Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia,
decrease in number leads to warm and
parts of Vietnam and south China and
drier conditions in earth.
northern Australia are the tropical
monsoon lands with on-shore wet  Statement 3 is incorrect: Volcanic
monsoons in the summer and off- eruptions reduce sun’s radiations reaching

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the Earth’s surface thus negating the
shore dry monsoons in the winter.
greenhouse effect.
 The monsoons or seasonal reversal
in wind direction takes place due to Supplementary notes:
intense heating of tropical lands in summer Causes of Climate Change
which creates a zone of low pressure above
the equator. At the same time, Southern  The causes of climate change can be
hemisphere experiences winters and thus a grouped into astronomical, terrestrial and
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zone of high pressure is set up south of the
equator. The conditions reverse in winters.
This results in 4 distinct seasons in these

anthropogenic causes.
Astronomical Causes: The astronomical
causes are the changes in solar output
regions: associated with sunspot activities.
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 Cool, Dry season (October – February)  Sunspots are dark and cooler
with low temperatures and little rainfall patches on the sun which increase and
which are due to western disturbances decrease in a cyclical manner.
over north India.
 When the number of sunspots
 Hot, Dry season (March- mid-June) with increases, cooler and wetter weather
high temperatures and no rain. and greater storminess occur. A
 Rainy Season (June –September) decrease in sunspot numbers is
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represents the burst of South-West associated with warm and drier


Monsoon. conditions.
 Retreating Monsoon (September-  Millankovitch Oscillations: - This theory
November) represents the decreasing infers cycles in the variations in the earth’s
amount and frequency of rains. This is orbital characteristics around the sun, the
due to the reversal in wind direction- wobbling of the earth and the changes in the
the North-East monsoon winds bring earth’s axial tilt. All these alter the amount
rainfall along the coast of Tamil Nadu of insolation received from the sun, which in
and Andhra Pradesh in these months. turn, might have a bearing on the climate.
 The natural vegetation is less luxuriant Terrestrial Causes
than equatorial regions and consists of
 Volcanism is considered as another cause for
deciduous trees which shed their leaves in
climate change. Volcanic eruption throws up
the dry season. With a decrease in rainfall
lots of aerosols into the atmosphere. These
in summer, the forests thin out into thorny
aerosols remain in the atmosphere for
scrubland or savanna with scattered trees
a considerable period of time reducing
and tall grasses.
the sun’s radiation reaching the Earth’s
Tropical Marine Climate surface.
 This type of climate is experienced along the  After the recent Pinatubo and El
eastern coasts of tropical lands, receiving Cion volcanic eruptions, the average
steady rainfall from the Trade Winds all the temperature of the earth fell to some
time. Thus, there is no distinct dry period. extent for some years.
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 Anthropogenic Causes: The most do not mix freely with the ocean water
important anthropogenic effect on the and they are not penetrated by ocean
climate is the increasing trend in the currents. Salinity is high, often over
concentration of greenhouse gases in the 37%.
atmosphere which is likely to cause global
 In areas of inland drainage without links
warming.
with the oceans e.g. the Caspian Sea,
continuous evaporation under an almost
17. Correct Option: (b) cloudless sky causes the accumulation of
salts around the shores.
Explanation:
 In the open oceans where currents freely
 Statement 1 is incorrect: The highest flow, salinity tends to be near the average
salinity is found in the sub-tropical lakes 35% or even a little lower.
and seas like Lake Van, Dead Sea, etc.
 The range of salinity is negligible where
 Statement 3 is incorrect: Salinity of the there is free mixing of water by surface and
Black Sea is lower because many freshwater sub-surface currents. Therefore salinity
rivers like the Danube, Dnieper, etc. drain of Southern hemispherical waters is less
into the Black Sea. It also has relatively than northern hemispherical waters.
mixing of waters with the Mediterranean

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Sea.  Other factors: Presence of warm and cold
currents also affect salinity. Salinity is more
Supplementary notes: where there are warm currents. Similarly,
Factors affecting Ocean’s Salinity cold currents reduce the salinity in their
region. In areas of upwelling, salinity tends
 The rate of evaporation: to be lower.
 The waters fringing the High-Pressure Glacial Lakes in high altitudes are saline
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Belts of the Trade Wind Deserts, between because at higher altitudes, pressure
20° and 30°N. And S., have high salinity decreases which increase the rate of
because of the high rate of evaporation evaporation thereby increasing the salinity.
caused by high temperature and low E.g. Pan gong Lake, Tso Moriri lake, etc.
humidity.
 The temperate oceans have lower salinity
due to the lower temperature and a lower
18. Correct Option: (d)
rate of evaporation. Explanation:
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 The amount of freshwater added by  Statement 1 is incorrect: The albedo of a


precipitation, streams, and icebergs: surface is the proportion of total incoming
 Salinity is lower than the average 35 solar radiation that is reflected back to
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% in equatorial waters because of the space.


heavy daily rainfall and high relative  Statement 2 is incorrect: Accumulation
humidity. of black carbon particles reduces the total
 Oceans into which huge rivers like the surface albedo.
Amazon, Congo, Ganges, Irrawaddy
Supplementary notes:
and Mekong drain, have much of their
saltiness diluted and have a lower Albedo
salinity.
 The reflected amount of radiation is called
 The Baltic, Arctic, and Antarctic the albedo of the earth.
waters have a salinity of less than 32
%o because of the colder climate with  The albedo of a surface is the proportion
little evaporation and because much of total incoming solar radiation that is
freshwater is added from the melting reflected back to space.
of icebergs, as well as by several large  Accumulation of black carbon particles
poleward-bound rivers, e.g. Ob, Lena, reduces the total surface albedo.
Yenisey, and Mackenzie.
 The degree of water mixing by 19. Correct Option: (a)
currents:
 In wholly or partially enclosed seas such
Explanation:
as the Caspian Sea, Mediterranean Sea,  Statement 2 is incorrect: Saline soils
Red Sea, and Persian Gulf, the waters are known as Usara soils.
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Supplementary notes: 21. Correct Option: (c)
Laterite Soil Explanation:
 Laterite has been derived from the Latin  Option (c) is the correct: The correct
word ‘Later’ which means brick. order or increasing distance from the sea
 The laterite soils develop in areas with high shore line is:
temperature and high rainfall.  Continental slope,
 These are the result of intense leaching  deep-oceanic trenches,
due to tropical rains.
 Abyssal plain, and
Saline Soils
 Mid-Oceanic Ridge
 They are also known as Usara soils.
Supplementary notes:
 Saline soils contain a larger proportion of
sodium, potassium, and magnesium, and Relief features of the Ocean floor
thus, they are infertile and do not support  Continental Margin
any vegetative growth.
 It is the intermittent region between
 They have more salts, largely because of the Deep ocean plains and the shoreline.
dry climate and poor drainage

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 Its sub parts are Continental shelf,
Peaty Soils Continental slope, Continental Rise and
deep ocean trenches.
 They are found in the areas of heavy rainfall
and high humidity, where there is a good  Continental Shelf
growth of vegetation.
 It is the sea-ward extension of the
 Thus, a large quantity of dead organic continent from the shoreline to the
matter accumulates in these areas, and this continental edge marked, thus a shallow
gives rich humus and organic content
to the soil.
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platform.
Continental Slope
 At the edge of the continental shelf,
20. Correct Option: (a)
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there is an abrupt change of gradient
Explanation: as compared to the Shelf, forming the
continental slope.
 Statement 2 is incorrect: In January,
the isotherms deviate to the north over  Continental Rise
the ocean and to the south over the  The continental rise is an underwater
continent. feature found between the continental
slope and the abyssal plain.
Supplementary notes:
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 It represents the final stage in the


Isotherms boundary between continents and the
 The isotherms are lines joining places deepest part of the ocean.
having an equal temperature.  Ocean Trenches
 In general, the effect of the latitude on  When oceanic crust is subducted under
temperature is well pronounced on the map, continental crust along the convergent
as the isotherms are generally parallel boundary at the continent margin-
to the latitude. abyssal plain boundary, deep sea
 The deviation from this general trend is trenches are formed.
more pronounced in January than in July, Abyssal Plains
especially in the northern hemisphere.
 Abyssal Plain is an underwater plain on
 In the northern hemisphere, the land the deep ocean floor.
surface area is much larger than in the
southern hemisphere. Hence, the effects of  It lies between the foot of a continental
landmass and the ocean currents are well rise and a mid-ocean ridge.
pronounced.  Abyssal plains cover more than 50% of the
 In January, the isotherms deviate to Earth’s surface and two thirds of the ocean
the north over the ocean and to the floor.
south over the continent. Mid-Oceanic Ridges (MOR)
 In July, the isotherms generally run parallel  This forms an interconnected chain of
to the latitude. mountain system within the ocean.
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 It is the longest mountain-chain on the  He introduced the use of capital and small
surface of the earth though submerged letters to designate climatic groups and
under the oceanic waters. types.
 From here, sea floor spreads on both sides  There are 3 levels to his classification:
of the ridges and thus, abyssal plains starts  Level 1: - Koeppen recognized five
from here. major climatic groups; four of them
are based on temperature and one on
precipitation. The capital letters: A, C, D,
22. Correct Option: (d) and E delineate humid climates and
Explanation: B dry climates. The B- Dry Climates
are subdivided using the capital letters
 All statements are correct S for steppe or semi-arid and ‘W’ for
deserts; ‘h’ for sub-tropical regions
Supplementary notes:
and ‘k’ for temperate regions.
Coriolis force  Level 2: -The climatic groups are
 The rotation of the earth about its axis subdivided into types, designated by
affects the direction of the wind. It deflects small letters, based on seasonality
the wind to the right direction in the of precipitation and temperature
characteristics. The seasons of dryness

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northern hemisphere and to the left in
are indicated by the small letters: f, m,
the southern hemisphere.
w, and s. Here f corresponds to no dry
 The deflection is more when the wind velocity season, m - monsoon climate, w- winter
is high. The Coriolis force is directly dry season and s - summer dry season.
proportional to the angle of latitude. It  Level 3: - The small letters a, b, c,
is maximum at the poles and is absent and d refer to the degree of severity of
at the equator. temperature.
CO
 The Coriolis force acts perpendicular to  In his later modifications, he used the
the pressure gradient force. The pressure letter ‘m’ for monsoon type climate and
gradient force is perpendicular to an isobar. ‘H’ to depict highlands.
The higher the pressure gradient force, the
more is the velocity of the wind and the larger
is the deflection in the direction of wind. 24. Correct Option: (d)
As a result of these two forces operating Explanation:
perpendicular to each other, in the low-
S

pressure areas the wind blows around it. At  All statements are correct
the equator, the Coriolis force is zero Supplementary notes:
and the wind blows perpendicular to
the isobars. The low pressure gets filled Vertical and Horizontal distribution of
GS

instead of getting intensified. That is Pressure


the reason why tropical cyclones are  In the lower atmosphere, the pressure
not formed near the equator. decreases rapidly with height.
 The decrease amounts to about 1 mb for
23. Correct Option: (c) each 10 m increase in elevation. It does not
always decrease at the same rate.
Explanation:
 The vertical pressure gradient force is
 Both statements are correct much larger than that of the horizontal
pressure gradient. But, it is generally
Supplementary notes:
balanced by a nearly equal but opposite
Koeppen’s Climatic Classification gravitational force. Hence, we do not
experience strong upward winds.
 Koeppen’s Classification is the most widely
used classification of climate.  Horizontal distribution of pressure is
studied by drawing isobars at constant
 It is an empirical classification based levels.
on mean annual and means monthly
 Isobars are lines connecting places having
temperature and precipitation data. He
equal pressure.
selected certain values of temperature
and precipitation and related them  In order to eliminate the effect of altitude
to the distribution of vegetation and on pressure, it is measured at any station
used these values for classifying the after being reduced to sea level for purposes
climates. of comparison.
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25. Correct Option: (a) Soil Forming Processes

Explanation:  The events and processes, whether physical,


chemical or biological, which help in the
 Option (a) is correct: formation of soils in a given region are
called pedogenic processes or soil forming
List I List II processes they are classified into four
A. Cayenne Current 2. French Guiana groups. The formation of soil is, in fact, the
result of the proportions of these processes
B. Irminger Current 3. East Greenland over a definite time. The following are the
C. Canary Current 1. Iberian Coast soil forming processes :

Supplementary notes:  Soil enrichment


 Loss of materials from the soils
Types of Ocean Current
 Translocation of materials
 Based on temperature, ocean currents
may be classified as:  Transformation of materials
 Cold currents bring cold water into
warm water areas. These currents 27. Correct Option: (b)
are usually found on the west coast of

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Explanation:
the continents in the low and middle
latitudes (true in both hemispheres) and  Statement 1 is incorrect: The areas
on the east coast in the higher latitudes experiencing British type of climate
in the Northern Hemisphere. comes under the permanent influence of
Westerlies all around the year.
 Warm currents bring warm water
into cold water areas and are usually
O Supplementary notes:
observed on the east coast of continents Cool Temperate Climate
in the low and middle latitudes (true
in both hemispheres). In the northern British Type
hemisphere, they are found on the west  On the western margins in the temperate
coasts of continents in high latitudes. zone, there is a British type of climate.
SC
 Cayenne Current: It is named after  These areas come under the permanent
Cayenne, the capital of French Guiana. influence of Westerlies all around the year.
West flowing equatorial current after  In North America, the high Rockies prevent
bifurcating at Cape Sao Roque flows the on-shore Westerlies from penetrating
westwards as warm Cayenne Current. This far inland and the British type of climate is
along with other derivatives later joins to confined mainly to the coastlands of British
form Gulf Stream. Columbia.
GS

 Canary Current: The Canary Current is  There is so much oceanic influence on both
a wind-driven surface current that is the temperature and the precipitation that
part of the North Atlantic Gyre. This the climate is also referred to as the North-
eastern boundary current branches south West European Maritime Climate.
from the North Atlantic Current and flows  The British type of climate has ade-
southwest along Iberian Coast about as quate rainfall throughout the year with a
far as Senegal where it turns west and later tendency towards a slight winter or autumn
joins the Atlantic North Equatorial Current. maximum from cyclonic sources.
The current is named after the Canary  Since the rain-bearing winds come from the
Islands. west, the western margins have the heaviest
 Irminger Current: The Irminger Current rainfall. The amount decreases eastwards
or East Greenland Current flows between with increasing distance from the sea.
Iceland and Greenland and cools the North Siberian Type
Atlantic Drift at the point of convergence.
 In the continental interiors in the temperate
zone, there exists a Siberian type of
26. Correct Option: (d) climate.

