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National Polytechnic of Bamenda

LIGHTING MONITOR DESIGN AND


IMPLEMENTATION

By Guy Rostand KOUGANG

July 2014
ABSTRACT

In most public and multipurpose places, the lighting management is badly done. From
these observations, the electrical energy is misused, therefore wasted and the electric
bill is mostly higher than expected. We have proposed a lighting monitoring system
which can be used to supervise the lighting according to types of activities and
occupancy of the working space. This monitor functions as expected; it is therefore the
good equipment which can be used in our environment. This equipment helps in
reducing the energy consumption, setting proper illumination for specified activities,
saving people from 220V hazards (used of 5Vdc button instead of 220Vac switch).
The programming flexibility of our equipment gives it the capability to be adapted
from one lighting space to another.

Key words: Illumination, lighting, monitoring, multipurpose space, standards

i
Résumé

L’éclairage est le plus souvent mal géré dans les milieux publics. Ainsi l’énergie est
mal utilisée et donc gâchée conduisant à des factures énergétiques plus élevées
qu’espérées. Nous avons proposé un système de control de l’éclairage qui peut être
utilisé pour la supervision de cet éclairage selon les types d’activités et l’occupation de
l’espace concerné. Ce contrôleur fonctionne comme prévu, c’est donc un bon
équipement qui peut être utilisé dans notre environnement. Cet équipement permet de
réduire la consommation énergétique, produire une propre illumination pour chaque
type d’activité, sécurise les occupants des contacts 220Vac par l’usage plutôt des
interrupteurs 5Vdc. La flexibilité de son programme lui donne la capacité d’être adapté
à d’autres environnements.

Mots clés: Illumination, éclairage, supervision, espace multitâche, norme

ii
Table of Contents
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................i
Résumé............................................................................................................................................... ii
Table of Contents............................................................................................................................... iii
List of figures ...................................................................................................................................... v
List of tables ...................................................................................................................................... vi
List of abreviations............................................................................................................................ vii
List of variables ................................................................................................................................ viii
CHAPTER 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................1
1-Background and context of the study ...........................................................................................1
2-Problem statement ......................................................................................................................1
3-Research question .......................................................................................................................1
4-Research hypothesis ....................................................................................................................2
5-Scope and objectives of the study ................................................................................................2
6-Achievements ..............................................................................................................................2
7-Overview of Dissertation..............................................................................................................2
8-Definition of terms [3]........................................................................... Erreur ! Signet non défini.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ....................................................................................4
Introduction........................................................................................................................................4
I Lighting standards and codes .......................................................................................................4
1. Review of lighting standards worldwide..................................................................................4
2. Room illumination level ...........................................................................................................5
II. Light Sensors ...................................................................................................................................9
1. Classi cation of Photo-electric devices ........................................................................................9
2- The Photoconductive Cell..........................................................................................................10
3-Photojunction Devices ............................................................................................................... 11
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................12
CHAPTER 3: MATERIAL AND METHODS ............................................................................................. 14
Introduction......................................................................................................................................14
I-Block diagram .................................................................................................................................14
II-Description of the block diagram ................................................................................................... 14
1-Environment ..............................................................................................................................14
2-Sensing ...................................................................................................................................... 15
3-Conditioning ..............................................................................................................................15

iii
Digitally signed by
Guy Rostand
KOUGANG
DN: cn=Guy Rostand
KOUGANG, c=CM,
ou=GEDH,
email=g.rostandkouga
ng@gmail.com
Reason: J'ai revu ce
document
Location: gauche
Date: 2020.03.23

4-Processing..................................................................................................................................15
22:44:47 +01'00'

