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# BIOFERMENTORS/BIOCHEMICAL

REACTORS
Assistant Professor
Continuous Bioreactors
Chemostats are essentially CSTRs that contain
microorganisms. A typical chemostat is shown in
Figure, along with the associated monitoring
equipment and pH controller. One of the most
important features of the chemostat is that it
allows the operator to control the cell growth
r a t e . T h i s
control of the growth rate is achieved by
adjusting the volumetric feed rate (dilution
rate).
Batch Bioreactor/ Fermenter
DESIGN EQUATION
 In these design equations three important
parameters like max. rate of cell production
(DCc), Concentration of cell (Cc) and conc. of
substrate (CS) will be related as a function of
dilution rate (D).
 The dilution rate is simply the reciprocal of
the space time.
CSTR Mass Balances
 Cell Balance

 Substrate Balance
CSTR Mass Balances
 Using Monod equation, the growth rate is
determined

----------(3)

----------(4)

##  For steady state operation, we have;

&

DCc = rg – rd -------------------(5)
CSTR Mass Balances
 Combine equation (3) and (5) for steady state
operation to obtain the mass flow rate of cells
out of the system

 After we divide by

CSTR Mass Balances
 Inspection of Equation (8) reveals that the
specific growth rate of cells can be controlled
by operator, by controlling the dilution rate
“D”.
 Using Equation (4) to substitute for “µ” in
terms of substrate concentration and solving
for steady state substrate concentration (CS).
CSTR Mass Balances
CSTR Mass Balances
 Assuming that a single nutrient is limiting
cell growth, is the only process contributing
to substrate utilization and that cell
maintenance can be neglected, the stoichiometry
is
 Using the value of CS from equation (9) and put
in (12)

##  After solving we get

WASH OUT
 To learn the effect of increasing the dilution
rate, we combine equation (1) and (3) and set
rd = 0 to get

## As we know from equation (3) rg = µCC

WASH OUT
 We see that if D > µ, then dC C /dt will be
negative and cell concentration will continue
to decrease until we reach a point where all
cells will be washed out and
CC = 0
 The dilution rate at which wash out will occur
is obtained from equation (14) by setting CC= 0
WASH OUT
 We next want to determine the other extreme
conditions for the dilution rate, which is the
rate of maximum cell production. The cell
production rate per unit volume of reactor is
the mass flow rate of cells out of the reactor
WASH OUT
 Substituting for Cc
yields; [from (13)]

##  Figure shows production

rate, cell concentration,
a n d s u b s t r a t e
concentration as
f u n c t i o n s o f d i lu t i o n
r a t e .
WASH OUT
 We observe a maximum in the production rate and
this maximum can be found by differentiating
production rate with respect to the dilution
rate D

 Put

##  Then on simplification and differentiation

equation (18) we get
MAXIMUM VALUE OF PRODUCTION
RATE BY OPTIMIZATION

##  Taking Derivative w.r.t D & Put it to Zero

MAXIMUM VALUE OF PRODUCTION
RATE BY OPTIMIZATION
MAXIMUM VALUE OF PRODUCTION
RATE BY OPTIMIZATION
MAXIMUM VALUE OF PRODUCTION
RATE BY OPTIMIZATION
MAXIMUM VALUE OF PRODUCTION
RATE BY OPTIMIZATION
MAXIMUM VALUE OF PRODUCTION
RATE BY OPTIMIZATION
 The Final Expression is