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Enlargement Network for Agripolicy Analysis



Work Package WP2: Studies

Deliverable D2.2 Study 2
Coordinators Axel Wolz, Klaus Reinsberg, Gertrud Buchenrieder (IAMO)


This report forms part of the deliverables from a project called "AgriPolicy" which has been
awarded financial support by the European Commission under the 7th Framework

The project aims to establish a network of experts involved in agricultural policy analysis and
rural development in the 12 New Member States, in 8 Candidate and Pre Candidate Countries.
More information on the project can be found at www.agripolicy.net .

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1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 5
2 Overview of the use and relevance of renewable energies ................................................ 7
2.1 Relevance of renewable energies in national energy supply...................................... 7
2.1.1 Production and share in total electricity supply ................................................. 9
2.2 Sources of renewable energies: implications for farms ........................................... 11
2.2.1 Biomass for energy production ........................................................................ 11
2.2.2 Other energy sources: wind energy, solar energy, hydro-energy..................... 20
2.3 Main effects with respect to agricultural and forestry production ........................... 24
2.3.1 Change in land use patterns.............................................................................. 25
2.3.2 Change in cultivation practices, innovation and investments .......................... 25
2.4 Overview of the installations producing bio energy ................................................ 27
2.4.1 Number and capacity development over the last years .................................... 29
2.4.2 Relations with supplying farmers..................................................................... 31
3 National policy and concepts promoting renewable energies .......................................... 31
3.1 National policy ......................................................................................................... 32
3.2 National concepts and programmes ......................................................................... 33
4 Impact of the promotion of renewable energies............................................................... 35
4.1 Impact on the agricultural sector.............................................................................. 37
4.2 Impact on rural development.................................................................................... 37
5 Strengths and weaknesses of renewable energies ............................................................ 40
5.1 Strengths and weaknesses ........................................................................................ 40
5.2 Opportunities and Threats ........................................................................................ 41
6 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 43
Annex 1 Consulted literature List of Key interviewed persons .......................................... 45
Annex 3 List of internet sites .............................................................................................. 47

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List of abbreviations

CHP- Combined Heat and Power

CDM- Clean Development Mechanism
DSO- Distribution System Operator
GWh- Gigawatt-hour
EC- European Commission or Commission of the European Communities
EE- Energy Efficiency
ERC- Energy Regulatory Commission
Gcal- Gigacalorie
GHG- Green House Gases
HPP- Hydro Power Plant
Mtoe- Million tonnes of oil equivalent
RE- Renewable Energy
RES- Renewable Energy Sources
SHPP- Small Hydro Power Plants
SME- Small and medium enterprise
t- Ton
TJ- Тerajoule
toe – Ton of oil equivalent

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1 Introduction

Tradition and introduction of renewable energy resources, beside the utilization of hydro
power, has significant history in Serbia. During the 80’, following the pioneer attempts and
new technology developments at that time, Vojvodina Province Secretariat had a special fund
for support for utilization of renewable sources of energy. During this period biomass was
combusted in about 1200 boilers, mainly straw and leftovers from wood factories, and in
small amount mealie after harvesting. Also maize cob and sunflower heads were combusted
on industrial level. Total power of these facilities at that time was estimated on cca 140MW.
Today barely 25% of these facilities is still in function. Straw and mealie, sunflower heads,
leftovers from pruning of orchards and vineyard were used for briquette in several facilities
but none of these is in function today. At that period of time, construction of 9 biogas plants
was initiated in Serbia. Only one was accomplished and operated for several years, but none
of others were completed or utilized. Today none of these facilities is in function and the
existing equipment is out of date and in most cases can’t be used or modified.

Due to a low level of punishments for environment pollution, most of the farmers are not
pushed to invest in proper manure management, although there is a raising awareness among
farmers that this issue will become very important in near future. One of the problems is that
at this moment Serbian farmers are facing big challenges in the period of transition and
government has no sufficient funds to assist them. Having in mind the latest tendencies in EU
and the economic situation in the country, related to decrease of subsidies for agriculture
producers and the market turmoil’s of agriculture products, farmers are looking for new
resources and possibilities to increase farm income. Having the available support schemes
from the Government large number of farmers are introducing new actives on their farm
trying to provide an added value to their products. Knowing the tradition and good knowledge
of farmers about the possibilities for utilization of biomass, and latest more frequent dialogs
on this topic, more and more farmers are making inquiries’ about the possibilities and means
for introduction and utilization of agriculture biomass. Recognizing the importance of
implementation of modern technologies and frequent demands from farmers which are
interested in energy production, MAFWM organized the first conference on the topic- Green
Drop for the future in May 2006 - trying to bring some new developments in this sector in
Serbia, to a larger number of farmers. Several small workshops were held and some pilot
initiatives for construction of biogas plants were initiated in cooperation with foreign
consultants and potential investing companies, but none of them have initiated the process of

However, one of the obstacles for introduction of the proper support mechanism from the
Government is the lack of sound and valid Analysis of potentials on renewable resources in
Agriculture and available technologies. Also, the lacking elaboration of following legal
documents and regulations related to this issue is very big obstacle for faster introduction of
utilization of renewable energy resources in Serbia. Recently the Serbian government initiated
the preparation activities for elaboration of National Strategy for Renewable Energy

According to the Agreement on Energy Community of SEE Serbia is obliged to adopt EU

Directives related to utilization of renewable resources. At this moment the share of
renewable energy resources in Serbia is about 6% (including the big hydropower plant) and it
is estimated that that it will remain stable until 2015.

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Situation on EU directives related to RE in the country

• Directive 2001/77/EC on Promotion of electric energy from renewable resources on
international electro energy market. Serbia has prepared the plan for implementation of
this directive, although there are a lot of other obstacles that have to be resolved like
(nomination of national goal, establishment of support system and guaranties of origin,
green certificates, short and simple administrative procedures, definition of conditions for
attachment to the grid...)
• Directive 2003/30/EC on promotion of utilization of bio fuels or other renewable fuels for
transport. This regulation is referring to use of bio fuels on the market in share of 5.75%
related to total amount of fuels in traffic until the 2010. Serbia is in the preparation phase
for implementation of this directive.
• Directive 2001/80/EC on limited emission in the air from big facilities with combustion.
This directive is referring to big facilities for heating, thermo power of 50 MW. It is
prescribing the limit figures of emissions in the air for new and existing power plants. Full
implementation of this directive is planned for December 2017.
• Directive 1999/32/EC on reduction of sulphur in liquid fuel. Implementation of this
directive is planned for end of 2011, and it is referring to reduction of emissions and
introduction of limits for sulphur dioxide.
• Directive 96/61/EC on integrated protection and pollution control (IPPC directive). IPPC
Directive goal is to accomplish the integrated protection and monitoring of pollutions
caused by different activities (including the whole energy sector)

By signing of the Agreement on establishment of energy economic community of SEE and

EU, Serbia accepted the responsibility to apply directives linked to bigger utilization of
renewable resources (2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC).

In 2004 Law on integrated protection and pollution control was adopted but still some of the
by laws are missing for full implementation of this Law. Deadline for acquiring of the
integrated licence for existing enterprises and activities is year 2015.

Kyoto Protocol was ratified in the Parliament of Serbia in 2007. And establishment of the
CDM infrastructure, including the elaboration of CDM Strategy is in the process.

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2 Overview of the use and relevance of renewable energies

2.1 Relevance of renewable energies in national energy supply

From available statistic data, it can be seen that the share of renewable energy sources
(excluding large hydro power plants) is negligible. It is well-known fact that in the majority of
country households and even in some urban households, the wood is used for heating and
cooking. As there was no reliable information about that kind of consumption it was neglected
in this report.

Serbia has very diverse energy supply sector, composed of coal extraction, coal and hydro electricity
generation and oil and gas production. According to the energy balance, in 2006, total primary energy
supply in Serbia was 14.8 million toe. Coal represented 55% of primary energy balance in Serbia. It is
followed by oil (27%), gas (13%) and renewable sources (6%) as presented in the Figure 1.
Figure 2. Indicates the balance of domestic production compared with import of energy
depending of the source of energy.