5-Design of the block diagram .......................................................................................................16


a-The electrical installation design [6],[7] .................................................................................. 16
b- Lamps combination to obtain illumination levels...................................................................18
c- Sensor mathematical models.................................................................................................18
d- Switching .............................................................................................................................. 19
e-The supply: ............................................................................................................................20
III-General layout of the monitoring device ....................................................................................... 20
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................23
CHAPTER 4: SIMULATION, REALIZATION AND RESULTS ANALYSIS...................................................... 24
Introduction:..................................................................................................................................... 24
I-Presentation of the simulation........................................................................................................ 24
1- Softwares used .........................................................................................................................24
2- Proteus layout and description of the project............................................................................24
3- Description of the functioning ...................................................................................................25
II- Simulation and realization results .................................................................................................26
1-Simulation .................................................................................................................................26
2- Realized monitor.......................................................................................................................29
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................32
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.........................................................................33
RECOMMENDATION .........................................................................................................................33
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES .............................................................................................. 34
CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................................34
REFERENCES .....................................................................................................................................35
APPENDIX 1 ......................................................................................................................................36

iv
List of figures

1Figure 3.1 : Block diagram of the system ........................................................................................ 14


2Figure 3.2: Lamps dispositions ........................................................................................................ 17
3Figure 3.4: DC supply .....................................................................................................................20
4Figure 3.5: General layout of the circuit ..........................................................................................20
5Figure 4.1: General layout of the simulation file .............................................................................. 25
6Figure 4.2: System state in the absence of a person. ......................................................................... 27
7Figure 4.3: PIR=1 actual lux=90, B1B0=01, LB=on ........................................................................ 28
8Figure 4.4: PIR=1 actual lux=120, B1B0=01, LA=on ...................................................................... 28
9Figure 4.5 : The lighting ceases after a certain delay (1min) of no occupancy(PIR=0) ...................... 29
10Figure 4.6: Realized light monitor ................................................................................................. 31

v
List of tables

1Table 1.1: Room illumination level (IES standards) ...........................................................................5


2Table 3.1 : Type of activities ...........................................................................................................16
3Table 3.2: illumination levels and number of 45 W, 5lm/W lamps [5]..............................................17
4Table 3.3: Lamps combinations for illumination levels .................................................................... 18
5Table 3.4: button correspondances .................................................................................................. 19
6Table 3.5: list of materials ...............................................................................................................21

vi
List of abreviations

CIE: Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage,

ISO: International Standard Organisation,

NF EN: Norme Française pour l’Electronique,

IESNA: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America,

LDR: Light Dependent Resistor,

LED: Light Emitting Diode,

ADC: Analog to Digital Converter,

Xmer: Transformer,

PIR: Presence Infra-Red sensor

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List of variables

LOP: lumen output per lamp

PL: power output per lamp

A: Square area
P: depreciation factor,
: utilization factor,
E: Expected illuminations,
: total lumens,
RLDR: LDR resistance
k: constant
Rdark: darkness resistance of the LDR
: LDR output voltage
: 5Vdc voltage
Q: Quantum from ADC conversion
VRPM: Repetitive Peak Maximum voltage,

viii
CHAPTER 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1-Background and context of the study

In most public places as in HTTTC Bambili, we have noticed that the lighting if often
on even if not necessary (e.g.: light is on while a hall is not occupied or the ambient
light is sufficient for the particular activity being carried in this space at specific
moment), while sometime the lighting is off when it is supposed to be on (yard
lighting should be on for certain time in the night and off during the day time).
From these observations, the electrical energy is misused, therefore wasted and the
electric bill is mostly higher than expected.

2-Problem statement

With the entire above mentioned context which is common in many public places,
there is need to introduce a light monitor to supervise the lighting. We have decided to
bring in our contribution by means of Design and realization of a public space lighting
monitor which will help to reduce the inconveniences faced in such environments:
Reducing the risk of overloading the supply appliances,
Reducing the risk of working under improper light conditions,
Reducing the man work force (manual monitoring),
Implementing the conservative approach of energy management.

3-Research question

Is our device going to be useful, easy to use, practicable, reliable, valid and accessible
to the community? At the end of our work we shall be able to answer these questions.

1
4-Research hypothesis

For our work, we assume that our device:


Is not going to bring in light perturbations (negative impact on quality) of the
lighting,
Is not going to over consume energy,
Is not going to be cumbersome.

5-Scope and objectives of the study

This research is aimed at conceiving, designing and realizing a lighting system


monitoring device. Therefore we are:
-To come out with a tool able to set standard light levels for particular activities,
-To bring out a tool able to switch the light according to the place occupation and
ambient light.

6-Achievements

We achieve to come out with a tool in which users should be able:


-To enter the type of activity to be carried in the relevant space,
-To choose between automatic or manual monitoring,
-To be adapted in other spaces.