Explanation:  The Cool Temperate Continental


(Siberian) Climate is experienced only
 All statements are correct in the northern hemisphere where
the continents within the high latitudes
Supplementary notes: have a broad east-west spread.
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 The climate of the Siberian type is 29. Correct Option: (d)
characterized by a bitterly cold winter of
long duration, and cool brief summer. Explanation:

 Spring and autumn are merely brief  Option (d) is correct:


transitional periods. Soil Minerals
 The precipitation is not very high due A. Alluvial 3. Rich in potash but
to continentality but is well distributed poor in phosphorus
throughout the year, with a summer
maximum. B. Black 4. Rich in lime and
iron
Laurentian Type C. Laterite 1. Rich in iron oxide
 On the western margins in the temperate but poor in organic
zone, there is a Laurentian type of climate. matter
It is an intermediate type of climate D. Arid 2. Lack moisture and
between the British and the Siberian type
humus
of climate.
 It has features of both the maritime Supplementary notes:
and the continental climates. Soils and their content

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 Laurentian type of climate is found only  Alluvial soil is widespread in the northern
in two regions- One is north-eastern North plains and the river valleys. The alluvial
America, including eastern Canada, north- soil varies in nature from sandy loam to
east U.S.A., (i.e. Maritime Provinces and the clay. They are generally rich in potash
New England states), and Newfoundland but poor in phosphorous.
and the other region is the eastern coastlands
of Asia, including eastern Siberia, North  The Black soils are rich in lime,
China, Manchuria, Korea, and northern iron, magnesia, and alumina. They
CO
Japan. also contain potash. But they lack in
phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter.
 It is characterized by cold, dry winters and
warm, wet summers. Though rain falls The color of the soil ranges from deep black
throughout the year, there is a distinct to grey.
summer maximum from the easterly  Laterite soils are poor in organic
winds from the oceans. matter, nitrogen and phosphate and
calcium, while iron oxide and potash are in
excess.
28. Correct Option: (c)
S

 Arid or desert soil lack moisture and


Explanation: humus. Nitrogen is insufficient and the
 Both statements are correct phosphate content is normal.
GS

Supplementary notes:
30. Correct Option: (a)
Terrestrial Radiation
 The insolation received by the earth is in
Explanation:
short waves form and heats up its surface.  Statement 2 is incorrect: Halocline is
 The earth after being heated itself marked by a sharp increase in salinity.
becomes a radiating body and it radiates Supplementary notes:
energy to the atmosphere in long
wave form. This energy heats up the Vertical Distribution of Salinity
atmosphere from below. This process
 Salinity changes with depth, but the way
is known as terrestrial radiation.
it changes depends upon the location of the
 The long wave radiation is absorbed by the sea.
atmospheric gases particularly by carbon
dioxide and the other greenhouse gases.  Salinity at the surface increases by the loss
Thus, the atmosphere is indirectly heated by of water to ice or evaporation or decreased
the earth’s radiation (Long wave terrestrial by the input of freshwaters, such as from
radiation). the rivers.

 The atmosphere, in turn, radiates and  Salinity at depth is very much fixed because
transmits heat to the space. Finally, the there is no way that water is ‘lost’, or the
amount of heat received from the sun is salt is ‘added.’
returned to space, thereby maintaining  There is a marked difference in the salinity
constant temperature at the earth’s surface between the surface zones and the deep
and in the atmosphere. zones of the oceans.
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 The lower salinity water rests above the  This causes accumulation of air at about 30o
higher salinity dense water. North and South. Part of the accumulated air
sinks to the ground and forms a subtropical
 Salinity, generally, increases with depth and high.
there is a distinct zone called the halocline,
where salinity increases sharply.  Another reason for sinking is the cooling of
air when it reaches 30o N and S latitudes.
 Other factors being constant, increasing Down below near the land surface the air
salinity of seawater causes its density to flows towards the equator as the easterlies.
increase. High salinity seawater, generally,
sinks below the lower salinity water. This  The easterlies from either side of the equator
leads to stratification by salinity. converge in the ITCZ.
 Such circulations from the surface upwards
and vice-versa are called cells.
31. Correct Option: (c)
 Such a cell in the tropics is called the Hadley
Explanation: Cell. In the middle latitudes, the circulation
 Statement 2 is incorrect: Inter-Tropical is that of sinking cold air that comes from
the poles and the rising warm air that blows
Convergence Zone (ITCZ) represents the
from the subtropical high.
convergence of northeast and southeast

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trade winds.  At the surface, these winds are called
westerlies and the cell is known as the
Supplementary notes: Ferrel cell.
Planetary winds  At polar latitudes, the cold dense air
 The pattern of planetary winds largely subsides near the poles and blows towards
middle latitudes as the polar easterlies.
depends on :
This cell is called the polar cell.
Latitudinal variation of atmospheric



heating
The emergence of pressure belts
O  These three cells set the pattern for the
general circulation of the atmosphere. The
transfer of heat energy from lower latitudes
to higher latitudes maintains the general
 The migration of belts following the circulation. Westerlies are the winds of the
SC
apparent path of the sun; mid-latitudes emanating from the poleward
 The distribution of continents and sides of the sub-tropical high-pressure
oceans cell. They are far more variable than the
trades in both direction and intensity, for
 The rotation of the earth. these regions the path of air movement is
 The pattern of the movement of the planetary frequently affected by cells of low and high
winds is called the general circulation of the pressure, which travel generally eastward
within the basic flow.
atmosphere.
GS

 Around the poles, beyond the main westerly


 The general circulation of the atmosphere
belt, there is some evidence of prevailing
also sets in motion the ocean water
easterlies. The winds are variable and
circulation which influences the earth’s
linked with the shallow polar anticyclones.
climate. The large-scale winds of the
atmosphere initiate large and slow-moving  In Northern hemisphere, they are often
currents of the ocean. influenced by the circulation around the
northern edge of cyclones. As a result, they
 Oceans, in turn, provide input of energy and change direction according to the local
water vapour into the air. These interactions weather and topography.
take place rather slowly over a large part of
the ocean.
32. Correct Option: (c)
 The air at the Inter-Tropical
Convergence Zone (ITCZ) rises because Explanation:
of convection caused by high insolation  Both statements are correct
and low pressure is created.
Supplementary notes:
 The winds from the tropics converge at this
low-pressure zone. The converged air rises El Nino and La Nina
along with the convective cell.
 El Nino is a phenomenon in the equatorial
 It reaches the top of the troposphere up to Pacific characterized by appearance of warm
an altitude of 14 km. and moves towards the currents off the coast of Peru in the Eastern
poles. Pacific.

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 The word EI-Nino means ‘Child Christ’  Bay- is body of water which is partially
because this current appears around surrounded by land with a wide mouth
Christmas in December which opens into ocean.
 EI-Nino is merely an extension of the warm  Strait- strait is a naturally formed narrow
equatorial current which increases the passage of water that connects to relatively
temperature of water on the Peruvian coast large water bodies. Typically, seas are
by 10°C resulting into: partially enclosed by land
 The distortion of equatorial atmospheric  Isthmus-A narrow strip of land connecting
circulation. two larger masses of water.
 Irregularities in the evaporation of sea
water.
34. Correct Option: (c)
 It affects the weather conditions of the
entire tropical region Explanation:
 The appearance of warm waters in eastern  Option (c) is correct:
pacific results into reduced amounts of List I List II
planktons which further reduces the number
of fish in sea.
A. Clouds having a 2. Cirrus Cloud

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 During El Nino, the pressure conditions feathery appea
over east and west Pacific reverses i.e. rance, formed at
Low Pressure in East Pacific and High high altitudes
Pressure in west Pacific resulting into
B. Clouds look like 1. Cumulus Cloud
higher rainfalls in Eastern Pacific
cotton wool, formed
and droughts/scanty rainfall in West
Pacific/Asia. at mid altitudes
C. Black or dark gray 3. Nimbus Cloud
El Nino has been negatively correlated
CO

clouds, formed very
to Indian Monsoons as it has been
observed that monsoons are deficient in near to the surface
India during El Nino years. D. Layered clouds 4. Stratus Cloud
covering large
 La Nina is the opposite of El Nino
characterized by occurrence of cooler waters portions of the sky
in East Pacific. Supplementary notes:
 The word La Nina means ‘Little Girl’.
Clouds
S

 Since the waters are colder than normal in


East Pacific, there is no reversal of pressure  Cloud is a mass of minute water droplets
conditions; instead the normal conditions or tiny crystals of ice formed by the
get intensified during La Nina years. condensation of the water vapour in free air
at considerable elevation.
GS

As the clouds are formed at some height


33. Correct Option: (d) 
over the surface of the earth, they take
Explanation: various shapes.
 Option (d) is correct: A large stretch of  According to their shape, density,
land surrounded by water on three sides is opaqueness etc. clouds are of four type viz.
called peninsula. cirrus, cumulus, stratus and nimbus.
Supplementary notes: Cirrus Clouds
Peninsula  These clouds are formed at high altitudes
(8,000 - 12,000m).
 A large stretch of land surrounded by water
on three sides is called peninsula.  They are thin and detached clouds having a
 The Arabian Peninsula is the world’s largest feathery appearance.
peninsula by area. This peninsula is formed Cumulus Clouds
as a result of the rifting of the Red Sea
between 56 and 23 million years ago.  Cumulus clouds look like cotton wool.
 Arabian peninsula is bordered by the Red  They are generally formed at middle height
Sea to the west,’ the Persian Gulf to the of 4,000- 7,000 m.
northeast and the Indian Ocean to the
southeast. Other examples of peninsula are Stratus Clouds
Indian peninsula, Iberian Peninsula, Italian  These clouds are layered clouds
peninsula, Scandinavian peninsula, etc. covering large portions of the sky.
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 These clouds are generally formed either Social Forestry
due to loss of heat or the mixing of air
masses with different temperature.  Social forestry means the management and
protection of forests and afforestation on
Nimbus Clouds barren lands with the purpose of helping
 Nimbus clouds are black or dark gray. in the environmental, social and rural
development.
 They form at middle levels or very near
to the surface of the earth.  The National Commission on Agriculture
(1976) has classified social forestry into
 These are extremely dense and opaque to three categories.
the rays of the sun.
 Urban forestry

35. Correct Option: (d)  Rural forestry


 Farm forestry
Explanation:
 Statement 1 is incorrect: Bhangar is
the older alluvium deposited away from the 37. Correct Option: (b)
flood plains.
Explanation:
 Statement 2 is incorrect: Khadar is

RE
 Statement 1 is incorrect: The
the new alluvium and is deposited by
floods annually, which enriches the soil by temperature-depth profile of oceans over
depositing fine silts. middle and low latitudes can be described
as a three-layer system from surface to the
Supplementary notes: bottom. In Arctic and Antarctic circle
only one layer of cold water exists.
Alluvial Soil
 Alluvial soils are widespread in the northern
O Supplementary notes:
plains and the river valleys. Vertical Distribution of Temperature
 These soils cover about 40 percent of the  The maximum temperature of the oceans is
total area of the country. always maximum at their surfaces because
 They are depositional soils, transported and they directly receive the heat from the sun
SC
deposited by rivers and streams. and the heat is transmitted to the lower
sections of the oceans through the process
 Through a narrow corridor in Rajasthan,
of conduction. It results in a decrease of
they extend into the plains of Gujarat.
temperature with the increasing depth, but
 In the Peninsular region, they are found the rate of decrease is not uniform throughout.
in deltas of the east coast and in the river The temperature falls very rapidly up to the
valleys. depth of 200 m and thereafter, the rate of
 The alluvial soils vary in nature from sandy decrease of temperature is slowed down.The
GS

loam to clay. temperature-depth profile for the ocean


water shows how the temperature
 They are generally rich in potash but decreases with the increasing depth.
poor in phosphorous.
 In the Upper and Middle Ganga plain,
two different types of alluvial soils have
developed, viz. Khadar and Bhangar.
 Khadar is the new alluvium and is
deposited by floods annually, which
enriches the soil by depositing fine silts.
 Bhangar represents a system of older
alluvium, deposited away from the flood
plains.
 Both the Khadar and Bhangar soils
contain calcareous concretions
(Kankars).