Figure 1. Quantitative data considering energy consumption

Source: Market survey- Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina - Renewable energy- EVD International
business and cooperation. January 2009.

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Figure 2. Import/ domestic production of energy in Serbia

Source: Ministry of Energy and Mining

During the presentation of data considering the energy consumption in Serbia, all data are
given in million tons of oil-liquid fuel equivalents (Mtoe). This has been done for the purpose
of better inspection and more accurate presentation of the data. Some other conversion units
are presented in the Table.1

Table.1.1 Conversion Equivalents between Units of Energy

TJ Gcal Mtoe Gwh
TJ 1 238.8 2.388 2.388 x 10-5 0.2778
Gcal 4.1868 x 10-3 1 10-7 1.163 x 10-3
Mtoe 4.1868 x 104 107 1 11630
Gwh 3.6 860 8.6 x 10-5 1
IEA: Кey World Energy Statistics, 2006

Units of measure:
TJ =Тerajoule
Gcal =Gigacalorie
Mtoe =Million tonnes of oil equivalent
GWh =Gigawatt-hour
t =Ton

Table 2 Structure of energy sources in Serbia

Source Energy consumption (Mtoe) Share (%)
Hydro 1,0 7
N. Gas 2.1 14
Oil 4,0 27
Coal 7,9 52
Total 15,0 100,0

All presented Tables in this document will be created according to the indicators that are available in Serbia,
and not always in the requested forms, because of the missing informations and easier treacability

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2.1.1 Production and share in total electricity supply

The electricity generation in Serbia is in hands of the state company the Electric Power Utility
of Serbia (EPS) owing the capacities: Thermal power plants- 3.936 MW (55,3%), Thermal
power-heating plants- 353MW (5,0%) and Hydropower plants- 2.831MW (39,7%). At this
moment production of electricity from renewable resources is not present in Serbia, at least
not in the industrial or economic way. In last couple of years, the interest for production of
electricity from renewable resources is becoming very popular topic but legal constrains and
prices of electricity, as well as other obstacles are slowing down this process. Total installed
capacities for production of electricity in Serbia, including the hydropower plants as only
renewable significant resource at this moment, are presented in the Table 3.

Table 3. Installed capacities for production of electricity in Serbia

Installed net capacities
MW %
Thermal power plants 3.936 55,3
Thermal power-heating plants 353 5,0
Hydropower plants 2.831 39,7
TOTAL 7.120 100,0

In 2006 around 1.4 mil. tones of diesel fuel were spent in Serbia. There are no records of
biodiesel production in Serbia in 2006; there are also no viable records on biodiesel
consumption. It is estimated that biodiesel consumption makes less than 0.5% of diesel
consumption in Serbia in 2007.

First attempts of production of biodiesel started in middle 1990s during the sanction period
and scarcity of diesel fuels in Serbia. During this period several chemical facilities were
constructed or reconstructed for production of biodiesel. Although the plan was to produce
50.000 t of biodiesel, due to undefined role of state and support system, these quantities were
not achieved.

In 2007 Serbia got new factory for biodiesel production, when the factory “Victoria Oil” in
Šid, which fulfils the requirements of the standard EN 14214, was constructed. The same year
they started the production of the first quantities of biodiesel- around 25,000 t of biodiesel.
Installed annual capacity of this factory is 100.000 t of biodiesel. At this moment it is hard to
estimate at what time the factory will reach the full capacity since there is no stable market for
biodiesel in Serbia.

Diesel consumption

Every year about 4 mil tones of oil is processed in Serbia, out of which 645.000 tones are
deriving from domestic production. Domestic production of raw oil is declining- in 2003 it
was 690.000 t, and in 2004- 645.000 t. On the other hand, the increase rate of import of oil is
6% annually. Some calculations are showing that average consumption of oil per 1000
citizens is about 324 t in Serbia, much less than it is in EU. Considering the constant
economic growth in last couple of years, the rate of oil consumption is increasing as indicated
in the Table 4. There are no accurate statistical data on biodiesel production in Serbia for 2006
and for consumption of this fuel. It is estimated that consumption of biodiesel accounts less
than 0,5% of diesel consumption in Serbia in 2007.

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Table 4 Diesel Consumption in Serbia in the period 2003-2007.

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Diesel consumption in
994.000 1.298.000 1.291.000 1.384.000 1.455.000
Serbia (t)
Source: Data from Province Secretariat for energy and mining

Due to significant available potentials for production of plants for production of biodiesel in
Serbia, ideally, the production of domestic biodiesel could substitute 13-15% of domestic
consumption of diesel (calculated on energy level). Since agriculture is strongly linked to
production of biodiesel it can be expected that this sector could be the biggest consumer of
biodiesel, and according to estimated results, it could substitute about 45-50% of total diesel
consumption in agriculture sector.

Petrol consumption

According to the data from the Ministry of Energy and Mining, annual consumption of petrol
in road traffic and air transport is about 1.465.600t. Production and share in national heating

In 2005 gross production of heating energy was 48.799 TJ, and 47% was produced in thermo
power plants with own production, 45% in city heating plants (CHP), 4% in power plants
with cogeneration and 3% in thermo power plants.

The largest consumer of heat energy is the industrial sector with a share of 56% in 2005. It is
important to emphasise that consumption as well as production of heat energy is very low due
to a lack of modern technologies, which influence the low energy efficiency.

Households are consuming 37% of heat energy. About 50 larger cities have their own heating
system. Total installed capacity of city heating plants (CHP) is 6.600 MW, and 50% of these
are located in the capital city. Share of fuels used in CHP is:
• 67% natural gas;
• 19% heavy oil (fuel oil); and
• 14% coal

Efficiency of centralized production and distribution of heat energy is small with losses up to

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Table 5, Balance of Heat

Balance of Heat in 2005 Balance of Heat in 2006
Heat (TJ) Heat (TJ)
Transformation output 48.799 44.999
Thermal power plants 1.543 1.533
CHP-other 2.163 1.491
Auto producers 22.947 20.550
District heating plants 22.146 21.425
Consumption in the energy sector 1.018 890
Thermal power plants 17 17
CHP-other 89 65
District heating plants 912 808
Final Energy consumption 44854 41387
Industry 25181 20972
Household 16397 15699
Agriculture 219 382
Other users 3057 4334
2006.electricity, heat and coal
2.2 Sources of renewable energies: implications for farms

With a territory of 77 474 km2 and 7,4 million inhabitants (not including the territory of
Kosovo and Metohija) Serbia belongs to a group of middle-sized European countries.
Generally, the northern half of the territory of Serbia is a plain agricultural area, while the
southern half is a mountainous region rich in forests.

Agriculture is the basic occupation of a large part of Serbian population. Somewhat below
half of the total population (44%) lives in rural areas, and most of them of agriculture and
associated activities. Agriculture represents a very important factor in the country’s economy,
(14% of GDP in 2005), as well as foreign trade (trade of agricultural products makes for 12,
8% of country’s total foreign trade).

2.2.1 Biomass for energy production

Agriculture land in Serbia is occupying the area of 5.100.000 ha out of which, 3.600.000ha is
cultivated. The main area for crops production is the northern part of the country, with
production of maize, soya, barley, rye wheat and other. Livestock farms that generate liquid
manure are disbursed through the country, and three regions, Sabac, Vrbas and Pozarevac are
with the highest density of farms. The main area of fruit growing, another source of biomass
waste, is the southern hilly region, notably producing plums, apples, cherries, peaches, and

• Annual crops

Field crops are traditionally grown in Serbia, mainly due to the fact that until 2007. there were
no plants for industrial production of bio fuels. Beginning of this type of production started in

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2007. after the first factory for biodiesel was constructed. Traditionally grown crops with
potential for utilization for bio fuel production, are soya, sunflower, corn and oil rape seed.