7-Overview of Dissertation

In the world many researchers have work on light sensing application [1], [2]. Actually
they are many applications of light monitoring on the market but accessibility (cost)
and adaptability to our local environment are some of their limitations. Therefore our
work is not only to master the technology but also to overcome the limitations of the

2
existing in our localities by bringing out a device which is accessible and adaptive to
our local environment.

3
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction
In this chapter, we present the lighting (illumination) standards and the light sensors
technologies.

I Lighting standards and codes

1. Review of lighting standards worldwide


The major international organization in charge of coordinating the management of
standards, recommendations, and technical reports in the field of lighting is the
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE). The CIE has published several
recommendations for indoor lighting and has contributed to a joint ISO-CIE standard
ISO 8995-1 (CIE, 2001/ISO 2002) concerning indoor working places.

The CIE publications related to indoor lighting are listed in appendix 1:

The recommendations of the CIE have been interpreted in different manners in


different countries. Hence some differences exist among lighting recommendations
worldwide. Furthermore, in the North America, the Illuminating Engineering Society
of North America (IESNA) is active in developing its own recommendations. The best
known documents are the IES (closer to NF EN 12464-1 [4]) Lighting Handbooks
which are regularly updated. The working groups of the IESNA have their own
references and it is quite typical that some approaches differ from those of the CIE.
For example, IESNA uses the term Visual Comfort Probability (VCP) for glare rating
issues, whereas the CIE glare rating is called the Unified Glare Ratio (UGR) (CIE
1995).

4
2. Room illumination level

1Table 1.1: Room illumination level (IES standards)

GENERAL IES GENERAL IES GENERAL IES


BUILDING STANDARDS BUILDING STANDARDS BUILDING STANDARDS
AREAS ILLUMINATION AREAS ILLUMINATION AREAS ILLUMINATION
LEVEL (lux) LEVEL (lux) LEVEL (lux)
PUBLIC AND OFFICE LAUNDRIES &
EDUCATIONAL DRY CLEANING
BUILDING WORKS
ASSEMBLY AND
CONCERT HALLS
Theatre and concert 100 General office 500 Receiving, sorting, 300
halls with mainly washing,
clerical drying, ironing
task and (clending) dispatch,
typing office drying cleaning,
bulk machine work
Cinemas 50 Deep plan 750 STAFF ROOM

5
general
offices
Multipurpose 500 Business 750 Changing locker 150
machine and and cleaner's room,
typing cloakrooms
lavatories
FURTHER Conference 750 MEDICAL AND
EDUCATION rooms FIRST AIDS
ESTABLISHMENT CENTRES
Lecture theatres 500 ENTRANCES Consultant room, 500
general treatment areas
Chalkboard 500 Entrance 150 Medical stores 100
halls, lobbies,
waiting rooms
Demonstration 500 Enquiry desk 500 CIRCULATION
benches AREA
Examination halls, 500 Gate houses 300 Corridors, Passage 100
seminar way
rooms, teaching
spaces

6
Laboratories 500 OUTDOOR Lift 150
LIBRARIES Controlled 150 Stairs 150
entrance halls
or exit gate
Shelves, book stack 150 Entrance and 30 Escalator 150
exit car park
Reading table 300 MUSEUM External Covered 30
AND ART Ways
GALLERIES
GENERAL
Reading rooms, 300 Exhibits 300 FURTHER
newspaper insensitive to EDUCATION
and magazines light ESTABLISHMENT
Reference libraries 500 Light 150 Workshop 300
sensitive
exhibits
Counters 500 Specially light 50 Staff rooms, student 300
sensitive rooms\students
exhibit
Cataloging and 500 SCHOOL hostels etc 300

7
sorting
Binding 500 Assembly 300 Gymnasium 300
halls general
Closed book store 100 Teaching 300
spaces general

8
II. Light Sensors
The Light Sensor is a passive devices that convert this “light energy” whether visible
or in the infra-red parts of the spectrum into an electrical signal output. Light sensors
are more commonly known as “Photoelectric Devices” or “Photo Sensors” because the
convert light energy (photons) into electricity (electrons).