36. Correct Option: (d)


Explanation:  The temperature structure of oceans
over middle and low latitudes can be
 All statements are correct described as a three-layer system from
Supplementary notes: the surface to the bottom.
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 The first layer represents the top layer of  These forests are found in the western
warm oceanic water and it is about 500m slope of the Western Ghats, hills of the
thick with temperatures ranging between northeastern region and the Andaman and
20° and 25° C. Nicobar Islands.
 The second layer called the thermocline  They are found in warm and humid
layer lies below the first layer and is areas with annual precipitation of over
characterized by a rapid decrease in 200 cm and mean annual temperature
temperature with increasing depth. above 22 degrees centigrade.
The thermocline is 500 -1,000 m thick.
 Tropical evergreen forests are well
 The third layer is very cold and extends up stratified, with layers closer to the
to the deep ocean floor. ground and are covered with shrubs
 In the Arctic and Antarctic circles, the and creepers, with short structured trees
surface water temperatures are close followed by a tall variety of trees.
to 0° C and so the temperature change  In these forests, trees reach great heights
with the depth is very slight. Here, only up to 60 m or above.
one layer of cold water exists, which
extends from surface to deep ocean  There is no definite time for trees to shed
floor. their leaves, flowering, and fruition.
As such these forests appear green all the

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year-round.
38. Correct Option: (b)
 Species found in these forests include
Explanation: rosewood, mahogany, ebony, etc.
 Statement 1 is incorrect: Local winds
are confined to the lower level of the
Troposphere.
40. Correct Option: (c)
Explanation:
CO
 Statement 2 is incorrect: Foehn is a
strong, dusty, dry and warm local wind  Statement 2 is incorrect: Longitude
which develops on the leeward side of the does not control temperature distribution
Alps. on the Earth.
Supplementary notes: Supplementary notes:
Local Winds Factors Controlling Temperature
 Local winds develop as a result of local Distribution
S

differences in temperature and pressure.  The temperature of the air at any place is
they affect small areas and are restricted to influenced by the following factors:
the lowest levels of the troposphere.
The Latitude:
 Foehn is a hot wind of local importance
GS

in the Alps. it is a strong, gusty, dry  The temperature of a place depends on the
and warm wind which develops on the insolation received. Since the insolation
leeward side of a mountain range. due varies according to the latitude, the
to regional pressure gradient, stable air is temperature also varies accordingly.
forced to cross the barrier. Similar kinds of
winds in USA and Canada move down the The Altitude:
west slopes of the Rockies and are known as  The atmosphere is indirectly heated by
Chinooks. it literally means snow eater. terrestrial radiation from below.
 The mistral flows from the Alps over  Therefore, the places near the sea-level
France towards the Mediterranean record a higher temperature than the places
Sea. It is very cold and dry wind with situated at higher elevations. In other
high velocity and is channeled through words, the temperature generally decreases
the Rhone valley. Even though the skies with increasing height.
are clear, the mistral brings down the
temperature below freezing point. Distance from the Sea:
 Compared to land, the sea gets heated
39. Correct Option: (c) slowly and loses heat slowly. Land heats up
and cools down quickly.
Explanation:
 Therefore, the variation in temperature
 Both statements are correct over the sea is less compared to land. The
places situated near the sea come under the
Supplementary notes: moderating influence of the sea and land
Tropical Evergreen Forests breezes which moderate the temperature.
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Air-Mass and Ocean Currents:  The easterly jet stream steers the tropical
depressions into India. These depressions
 The places, which come under the influence
play a significant role in the distribution
of warm air-masses experience higher
of monsoon rainfall over the Indian
temperature and the places that come under
subcontinent.
the influence of cold air masses experience
low temperature.
 Similarly, the places located on the coast 42. Correct Option: (b)
where the warm ocean currents flow record Explanation:
higher temperature than the places located
on the coast where the cold currents flow.  Statement 2 is incorrect: As per the
modern theory, the tropical easterly
jet stream is responsible for burst of
41. Correct Option: (d) monsoons.
Explanation: Supplementary notes:
 Both statements are correct Theories Explaining Indian Monsoons
Supplementary notes: Classical Theory

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Jet Streams  The basic idea behind Classical theory
 Jet streams are relatively narrow is similar to land and sea breeze
bands of fast moving winds in the formation except that in the case
upper levels of atmosphere. of monsoons the day and night are
replaced by summer and winter.
 Jet streams follow the boundaries between
hot and cold air. Since these boundaries are
O  The South-West Monsoon is explained as:
more pronounced in winters, jet streams
 In summer the sun’s apparent path
are strongest for both the northern and
is vertically over the Tropic of Cancer
southern hemisphere winters.
resulting in high temperature and low
 Jet streams flow as part of upper pressure in Central Asia.
SC
tropospheric circulations which are
 The pressure is sufficiently high over
westerly everywhere i.e. they flow from
Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Hence
west to east.
winds flowed from Oceans flow towards
 The strongest jet streams are the polar landmass in summer.
jets, at 9–12 km above sea level, and
 This air flows from sea to land bring heavy
the higher altitude and somewhat
rainfall to the Indian subcontinent.
weaker subtropical jets at 10–16 km.
The Northern Hemisphere and the Southern The North–East Monsoon is explained as:
GS


Hemisphere each have a polar jet and a
 In winter the sun’s apparent path is
subtropical jet.
vertically over the Tropic of Capricorn.
 Other jet streams also exist. During the
 The north western part of India grows
Northern Hemisphere summer, easterly
jets can form in tropical regions, colder than Arabian Sea and Bay of
typically where dry air encounters Bengal and the flow of the monsoon is
more humid air at high altitudes. reversed.

 The sub-tropical Westerly Jet Stream (flows  This theory fails to explain the intricacies
over Indian sub-continent during winters) of monsoon like its sudden burst, delay in
and Tropical easterly Jet Stream (flows onset, breaks in monsoon etc.
over Indian Peninsula during summers)
Modern Theory/Air Mass Theory
influence the monsoons in India.
 The theory is based on the migration of
 The western cyclonic disturbances which
ITCZ based on seasons and the southwest
enter the Indian subcontinent from the
monsoon may be seen as a continuation
west and the northwest during the winter
of the southeast trades deflected towards
months originate over the Mediterranean
the Indian subcontinent after crossing the
Sea and are brought into India by the
Equator.
westerly jet stream. An increase in the
prevailing night temperature generally  In the summer season, the sun shines
indicates an advance in the arrival of these vertically over the Tropic of Cancer and the
cyclones disturbances. ITCZ shifts northwards.
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 The southeast trade winds of the southern Tropical Cyclones
hemisphere cross the equator and start
 Tropical cyclones originate and intensify
blowing in southwest to northeast direction
over warm tropical oceans.
under the influence of Coriolis force.
 The conditions favorable for the formation
 These displaced trade winds are called
and intensification of tropical storms are:
south-west monsoons when they blow over
the Indian sub-continent.  Large sea surface with a temperature
higher than 27° C
 The front where the south-west monsoons
meet the north-east trade winds is known as  Presence of the Coriolis force
the Monsoon Front (ITCZ). Rainfall occurs  Small variations in the vertical
along this front. wind speed
 In the month of July the ITCZ shifts to 20°-  A pre-existing weak low-pressure area
25° N latitude and is located in the Indo- or low-level-cyclonic circulation Upper
Gangetic Plain and the maritime tropical divergence above the sea level system.
airmass (mT) from the southern hemisphere,
after crossing the equator, rushes to the low
pressure area in the general southwesterly

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direction. The ITCZ in this position is often
called the Monsoon Trough [maximum
rainfall].
 The seasonal shift of the ITCZ has given
the concept of Northern Inter-Tropical
Convergence Zone (NITCZ) in summer (July
– rainy season) and Southern Inter-Tropical
CO
Convergence Zone (SITCZ) in winter (Jan –
dry season).
 There is also an interrelationship between
the northward shift of the equatorial trough
(ITCZ) and the withdrawal of the westerly
jet stream from over the North Indian Plain.
It is generally believed that there is a cause
S

and effect relationship between the two.


The easterly jet stream sets in along 15°N
latitude only after the western jet stream
has withdrawn itself from the region. This
GS

easterly jet stream is held responsible


for the burst of the monsoon in India.

43. Correct Option: (c)


Explanation:
 Statements 1 and 4 are incorrect: Large
sea surface with a temperature higher than
27° C and Presence of the Coriolis force
are favorable condition for the formation of
tropical cyclone.

Supplementary notes:
Extra-Tropical Cyclones
 The systems developing in the mid and high 44. Correct Option: (a)
latitude, beyond the tropics are called the
middle latitude or extratropical cyclones. Explanation:
 The passage of front causes abrupt changes  Statement 2 is incorrect: Time duration
in the weather conditions over the area in determines the thickness of soil profile.
the middle and high latitudes.
Supplementary notes:
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46. Correct Option: (c)
Explanation:
 Both statements are correct
Supplementary notes:
Soil Erosion
 The destruction of the soil cover is described
as soil erosion.
 The soil-forming processes and the erosional
processes of running water and wind go
45. Correct Option: (d) on simultaneously. It is usually expressed
in unit of mass or volume per unit time
Explanation: per unit area. Soil erosion is initiated
by detachment of soil particles due to
 All statements are correct action of rain. The detached particles are
Supplementary notes: transported by erosion agents from one
place to another and finally get settled at
Redistribution of water some place leading to soil erosion process.

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 Water, essential for the life on the Earth, is  But generally, there is a balance between
present in all of its forms viz. Solid, liquid these two processes.
and gas.  The rate of removal of fine particles from the
surface is the same as the rate of addition of
 It is redistributed by various processes particles to the soil layer.
such as evaporation, precipitation,
transpiration, condensation, Earth’s
47. Correct Option: (c)

Evaporation
O
rotation, volcanic eruption etc. and by
various agents including wind. Explanation:
 Both statements are correct
It is the process by which water is Supplementary notes:
SC

vaporized that occurs on the surface of
Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
a liquid as it changes into the gas phase.
Heat is the main cause for this process.  ITCZ is a low pressure zone located at the
equator where trade winds converge, and
Transpiration so, it is a zone where air tends to ascend.
 It is essentially an evaporation of water  It is characterized by convective
from plant leaves surface. activity which generates often vigorous
GS

thunderstorms over large areas. It is


Condensation most active over continental land masses
by day and relatively less active over the
 It is the process by which water vapour oceans.
transforms into liquid form.
 It was known by sailors as
 The cloud making is a kind of the doldrums or the calms because of
condensation. its monotonous, windless weather.
Volcanic Eruption  In July, the ITCZ is located around 20°N-
25°N latitudes (over the Gangetic plain),
 It is a process by which the magma along sometimes called the monsoon trough.
with various gases including water vapour This monsoon trough encourages the
from asthenosphere comes out on the development of thermal low over north and
Earth’s surface. northwest India.
 North –South shifting of ITCZ during
Wind
summers and winters lead to reversal in
 It is the horizontal movement of air along wind direction.
the decreasing Pressure Gradient Force
(PGF). 48. Correct Option: (d)
 Wind facilitates the movement of water Explanation:
vapour.
 Statement 1 is incorrect: Tides on Earth
 Wind plays an important role in the flow of occur mainly due to the gravitational
ocean currents. pull of the moon.
PTS2020/PPP-6/092019/26
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 Statement 2 is incorrect: Tidal bulges Supplementary notes:
over wide continental shelves have a
greater height. Afforestation
 Afforestation is establishment of trees
Supplementary notes:
in an area where no previous tree cover
Tides exists.

 The periodical rise and fall of the sea level,  In India, the CAF (Compensatory
once or twice a day, mainly due to the Afforestation) Act was passed by the centre
attraction of the sun and the moon, is called in 2016 and the related rules were notified
a tide. in 2018.

 Tides are different from surges (movement  Compensatory afforestation means that
of water caused by meteorological effects like every time forest land is diverted for non-
winds and atmospheric pressure changes) forest purposes such as mining or industry,
in the sense they are more regular. the user agency pays for planting forests
over an equal area of non-forest land, or
 The moon’s gravitational pull to a when such land is not available, twice the
great extent and to a lesser extent the area of degraded forest land.
sun’s gravitational pull, are the major
The CAF Act was enacted to manage

RE
causes for the occurrence of tides. 
Another factor is the centrifugal force, the funds collected for compensatory
which is the force that acts to counter afforestation which till then was managed
the balance the gravity. by ad hoc Compensatory Afforestation
Fund Management and Planning Authority
 On the side of the earth facing the moon, (CAMPA).
a tidal bulge occurs while on the opposite
 As per the rules, 90% of the CAF money is
side through the gravitational attraction of
CO
to be given to the states while 10% is to be
the moon is less as it is farther away, the
retained by the Centre.
centrifugal force causes tidal bulge on the
other side.  The funds can be used for treatment
of catchment areas, assisted natural
 The tidal bulges on wide continental
generation, forest management, wildlife
shelves have greater height.
protection and management, relocation of
 When tidal bulges hit the mid-oceanic villages from protected areas, managing
islands they become low. human-wildlife conflicts, training and
S

awareness generation, supply of wood


 The shape of bays and estuaries along a
saving devices and allied activities.
coastline can also magnify the intensity of
tides. Funnel-shaped bays greatly change
tidal magnitudes. 50. Correct Option: (a)
GS