There are many small individual landowners who deal with production of cereals or industrial
plants, like sunflower or soya. A great deal of crop farming production, almost 75% is
achieved in small or medium size private companies, while only about 25% of crop farming
production belongs to agricultural companies of relatively larger size. These two groups of
agricultural producers have different practice of using biomass residues. Presently, in large
agricultural farms much less biomass residues are used for livestock breeding than at small
private farms. But, at small agricultural farms, if the owners do not have cattle, from their
point of view it is useless to collect biomass residues after harvesting. The reasons are: no
need for using biomass residues for cattle breeding, their existing domestic stoves or boilers
are not adjusted for burning of large pieces of straw or similar unprepared biomass residues,
and there is no market for selling biomass residues. As a result, they often burn down the
straw and other biomass residues at the field. In addition, it is not easy for another entity to
organize and achieve low cost collecting of biomass residues from many small scattered

During the last couple of years there was some kind of stability in production of cereals and
planted area didn’t change much in time, although some increase of production can be
observed in the field of industrial crops (Table 6.). The only significant change could be
noticed in the increase of production of oil rape seed and slight switch from wheat to
industrial crops. Increased areas with oil rape seed is influenced by construction of the first
biodiesel plant in Serbia, and because of the initiative of the factory to contract the production
with farmers in advance. All other changes can’t be observed as impact of the utilization for
energy production, but only as results of the diseases, government policy, price and market
changes, etc.
Table 6 Changes of the area of the major annual crops adopted for renewable energies
(000 ha)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Wheat 651.0 691.0 694.0 612.0 636.0 563.0 540.0 559.0 487.4
Corn/Maize 1203.0 1217.0 1196.0 1200.0 1200.0 1220.0 1170.0 1202.0 1274.0
Rape and turnip rape
seed 6.3 3.2 4.4 3.0 2.0 1.7 3.9 12.9 18.0
Rye and Maslin 5.9 5.8 5.8 6.1 6.1 7.2 6.9 5.5 5.6
Barley 107.0 131.0 131.0 110.0 110.0 105.0 94.0 94.0 92.4
Sugarbeet 44.7 43.3 52.1 65.0 60.4 64.3 72.0 79.0 48.0
Sunflower 146.4 163.2 148.8 200.0 188.7 199.0 187.0 154.8 187.8
Soya 141.6 88.0 100.1 131.0 117.0 131.0 157.0 147.0 143.6
Source:Agripolicy project (draft report)

Important parameter for calculations and predictions of production is the prices of the crops,
and it is interesting that prices of almost all crops increased more significantly in 2007 and
remained at that level (Table 6.1-2). For easier comparisons the prices were converted in euro
according to the exchange rates presented in the Table 6.3.

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Table 6.1. Average annual prices for crops in Serbia (RSD/kg)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Maize 4,57 8,71 5,57 6,82 9,02 6,46 7,47 12,24 12.75
6,03 9,00 11,00 11,00 11,50 12,00 15,33 17,49
Sunflower 6.26 11.91 12.02 12.00 11.48 14.77 15.07 25.64

Rye 4,99 7,61 8,28 8,66 12,74 8,72 11,19 21,12

sugar beet 1,56 1,79 1,76 1,75 1,90 2,07 2,41 2,42

Barley 4,64 7,38 6,53 7,71 8,19 7,95 9,37 11,92 18,90

Wheat 3,89 7,41 6,87 8,19 6,96 7,51 9,14 11,06 17.12

Soya 8,25 13,46 13,06 13,02 12,30 16,67 15,92 23,20 29.16
Source: htpp://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/axd/poljoprivreda/rezultat12.php, except for 2008 where data were taken from
the internet site www.proberza.co.rs for the period first week of January and last week of December

Table 6.2. Average annual prices for crops in Serbia (EUR*/t)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
wheat 123.4 112.6 126.6 99.3 91.8 108.6 143.7 185.8

Corn/Maize 130.7 89.3 105.7 103.1 75.0 89.5 156.6 120.1

Rye 129.5 138.9 176.2 115.7 112.7 112.4 116.2 222.4
Sunflower 197.7 198.3 184.7 160.5 174.1 178.0 315.4 285.3
rape 172.6 166.3 159.7 158.7 157.4 184.8 215.0 374.2
Soya 226.6 219.7 203.5 182.0 200.9 191.8 279.3 298.7

Sugar beet 30.7 30.6 27.8 26.2 24.8 27.7 29.9 32.6
Source: Source:Agripolicy project (draft report)

Taking into account all aforementioned conditions, it is considered that about half of biomass
residues at large agricultural farms can be used for energy purposes, while only about 20%
biomass residues generated on relatively small private farms can be used for energy purposes.

Greater amount of biomass residues generated on small agricultural farms can be used for
energy if these owners would have appropriate ovens and boilers for burning biomass
residues, or if they find an interest to collect residues and sell them. In that case the
availability of biomass residues would be increased, and the energy potential would be
virtually increased.

• Residues of fruit growing and viniculture

One of main activity in fruit growing and viniculture is pruning of small branches, and these
cut small branches can be available for energy purposes. Total number of registered fruit trees
is about 94•106. Half of this number are plum trees, about 20% are apple trees and almost
15% are cherry trees, both sour and sweet cherry (tab. 6.4).

The quantity of pruned branches depends on species and fruit assortment, ranging from 1 kg
per tree for some assortment of apple, up to 7 kg per tree for some assortment of peach and

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plum. The pruning of vine yields from 4 up to 8 t/ha of vineyard. This data are important
because of the significant area that covered with vineyards- about 77,390 ha in Serbia.

On the basis of these data the total biomass residues from fruit growing could be estimated at
about 475,000 t, with average heating value of 14 MJ/kg the energy potential of biomass
residues from fruit trees pruning is about 159,000 toe. The energy potential of vine pruning
residues alone is about 155,000 toe.

Stones of plums, cherries, peaches, and apricots together with peels and seeds of apples,
pears, and grapes are wastes derived from processing of fruit. The quantity of these wastes
amounts to about 200,000 t. With a relatively modest heating value of 9 GJ/t, the energy
potential of fruit processing wastes is about 46,000 toe. This value is relatively small
comparing to the energy potential of other fruit residues derived from growing. But an
important advantage of these wastes is that they are already collected in every company
dealing with fruit processing. Therefore, this energy potential can be a remarkable source of
energy in these fruit processing companies. A disadvantage of these kinds of wastes is their
relatively high water content. That is why for some wastes, like grape peel and seeds, a pre-
drying process will be necessary before these wastes would be used for energy conversion.

Table 6.4 Energy potential of biomass residues deriving from fruit cultivation and processing
Number of Fruit
Type of Biomass Biomass energy
Species trees production
Residues residues (t) equivalent
(100ha) (t/year)

Plum 50,630 382,400 Prunning, stones 393,500 132,600

Apple 17,570 198,400 Prunning, peel 36,200 10,900

Cheries 12,280 99,950 Prunning, stones 55,000 16,500

Pear 7,080 70,000 Prunning, peel 14,000 4,300

Peach 4,450 44,400 Prunning, stones 35,100 11,700

Apricot 1,900 27,500 Prunning, stones 15,500 4,100

Walnuts 2,100 21,500 Prunning, shell 55,000 14,100

Grape 77,390 213,000 515,000 166,300
TOTAL 360,500
Source: THE STATE OF BIOMASS ENERGY IN SERBIA, Mladen Ilic, Borislav Grubor, and Milos Tesic,
Original scientific paper, UDC: 662.636/.638 BIBLID: 0354-9836, 8 (2004), 2, 5-19

Additional source of biomass residues in fruit growing and viticulture is replacement of old
trees with new ones. This replacement occurs each 10 to 25 years, depending on fruit types
that are cultivated. This activity is regular for well organized and maintained orchards. The
annual energy potential of fruit trees and vines that are extracted with roots is about 245,000

The overall energy potential of biomass residues from fruit growing, viniculture and fruit
processing is about 605,000 toe.