Photoelectric devices can be grouped into two main categories, those which generate
electricity when illuminated, such as Photo-voltaics or Photo-emissives etc, and those
which change their electrical properties in some way such as Photo-resistors or Photo-
conductors. This leads to the following classi cation of devices.

1. Classi cation of Photo-electric devices

• Photo-emissive Cells – These are photo-devices which release free electrons from a
light sensitive material when struck by a photon of su cient energy. The amount of
energy the photons have depends on the frequency of the light and the higher the
frequency, the more energy the photons have converting light energy into electrical
energy.

• Photo-conductive Cells – These photo-devices vary their electrical resistance when


subjected to light. Photoconductivity results from light hitting a semiconductor
material which controls the current ow through it. Thus, more light increase the
current for a given applied voltage. The most common photoconductive material is
Cadmium Sulphide used in LDR photocells.

• Photo-voltaic Cells – These photo-devices generate an emf in proportion to the


radiant light energy received and is similar in e ect to photoconductivity. Light energy
falls on to two semiconductor materials sandwiched together creating a voltage of
approximately 0.5V. The most common photovoltaic material is Selenium used in
solar cells.

• Photo-junction Devices – These photo-devices are mainly true semiconductor


devices such as the photodiode or phototransistor which use light to control the ow of

9
electrons and holes across their PN-junction. Photo-junction devices are speci cally
designed for detector application and light penetration with their spectral response
tuned to the wavelength of incident light.

2- The Photoconductive Cell

A Photoconductive light sensor does not produce electricity but simply changes its
physical properties when subjected to light energy. The most common type of
photoconductive device is the Photoresistor which changes its electrical resistance in
response to changes in the light intensity.

Photo-resistors are Semiconductor devices that use light energy to control the ow of
electrons, and hence the current owing through them. The commonly used
Photoconductive Cell is called the Light Dependent Resistor or LDR.

The Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)

As its name implies, the Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is made from a piece of
exposed semiconductor material such as cadmium sulphide that changes its electrical
resistance from several thousand Ohms in the dark to only a few hundred Ohms when
light falls upon it by creating hole-electron pairs in the material.

The net e ect is an improvement in its conductivity with a decrease in resistance for
an increase in illumination. Also, photoresistive cells have a long response time
requiring many seconds to respond to a change in the light intensity.

Materials used as the semiconductor substrate include, lead sulphide (PbS), lead
selenide (PbSe), indium antimonide (InSb) which detect light in the infra-red range
with the most commonly used of all photoresistive light sensors being Cadmium
Sulphide (Cds).

10
Cadmium sulphide is used in the manufacture of photoconductive cells because its
spectral response curve closely matches that of the human eye and can even be
controlled using a simple torch as a light source.

Typically then, it has a peak sensitivity wavelength ( p) of about 560nm to 600nm in


the visible spectral range.

The most commonly used photoresistive light sensor is the ORP12 Cadmium Sulphide
photoconductive cell. This light dependent resistor has a spectral response of about
610nm in the yellow to orange region of light. The resistance of the cell when
unilluminated (dark resistance) is very high at about 10M ’s which falls to about
100 ’s when fully illuminated (lit resistance).

To increase the dark resistance and therefore reduce the dark current, the resistive path
forms a zigzag pattern across the ceramic substrate. The CdS photocell is a very low
cost device often used in auto dimming, darkness or twilight detection for turning the
street lights “ON” and “OFF”, and for photographic exposure meter type applications.

Connecting a light dependant resistor in series with a standard resistor like this across
a single DC supply voltage has one major advantage, a di erent voltage will appear at
their junction for di erent levels of light.

The amount of voltage drop across series resistor, R is determined by the resistive
value of the light dependant resistor, R . This ability to generate di erent voltages
produces a very handy circuit called a “Potential Divider” or Voltage Divider
Network.

As we know, the current through a series circuit is common and as the LDR changes
its resistive value due to the light intensity, the voltage present at V will be determined
by the voltage divider formula. An LDR’s resistance, R can vary from about 100 ’s in
the sun light, to over 10M ’s in absolute darkness with this variation of resistance
being converted into a voltage variation at Vout.