 When the tide is channeled between Explanation:


islands or into bays and estuaries they
are called tidal currents.  Option (a) is correct: The red colour of
the rising and the setting sun is due to the
 The time between the high tide and low tide, phenomenon of Scattering of light.
when the water level is falling, is called the
ebb. The time between the low tide and high Supplementary notes:
tide, when the tide is rising, is called the The Passage of Solar Radiation through
flow or flood. the Atmosphere
 The atmosphere is largely transparent to
49. Correct Option: (d) short wave solar radiation. The incoming
solar radiation passes through the
Explanation:
atmosphere before striking the earth’s
 Statement 1 is incorrect: Afforestation is surface.
establishment of trees in an area where no
 Within the troposphere, water vapour,
previous tree cover exists.
ozone and other gases absorb much of the
 Statement 2 is incorrect: The CAMPA near infrared radiation.
funds can be used for treatment of catchment
 Very small-suspended particles in the
areas, assisted natural generation, forest troposphere scatter visible spectrum both
management, wildlife protection and to the space and towards the earth surface.
management etc. This process adds colour to the sky.
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 The red colour of the rising and the setting  The depth of the water should not exceed
sun and the blue colour of the sky are the 30 fathoms or 180 feet:
result of scattering of light within the
 Beyond this depth sunlight is too faint
atmosphere.
for photosynthesis to take place. This
is essential for the survival of the
51. Correct Option: (a) microscopic algae, on which the coral
polyps depend. Shallow water of less
Explanation: than 100 feet is ideal. But there should
always be plenty of water as polyps
 Statement 1 is incorrect: As a rule, corals
cannot survive for too long out of water.
thrive well only in the warmer tropical seas.
But there are deep water corals also  The water should be salty and free from
that are found in deeper and darker sediment:
parts of the ocean where temperatures  Corals therefore survive best in the
may be as cold as 4o Celsius. moving ocean water well away from
Supplementary notes: the silty coasts or muddy mouths of
streams.
Coral Reefs
 The corals are best developed on
 In tropical seas, many kinds of coral animals the seaward side of the reef, where

RE
and marine organisms such as coral polyps, constantly moving waves, tides and
calcareous algae, shell-forming creatures currents maintain an abundant supply
and lime-secreting plants live in large of clear, oxygenated water. They also
colonies. bring an adequate supply of food in the
form of microscopic organisms
 Though they are very tiny creatures, their
ability to secrete calcium carbonate within
their tiny cells has given rise to a peculiar
O 52. Correct Option: (b)
type of marine landform. Each polyp resides
in a tiny cup of coral and helps to form coral Explanation:
reefs.  Option (b) is correct:
 When they die, their limy skeletons are List I List II
SC
cemented into coralline limestone.
A. Barogram 3. Pressure
Conditions for reef formation
B. Wind Vane 4. Direction of Wind
 The reef-building corals survive best under
C. Hygrometer 2. Relative
the following conditions:
Humidity
 The water temperature must not fall
D. Anemometer 1. Speed of Wind
below 68°F (20°C):
Supplementary notes:
GS

 This virtually limits the areal dis-


tribution of corals to the tropical and Elements of Weather and Climate
sub-tropical zones.
 The main elements of the atmosphere which
 Again they will not flourish where are subject to change and which influence
there are cold currents because of the human life on earth are temperature,
upwelling of the cold water from the pressure, winds, humidity, clouds, and
depths that cools the warm surface rainfall.
water. This explains why coral reefs
 Rainfall: Rainfall including other forms
are generally absent on the western
of precipitation (snow, sleet, and hail) is
coasts of continents.
always measured by a metal instrument
 On the other hand, the warming effect called a rain gauge.
of the warm currents, e.g. the Gulf  Pressure: Since the air is made of a number
Stream, means that corals are found of gases and has weight, it exerts pressure
far to the north of the West Indies in on the Earth’s surface. This pressure can
the Atlantic Ocean. The Pacific and be measured using an instrument called
the Indian Oceans, however, have barometer. The pressure is measured in
the most numerous coral reefs. millibars (mb).
 There are also non-reef- building species  Temperature: Temperature is a very
of corals such as the ‘precious corals’ of important element of climate and weather.
the Pacific Ocean and the ‘red coral’ of The instrument for measuring temperature
the Mediterranean which may survive in is the thermometer which is a narrow glass
the colder and even the deeper waters. tube filled with mercury or alcohol.
PTS2020/PPP-6/092019/26
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 Humidity: Humidity is a measure of the Supplementary notes:
dampness of the atmosphere which varies
greatly from place to place at different times Pressure and Wind
of the day. The actual amount of water vapor  The wind circulation around a low
present in the air, which is expressed in pressure centre is called cyclonic
grams per cubic meter, is called the absolute circulation. Around a high pressure
humidity. But in atmospheric studies, centre it is called anti cyclonic
relative humidity is of importance which
circulation. The direction of winds around
is the ratio between the actual amount of
such systems changes according to their
water vapor and the total amount the air can
location in different hemispheres.
hold at a given temperature, expressed as a
percentage. The instrument for measuring Pressure Pressure Pattern of Wind Direction
System Condition Northern Southern
relative humidity is the hygrometer. at the Hemisphere Hemisphere
Centre
 Wind: Wind is air in motion and has both
Cyclone Low Anticlockwise Clockwise
direction and speed. The wind vane is used
Anticyclone High Clockwise Anticlockwise
to measure the direction of wind while
the speed of the wind is measured by an
anemometer.
55. Correct Option: (d)

RE
 Clouds: When air rises, it is cooled by expan-
sion. After the dew-point has been reached, Explanation:
cooling leads to condensation of water vapor  All statements are correct
in the atmosphere. Tiny droplets of water
vapors which are too small to fall as rain or Supplementary notes:
snow will be suspended in the air and float
along with the cloud. Earth’s Climatic History
CO
 World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
53. Correct Option: (b) defines climate change as all forms of
climatic variability on time scales longer
Explanation: than 10 years, regardless of the cause.
 Statement 1 is incorrect: Reforestation  The planet earth has witnessed many
is the natural or intentional restocking of variations in climate since the beginning
existing forests that have been previously indicating that climate change is a natural
depleted or degraded. and continuous phenomenon.
S

Supplementary notes:  Various evidences can be used to trace


Reforestation climate changes throughout Earth’s
geological history. These are:
Reforestation is the natural or
GS


intentional restocking of existing  Alteration of glacial and inter-glacial
forests that have been previously periods
depleted or degraded.  Geomorphological features,
 Reforestation can be used to rebuild especially in high altitudes and
natural habitats and ecosystems, high latitudes exhibit traces of
mitigate global warming since advances and retreats of glaciers.
forests facilitate bio-sequestration of
 The sediment deposits in glacial
atmospheric carbon dioxide etc.
lakes also reveal the occurrence of warm
 Reforestation need not be only used for and cold periods.
recovery of accidentally destroyed forests. It
is also done intentionally. For e.g. in many  The rings in the trees provide clues
counties where pulp and paper industry is about wet and dry periods. This is called
dominant, trees are planted to replace those Dendrochronology.
that have been cut down.
56. Correct Option: (b)
54. Correct Option: (b)
Explanation:
Explanation:  Statement 1 is incorrect: The highest
 Option (b) is correct: The direction of temperature is not recorded at the
wind around low pressure in the northern equator but slightly towards the north
hemisphere is anticlockwise. of it.
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Supplementary notes: Sahara Desert, the Great Australian
Desert, the Arabian Desert, Iranian Desert,
Horizontal Distribution of Temperature Thar Desert, Kalahari, and Namib Deserts,
 The average temperature of surface water Atacama or Peruvian Desert, Mojave
of the oceans is about 27°C and it gradually Desert in North America, Negev desert
decreases from the equator towards the in Israel, etc.
poles.  The Temperate deserts/Mid-Latitude
 The rate of decrease of temperature with Deserts are rainless because of their
increasing latitude is generally 0.5°C per interior location in the temperate latitudes,
well away from the rain-bearing winds.
latitude.
 Amongst the mid-latitude deserts, many
 The average temperature is around 22°C at
are found on the plateau and are at
20° latitudes, 14° C at 40° latitudes and 0°
a considerable distance from the sea.
C near poles.
Examples: Gobi, Turkestan and Patagonian
 The oceans in the northern hemisphere Deserts.
record relatively higher temperature than  The Patagonian Desert is more due
in the southern hemisphere. to its rain-shadow position on the
 The highest temperature is not leeward side of the lofty Andes than to
continentality.

RE
recorded at the equator but slightly
towards the north of it. This is because  The Atacama Desert is the driest desert
of heavy daily rainfall in the equatorial in the world because of the combined
regions. effect of off-shore trade winds and the
 The average annual temperatures for the desiccating effect of cold Peruvian
northern and southern hemisphere are Current.
around 19° C and 16° C respectively. This
O
variation is due to the unequal distribution 58. Correct Option: (d)
of land and water in the northern and
southern hemispheres. Explanation:
 The enclosed seas in the low latitudes record  Statement 1 is incorrect: Normal lapse
relatively higher temperature than the open rate is a phenomenon in which temperature
SC
seas; whereas the enclosed seas in the high decreases with increase in altitude.
latitudes have a lower temperature than the  Statement 2 is incorrect: Inversion of
open seas. For e.g. Red sea records higher temperature is a phenomenon in which
surface temperature than Arabian Sea temperature increases with increase in
because of its enclosed nature. altitude.
 Similarly, the Baltic Sea is much colder Supplementary notes:
than the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.
Inversion of Temperature
GS

Ideally, with an increase in height,


57. Correct Option: (b) 
temperature decreases. Under normal
Explanation: situations, in the troposphere, the
temperature of the atmosphere decreases
 Statement 2 is incorrect: The with an increase in the altitude at the rate
Patagonian Desert is formed more of 1 degree for every 165 meters which are
due to its rain-shadow position on called normal lapse rate.
the leeward side of the lofty Andes than to
 However, there are certain conditions when
continentality.
the temperature increases with height
 Statement 3 is incorrect: The Mojave instead of decreasing which is contrary
Desert is in North America. to the ideal situation. This contradictory
phenomenon is called temperature
Supplementary notes: inversion.
Tropical and Temperate Deserts  Inversion is usually of short duration
but quite common nonetheless. A long
 The aridity of the Tropical deserts is
winter night with clear skies and still
mainly due to the effects of off-shore Trade
air is ideal situation for inversion. The
Winds; hence they are also called Trade
heat of the day radiated off during the night,
Wind Deserts.
and by early morning hours, the earth is
 The hot wind deserts are located on the cooler than the air above. Over polar areas,
western coast of continents between temperature inversion is normal throughout
15° and 30° North and South e.g. the the year.
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 Surface inversion promotes stability in the winds. There are many local names for
lower layers of the atmosphere. Smoke and the Sirocco, including chom, arifi, Simoom,
dust particles get collected beneath the Ghibli, Chili, Khamsin, Solano, Leveche,
inversion layer and spread horizontally Marin and Jugo.
to fill the lower strata of the atmosphere.
 Mistral: Cold Northerly wind from Central
Dense fogs in mornings are common
occurrences especially during winter season. France and the Alps to Mediterranean.
This inversion commonly lasts for few hours
until the sun comes up and beings to warm 60. Correct Option: (c)
the earth.
Explanation:
 The inversion takes place in hills and
mountains due to air drainage. Cold air  Option (c) is correct: The process of
at the hills and mountains, produced vertical heating of the atmosphere is called
during night, flows under the influence of Convection.
gravity. Being heavy and dense, the cold
air acts almost like water and moves down Supplementary notes:
the slope to pile up deeply in pockets and Convection
valley bottoms with warm air above. This
is called air drainage. It protects plants  The air in contact with the earth rises

RE
from frost damages. vertically on heating in the form of currents
and further transmits the heat of the
atmosphere.
59. Correct Option: (a)
 This process of vertical heating of the
Explanation: atmosphere is known as convection.
 Option (a) is correct:  The convective transfer of energy is confined
only to the troposphere.
CO
Local Winds Areas of Prevalence
A. Chinook 2. Rockies Mountain in
USA 61. Correct Option: (c)
B. Foehn 3. Northern slopes of Alps Explanation:
C. Sirocco 1. North African Desert  Both statements are correct
D. Mistral 4. Southern slopes of Alps Supplementary notes:
S

Supplementary notes: Ocean Bottom Relief


Local Winds  The ocean floors can be divided into four
 Chinook wind: A warm, westerly wind major divisions:
found in western North America – Canada
GS

Continental Shelf:
and the USA, when air from the Pacific
blows over the Rocky Mountains and other  The continental shelf is the extended
upland areas. margin of each continent occupied by
relatively shallow seas and gulfs.
 The Foehn is a warm, dry, gusty wind
which occurs over the lower slopes on the lee  It is the shallowest part of the ocean
side (the side which is not directly exposed showing an average gradient of 1° or
to wind and weather) of a mountain barrier. even less.
It is a result of forcing stable air over a  The shelf typically ends at a very steep
mountain barrier. The onset of a Foehn is slope, called the shelf break.
generally sudden. Foehn winds occur quite
often in the Alps (where the name föhn  The width of the continental shelves
originated) and in the Rockies (where the varies from one ocean to another.
name chinook is used).
 The continental shelves are covered
 The Sirocco: A hot, dry wind southerly with variable thicknesses of sediments
wind which blows from the Sahara brought down by rivers, glaciers, wind,
in northern Africa into the southern from the land and distributed by waves
Mediterranean. It picks up moisture as it and currents.
crosses the Mediterranean and can reach
Continental Slope:
Spain, France, Italy and Greece bringing
Saharan dust and hot, windy, damp  The continental slope connects the
weather, often with fog or low stratus cloud. continental shelf and the ocean
In spring, the Sirocco can bring gale force basins.
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 It begins where the bottom of the of formation, chemical compositions and
continental shelf sharply drops off into magnetic properties. Rocks closer to the
a steep slope. mid-oceanic ridges are normal polarity
and are the youngest. The age of the
 The gradient of the slope region varies
between 2-5°. rocks increases as one move away from
the crest.
 The depth of the slope region varies
between 200 and 3,000 m.  These facts and a detailed analysis of
magnetic properties of the rocks on
 The slope boundary indicates the end of either sides of the mid-oceanic ridge led
the continents.
Hess (1961) to propose his hypothesis,
 Canyons and trenches are observed in known as the “sea floor spreading”
this region.
 Seamount:
Deep-Sea Plain/Abyssal Plain:
 It is a mountain with pointed summits,
 Deep-sea plain is a gently sloping area of rising from the seafloor that does not
the ocean basins. reach the surface of the ocean.
 These are the flattest and smoothest  Seamounts are volcanic in origin.
regions of the world.