• Wooden and forestry materials

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An area of 1,98 million ha in the Republic of Serbia is covered with forests, which accounts
around 25,6% of the total area of the Republic of Serbia. The forest area is mainly in the south
(See Figure 4). About two thirds of the forests are property of state owned public companies,
the rest privately owned. About half of all forests are pure deciduous tree forests (mainly
beech and peak), with only 5% pure coniferous tree forests (mainly spruce).

The main species of forest trees are: broadleaves, beech, poplar and oak, and conifers, which
include black pine and spruce. But remarkably the greatest share is beech trees, which make
over 40% (Table 7a) of forest trees.

Since the market for wood residue-based fuels is very poor, briquetting and palliating of
biomass residues is not widely used. Only a few primary processing wood companies have
installed machines for production of pellets or briquettes, but they supply only a narrow local
market. From the point of view of energy potential of biomass in Serbia, some value of the
potential is hidden in the low efficiency of all biomass facilities in operation. If, for example
every small boiler fired with biomass would increase its efficiency by 5%, the consumption of
fuel wood for the same demand of heat would be decreased by the 30,000 TOE.

Figure 3. Share of forests in total area of communities

Source: Statistical yearbook 2006

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Table 7a Main parameters of forest wood resources in Serbia in 2007.

total wood annual volume wood cutting cutting /
6 3 6 3 3
volume (10 m ) increase (10 m /year) (m /year) increase(%)
beech* 80.35 1.832 1.009 55.1
oak* 30.81 0.821 0.249 30.3
poplar* 1.39 0.094 0.42 448
spruce* 4.51 0.108 0.038 35.2
black pine* 4.09 0.085 0.044 51.9
other 83.46 2.288 0.825 36.1
total 204.6 5.228 2.585 49.4
(*) only pure stands of species
According to the last inventory of forests, completed in 1979, poplar trees were not so prevalent in
Serbia. But in the last few decades, there has been an increase in the number of poplar trees
planted, especially in plains regions near rivers. This accounts for the discrepancy between the
wood volume of poplar trees and wood cutting of poplar trees recorded in the official reports.
According to reports completed within the last several years, wood cutting of poplar trees has a
remarkable share of the total cutting volume. Poplar is a very suitable species for energy crops,
since its annual growth of wood volume is much higher than is the case for other species of trees
in Serbia.
Wood-stock in Serbian forests amounts to about 204,6·106 m3. Registered wood felling in
forests is about 2.585·106 m3. that represents 49,4% of the annual increase of wood-stock in
forests of about 5,228·106 m3. In developed countries of Europe, with well organised forest
management, the ratio between the wood felling and the wood-stock annual increase goes up
to 75%. With improvement of forest managing, upgrading of the state of existing forests and
with development of forest roads, there is a possibility for an increased annual wood felling,
based on the existing wood-stock. In addition, there is a national plan to increase area covered
by forests from present value of 27.3% to 31.5% till the year 2010, and to 41.4% till the year
2050. These two measures, increasing of afforested area and wood stock and improvement of
forest utilisation, will contribute to the increase of energy potential of forest biomass.

According to the statistical data about 1.2·106 m3 or about 50% of production of forest
assortments represents fuel wood. The remaining assortments are wood pulp for pulp and
paper industry, saw-logs for cutting and wood for different technical purposes. Annual energy
value of the fuel wood presently used is 239,000 toe.

Besides fuel wood, as a kind of forest assortments, there are different kinds of bio mass
residues associated with tree felling in forests and with processing of wood. As results of tree
felling about 58% of the total mass of the tree are different wood assortments for the market,
for industry, different technical purposes, and for heating as fuel wood. The rest of 42% of the
total mass of the tree are different biomass residues which do not have any value at the market
(Table 7). Among these biomass residues there are: bark, small branches, tree stumps. The
estimation is that these biomass residues in forests account for about 2.9·106 m3, which has an
energy value of 549.500 toe. Leaves and needles from the trees are not included in the
balance, in spite of the fact that their share in the total mass of the tree is from 2 to 4%. These
residues are of different characteristics and usually dispersed in forests. Their collection
requires some energy for transportation vehicles. Depending on the terrain, collecting of
residues can be easily and thoroughly performed. In some cases, under the present state of
forest roads and machinery, it practically can not be done. In any case, one of the main

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conditions for utilisation of these forest residues is appropriate prices of wood residue-based
fuels and existence of the wood fuel market.

Table 7. Average share of different categories of wood in the total mass of the tree
Wood assortment Share in the total mass [%] Comment
Round wood 16 For the market
Stacked wood 42 For the market
Bark peeled from wood for the market 4 Left in forest
Residues of wood cutting in forest 9 Partly used
Small branches 11 Partly used
Stumps 18 Left in forest
Leaves and needles Ignored
waste utilization in Serbia

Residues of wood processing in saw mills, resulting from the production of veneer, boards,
and furniture, and residues in pulp and paper and chemical industry, consist of small and large
pieces: shavings, chips, cutting edge and bark. Estimated annual yield of these wood residues
is about 0.35·106 m3, with energy value of 66,900 toe.

There are about 2,760 companies dealing with wood processing and furniture production. The
majority of them (2,360) are in the wood-processing sector producing sawn wood, panels,
joinery, and veneer. The other 400 firms produce furniture.

In a well organized company, practically all wood waste is used in either board production or
as fuel, to produce heat and electricity. However, some wood processing companies in Serbia
have available wood biomass, but aren’t making good use of it. Instead, they either spread the
waste around their property, or simply push it into rivers, discarding a potentially valuable
energy producing resource.

As recently as a few years ago, there was no pellet production at all in Serbia. Practically all
production of pellets is exported because of higher prices abroad. Therefore, the price of
pellets in Serbia is assumed to take into account prices in European countries where wood
pellets are used in large volumes. According to the most current information on pellet plants
in operation and those now under construction, by year 2010 there will be six wood pellet
producers in the country, with a projected production up to 250,000 tons.

At this moment, a market for pellets in Serbia effectively does not exist, since biomass use is
thus far not supported by the state. Also, there is only one domestic producer of small boilers
(up to 300 KW) with the auxiliary equipment required to feed pellets and automatically
regulate combustion. Public buildings are not strongly motivated to invest in fuel switch in
order to be able to use cheaper fuel such as biomass. Also it is important to say that pellets are
still not the cheapest fuel in Serbia, since the price of fuel wood is still much lower.

The high price of pellets in Europe would probably drive up the price of pellets in Serbia.
That, combined with the previously described conditions, is probably obstructing the
utilization of wood pellets in Serbia. Assuming construction of a pellet plant with a capacity
of 20,000 tons per year, financial analysis shows that the break-even price for the sale of
wood pellets in Serbia would be 51 € per ton, compared to 81 € per ton in the EU.

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The present ratio between prices of different fuels in Serbia generally favours wood-based
fuels. The comparison of heating costs by different fuels shows that wood-based fuel is the
cheapest (table 7.1). The price of pellets for customers in Serbia is assumed to be 80 €/t,
including transportation. VAT is added to that price, resulting in the retail price of 6912

Table 7.1 Prices of different fuels in Serbia and the cost of heat
Cost of heat
Retail price* Heating value ή
(RSD/t) (GJ/t) conversion (€/m²) (€/MWh)
Fuel wood in
capital city 4000 14 0,75 5,8 31,2
Fuel wood in
2000 14 0,75 2,9 15,6
small city
Wood pellets 6912 0,78 4,1 22,2
waste utilization in Serbia
*1€ = 80 RSD
Prices for electricity and natural gas are not retail prices, as there is a special tariff system for these kinds of
energy. VAT is afterwards included for obtaining cost of heat. VAT for all energy carriers is 18%, except for
natural gas and wood it is 8%. Price for the installed electric power is 529,8 RSD/kW for customers connected
at low voltage distribution system, excluding householders.