3-Photojunction Devices

11
Photojunction Devices are basically PN-Junction light sensors or detectors made from
silicon semiconductor PN-junctions which are sensitive to light and which can detect
both visible light and infra-red light levels. Photo-junction devices are speci cally
made for sensing light and this class of photoelectric light sensors include the
Photodiode and the Phototransistor.

The Photodiode.

The construction of the Photodiode light sensor is similar to that of a conventional PN-
junction diode except that the diodes outer casing is either transparent or has a clear
lens to focus the light onto the PN junction for increased sensitivity. The junction will
respond to light particularly longer wavelengths such as red and infra-red rather than
visible light.

This characteristic can be a problem for diodes with transparent or glass bead bodies
such as the 1N4148 signal diode.

LED’s can also be used as photodiodes as they can both emit and detect light from
their junction. All PN-junctions are light sensitive and can be used in a photo-
conductive unbiased voltage mode with the PN-junction of the photodiode always
“Reverse Biased” so that only the diodes leakage or dark current can ow.

The current-voltage characteristic (I/V Curves) of a photodiode with no light on its


junction (dark mode) is very similar to a normal signal or rectifying diode. When the
photodiode is forward biased, there is an exponential increase in the current, the same
as for a normal diode. When a reverse bias is applied, a small reverse saturation
current appears which causes an increase of the depletion region, which is the sensitive
part of the junction. Photodiodes can also be connected in a current mode using a xed
bias voltage across the junction. The current mode is very linear over a wide range.

Conclusion

12
The proper illumination of a working space for each activity type is very important. In
this chapter, we have presented the illumination reference values for each activity type
and the light sensor existing technologies.

13
CHAPTER 3: MATERIAL AND METHODS

Introduction

The monitoring of the light of an environment is necessary in each area where the
lighting standard is respected and the energy economy also applied. In this chapter we
present the materials used to monitor our lighting system.

I-Block diagram

Environment Sensing Conditioning Processing Switching

1Figure 3.1 : Block diagram of the system

II-Description of the block diagram

1-Environment

The environment is a public place where specific activities can be held. Therefore, to
follow the lighting standard, each activity illumination level should e accommodated
by means of switching on or off the relative lamps. The occupation of the space should
also be taken into consideration so that when the space is not occupied, the artificial
light should be off or reduced after a certain time delay. We assume that the electrical
installation has been designed so that each targeted illumination level can be achieved
by choosing the right combination states of lamps switches [8].
To resume, the environment is light level constrained depending on the activity type.
The presence of a person should give the floor to the light to be switched; after 30 min
absence of occupants, the light should go off.

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2-Sensing

For proper monitoring, the illumination levels required for each activity which can be
held in the space, there is a need to:
-sense the actual illumination level to be compare with the relevant activity
illumination reference level and take a decision on the switches states.
-sense the space occupancy [4], if the place is not occupied for certain time period, the
illumination should be ceased.
-transfer the type of activity being held
The activity type is entered manually by the user through a keyboard. The light level is
sensed by means of LDR.

3-Conditioning

As the processing block deals only with digital signal while the sensors outputs are
analog, the need of analog to digital conversion is inescapable.

4-Processing

Here, the digitalized signals from sensors are analyzed and compared to reference
values in a microcontroller with an ADC incorporated [9]. From the comparison result,
a decision is taken about the lamp switching sequence in order to meet the illumination
requirements for the current activity.
Switching
The switching is there to switch on or off the lamps according to the processing block
output.

15
5-Design of the block diagram

a-The electrical installation design [6],[7]

We have chosen an environment where the different types of activities requires the
illumination levels of 300 lux, 150 lux, 100 lux and 50 lux.
Calculation of the number of lamps
We intend to use lamps of following characteristics PL=40W, lumen output per lamp
LOP = PL*5 lumen/W
For our sample, we choose a unity space ratio, 1 m height, square area of A= 1 m²,
depreciation factor p=0.75, utilization factor =0.6.
Expected illuminations E1=300 lux, E2=150 lux, E3=100 lux, E4=50 lux

2Table 3.1 : Type of activities

Keyboard button states Type of activity Illumination


B1B0 level E(lux)
11 Reading table, 300
teaching space,
Assembly halls
general
10 Light sensitive 150
exhibits
01 Theatre and concert 100
halls
00 Specially light 50
sensitive exhibit,
Cinemas