RE
 These can be 3,000-4,500 m tall.
 The depths vary between 3,000 and
6,000 m.  The Emperor seamount, an extension
 These plains are covered with fine- of the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific
grained sediments like clay and silt. Ocean, is a good example.

Oceanic Deeps/Trenches:  Submarine Canyons:

 These areas are the deepest parts of the


O  These are deep valleys, some comparable
oceans. to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado
River.
 The trenches are relatively steep-sided,
narrow basins. They are some 3-5 km  They are sometimes found cutting across
deeper than the surrounding ocean the continental shelves and slopes, often
SC
floor. extending from the mouths of large
 They occur at the bases of continental rivers.
slopes and along island arcs and are  The Hudson Canyon is the best-known
associated with active volcanoes and canyon in the world.
strong earthquakes.
 Guyots:
 The deep trenches have deep-seated
earthquake occurrences while in  It is a flat-topped seamount.
the mid-oceanic ridge areas, the
GS

quake foci have shallow depths.  They show evidence of gradual subsidence
through stages to become flat-topped
 Besides, these divisions there are also some submerged mountains.
minor relief features on the ocean floors.
These are:  Atoll:
Mid-Oceanic Ridges:  These are low islands found in the
tropical oceans consisting of coral reefs
 A mid-oceanic ridge is composed of two
chains of mountains separated by a large surrounding a central depression.
depression.  It may be a part of the sea (lagoon), or
 The mountain ranges can have peaks sometimes form enclosing a body of
as high as 2,500 m and some even reach fresh, brackish, or highly saline water.
above the ocean’s surface. Iceland, a
part of the mid- Atlantic Ridge, is an Sea-floor Spreading Hypothesis
example.  Hess argued that constant eruptions at the
 All along the mid-oceanic ridges, volcanic crest of oceanic ridges cause the rupture of
eruptions are common and they bring the oceanic crust and the new lava wedges
huge amounts of lava to the surface in into it, pushing the oceanic crust on either
this area. side. Thus, the ocean floor thus spreads.
The younger age of the oceanic crust as well
 The rocks equidistant on either sides as the fact that the spreading of one ocean
of the crest of mid-oceanic ridges show does not because the shrinking of the other,
remarkable similarities in terms of period made Hess think about the consumption of
PTS2020/PPP-6/092019/26
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the oceanic crust. He further maintained Supplementary notes:
that the ocean floor that gets pushed due to
volcanic eruptions at the crest sinks down Strait Located Between
at the oceanic trenches and gets consumed. 1. Davis strait - Baffin Sea and
Atlantic Ocean
2. Dover strait - English Channel
62. Correct Option: (a) and North Sea
Explanation: 3. Palk strait - Gulf of Mannar
 Statement 2 is incorrect: Mangroves and Bay of Bengal
are distributed in tropical and sub-tropical 4. Sunda strait - Java Sea and
regions of the world. Indian Ocean.
Supplementary notes:
64. Correct Option: (c)
Global Mangrove Cover
Explanation:
 Mangroves are mostly distributed
over 123 countries in tropical and sub-  Statement 1 is incorrect: Snowfall is a
tropical regions of the world. temperate latitude phenomenon.
Statement 3 is incorrect: Hail requires

RE
 Total mangrove cover in the world is around 
150,000 sq. km. strong upward motion of air for the
condensation to take place below freezing
 Asia has the largest mangrove cover point.
(particularly South East Asia) followed by
South America, North Central America and Supplementary notes:
West and Central Africa. Precipitation
 South Asia comprises 6.8% of the world’s The process of continuous condensation in
O
mangrove cover. India’s contribution is

free air helps the condensed particles to grow
45.8% in South Asia. in size. When the resistance of the air fails to
hold them against the force of gravity, they
Mangrove cover in India fall on to the earth’s surface. This release of
SC
 According to State of Forest Report 2017. moisture is known as precipitation.
Mangroves are spread over an area of 4921 Forms of Precipitation
sq. km. which is nearly 3.3% of world’s
mangrove vegetation.  Precipitation can occur in solid or liquid
forms:
 There has been an increase of 181 sq. km.
in the mangrove cover as compared to 2015 Rainfall:
assessment. Plantation and regeneration is  Precipitation in the form of water is
the main reason for this. called rainfall.
GS

 Mangrove cover is classified into 3 Snowfall:


categories:
 In higher altitudes or latitudes, the
 Very Dense Mangroves (30.1%) condensation of water vapor may
 Moderately Dense Mangroves (30.07%) take place below the freezing point
and the precipitation takes place in
 Open Mangroves (39.83%) the form of fine flakes of snow.
 Sunderbans in West Bengal accounts Sleet:
for almost half of total area under
 Sleet is frozen raindrops and refrozen
mangroves in India.
melted snow-water. If a warmer
 Area wise mangrove cover distribution is as layer of air overlies a colder layer, the
follows: West Bengal > Gujarat > Andaman raindrops solidify on encountering
& Nicobar > Andhra Pradesh > Maharashtra the lower colder layer and fall as
> Odisha. small pellets of ice.
 For sleet formation, the surface
temperature should be less. Hence it
63. Correct Option: (d) is a cold-weather phenomenon.
Explanation: Hailstones:
 Pair 2 is incorrectly matched: The Strait  If the moist air ascends rapidly to
of Dover connects English Channel and the cooler layers of the atmosphere
North Sea. the water droplets freeze into small
PTS2020/PPP-6/092019/26
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rounded solid pieces of ice and reach upper 200 fathoms up to which sunlight
the surface as hailstones. Hailstones penetrates. Beyond this, the temperature is
have several concentric layers of ice more or less constant across all the oceans.
one over the other. It is estimated that over 80 percent of all
 Hail requires strong convective ocean waters have a temperature between
currents (upward motion of air) to 1.5° and 4.6°C.
carry the moist air to greater heights.  Like landmasses, ocean water varies in
Hence, cool surface temperatures temperature from place to place both at
greatly inhibit hail formation. the surface and at great depths. Since
water warms up and cools down much
more slowly than the land, the annual
65. Correct Option: (b)
range of temperature in any part of
Explanation: the ocean is very small.
 Statement 1 is incorrect: In aphelion, the  Following factors are responsible for
Earth is the farthest to the Sun. the variations in temperatures of ocean
Supplementary notes: waters:-

Solar Radiation Latitude:

RE
 The solar output received at the top of the  The temperature of surface water decreases
atmosphere varies slightly in a year due to from the equator towards the poles
the variations in the distance between the because the amount of insolation decreases
earth and the sun. poleward.

 During its revolution around the sun, the Land Water differential:
earth is farthest from the sun (on 4th  The oceans in the northern hemisphere
July). This position of the earth is called


aphelion.
O
On 3rd January, the earth is the nearest
to the sun. This position is called
receive more heat due to their contact with
a larger extent of land than the oceans in
the southern hemisphere.
Prevailing Winds:
perihelion.
SC
 The winds blowing from the land towards
 Therefore, the annual insolation received
the oceans drive warm surface water away
by the earth on 3rd January is slightly more
from the coast resulting in the upwelling
than the amount received on 4th July.
of cold water from below. It results in the
 However, the effect of this variation in the longitudinal variation in the temperature.
solar output is masked by other factors Contrary to this, the onshore winds pile up
like the distribution of land and sea and warm water near the coast and this raises
the atmospheric circulation. Hence, this the temperature.
GS

variation in the solar output does not have


great effect on daily weather changes on the Ocean Currents:
surface of the earth.  Warm ocean currents raise the temperature
in cold areas while the cold currents decrease
the temperature in warm ocean areas.
66. Correct Option: (d)
 The enclosed seas in the low latitudes
Explanation: record relatively higher temperature than
 Statement 1 is incorrect: Annual range the open seas; whereas the enclosed seas in
of temperature of ocean waters is small. the high latitudes have a lower temperature
than the open seas.
 Statement 2 is incorrect: Northern
hemispherical waters are warmer than
southern hemispherical waters. 67. Correct Option: (d)
 Statement 3 is incorrect: Enclosed seas Explanation:
in low latitudes are relatively warmer.
 All statements are correct
Supplementary notes:
Supplementary notes:
Factors affecting the temperature of
ocean waters Heat Waves

 The average temperature of ocean as a  As sun moves northwards after March


whole is 3-4 degree Celsius. This is because equinox, central India heats up during
the variations in temperature occur in the April and north -west India during May.
PTS2020/PPP-6/092019/26
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This heat is transferred to eastern regions  Leaves are thick and succulent with
through advection and resulting into heat sunken stomata for limiting water loss
wave condition in these areas also. and contain salt secreting glands.
 Anti-cyclone conditions in Bay of Bengal  It produces pneumatophores (areal
prevent the extension of maritime influence roots) to overcome respiration problem
in the coastal regions and leading to rise in the anaerobic soil conditions.
in temperature there also. The reason Adventitious roots which emerged
behind heat waves is believed to be from the main trunk of a tree above
a sudden increase in the atmospheric
ground level are called stilt roots.
pressure, due to the descent of the
heavier air from the upper levels of the
atmosphere, happening especially over 69. Correct Option: (c)
interior parts of the country.
Explanation:
 Regions of North West India like Western
UP, Haryana, and Rajasthan where it is  Both statements are correct
given name ‘loo’ face regular heatwaves.
Interior regions of other states like Odisha, Supplementary notes:
Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal also face Mid- Atlantic Ridge
heat wave conditions.

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 The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a mid-ocean ridge,
 In recent years because of global warming
a divergent tectonic plate or constructive
effect, frequent el-Nino the events of heat
plate boundary located along the floor of the
waves have increased and in the year 2015
more than 2000 people died because of heat Atlantic Ocean
stroke, mostly in the regions of Telangana  It is part of the longest mountain range in
and Andhra Pradesh. the world.
O Divergent Boundaries
68. Correct Option: (c)
 Where new crust is generated as the plates
Explanation: pull away from each other. The sites where
Statement 3 is incorrect: Mangroves the plates move away from each other are
SC

have thick leaves to minimize water loss. called spreading sites. The best-known
example of divergent boundaries is the Mid-
Supplementary notes: Atlantic Ridge.
Mangroves
 Mangroves are the characteristic littoral 70. Correct Option: (d)
plant formation of tropical and subtropical
sheltered coastlines with various limiting Explanation:
GS

factors like lack of oxygen, high salinity and  All statements are correct
diurnal tidal inundation. They are basically
evergreen land plants growing on sheltered Supplementary notes:
shores, typically on tidal flats, deltas,
Soil-forming Factors
estuaries, bays, creeks and the barrier
islands.  Five basic factors control the formation of
soils:
 Mangroves are trees and bushes growing
below the high water level of spring tides  Parent material
which exhibits remarkable capacity for
salt water tolerance (halophytes).  Topography

 The best locations are where abundant silt is  Climate


brought down by rivers or on the backshore  Biological activity
of accreting sandy beaches.
 Time.
 They require high solar radiation and have
the ability to absorb fresh water from saline/  In fact, soil-forming factors act in union and
brackish water. affect the actions of one another.
 Mangroves exhibit Viviparity mode of
reproduction i.e. seeds germinate in the 71. Correct Option: (b)
tree itself (before falling to the ground).
This is an adaptive mechanism to Explanation:
overcome the problem of germination
in saline water.  Option (b) is correct:
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List I List II  Carbon dioxide is meteorologically a very
important gas as it is transparent to the
A. Water stored 3. Evapotranspiration
incoming solar radiation but opaque to the
in oceans outgoing terrestrial radiation.
B. Water in atmo- 4. Precipitation
 By volume, air contains 78.09% nitrogen and
sphere 20.95% oxygen. Hence, both together make
C. Water stored 1. Snowmelt runoff up 99% of the gases of the atmosphere.
to in ice caps streams  It absorbs a part of terrestrial radiation
D. Surface runoff 2. Infiltration and reflects back some part of it towards the
earth’s surface. It is largely responsible for
Supplementary notes:
the greenhouse effect.
Hydrological Cycle  The volume of other gases is constant but
 Water is a cyclic resource. It can be used the volume of carbon dioxide has been rising
and re-used. in the past few decades mainly because of
the burning of fossil fuels.
 Water also undergoes a cycle from the ocean
to land and land to the ocean.  Ozone is another important component of
 The hydrological cycle is the circulation of the atmosphere found between 10 and 50
km above the earth’s surface and acts as