Wood cutting in 2006 in Serbia was 2,585 million m3 in forests, and an additional 25
thousand m3 outside forests (parks in cities, trees along waysides, edges, channels), which
gives a total wood cutting of 2,61 million m3.According to the present utilisation of forests,
forest tree felling and wood processing, the total annual energy potential of different kind of
wood residues, together with registered consumption of fuel wood, accounts for about
1.02·106 toe. That value of energy potential can be increased by the utilisation of presently not
utilised forests, because it is estimated that almost 30% of forests are not utilised. Besides
statistically registered forest felling, there is an unregistered tree felling as well. It
encompasses not only unregistered tree felling in forests, but also tree felling near local roads,
small rivers, channels, and trees surrounding arable land. A rather uncertain estimation
indicates that only 60% of the demand for dwellings heating by wood biomass is satisfied by
the registered fuel wood, while 40% (160,000 toe ) of the demand is satisfied by statistically
unregistered tree felling.

Another possibility to increase energy potential of wood biomass is to cultivate energy

plantations. According to domestic investigations, by poplar cultivation it is possible to
produce wood biomass with annual energy value of 6.7 toe/ha. With assumption that the
production of wood biomass could be accomplished at one third of the land currently out of
use (200,000 ha), it means that the annual energy potential of forest energy crops accounts for
some 382,000 toe.

It is interesting that about 3% of the volume of wood cutting remains in forests despite the
fact that these forest residues are great in size (root swell, branch snag), which can be
relatively easily collected and transported. Taking into account the present volume of wood
cutting in forests, these big pieces of forest residues account for about 75 000 m3 per year. If
all wood residues in forests were theoretically summed up, they would add up 1.1 million m3.

However, one part of wood residues is collected and sold as wood wastes. In addition, stumps
are not always removed from the soil. Poplar trees are usually young with relatively shallow
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roots, and after felling the tree the stump is usually removed. But beech and oak trees are
usually older and have deeper root, therefore their stumps are usually left in the forest. About
600 000 m3 wood residues (without stumps) remain in forests annually.

Serbia has the potential to increase the area of land covered with forests. In accordance with
the Spatial Plan of Serbia from 1996, the forest area in Serbia should be increased by 31,5%
until 2010. Unfortunately, this target will not be achieved because of the economic crisis. The
next target, according to the Spatial Plan, is to have the forest area increase by 41% by 2050.

• Wastes of agricultural production, e.g. liquid manure

Liquid manure deriving from cattle and pig breeding, together with poultry litter, is another
potential energy source. Because of high water content (up to 90%) these slurries are usually
treated by aerobic digestion, primarily for reasons of producing environmentally friendly

The quantity of liquid manure produced depends on a series of factors, such as the type and
category of domestic animal, keeping conditions and type of food, physiological state, phase
in the reproductive cycle, degree and type of animal activity, meteorological and
microclimatic conditions etc. Daily amounts of liquid manure can be expressed as the
percentage body mass ratio. For pigs it is 6% of the average body mass, for sheep it is 7%,
horses 8%, cattle 9% and for poultry it is about 10%. Gas production depends on the type of
livestock, and basic characteristics of biogas production are given in Table below.

Table.8a Basic characteristics of biogas production

Characteristics Cows Pigs
Average weight, kg 600 150
Biogas, m3/day/head 2.26 0.184
Obtained energy, kJ/day/head 46414 4325
Electric energy production, kWh/day/head* 3.42 0.32
Source: Serbia – Analysis of Policies to Promote Low Carbon Energy Alternatives- World Bank
(*)assuming 28% efficiency
The major part of livestock is located in small farms, with only a few heads in each. An
organised manure collection from these small farms is not likely to be easily technically
feasible, and the financial feasibility is uncertain as well. Therefore, in the analysis of energy
potential, only manure in medium and great farms is considered as a prospective source of
fuel, since manure from these farms does not need to be transported, and can be efficiently
treated in anaerobic digestion.

The present state of main species of livestock in medium and great farms is given in the Table
8. Cattle are almost evenly distributed among flat and hilly regions, while pigs are mainly
bred in flat regions. Cattle in these farms, 260,300 heads, produce about 5,270 m3 of manure,
while pigs produce about 4,560 m3 of manure. With an assumption of a relatively restrictive
biogas production of 20 m3 biogas per m3 of manure of the both origins, from cattle and pigs,
it can be derived that energy potential amounts to 20,140 toe from cattle manure, and 17,500
toe from pig manure. Poultry manure, with the assumption of biogas production of 50 m3 per
m3 of manure, gives a little lower energy potential of 4,600 toe. Total energy potential of
biomass wastes from livestock breeding, from great and medium farms only, is 42,240 toe per

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Table 8. Live stock in medium and great farms and energy potential of their manure
Manure Biogas Annual energy
Livestock Location of farms Number of heads
(m3/day) (m3/day) equivalent (toe)
Flat regions 149.300
Cattle Hilly regions 111.000
Total 260.300 5.270 105.000 20.140
Flat regions 1.369.500
Pigs Hilly regions 285.600.
Total 1.655.100 4.560 91.200 17.500
Poultry 2.350.000 480 24.000 4.600
TOTAL 42.240
Source: THE STATE OF BIOMASS ENERGY IN SERBIA, Mladen Ilic, Borislav Grubor, and Milos Tesic,
Original scientific paper, UDC: 662.636/.638 BIBLID: 0354-9836, 8 (2004), 2, 5-19

2.2.2 Other energy sources: wind energy, solar energy, hydro-energy

• Wind energy

According to the recent reserches there is a significant number of locations for construction of
wind devices in Serbia. The study concludes that under the assumption that average wind
speeds at 50m height need to be at least 5 m/s or higher, based on ten-minute average speeds
at the height of 50 m above the ground level, then Serbia has significant potential. The area
with suitable wind is some 471 km2 with 244 km2 where wind speeds of 6m/s are present at
least 50% of the time. At 20% annual average load factor, a 2300 GWh/year could be
generated at some 1300 MW of capacity at sites with average wind speeds of 5 m/s or greater.

Identifyed sites are:

1. Eastern parts of Serbia - Stara Planina, Vlasina, Ozren, Rtanj, Deli Jovan, Crni Vrh etc. In
this regions ther are some locations with average wind speed higher than 6m/s.
2. Zlatibor, Žabljak, Bjelasica, Kopaonik, Divčibare are mountain regions where sutable
micro locations for construction of wind devices could be determend.
3. Panonian lowlend, northen parts of Danube are also rich in wind. This area coveres around
2,000 km² and is sutable for construction of wind devices because it has a sound road
infrastructure, electric grid already exist and there is a large number of electicity consumer
centers nearby.

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Figure 4. Average power of wind in heating season and in april (at altitude of 100m)

Source: World Bank (2007): Serbia: Analysis of Policies to Increase Renewable Energy Use- Study Funded by
In 2007 Ministry of Mining and Energy signed the contract for the realization of the project in
the field of utilization of wind energy with the support of the Government of Spain. This
project selected 3 locations for annual masurments of wind speed (at the attitudes until 10, 30
and 50 meteres). Upon completition of measurements for one of the selected locations a
detailed fasibility study will be elaborated for construction of wind turbine generators.

Also in 2008 several protocols for cooperation on realization of following projects:

ƒ Windpark Bavanište
ƒ Windpark Bela Crkva
ƒ Windpark Dolovo
were signed.
In January, maximal values of wind power occur in the lower Danube area and Eastern
Serbia: the area within the 300 W/m2 iso line includes South Banat, the south bank of the
Danube from Belgrade to Negotin, and the Timok valley with surrounding mountains. In July,
the patterns of regional variation are generally similar, but the intensities are lower.

• Solar energy

Firm estimates of the potential of Serbia for installation of solar collectors and systems are
unavailable. It is known that there are many solar installations throughout the country, but a
systematic inventory of potential applications is unavailable.