The total lumens :


= E*A/(p* )

16
Number of lamps required: NL = /LOP
3Table 3.2: illumination levels and number of 45 W, 5lm/W lamps [5]

E (lux) NL
300 4
150 3
100 2
50 1
Lamp installation layout

2Figure 3.2: Lamps dispositions

17
b- Lamps combination to obtain illumination levels

4Table 3.3: Lamps combinations for illumination levels

Illumination (lux) Lamps combinations


300 L7, L8, L9, L10
150 L1, L2, L3
100 L4, L5
50 L6

c- Sensor mathematical models

The resistance of an LDR decreases proportionally to its environment illumination.


The mathematical equation of its resistance as function of illumination is:
RLDR= -k.E +Rdark
Where R is the resistance in Ohms, k a constant, E the illumination (lux), Rdark the
resistance of the LDR in the darkness.
We can therefore use this light behavior of the LDR to sense the illumination of the
environment in which the LDR is exposed.
By supplying the LDR with a constant dc voltage through a resistance, the voltage
divider output can be used to read the voltage output of the LDR by the formula:

=
+
By replacing by its above expression, we obtain:

=
. +
1
So, as the illumination increases, decreases; they vary in opposite directions.

18
Figure 3.3: LDR connection
VDD=5V;
Computation of the numerical values of the converted voltage (8 bit conversion ADC).

5Table 3.4: button correspondances

Keyboard button states Illumination level VLDR_num (by measurement of


B1B0 E(lux) voltage then computation of the
digital value)
11 300 329
10 150 475
01 100 563
00 50 704

8 bits ADC Conversion formula


Q=VDD/255
Vnum= VLDR/Q
Occupancy sensor
It should sense a human presence in the relevant space (emission of infra-red invisible
wave of 9.3 µm wave length) within a distance of up to 6m. The output voltage is
either logic zero or logic one.

d- Switching

The switches are electrically managed, we use transistors switched relay of 10A, 12V.

19
e-The supply:

The integrated circuits to be used are of 5V dc supply and relays are of 12 Vdc supply.
So we have to implement two dc regulated supplies of 12V and 5 V, 1A. The
transformer is a 220V/2x12V, rectification diodes 24VRPM, 1A.

3Figure 3.4: DC supply

III-General layout of the monitoring device

4Figure 3.5: General layout of the circuit

20
NB: The occupancy sensor not existing in proteus library, we have replace it by a logic
switch PIR
List of materials

6Table 3.5: list of materials

Item Designation Quantity features


1 Potential transformer 1 220V/12x2V
2 Diode 4 24VRPM, 1A
3 Free wheel Diode 5 5VRPM, 10mA
4 LED 7 5VRPM, 10mA
5 Regulator 2 12Vdc, 5Vdc
6 Capacitors 4 6.3V, Ceramic 3 Electrolytic
and 3 ordinary
capacitor,
values as
presented on
figure 3.5
7 resistors 14 25mW , Values of
ceramic resistance as
on figure 3.5
8 Relays 5 12V, 16A, two
ways
9 Transistors 5 NPN, 5V
10 LDR 1 25mW, 5V
11 Microcontroller 1 PIC16F88

21
The flow chart of the program

Start

Special registers configuration

No Is a person
present?

Yes

Read the type of activity and look


for the reference Eref level

Read the actual E

Is the actual E No
greater than Eref?
E : Illumination
Switch for E ref
Eref : Illumination reference
Yes

Switch for a reduced E

Is a person present? No

Wait few minutes like 30min

Yes

Is a person present? No

Switch off the lighting

Yes

22
Conclusion

In this chapter we have presented the material and methods used in the monitoring of
our lighting. The space occupancy, the type of activity being held, the illumination
level is considered in the design. The following chapter will deal with the simulation
and result analysis of the work done.

23
CHAPTER 4: SIMULATION, REALIZATION AND RESULTS ANALYSIS

Introduction:
In the previous chapter, we have prepared the materials for monitoring the lighting of a
public space. The illumination level when each activity is being done in this space
should meet the illumination constraint relative to that activity. In this chapter, we
present the simulation and realized project for this purpose.