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water within the earth’s hydrosphere in
different forms i.e. the liquid, solid and the a filter and absorbs the ultra-violet rays
gaseous phase. radiating from the sun and prevents them
from reaching the surface of the earth.
 It also refers to the continuous exchange of
water between the oceans, atmosphere, land  Water vapour is also a variable gas in the
surface and subsurface and the organisms. atmosphere, which decreases with altitude.
In the warm and wet tropics, it may account
Components and Processes of the Water O for four percent of the air by volume, while
Cycle in the dry and cold areas of desert and Polar
Regions; it may be less than one percent of
the air.
Components Processes
 Water vapour also decreases from the
SC
Evaporation equator towards the poles.
Water storage in oceans Evapotranspiration
Sublimation  It also absorbs parts of the insolation from
the sun and preserves the earth’s radiated
Condensation
Water in the atmosphere heat. It thus acts like a blanket allowing
Precipitation
the earth neither to become too cold nor too
Water storage in ice and Snowmelt runoff to hot. Water vapour also contributes to the
snow streams stability and instability in the air. It is the
Stream flow source of all kinds of precipitation.
GS

Surface runoff freshwater storage


 The atmosphere has a sufficient capacity
infiltration
to keep small solid particles, which may
Groundwater originate from different sources and include
Groundwater storage
discharge springs sea salts, fine soil, smoke-soot, ash, pollen,
dust and disintegrated particles of meteors.
72. Correct Option: (a)  Dust particles are generally concentrated
in the lower layers of the atmosphere; yet,
Explanation: convectional air currents may transport
 Statement 2 is incorrect: Nitrogen and them to great heights.
Oxygen together make up 99% of the gases
 The higher concentration of dust particles is
of the atmosphere.
found in subtropical and temperate regions
Supplementary notes: due to dry winds in comparison to equatorial
and Polar Regions.
Composition of the Atmosphere
 The atmosphere is composed of gases, water
vapour, and dust particles. The proportion 73. Correct Option: (c)
of gases changes in the higher layers of Explanation:
the atmosphere in such a way that oxygen
will be almost in negligible quantity at the  Statement 2 is incorrect: The epipelagic
height of 120 km. Similarly, carbon dioxide (euphotic) zone is also called the sunlight
and water vapour are found only up to 90 zone, receives enough sunlight to support
km from the surface of the earth. photosynthesis.
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Supplementary notes: due to the change in the position of the
earth around the sun.
Zones of Ocean
 Insolation – Incoming Solar Radiation
 The ocean can be divided into many zones. or the amount of solar radiation received at
The ocean bottom is the benthic zone and the Earth’s surface. The amount of insolation
the water itself (or the water column) is the received on the earth’s surface is not uniform
pelagic zone. The neritic zone is that part everywhere. It varies according to the place
of the pelagic zone that extends from the and time. When the tropical regions receive
high tide line to an ocean bottom less than maximum annual insolation, it gradually
600 feet deep. Water deeper than 600 feet decreases towards the poles. Insolation is
is called the oceanic zone, which itself is more in summers and less in winters.
divided on the basis of water depth into the
epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic  The major factors which influence the
zones. amount of insolation received are:

 The epipelagic (euphotic) zone, also  Rotation of the earth on its axis
called the sunlit zone, receives enough  The angle of incidence of the sun’s rays
sunlight to support photosynthesis. The
temperatures in this zone range anywhere  Duration of the day
from 40 to –3°C (104 to 27°F). The ocean  Transparency of the atmosphere

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bottom is the benthic zone.
 The transparency of the atmosphere
 The mesopelagic (disphotic) zone, depends upon the cloud cover and
where only small amounts of light its thickness, dust particles, water
penetrate, lies below the epipelagic zone. vapor, etc. They reflect, absorb or transmit
This zone is often referred to as the insolation. Thick cloud hinders the
Twilight Zone due to its scarce amount solar radiation to reach the earth’s
of light. Temperatures in the mesopelagic surface. Similarly, water vapor absorbs
O
zone range from 5 to 4°C (41 to 39°F). The
pressure is higher here; it can be up to 1,470
solar radiation resulting in less amount of
insolation reaching the surface.
pounds per square inch (10,100,000 Pa) and
increases with depth.
75. Correct Option: (b)
90% of the ocean lies in the bathypelagic
SC

(aphotic) zone into which no light Explanation:
penetrates. This is also called the
 Pair 2 and 4 are incorrectly matched:
midnight zone. Water pressure is very
Bahamas Island is located in Atlantic Ocean
intense and the temperatures are near
and Hawaiian Island in Pacific Ocean
freezing (range 0 to 6°C (32 to 43°F)).
Supplementary notes:
74. Correct Option: (d) Islands and Oceans
GS

Explanation: Islands Ocean


 Statement 1 is incorrect: Revolution of 1. Seychelles Indian
earth and its tilted axis is responsible 2. Bahamas Atlantic
for seasons. Seasons change due to
the change in the position of the earth 3. Aleutian Pacific
around the sun. 4. Hawaiian Pacific
 Statement 2 incorrect: The transparency
of the atmosphere depends upon the
cloud cover and its thickness, dust
76. Correct Option: (a)
particles, water vapor, etc. They reflect, Explanation:
absorb or transmit insolation. Thick cloud
hinders the solar radiation to reach  Statement 2 is incorrect: The
the earth’s surface. condensation does not depend on the
freezing point. Rather, it depends on the
 Statement 3 is incorrect: Insolation condition that the temperature of the air
is not affected by the presence of must be below the Dew point.
greenhouse gases.
Supplementary notes:
Supplementary notes:
Cloud formation
Insolation
 The formation of cloud starts from
 Revolution of earth and its tilted axis is evaporation in which humidity of the air
responsible for seasons. Seasons change increases.
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 After this, the condensation takes place. the Namib Desert along west coast of
Africa.
 First, air filled with moisture (due to
evaporation) rise up to a point where its  Fishing:
relative humidity should be more than the
surrounding air.  The mixing of warm and cold
currents help to replenish the
 Then, if the temperature of air is oxygen and favor the growth of
below the dew point (at that place), planktons which is the regions are
the moisture present in the air gets rich in microscopic marine plants
condensed around condensation nuclei and animals.
(suspended micro particles).
 Hence these regions form excellent
 Condensation takes place when the fishing grounds as phytoplankton is
dew point is lower than the freezing the primary source of food for the fish.
point as well as higher than the freezing For example, the Great Banks near
point. That is, the condensation does not Newfoundland is formed by the mixing
depend on the freezing point. Rather, of cold Labrador Current with the warm
it depends on the condition that the Gulf Stream.
temperature of the air must be below
the Dew point.  Navigation:

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 After this, the condensation can take various  The atmospheric circulation of the
forms like clouds, dew, frost etc. winds and the oceanic circulation of the
currents are almost coincidental and
 Frost forms on cold surfaces when the
together they aid in the navigation of
dew point is at or below the freezing
the ships.
point.
 Ocean currents flow for great distances
 For the formation of dew, it is necessary
that the dew point is above the freezing
O and together with the winds creates
point. a conveyor belt kind of system for
navigation of the ships.

77. Correct Option: (b)


78. Correct Option: (d)
SC
Explanation:
Explanation:
 Statement 1 is incorrect: Cold Currents
have a desiccating effect on the regions  All statements are correct
near it. Supplementary notes:
Supplementary notes: Warm Temperate Eastern Margin
Effects of Ocean Currents Climate
The Warm Temperate Eastern Margin/
GS

 Local Climate: 
China type of climate is found on the
 The oceanic circulation transports heat eastern margins of continents in warm
from one latitude belt to another in a
temperate latitudes, just outside the
manner similar to the heat transported
tropics.
by the general circulation of the
atmosphere.  The climate is characterized by warm,
moist summer and cool, dry winter.
 Warm and Cold currents affect the
It has comparatively more rainfall than
local climate of a region. For example,
the Mediterranean climate in the same
the Gulf Stream which is driven to the
western coast of Europe as the North latitudes, coming mainly in the summer.
Atlantic Drift keeps the coasts of North  There is a good deal of variation in detail
Sea warm which is unusual for such high within the eastern margins. These are
latitudes. subdivided as:
 Rains and desert formation:  China Type:
 Warm ocean currents bring rains to the  It is found in central and north
coastal regions and also the interiors China, including southern Japan
while cold currents do not. (temperate monsoonal).
 Cold currents are one of the reasons  Intense heating in ‘the heart of Asia’ sets
why deserts are located in the up a region of low pressure in summer
western margins of continents in and the tropical Pacific air stream is
the sub-tropical belts. For e.g. the drawn in as the rain-bearing South-East
cold Benguela current is responsible for Monsoon.
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 In winter, a steep pressure gradient  Raw Material requirements
is set up between the cold interiors of
 Overgrazing by cattle
Mongolia and Siberia, and the warmer
Pacific coastlands. The continental polar  Other causes like mining, overpopulation
air stream flows outwards as the North- and urbanization, floods, forest fires due to
West Monsoon, bitterly cold and very climate change etc.
dry.
Impacts of Deforestation
 Gulf Type:
 Environmental Impacts:
 This type of climate is found in the south-
 Deforestation is a contributor to global
eastern United States.
warming, and is often cited as one of the
 It is similar to that of central China major causes of the enhanced greenhouse
except that the monsoonal characteristics effect as it causes carbon stores held in soil
are less well established. There is no to be released.
complete seasonal wind reversal, for the
pressure gradient between mainland  Deforestation affects wind flows, water
America and the Atlantic Ocean is less vapor flows and absorption of solar
marked. The warm Gulf Stream and energy thus clearly influencing local
the on-shore Trade Winds help to and global climate.

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bring about this narrow range of  The water cycle is also affected
temperature. by deforestation. Trees
 Natal Type: extract groundwater through their
roots and release it into the atmosphere.
 It consists the entire warm temperate When part of a forest is removed, the
eastern margin (non-monsoonal trees no longer transpire this water,
areas) of the southern hemisphere resulting in a much drier climate.
including Natal (in Brazil), eastern
Australia, and southern Brazil—
O  Deforestation causes: Increase in the
Paraguay—Uruguay and northern rate of soil erosion. This can further
Argentina. lead to flooding in river and makes the
soil susceptible to landslides.
 The narrowness of the continents and
SC
the dominance of maritime influence  Removal or destruction of significant
eliminate the monsoonal elements which areas of forest cover has resulted in
characterize the corresponding climates a degraded environment with reduced
of the northern hemisphere. biodiversity.
 Deforestation can
79. Correct Option: (d) destroy genetic variations (such as
crop resistance) irretrievably.
Explanation:
GS

 Economic Impacts:
 All statements are correct
 A short-term economic gain made by
Supplementary notes: conversion of forest to agriculture, or over-
exploitation of wood products, typically
Deforestation leads to a loss of long-term income and
 Indiscriminate felling of trees as a result long-term biological productivity.
of urbanization, industrialization, mining
operations, and use of wood for domestic and
other purposes have caused heavy depletion 80. Correct Option: (a)
of forests. This is called deforestation. Explanation:
 Deforestation results in conversion of forest  Statement 1 is incorrect: Rainfall received
land to non-forest use. by the Western Ghats is orographic in
Causes of Deforestation nature as the moist air is obstructed and
forced to rise along the Ghats.
 Agriculture: As per UNFCCC, agriculture is
the direct cause of deforestation. Subsistence Supplementary notes:
farming, commercial agriculture, shifting Rainfall Distribution
cultivation and industrial logging all cause
deforestation.  There seems to be two rain-bearing systems
in India.
 Developmental Projects like
hydroelectric projects, reservoirs etc.  First, originate in the Bay of Bengal causing
require immense deforestation. rainfall over the plains of north India.
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 Second is the Arabian Sea current of the  The reefs may be about a mile wide,
southwest monsoon which brings rain to the lying just above the level of low water
west coast of India. and sloping steeply downwards on the
seaward side to a depth of about 100
 Much of the rainfall along the Western Ghats
feet.
is orographic as the moist air is obstructed
and forced to rise along the Ghats.  Barrier Reef:
 The intensity of rainfall over the west coast  A barrier reef parallels to the coastline
of India is, however, related to two factors: and is separated from the coast by a much
wider and deeper channel or lagoon. The
 The offshore meteorological conditions.
reef is partially submerged. Where it
 The position of the equatorial jet stream lies above the water level and sand can
along the eastern coast of Africa. accumulate on it, a little vegetation is
possible.
 The frequency of the tropical depressions
originating from the Bay of Bengal varies  The barrier reefs have narrow gaps at
from year to year. Their paths over India are several places to allow the water from
mainly determined by the position of ITCZ the enclosed lagoon to return to the open
which is generally termed as the monsoon ocean. Such gaps are very useful for
trough. shipping and provide the only entrances

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for ships to enter or leave the lagoon.
 As the axis of the monsoon trough oscillates,
there are fluctuations in the track and  Atolls:
direction of these depressions, and the
 Atolls are similar to barrier reefs
intensity and the amount of rainfall vary
except that they are circular in
from year to year.
shape, enclosing a shallow lagoon
 The rain which comes in spells displays a without any land in the center. The
declining trend from west to east over the encircling ring is usually broken in a few
O
west coast, and from the southeast towards
the northwest over the North Indian Plain
and the northern part of the Peninsula.

places to allow the free flow of water.
On the inside of the reefs, sand and
limestone debris collect and palm trees
like coconuts may grow. Such palm trees
SC
81. Correct Option: (b) thrive well in the brackish water of the
lagoon.
Explanation:
 Patch Reefs:
 Option (b) is correct:
 These are small, isolated reefs that
List I List II grow up from the open bottom of
the island platform or continental
A. Barrier Reefs 3. Parallel to the shelf.
GS

coastline
 They usually occur between fringing
B. Patch Reefs 4. Small and isolated reefs and barrier reefs.
C. Fringing Reefs 1. Close to shore  They vary greatly in size, and they rarely
D. Atolls 2. Shallow lagoon in reach the surface of the water.
center
Supplementary notes:
Types of Coral Reefs
 Fringing Reef:
 A fringing reef is a coralline platform
lying close to the shore extending
outwards from the mainland.
 It is sometimes separated from the shore
by a shallow lagoon.
 It is widest when fringing a protruding
headland but completely absent when
facing the mouth of a stream. The
outer edge grows rapidly because of
the splashing waves that continuously
renew the supply of fresh food.
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82. Correct Option: (a)  Out of these, 7 States/Union Territories
– Mizoram, Lakshadweep, Andaman
Explanation: & Nicobar Island, Arunachal Pradesh,
 Statement 2 is incorrect: Madhya Nagaland, Meghalaya and Manipur
Pradesh has the largest forest cover in have more than 75 per cent forest cover,
the country in terms of area. while 8 states – Tripura, Goa, Sikkim,
Kerala, Uttarakhand, Dadra & Nagar
 Statement 3 is incorrect: Mizoram has Haveli, Chhattisgarh and Assam have
shown the largest decrease in area of forest forest cover is between 33-75%
cover.
 Andhra Pradesh showed maximum
Supplementary notes: increase in forest cover followed by
Extent of Forest Cover in India Karnataka, Kerala and Odisha.