As in the case of other countries in the area, solar levels in the former Yugoslavia including
Serbia and Montenegro are among the highest in Europe. The most favourable areas record a
large number of hours of sunlight, with the yearly ratio of actual irradiation to the total
possible irradiation reaching approximately 50 percent. Of course, the monthly distribution is
particularly important in determining utilization for heating; and whether back-up systems
will be needed during periods of extended cloudiness.

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In 1998 annual sales of solar flat plate collectors was around 250,000 m2. Some 28,000 solar
thermal units were in operation, replacing the equivalent of 140 GWh of fossil fuel derived
energy being used mainly for water and space heating in the domestic and tourist sectors.
The total potential for solar active technologies has been estimated to be approximately 50-60
percent of heating demand in the cloudier central regions. The in-country manufacturing base
for the whole of FR Yugoslavia was reported as being strong, with about nine firms in
production. But the majority were operating at less than one fifth capacity. And it is not
known how many the recent crisis survived. The available expertise, however, indicates that
as the economy recovers, it would be easy to accommodate growing demand. In 2009 firm
estimates of the potential of Serbia for installation of solar collectors and systems are still
unavailable. However, it is known that there are many solar installations throughout the
country, but a systematic inventory of potential applications is unavailable. Also one of the
main reasons for low number of new installations is the fact that for individual homes the
economics of domestic solar hot water heating appear less favourable at the present tariffs.

Figure 5. The average daily energy of global radiation on horizontal surface in January and
July in Serbia

Source: World Bank (2007): Serbia: Analysis of Policies to Increase Renewable Energy Use- Study Funded by

Page 22 / 47

• Hydro-energy

There is undoubtedly a significant small hydro

Figure 6. Small hydro power potentials potential in Serbia. However, the present
information base is simply insufficient to be
able to make any firm conclusions about the
supply curve of small hydro projects.
Consequently we recommend as a next step the
completion of a series of feasibility studies for
which the prospects of economic and financial
feasibility appear to be good.

It is estimated that at least 3,000 MWs of new

hydro capacity could be developed; one third of
this capacity is medium size plants (10-100
MW each). This encompasses 3% of total
potential of renewable energy resources in
Serbia. 60 SHP are said to be in existence, of
Source: Naumov, op.cit. which 50% are out of operation. The technical
energy generation potential of this SHPP is
estimated at some 1,500GWh/year. Figure 4 shows the geographic distribution of this

Small hydro power plants are objects for energy production with maximal power less than 10
MW and they belong to the category of priviledge power producres.

Traditional dams

There are nine hydro-power plants (HPPs) within the power system of Serbia (generate
around 36% of electricity in the country), with fifty hydro-units of the total capacity of 2,831
MW, producing on average 12 billion kWh a year. The total power content of the seasonal
reservoirs is about 1,2 billion kWh.

Table 9 Number of installations and supply of hydro energy

Present installation/ Future potential
Renewable energy source generation (annual Mid-term)
additional potential
Hydropower 2.8 GW/10.5 TWh 2.0 GW/7TWh

Number of Large Hydro power plans 2.8 GW/10.5 TWh 1.5 GW/5.2 TWh

Small hydro power plants 6MW/20 GWh 490 MW/1.8 TWh

Source: Government of Serbia

• Geothermal

Geothermal investigations in Serbia began in 1974, after the first world oil crisis. An
assessment of geothermal resources has been made for all of Serbia. Detailed investigations in

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twenty localities are in progress. The territory of Serbia has favourable geothermal

There are four geothermal provinces. More than eighty low enthalpy hydro geothermal
systems are present in Serbia. The most important are located at the southern edge of the
Pannonia Basin. The reservoirs of this systems are in karstified Mesozoic limestone’s with a
thickness of more than 500 m. Geothermal energy in Serbia is being utilized for balneological
purposes (60 spas), in agriculture and for space heating with heat exchangers and heat pumps.
The total installed energy use is 74 MWt, out of which 36 MWt are in balneology, and 38
MWt for other types of uses.

Exploration to date has shown that geothermal energy use in Serbia for power generation can
provide a significant component of the national energy balance. The prospective geothermal
reserves in the reservoirs of the geothermal systems amount to 400 x 106 tonnes of thermal-
equivalent oil. The prospects for use of heat pumps on pumped ground water from alluvial
deposits along major rivers are very good.

For intensive use of thermal waters in agro- and aqua-cultures and in district heating systems,
the most promising areas are west of Belgrade westward to the Drina, i.e. Posavina, Srem, and
Macva. Reservoirs are Triassic limestone and dolomites >500 m thick, which lie under
Neogene sediments. The priority region is Macva, where reservoir depths are 400-600 m, and
water temperatures are 80 °C.

Figure 7. Distribution of geothermal resources The economic blockade of Serbia stopped

a large project in Macva: space-heating for
flower and vegetable green-houses over 25
ha (1st stage). The completed studies
indicate that thermal water exploitation in
Macva can provide district heating systems
for Bogatic, Sabac, Sremska Mitrovica,
and Loznica, with a population of 150,000.
In addition to the favourable conditions for
geothermal direct use from hydro
geothermal reservoirs in Serbia,
geothermal use can also be made of hot dry
rocks, as there are ten identified Neogene
granitoid intrusions. Geothermal
exploitation program have been prepared,
but they have not been brought into
Source: World Bank (2007): Serbia: Analysis of Policies
to Increase Renewable Energy Use- Study Funded by the ESMAP

2.3 Main effects with respect to agricultural and forestry production

Production of energy from renewable resources in Serbia is still present only on some small
project attempts and pilot facilities. As indicated in all presented tables, the production of
energy from renewable resources, at this moment, is just a significant potential for Serbia.
This is mainly because of the lack of regulations, feed in tariffs and other type of support
mechanisms. According to the existing documents, the only available data for production of

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energy from renewable resources can be found for the big hydro power plants. According to
these facts main effects with respect to agricultural and forestry production can’t be

2.3.1 Change in land use patterns

Cereals dominate crop production in Serbia, as they account for 40% of arable land, or 60%
of total cultivable land. Maize and wheat are the most important crops in the cereals sector.
Rye, barley and oats make up only 10% of the area cultivated with cereals. Yields and sown
area differ in last two decade due to the several reasons like appearance of disease, bad
technologies in production, low inputs of fertilizers, soil qualities, climate conditions,
government support systems, market prices and possibilities for selling on foreign markets.

Maize is Serbia’s biggest single commodity with a production of 6.3 million tons in 2005,
which was produced on approximately 1,200,000 ha (FAO data). Over the last 5 years the
area used for maize production remained stable with the overall maize production being
erratic because of weather conditions but generally increasing. Serbia has had between 2000
and 2004 an average yield of 4.2 t/ha in the maize sector while the EU –25 has an average
yield of approx. 8 t/ha).

Wheat is the second biggest commodity in the Serbian cereals sector. In 2004 Serbia produced
some 2,700,000 t wheat on approx. 640,000 ha. Over the last 5 years the area used for wheat
production has been on average 650,000 ha, with some fluctuation (mostly between 600,000
ha and 700,000 ha). Production ranged in that period from 2 to 2.7 million t with 2003 being
an exception with extremely low yield due to drought (1.4 million t). No clear trend can be
observed in the wheat sector. Average yield of wheat over the last 5 years has been 3.5 t/ha
while the EU 25 has had an average yield of approx. 5.5 t/ha.

The value of 1.023•106 toe of energy potential of biomass residues from crop farming can be
changed, depending on species that would be sowed in the future. Presently there is a slight
trend of replacing wheat with industrial plants.

Besides residues from crop farming for food production, there is a possibility of targeted crop
farming for production of biomass fuel. This is the case of oil rape seed cultivation for bio-
diesel production. Rape seed has been already cultivated in Serbia at an area of around 6000
ha only. According to some estimation there is a possibility to cultivate rape seed on 150,000-
200,000 ha. The yield of oil rape seed from that area is sufficient for production of about
100,000 t of bio-diesel which could be easily processed in existing Biodiesel plant in Serbia.