I-Presentation of the simulation

1- Softwares used

The simulation has been done using ‘MikroC Pro for Pic’ and ‘Proteus’ softwares.
MikroC Pro for Pic has been used in programming the microcontroller PIC16F88 in C
language. Proteus has been used to simulate our equipment in which the .hex file from
the MicroC Pro for Pic is loaded in the PIC.

2- Proteus layout and description of the project


The proteus layout of the project is presented in the figure bellow.

24
5Figure 4.1: General layout of the simulation file

3- Description of the functioning

The supply:

We have an ac supply delivered by the 220 Vac source for the light installation. A
transformer Xmer steps down the voltage to 24V, the bridge (D1 to D4) rectifies the
Xmer output and produces a voltage between 12 to 24 volt dc. The regulator U1
outputs 12Vdc to energize the relays and regulator U2 outputs 5Vdc to supply the
remaining circuit blocks. Capacitors C1 and C3 serve to stabilize the voltage while C2
and C4 serves to remove noise from the voltage. Led2 stands to signal the presence of
supply. The keyboard is made up of buttons B1 and B0 which are used to enter the
type of activity therefore the illumination level as presented on the table in the
simulation.

25
The occupancy sensor not being available in proteus library and in the local market, as
its output is logic 1 when a person is present and the output is 0 in the absence of a
person, we have substituted it by a push button PIR.

The LDR senses the illumination, its resistance varies according to the amount of
illumination, the analog output voltage is then processed in the PIC which analyses the
actual illumination and the target illumination (from B1B0 value) then choose a proper
lamp combination to be lighted to provide the targeted illumination. LED1 is on in the
presence of a person and off in his absence. LED4, LED5, LED6 and LED7 serve to
indicate the energized relay. Relay RL1, RL2, RL3 and RL4 serve to switch lamp LA,
LB, LC and LD respectively. When a B1B0 combination is chosen, if the actual
illumination is not up to the expected one, the default setting for that button will be
selected, if not a setting of lower illumination will be chosen. Relay RL5 serves to
switch the lighting system, that is when a person is present, it switches on the
installation. When it is off, the lighting cannot be done. When someone is present for a
while then leaves the space, if after a certain programmable time delay (30min) no
person if found in the space, the system cease the light.

II- Simulation and realization results

1-Simulation

In the absence of a person (PIR open), the lighting is off as presented on figure 4.2.

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6Figure 4.2: System state in the absence of a person.

In the presence of a person, for each setting, of B1B0=01 (for 50 lux) the
corresponding lighting level is chosen, if the actual illumination does not meet the
requirement the default lamp combination is chosen through LB as presented on figure
4.3. If the illumination level is greater than the expected one (presence of extra light
source) a low illumination setting of lamps is chosen as presented on figure 4.4. When
the space is not occupied the lighting ceases as presented on figure 4.5.

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7Figure 4.3: PIR=1 actual lux=90, B1B0=01, LB=on

8Figure 4.4: PIR=1 actual lux=120, B1B0=01, LA=on

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9Figure 4.5 : The lighting ceases after a certain delay (1min) of no
occupancy(PIR=0)

2- Realized monitor

We have realized this light monitor as shown on the figure bellow:

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(a) Printed Circuit Board

(b) 3D visualization

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(c) Realized board

(b) box

10Figure 4.6: Realized light monitor

Test results

We have tested the realized monitor and it functions as presented in the simulation (see
figure 4.2 to 4.5).

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a-Advantages
The use of this monitor in monitoring the lighting has the following advantages:
- Selection of proper illumination level for each activity (enhance the visibility on the
work station),
- Reduction of the energy consumption and therefore the energy bill, (the monitor
consumed energy is by far lower than the saved energy),
- Switching off of the lighting when no necessary or in the absence of persons,
- The human electric shock risk is reduced (use of 5Vdc buttons than 220Vac
switches),
-It can be reprogrammed for other illuminations levels.

b- Drawbacks

This monitor has the following limitations:

-noises from relays,

-Needs a proper setting of the lighting installation (to have facilities in choosing a
specific lamps combination for each activity).

- Produces 3rd harmonics in the network due to its electronic components.