 As per State of Forest Report, Forest Cover  The top five states where forest
refers to all lands of more than 1 hectare in cover has decreased are Mizoram,
area with a tree canopy of more than 10%, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh,
irrespective of land use, ownership and Tripura and Meghalaya.
legal status.
 Tree Cover comprises of tree patches 83. Correct Option: (d)

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which are less than 1 hectare and isolated
trees outside the recorded forest. Explanation:
 Trees Outside Forest (TOF) comprise of  Statement 1 is incorrect: Southern
trees existing outside the recorded forest Oscillation is defined as pressure
area mainly in block, linear or scattered changes in Central Pacific and Australia.
size of patches.
 Statement 2 is incorrect: Positive (SOI)
The term ‘Forest Area’ refers to all indicates La Nina conditions.

O
geographic areas recorded as forests in the
government records. This mainly consists Supplementary notes:
of Reserved Forests or Protected Forests as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
notified under Indian Forest Act, 2017.
SC
 Warming and cooling of the Pacific Ocean
 As per the State of Forest Report, 2017:
is most important in terms of general
 The total forest cover of the country atmospheric circulation.
is approx. 7 lakh sq. km.; which is
 The warm water of the central Pacific Ocean
21.5% of the total geographic area of
slowly drifts towards South American coast
the country.
and replaces the cool Peruvian current. Such
 There has been an increase in appearance of warm water off the coast of
the forest cover by 6778 sq. km. Peru is known as the El Nino.
GS

India is placed 8th in the list of Top


Ten nations reporting the greatest  The El Nino event is closely associated
annual net gain in forest area. with the pressure changes in the
India is among top 10 Nations in the Central Pacific and Australia. This
world in Terms of Forest Area. The change in pressure condition over
countries are: Russia, Brazil, Canada, Pacific is known as the southern
US, China, Australia, Congo, Argentina, oscillation. It is thus a type of East-West
Indonesia, India. Walker Cell as opposed to the meridional
(N-S) circulations of Hadley Cell.
 Area wise, Madhya Pradesh has
the largest forest cover in the  The combined phenomenon of southern
country, followed by Arunachal oscillation and El Nino is known as ENSO.
Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and
 The SOI (Southern Oscillation Index)
Maharashtra.
calculated on the basis of atmospheric
 Lakshadweep (90.3%) leads in terms pressure differences between Tahiti and
of % of forest cover with respect Darwin; gives an indication of development
to total geographic area followed of El Nino or La Nina.
by Mizoram (86.2%), Andaman &
Nicobar (81.7%) and Arunachal  Sustained positive values of SOI
Pradesh (79.9%). are indicative of La Nina conditions
while negative values suggest El Nino
 The ISFR 2017 states that 15 States/ conditions.
Union Territories have above 33 percent
of the geographical area under forest  In the years when the ENSO is strong,
cover. large-scale variations in weather
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occur over the world. The arid west Diurnal Tide:
coast of South America receives heavy
 There are only one high tide and one low
rainfall; drought occurs in Australia
tide each day.
and sometimes in India and floods in
China.  The successive high and low tides are
approximate of the same height.

84. Correct Option: (b) Mixed Tide:


 Tides having variations in height are known
Explanation:
as mixed tides.
 Statement 1 is incorrect: Empirical
 These tides generally occur along the
classification is based on observed west coast of North America and on
data. many islands of the Pacific Ocean.
 Statement 3 is incorrect: Applied
Tides based on positions of Sun, Moon,
Classification is use for some specific
and Earth
purpose.
 The height of rising water (high tide) varies
Supplementary notes: appreciably depending upon the position of
Climatic Classification sun and moon with respect to the earth.

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 The world climate can be studied by Spring Tide:
organizing information and data on climate  When the sun, the moon, and the earth are
and synthesizing them in smaller units in a straight line, the height of the tide will
for easy understanding, description and be higher. These are called spring tides.
analysis.
 They occur twice a month, one on full
 Three broad approaches have been adopted
O moon period and another during the
for classifying climate: new moon period.
 Empirical classification is based Neap Tide:
on observed data, particularly on
 The sun and moon are at right angles to
temperature and precipitation.
each other and the forces of the sun and
SC
 Genetic classification attempts to moon tend to counteract one another. The
organize climates according to their Moon’s attraction, though more than twice
causes. as strong as the sun’s, is diminished by the
counteracting force of the sun’s gravitational
 Applied classification is for specific pull.
purpose.
 Normally, there is a seven-day interval
between the spring tides and neap
85. Correct Option: (a) tides. Thus neap tides also occur twice
GS

a month (during the first and last


Explanation: quarter moon).
 Statement 2 is incorrect: Spring Tides  The tidal range is greater than normal at
occur twice a month during the full moon perigee (moon’s orbit closest to earth) and
and new moon. perihelion (earth is closest to the sun) while
it is lower than normal at apogee (moon’s
Supplementary notes:
orbit farthest from earth) and aphelion
Types of Tides (earth is farthest from sun).

 Tides vary in their frequency, direction, and


movement from place to place and also from
time to time.
 Tides may be grouped into various types
based on their frequency of occurrence
in one day or based on their height.
Semi-Diurnal Tide:
 It is the most common tidal pattern,
featuring two high tides and two low tides
each day.
 The successive high or low tides are
approximate of the same height.
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86. Correct Option: (d) pressure over north and north-western
India. As a result, winds start blowing
Explanation: from northwestern high pressure zone to
 All statements are correct the low air pressure zone over the Indian
Ocean in the south.
Supplementary notes:
 Since the winds move from land to sea,
Mediterranean Climate they do not cause any rainfall except in
north India where rainfall occurs due to
 The Warm Temperate Western Margin western disturbances.
Climate/Mediterranean Climate is confined
to the western portion of continental masses,  An increase in the prevailing night
between 30° and 45° north and south of the temperature generally indicates an
equator. advance in the arrival of these cyclones
disturbances.
 The basic cause of this type of climate is the
shifting of the wind belts.  The Hot Weather Season:

 It is characterized by winter rains due to  The summer months are a period of


on-shore Westerlies and dry summer due to excessive heat and falling air pressure in
off-shore trade winds. the northern half of the country. Because
of the heating of the subcontinent, the

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 This climate is found in few regions of the ITCZ moves northwards occupying a
world which are central Chile, California position centered at 25°N in July.
(around San Francisco), the south-western
tip of Africa (around Cape Town), southern  This season is associated with some
Australia (in southern Victoria and around local storms like loo, nor westers, mango
Adelaide), and south-west Australia showers etc.
(Swanland).  The Southwest Monsoon Season:

O
The Mediterranean regions are often backed  These southeast trade winds cross the
by mountains of some kind which act as equator and enter the Bay of Bengal and
barriers to oncoming Westerlies. the Arabian Sea.
 The Mediterranean lands are also known as  Sea. As these winds approach the land,
SC
the world’s orchard lands. A wide range of their southwesterly direction is modified
citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, limes, by the relief and thermal low pressure
citrons, and grapefruit are grown. over the northwest India and thus
 The mountain pastures, with their cooler approach the landmass in 2 branches:
climate, support a few sheep, goats and  The Arabian Sea branch causes rainfall
sometimes cattle. Transhumance is widely along the windward side of Western
practiced. Ghats, in Kutch and Saurashtra region
and in Punjab, Haryana after crossing
GS

west Rajasthan along the Aravalis.


87. Correct Option: (b)
 After deflection from Arakan Hills in
Explanation: Myanmar, the Bay of Bengal Brach
 Statement 1 is incorrect: An increase in enters West Bengal and Bangladesh
prevailing night temperature indicates the from south and southeast instead of from
arrival of western disturbances. the south-westerly direction. It further
bifurcates into 2 under the influence of
 Statement 3 is incorrect: Much of rainfall Himalayas causing rains in North and
in north-east is caused by Bay of Bengal North-East India.
branch as the Aravalis block the Arabian
Sea branch from reaching there.  Season of Retreating Monsoon:
 The months of October and November
Supplementary notes:
are known for retreating monsoons since
Seasonal Rhythm the south west monsoon has become
weak due to southward shift in ITCZ.
 The climatic conditions of India can best
be described in terms of an annual cycle of  The retreating southwest monsoon
seasons. The meteorologists recognize the season is marked by clear skies and
following four seasons: rise in temperature. The land is still
moist. Owing to the conditions of high
 The Cold Weather Season: temperature and humidity, the weather
 The ITCZ shifts south of the equator becomes rather oppressive. This is
resulting in the development of high- commonly known as the ‘October heat’.
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 This season is associated with rainfall natural cover of land and given rise to
on the Coromandel coast due to cyclonic extensive erosion. It should be regulated
depressions which develop over Andaman and controlled by educating villagers about
Sea. the consequences.
 Contour bunding, Contour terracing,
88. Correct Option: (c) regulated forestry, controlled grazing, cover
cropping, mixed farming and crop rotation
Explanation: are some of the remedial measures which
 Option (c) is correct: South India which are often adopted to reduce soil erosion.
lies south of the Tropic of Cancer does Mulch Farming
not experience extreme climatic
conditions.  Mulch farming is a system of maintaining a
protective cover of vegetative residues such
Supplementary notes: as straw, maize stalks, palm fronds and
stubbles on the soil surface at all times.
Weather and Climate in South India
 The system is particularly valuable where
 The hot weather season in South India
a satisfactory plant cover cannot be
is mild and not so intense as found in
established at the time of year when erosion
North India. The Peninsular situation of
risk is greatest.

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south India with a moderating effect of the
oceans keeps the temperatures lower  The beneficial effects of mulching
than that prevailing in north India. include protection of the soil surface
against raindrop impact, decrease in
 In the coastal regions, the north-south extent
flow velocity by imparting roughness,
of isotherms parallel to the coast confirms
and improved infiltration capacity.
that temperature does not decrease from
north to south rather it increases from the
O  It also enhances burrowing activity
coast to the interior. of some species of earthworms which
improves transmission of water through the
 The mean daily minimum temperature
soil profile and reduces surface crusting and
during the summer months also remains
runoff and improves soil moisture storage
quite high and rarely goes below 26°C.
in the root zone.
SC
 The area north of the Tropic of
Cancer being away from the equator
experiences an extreme climate with 90. Correct Option: (a)
a high daily and annual range of Explanation:
temperature but the area south of the
Tropic of Cancer faces a less annual  Option (a) is correct: High pressure
range of temperature. develops over North-western India due
to low temperatures when the sun shines
GS

 South Indian regions have an equable vertically over the Tropic of Capricorn in
climate because they are situated close to the southern hemisphere
or along the coast hence the influence of the
sea has an effect on the temperature. The Supplementary notes:
diurnal range of temperature is less
hence it has a moderate or maritime
Pressure and Winds
climate. Therefore the annual range in  By the end of December (22nd December),
temperature is low. the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of
Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. The
weather in this season is characterized by
89. Correct Option: (d) feeble high-pressure conditions over
Explanation: the northern plain. In south India, the air
pressure is slightly lower. The isobars of 1019
 All statements are correct mb and 1013 mb pass through northwest
Supplementary notes: India and far south, respectively.
 As a result, winds start blowing from
Soil Conservation
northwestern high-pressure zone to the low
 Soil conservation is a methodology to air pressure zone over the Indian Ocean in
maintain soil fertility, prevent soil erosion the south.
and exhaustion, and improve the degraded
 Due to the low-pressure gradient, the
condition of the soil.
light winds with a low velocity of about
 Over-grazing and shifting cultivation in 3-5 km per hour begin to blow outwards.
many parts of India have affected the By and large, the topography of the region
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influences the wind direction. They are origin. The chief constituents of red
westerly or northwesterly down the Ganga clay are silicon and aluminium dioxide,
Valley. They become northerly in the while other constituents include iron,
Ganga-Brahmaputra delta. Free from the manganese, phosphorus and radium.
influence of topography, they are clearly
northeasterly over the Bay of Bengal.  It is believed to be accumulation of
volcanic dust blown out during volcanic
 During the winter, the weather in India is eruptions.
pleasant. The pleasant weather conditions,
however, at intervals, get disturbed by  The red clay is the most widely
shallow cyclonic depressions originating spread pelagic deposit and covers
over the east 38% of the sea floor and are
particularly abundant in the Pacific
 The Mediterranean Sea and traveling Ocean.
eastward across West Asia, Iran,
Afghanistan, and Pakistan before they reach
the northwestern parts of India. On their 92. Correct Option: (b)
way, the moisture content gets augmented
Explanation:
from the Caspian Sea in the north and the
Persian Gulf in the south.  Statement 2 is incorrect: If there is
insufficient moisture, a Thunderstorm

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can generate dust storms.
91. Correct Option: (a)
 Statement 3 is incorrect: The Tornadoes
Explanation: over the sea is called water sprouts.
 Statement 2 is incorrect: Ooze is a type Supplementary notes:
of pelagic deposit.
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
Supplementary notes:
O  Thunderstorms and tornadoes are severe
Ocean Deposits local storms.
 Based on their location of occurrence,  They are of short duration, occurring
ocean deposits may also be classified as over a small area but are violent.
SC
Neritic and Pelagic.
 Thunderstorms are caused by intense
 Neritic deposits are found on continental convection on moist hot days.
shelves and in shallow waters near islands.
 A thunderstorm is a well-grown
 These are generally coarse grained. cumulonimbus cloud producing thunder
 These generally comprise of terrigenous and lightning.
deposits.  When the clouds extend to heights where
sub-zero temperature prevails, hails are
GS

 The pelagic deposits are those which are


found over deep sea plains and the deeps. formed and they come down as hailstorm.