Although costs for energy increased, there hasn’t been a substitution of fossil power by
animal power. In some remote areas horse power is still used for some field works and as
assistance in some farm works, but this is mainly linked to some poor elderly households
which didn’t have possibilities for modernization of their farms. Also this kind of households
are doing significant portion of land and are not producing for the market, but only for their
needs, and because of that they cannot be observed as some significant example.

2.3.2 Change in cultivation practices, innovation and investments

There were no changes in cultivation practise influenced or induced by the production of

resources for energy production. Manure is traditionally used in land cultivation but the use of

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this type of manure is not so much present in Serbia, mainly because of lack of proper
mechanization for disbursement of manure on the land parcels. However the MAFWM is
implementing one big project that is promoting the proper utilization of manure and assisting
the farmers to obtain adequate new mechanization, like tanks for liquid and spreaders for solid
waists. In 2009 the MAFWM also introduced the support scheme for procurement of
agricultural mechanization for manure handling. All advisory stations are trained to provide
assistance to farmers for preparation of Nutrient Management Plans and at the same time they
are providing the soil testing’s in order to elaborate the proper planning in line with crop
rotations for each individual household.

Also composting as a new form of utilization of manure is becoming more and more popular
among farmers and several workshops were held on this topic.

Regarding the innovations in the field of production of Renewable energy, it is important to

say that during the 1980` Serbia was among the first countries who started introduction of
new technologies in this sector. Due to the sanctions and a long period of isolation, these
initiatives were very important but later on abandoned because of the lack of financial
resources for improvement and further promotion of these facilities and technologies.
Recently the Institute for Nuclear Science Vinca has patented the new type of boiler for soya
straw combustion and is already in the process of modification of this boiler to adopt it for
utilization of other types of biomass.

According to the present situation in farm practise, there are no specific investments in farm
cultivation due to RE that can be observed as an ongoing process. The only targeted planting
of plants for production of biomass can be linked to the smaller number of farmers which
were involved in the contracted production by the biodiesel factory. In that sense it can be
concluded that, so far, the main barrier to investments is mainly the absence of market for this
type of products. Also there is no support mechanism from the Government level for
production of plants that could be used for energy production. It can be expected that
development of market of energy crops will have strong impact on farm cultivation and that it
will foster the investments in this sector.

Although the land presents a non renewable resource that has to be protected and properly
maintained, the value and importance of the biomass residues is still not fully elaborated.
Mainly because it is difficult to calculate the correct ratio which can be removed from the
fields and be used for the energy production or other purposes. It also depends on
agropedological and agro climate conditions, application of fertilizers, agro techniques etc.
According to some researches average ratio of the residues from crop production is

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2.4 Overview of the installations producing bio energy

Regarding the installations for production of bio energy, as mentioned in the introduction part,
there were some installations in the previous period but only a small number of them are still
operational. These facilities can be divided in three groups, one for production of biogas,
second for bio fuels and third for combustion of biomass. Although almost 20 facilities for
biogas production begin with construction during that period only few were accomplished and
worked for short period of time. All of them were installed in big cooperatives which at that
time were the leaders in the agriculture production. None of these facilities is operational at
this moment but some of them are willing to reconstruct the existing remaining of old
facilities and/or install the new ones. There are also a growing number of new big private
farms which are considering the installation of new modern technologies for production of
biogas. Awareness for production of biogas is rising but the knowledge of available
technologies and supporting instruments is not high. Recently there is an increased activity of
promotion of utilization of biomass for production of energy, and presentation of available
instruments and modern technologies.

Production of bio fuels was more intensive during the sanction period in Serbia. During that
time, due to the scarcity of diesel fuel several chemical facilities were reconstructed or even
constructed for production of biodiesel. The planned production was 50.000 tones, but it
achievement was only partial. One of the main reasons was that Government didn’t have any
measures to promote utilization of this type of energy. In 2005 Serbia didn’t have any decent
facility for production of quality biodiesel, although ten companies were involved in the
production. One of the main reasons for reduced operation of these facilities was that the
quality of biodiesel was very low, but in some way induced the need for elaboration and later
on the adoption of biodiesel standards in 2005.

Main factors that have driven/supported investments in this area

If we look at the main factors that influenced the investments in this area they can be divided
in three blocks, mainly according to the time period.

First period belongs to the 1980s, when investments were introduced as a result of research
achievements, introduction of modern technologies (at that time), and introduction of support
measures and added value to the agriculture products. At that time production of biogas and
combustion of biomass was introduced in Serbia for the first time.

Second period can be linked to the period of sanctions, during the 1990s, when Serbia
couldn’t import oil and it was important to provide stability in the country and to secure the
minimum functions of the state main enterprises and facilities. That was wary difficult time
also for all other citizens and private subjects in the country. At that time provision of
sufficient quantities of bio fuels was also one of the strategic tasks of the Government. This
period is linked only to the production of bio fuels like bio diesel and bio ethanol.

Third period is the one that is coming in the following years. At this time Serbia has signed
several international treaties, and is also in the process of harmonization of the regulations
with EU. Also new technologies are better known and awareness of needs and benefits from
production of bio fuels is rising. Also the Government is in the process of introduction of new
support measures that will support all interested parties to invest in the production of energy
from renewable resources.
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At this moment it is still not easy to invest in this business because of:
• very high investment costs
• The low prices of electricity and other available fuels.
• the feed in tariffs are not yet in place
• Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) mechanism is not operational.
• Investment in on farm installation is linked to a large number of licences and
permissions that are costly and very difficult to obtain. It takes to much time to collect
all these documents that are just a precondition to start the investment.
• Issues related to the ownership of the land, legal regulations linked to giving of
concessions and locations are problematic.
The increased investments can be expected when support mechanisms come in power and
when the CDM mechanism becomes operational. Also, one of the important elements that
have to be taken in to consideration is the actual price of the electricity, licence acquiring
procedure (long process and high number of needed licences), availability of favourable
credits for investment and availability and price of modern technologies.

The main barriers to further expansion of on farm installations are numerous:

• the absence of adequate support measures, especially
• The low awareness among farmers on available technologies,
• Lack of favourable credit lines,
• Limited availability of modern technologies in the field of renewable energy is also an
important barrier to installation of facilities for energy production on farms. There are
some companies which are offering these technologies but they are not constructed in
Serbia but imported from abroad, which influence the higher price of these
installations and not proper fitting for different individual farms.

• Absence of long term contracts with producers of green energy
• and absence of functional CDM mechanism

In the case of preparation of the documentation for the application for the CDM project,
additional funds are needed, since preparation of this type of projects are usually done by
some agencies or international consultant companies. CDM projects are still in the initial
phase and so far there is not a single project that has passed the whole CDM approval
procedure. Once this process becomes easier and more people trained for preparation of CDM
projects, it can be expected the there will be much more interest in on farm installations,
specially because this type of mechanism is providing additional source of income through
carbon trade, and a link with potential investors and creation of partnerships.

Absence of support mechanism and high interest rates for credits are significant obstacle to
provide funds for construction of on farm installations. Average interest rates range between
12% and 16% annually and aside from that fact it is still very difficult to provide guaranties
for the bank. Together with all other mentioned obstacles, it is clear why this type of support
is not used now but on the other hand, in the future, according to Energy Strategy and Energy
Policy in the Republic of Serbia, it will play a significant role in installation of facilities for
production of renewable energy. Legal regulation for obtaining of the status of privileged
producer (producer of renewable energy resources) is not yet adopted.

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Finally the delivery of electricity to the grid is free of payments for compensation for transfer
of electricity but still green producers have to pay the fee for attachment to the grid. Although
electric company is obliged to buy product electric energy produced from renewable
resources, so far only several practical steps were undertaken. National Electro Company is
not too much interest in support to potential competitors, no matter how small they are. Also
the guaranteed prices for energy produced from renewable resources are too small and makes
these small producers of electricity les competitive. Regional distributors of electric energy
are not technically capable to organize the system which is becoming more complex with
introduction of larger number of smaller producers.