Conclusion
We have presented in this chapter the simulation and the realized piece of the light
monitor capable of setting the proper illumination level for four types of activities. The
realized piece functions as expected and its advantages take over its drawbacks.
Therefore this can be used in monitoring multipurpose spaces.

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CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

In most public and multipurpose places, the lighting if often on even if when not
necessary and the lighting management is badly done. From these observations, the
electrical energy is misused, therefore wasted and the electric bill is mostly higher than
expected. With the above mentioned context, we have proposed a lighting monitoring
system which can be used to supervise the lighting according to types of activities and
occupancy of the working space. This monitor functions as expected; it is therefore a
good equipment which can be used in our environment. It has the following
advantages:
- Selection of proper illumination level for each activity (enhance the visibility on the
work station),
- Reduction of the energy consumption and therefore the energy bill, (the monitor
consumed energy is by far lower than the saved energy),
- Switching off of the lighting when no necessary or in the absence of persons,
- The human electric shock risk is reduced (use of 5Vdc buttons than 220Vac
switches),
-It can be reprogrammed for other illuminations levels.
It has some drawbacks like – production of noises from relays, -Needs a proper setting
of the lighting installation (to have facilities in choosing a specific lamps combination
for each activity), -production of 3rd harmonics in the local network.

RECOMMENDATION

This work has presented the roots of designing and realizing a lighting monitor and the
realized piece functions well. We therefore recommend this equipment to any

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multipurpose space for proper use of electrical energy and illumination levels for each
type of activity.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES

For further work, we suggest expanding this study to shed multi-purpose space and
also time based light monitoring.

CONCLUSION

Our main objective was to monitor the lighting of a multipurpose space. We have
designed, simulated and realized a lighting monitor capable of setting proper
illumination for four types of activities and automatic switching on and off the lighting
installation as a person is present or absent respectively. This equipment helps in
reducing the energy consumption, setting proper illumination for specified activities,
saving people from 220V hazards (used of 5Vdc button instead of 220Vac switch).
The programming flexibility of our equipment gives it the capability to be adapted
from one lighting space to another.

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REFERENCES

1- Colin Mitchell (2000), ‘200 Transistor circuits’, Talking Electronics,


2- W. Prevost (2004),’Lektronik 8’, shareware
3- Stan Gibilisco (2001), ‘The Illustrated Dictionary of Electronics’, Eighth
Edition, McGraw-Hill
4- Thomas Petruzzellis (2004), ‘The alarm, sensor and security circuit cookbook’,
MC Graw Hill, chapt. 3
5- Schneider (2012), ‘Circuits d’éclairage, choix, dimensionnement et conseils
pratiques’
6- IES (2008), ‘Activities and illumination levels’
7- Teraja (2007), ‘Electrical technology’, chapter 49 (Illumination)
8- Thierry Gallauziaux & David Fedullo (2010), ‘L’installation électrique’.
Comme Un Pro
9- Microship (2003), ‘PIC16F87/88 Data sheet 18/20/28-Pin Enhanced FLASH
Microcontrollers with nanoWatt Technology’

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APPENDIX 1
The CIE publications related to indoor lighting are listed below:

CIE 49-1981: Guide on the Emergency Lighting of Building Interiors

CIE 52-1982: Calculations for Interior Lighting: Applied Method

CIE 55-1983: Discomfort Glare in the Interior Working Environment

CIE 60-1984: Vision and the Visual Display Unit Work Station

CIE 117-1995: Discomfort Glare in Interior Lighting

CIE 123-1997: Low vision - Lighting Needs for the Partially Sighted

CIE S 008/E: 2001/ISO 8995-1:2002(E): Lighting of Work Places - Part 1: Indoor

CIE 146/147:2002 : CIE Collection on Glare 2002

CIE 161:2004: Lighting Design Methods for Obstructed Interiors

CIE S 010/E:2004/ ISO 23539:2005(E): Photometry - The CIE System of Physical


Photometry

CIE 097:2005: Maintenance of Indoor Electric Lighting Systems, 2nd Edition

CIE S 009 / E:2002 / IEC 62471:2006: Photobiological Safety of Lamps and Lamp
Systems

ISO 11664-2:2008(E)/CIE S 014-2/E:2006: CIE Standard llluminants for Colorimetry

CIE 184:2009: Indoor Daylight Illuminants

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