 The pelagic deposits consist of both organic  If there is insufficient moisture, a


and inorganic materials. thunderstorm can generate dust
storms.
 Organic Material:
 A thunderstorm is characterized by the
 This is in the form of a kind of liquid intense updraft of rising warm air, which
mud, called ooze, which contains causes the clouds to grow bigger and rise to
shells and skeletons of various a greater height. This causes precipitation.
marine organisms.
 Later, downdraft brings down to earth the
 The ooze is said to be calcareous when the cool air and the rain.
shell is made of calcium carbonate. The
calcareous ooze may be either pteropod  From severe thunderstorms sometimes
ooze or globogerina ooze. spiraling wind descends like a trunk of an
elephant with great force, with very low
 When the shell is made of silica, the ooze pressure at the center, causing massive
is said to be siliceous ooze, which can be destruction on its way. Such a phenomenon
either the diatom type or the radiolarian is called a tornado.
type of ooze.
 Tornadoes generally occur in middle
 Inorganic Material: latitudes.
 This is in the form of red clay,  The tornado over the sea is called
which is apparently of a volcanic water sprouts.
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 These violent storms are the manifestation  Vegetation is xerophytic or drought-
of the atmosphere’s adjustments to varying resistant.
energy distribution.
 Intense evaporation increases the
 The potential and heat energies are salinity of the desert soil so that the
converted into kinetic energy in these dissolved salts tend to accumulate on
storms and the restless atmosphere again the surface forming hardpans. Absence of
returns to its stable state. moisture retards the rate of decomposition
and desert soils are very deficient in humus
93. Correct Option: (c)
Explanation:
94. Correct Option: (c)
 Option (c) is correct: Tropical deserts Explanation:
have saline soils.  Statement 2 is incorrect: Salinity
differences also influence the
Supplementary notes:
circulation of ocean currents.
Savannah/Sudan Climate
Supplementary notes:
 The Savanna or Sudan Climate is a
Ocean Currents
transitional type of climate found

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between the equatorial forests and the  Ocean currents are large masses of surface
trade wind hot deserts. It is confined water that circulate in regular patterns
within the tropics and is best developed in around the oceans. Those that flow from
the Sudan where the dry and wet seasons equatorial regions poleward have a higher
are most distinct, hence its name the Sudan surface temperature and are warm
Climate. currents. Those that flow from Polar
O Regions equatorward have a lower surface
 The Sudan type of climate is characterized
temperature and are cold currents.
by an alternate hot, rainy season and
cool, dry season. Factors Influencing Ocean Currents
 It is characterized by an extreme diurnal The Planetary Winds
range of temperature.
SC
 The planetary winds are probably the
 The vegetation consists of tall grass and dominant influence on the flow of ocean
short trees. Parklands describe such currents. For example, the North-East Trade
vegetation. Winds move the North Equatorial Current
and its derivatives, the Florida Current and
 The trees are deciduous and decrease in
the Gulf Stream Drift to warm the southern
height and density away from the equator.
and eastern coasts of U.S.A.
 The savanna, particularly in Africa, is the
The strongest evidence of prevailing winds
GS


home of wild animals. It is known as the
on current flows is seen in the North Indian
big game country’ and thousands of Ocean. Here the direction of the currents
animals are trapped or killed each year changes completely with the direction of the
by people from all over the world. monsoon winds which come from the north-
 These regions thus, have poor lateritic soils east in winter and south-west in summer.
incapable of supporting good crops. Temperatures
Hot Deserts and Mid-Latitude Deserts  There is much difference in the temperature
 Deserts are regions of scanty rainfall of ocean waters at the equator and at the
poles.
which may be like the hot deserts of the
Saharan type; or temperate as are the  As warm water is lighter and rises and cold
mid-latitude deserts like the Gobi. water is denser and sinks, warm equatorial
waters move slowly along the surface
 The aridity of the hot deserts is mainly due poleward, while the heavier cold waters of
to the effects of off-shore Trade Winds; hence the Polar Regions creep slowly along the
they are also called Trade Wind Deserts. bottom of the sea equator wards.
 The temperate deserts are rainless because Salinity
of their interior location in the temperate
 Waters of high salinity are denser than
latitudes, well away from the rain-bearing
waters of low salinity. Hence waters of low
winds.
salinity flow on the surface of waters of high
 The diurnal range of temperature in the salinity while waters of high salinity flow at
deserts is very great. the bottom towards waters of low salinity.
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 For example in the Mediterranean region,  Their location in continental interiors implies
there is a great difference in salinity between continental climate with temperature
the waters of the open Atlantic and those of extremes.
the partially enclosed Mediterranean Sea.  But the temperate grasslands in Southern
The less saline water of the Atlantic flows on Hemisphere have a milder climate due to
the surface into the Mediterranean, and this maritime influence.
is compensated for by an outflow of denser
bottom water from the Mediterranean.  Their greatest difference from
the tropical savanna is that they
The earth’s Rotation are practically treeless and the
 The earth’s rotation deflects freely moving grasses are much shorter.
objects, including ocean currents, to the  The temperate grasslands are known by
right. different names in different parts of the
world.
 In the northern hemisphere, this is a
clockwise direction (e.g. the circulation of
the Gulf Stream Drift and the Canaries 96. Correct Option: (a)
Current).
Explanation:
 In the southern hemisphere, it is an anti-
clockwise direction (e.g. the Brazilian Statement 2 is incorrect: The group

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Current and the West Wind Drift). A,C,D & E represents humid conditions.

Land Supplementary notes:

 A landmass always obstructs and diverts Koeppen’s Climatic Classification


a current. E.g. the ‘shoulder’ of Brazil at  Koeppen’s Classification is most widely used
Cape Sao Roque, divides the west-flowing classification of climate.
equatorial currents into the Cayenne
Current which flows north-westwards and
O  According
classification,
to
the
Koeppen’s climatic
distribution of
the Brazilian Current which flows south-
vegetation is used for classifying the
westwards.
climates.
It is an empirical classification based
SC

95. Correct Option: (a) on mean annual and mean monthly
temperature and precipitation data.
Explanation:
He selected certain values of temperature
 Option (a) is correct: and precipitation and related them to
List I List II the distribution of vegetation and
used these values for classifying the
climates.
A. Pampas 2. Argentina
GS

 He introduced the use of capital and small


B. Velds 4. South Africa letters to designate climatic groups and
C. Downs 1. Australia types.
D. Pustaz 3. Hungary  There are 3 levels to his classification:

Supplementary notes:  Level 1: Koeppen recognized five


major climatic groups; four of them
Temperate Grasslands are based on temperature and one on
precipitation. The capital letters: A, C,
 Bordering the deserts, away from the
D and E delineate humid climates
Mediterranean regions and in the interiors
and B dry climates.
of continents are the temperate grasslands.
 For ‘A’ type climate, mean monthly
 Though they lie in the Westerly wind belt, temperature of all months is more
they are so remote from the maritime than 18 degree Celsius
influence that the grasslands are practically
treeless.  The B- Dry Climates are
subdivided using the capital letters
 In the northern hemisphere, the grasslands S for steppe or semi-arid and W for
are far more extensive and are entirely deserts.
continental.
 Level 2: The climatic groups are
 In the southern hemisphere, due to the subdivided into types, designated by
narrowness of the temperate portions of small letters, based on seasonality
the southern continents, the grasslands are of precipitation and temperature
rather restricted and less continental. characteristics. The seasons of dryness
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are indicated by the small letters: f, Supplementary notes:
m, w and s. Here ‘f’ corresponds to no
dry season, ‘m’ - monsoon climate, ‘w’- Ocean Deposits
winter dry season and‘s’- summer dry  Based on the source of deposits, the
season. ocean deposits can broadly be divided
 Level 3: The small letters a, b, c and into two types—the terrigenous
d refer to the degree of severity of deposits and the biogenous deposits.
temperature. These deposits mainly consist of organic
remains of plants and animals.
 In his later modifications, he used the letter
‘m’ for monsoon type climate and ‘H’ to  Terrigenous Deposits
depict highlands.  The terrigenous deposits are those
which are found on the continental
shelves and slopes and mainly consist
97. Correct Option: (b) of the rock material derived because
Explanation: of wear and tear by the agents of
weathering and carried to sea by the
 Statement 1 is incorrect: The cool air agents of erosion, such as running water,
of the high plateaus and ice fields draining wind, etc.
into the valley is called katabatic wind.

RE
 Materials eroded from the earth which
Supplementary notes: are not deposited by rivers or at the
coast are eventually dropped on the
Mountain and Valley Breezes ocean floor. The dominant process is
 In mountainous regions, during the day the slow sedimentation where the eroded
slopes get heated up and air moves upslope particles very slowly filter through the
and to fill the resulting gap the air from ocean water and settle upon one another
the valley blows up the valley. This wind is in layers.


known as the valley breeze.
O
During the night the slopes get cooled and
the dense air descends into the valley as the
 The larger particles of the terrigenous
deposits are found near the shore and
the finer ones carried deeper.
mountain wind. On the basis of size of particles,
SC

the terrigenous deposits may be
 The cool air of the high plateaus and
categorized into three classes—
ice fields draining into the valley
mud, sand and gravel.
is called katabatic wind. Katabatic
drainage is usually cited as the cause of  The muds are referred to as blue,
frost pockets in hilly and mountainous green or red muds; their coloring
areas. depends upon their chemical
content.
Another type of warm wind occurs on the
GS


leeward side of the mountain ranges.  In volcanic regions the deposits of
continental shelf and slope consist
 The moisture in these winds, while crossing chiefly of products of volcanism, which
the mountain ranges condenses and are subject to chemical and mechanical
precipitates. weathering and are carried to the ocean
 When it descends down the leeward side of by actions of running water and wind. The
the slope the dry air gets warmed up by the volcanic deposits differ from the ordinary
adiabatic process. terrigenous deposits in one respect—they
are made of pyroclastic volcanic products
 This dry air may melt the snow in a short and lava, rather than quartz. These are
time. referred to as Volcanic Materials/
Volcanic Deposits.
98. Correct Option: (c)  Biogenous

Explanation:  These are fine-grained red, brown or light-


colored skeletal remains of planktonic
 Option (c) is correct: organisms that have been deposited on
List I List II the ocean floor. Biogenic deposits
are referred to as oozes. There are
two different groups of biogenic oozes;
A. Siliceous Ooze 3. Diatoms calcareous oozes and siliceous oozes.
B. Mud 1. Blue, green or red  Biogenic deposits of biogenic oozes cover
C. Pteropod Ooze 2. Calcareous almost three quarters of the ocean floor.
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 The ooze is said to be calcareous bottom horizons restricts the infiltration
when the shell is made of calcium of water, and as such when irrigation is
carbonate. The calcareous ooze made available, the soil moisture is readily
may be either pteropod ooze or available for sustainable plant growth.
globogerina ooze.
 Arid soils are characteristically developed
 When the shell is made of silica, in western Rajasthan, which exhibits
the ooze is said to be siliceous ooze, characteristic arid topography. These soils
which can be either the diatom type are poor and contain little humus and
or the radiolarian type of ooze. organic matter.

99. Correct Option: (a) 100. Correct Option: (d)


Explanation: Explanation:
 Option (a) is correct: Desert or Arid soil  All statements are correct
has a high salt content such that common
salt can be obtained by evaporating the Supplementary notes:
saline water. Factors determining the climate of India
Supplementary notes: The following three factors related to air

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pressure and wind play a major role in
Desert or Arid Soil
influencing the local climates of India:
 Arid soils range from red to brown in color.
 Distribution of air pressure and winds
They are generally sandy in structure and
on the surface of the earth.
saline in nature.
 Upper air circulation caused by
 In some areas, the salt content is so
factors controlling global weather and
high that common salt is obtained by
evaporating the saline water. Due to
O the inflow of different air masses and jet
streams.
the dry climate, high temperature and
accelerated evaporation, they lack  The inflow of western cyclones
moisture and humus. generally known as disturbances
SC
during the winter season and tropical
 Nitrogen is insufficient and the phosphate
depressions during the south-west
content is normal. Lower horizons of the soil
monsoon period into India, creating
are occupied by ‘kankar’ layers because of
weather conditions favourable to
the increasing calcium content downwards.
rainfall.
The ‘Kankar’ layer formation in the
GS

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