2.4.1 Number and capacity development over the last years

Thus far, the only investments in Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are small hydro plants
that produce symbolic amount of energy (1.6% of total electricity production), several
isolated attempts of getting the energy from waste, wind, geothermal and other sources, and
one large business venture in first generation bio-fuels (Victoria Oil, supported by EBRD loan
of EUR 25 million). The level of foreign investments in the facilities for the RES usage is
low, although there is interest of the foreign investors, which offer both knowledge transfer
and “green field” projects. The level of this interest and foreign investments will depend
directly on the institutional and legal reforms in the Republic of Serbia, particularly the
introduction of the incentives, as well as introduction of less complex administrative
procedures for the construction of these facilities.

Table 10: RES in Serbia, Private investors-biomass boilers

Investor Description Producer
Tarket, Backa Palanka,
3 MW, production of heat by burning sawdust Kirka Suri
Frigonais, Kuršumlija, 1500 kg/h, production of steam by burning fruit
Kirka Suri
Serbia pits
Victoria Group, 15 t/h, production of steam by burning sunflower
Kirka Suri
biodiesel plant,Serbia skin and cut straw
Soya Protein, Becej, 10 t/h production of steam by burning Soya and
Kirka Suri
Serbia wheat straw and silos residue
Supported by the Ministry of Finance and Institute
PKB, Belgrade, Serbia Ministry of Agriculture a 1.5 MWt for heating of Vinca, Tipo
greenhouses using biomass was constructed Kotlogradnja
Ravnjanka” doo. – 350 KW, wood and confiscate from
Ravnje, Serbia slaughterhouse
Jogosan, Novi Sad, Sawmill and wood from a furniture factory
Serbia 2x500 KW

In addition to these, biomass boilers have been installed in DP Mitrosrem, Sr. Mitrovica
(straw), and edible oil factories in Sombor, Sid, Nova Crnja, Zrenjanin, and Vrbas.

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Table 11. Private investors – briquette factories

East point, Boljevac Wood pallets, investment 4 million euro, August, 2008
Briquette factory, investment 1 million euro, August
Inter briko, Akmacici, Nova Varos
Briquette factory, May 2007, export to Slovenia and
Briket, Ivanjica
Varotech, Mladenovo, Backa Briquette – soy straw - factory, investment 1.4 million
Palanka euro, 2006

There has been little progress in development of small hydro power plants. Revitalization of
“Ovcar Banja" (5.8 MW) is under way and hydroelectric Power Plant "Meduvršje" 7 MW is
next planned for revitalization.

In thermal energy there have been little investments. One of the largest is the construction of
greenhouse heating system in “Farkom MB” in 2003.

During the last 20 years, some entrepreneurial ventures have appeared, and they could easily
turn towards activities in RES sector if it becomes economically viable. Good example is
Serbian company Kirka Suri that has been building energy equipment and boilers from 1989.
The company nowadays has good references, both domestic and foreign, and can produce
biomass heating systems if needed (of course, it is important to notice that the number of
biomass projects conducted by this company is also extremely small compared to their regular
activities, which points out the popularity of conventional sources on the market). Also, the
equipment for the biomass combustion, which can be found at the domestic market, mostly
does not represent the equipment for burning biomass, but the equipment for burning high
quality coal. This could make problems during biomass exploitation and decrease the effects
of using biomass as a fuel since fuel switch on all these boilers demands additional
investments and the quality of these equipment is not up to date with the latest technology
innovations stipulating the lower efficiency in production.

Solar systems in Serbia are almost entirely imported goods. They come from all around the
world, and can mostly be bought at fairs or at a few specialized companies. However, they are
rather expensive, and yet they provide only partial solution (hot water for technical use, not
heating). Some domestic companies have started the cooperation with solar system producers,
but the trend of general use of this source is still stagnating. In October 2008, a new
“company for production of solar panels KM Mont” was opened in Sremski Karlovci. The
investment in this facility was Euro 825 000. The panels are to be sold on the domestic
market, and exported to Russia and CEFTA countries.

In wind sector, Locher Energo has local production of wind generators for its mother
company Flender Loher Gmbh from Ruhstorf. When it comes to tradition and possible
development of RES usage, a state owned giant company Energoprojekt could play an
important role. With more than 70 international projects, ownership in more than 50
companies worldwide, and almost six decades long tradition, it can play the major role in
popularization and production of RES utilization systems.

In 2007 new private factory for biodiesel production “Victoria Oil” in Šid, was constructed. It
fulfils the requirements of the standard EN 14214, was constructed. The same year they
started the production of the first quantities of biodiesel- around 25,000 t of biodiesel.
Installed annual capacity of this factory is 100.000 t of biodiesel.

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Currently, the research and development in the RES field is based on the National Energy
Efficiency program, prepared by the Ministry of Science. However, the implementation of the
established technical knowledge is very slow, especially in realizing demonstration (pilot)
projects, due to the lack of incentives.

2.4.2 Relations with supplying farmers

The only model that can be elaborated for the relation with supplying farmers is the one that
exists on the example of the first biodiesel factory. Factory has made an annual contracts with
farmers which are going to be involved in three productions of oil rape seed. According to
that contract the factory was providing the know how, seeds, fertilizers and other chemical
inputs for protection of the plants, biodiesel for planting and growing of the crop and fixed
price for purchase, according to the calculation of the provided inputs. The interest among the
farmers was quite strong and it can be noticed from the provided Table 6 where increase in
the area sown with this culture can be noticed.

It can be expected that this practise will increase if the existing company continue with
increase of the production. This can be influenced by several factors, like price of diesel on
the global market, possibility for sale in the country and the price of food.

3 National policy and concepts promoting renewable energies

The Government of Serbia recognizes the importance that the European Community gives to
renewable energy, and that the European Union accession process requires harmonization of
energy policies. The Energy Community Treaty between the EU and nine southeast European
countries was signed in Athens on October 25. 2005, and ratified by Serbia on 14 July 2006.
Treaty on Energy Union of SEE is obliging Serbia to adopt the EU Directives related to
utilization of renewable energy resources. Therefore there is no doubt that Serbia’s
endowment of renewable energy resources is substantial and realized. According to that
Serbia adopted the sum of goals related to renewable resources. Today share of energy from
renewable energy resources is about 6% (including the big hydro power plants, and it is
predicted that it will not change much until 2015. Serbia is the process of the preparation of
strategic documents which will also determine the share of renewable energy resources in the
total primary consumption of energy. Strategy of development of energy sector in Serbia is
predicting that the share of renewable energy resources (with out big hydro power plants) in
primary energy production has to increase from zero to 1,1 in 2015, and that share in total
final consumption of energy has to raise up to 1,5-2% in the period 2006- 2015. This
estimation is made for the scenario with dynamic economy development.

The National Energy Strategy for 2015 maps out the path ahead, calling for the development
of 150 small hydro plants to provide 100 MW, and 4,000 small boilers to use biomass from
industrial, agricultural and forest sources.

Almost all technologies for biomass energy conversion have been applied in Serbia.
Unfortunately, some of them were installed more than twenty years ago and presently are out
of operation. The reasons for their non-operational status are poor maintenance and lack of
spare parts during the sanctions. In addition, the low electricity prices in Serbia in the last
Decade of the twentieth century caused a significant number of owners to find that it was
much cheaper to use electricity for heating than biomass.

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In the previous period demand for small solid fuel firing boilers for space heating has been
low. Consequently manufacturers did not invest in development of modern solid fuel firing
boilers, and most boilers designed for high quality coal are not suited for biomass. However,
boilers expressly designed for biomass are now appearing on the market mainly as a result of
the more intensive promotional activities of utilization of renewable energy resources and
environmentally friendly technologies.

Since higher utilization of renewable energy resources, especially from agriculture, has not
yet taken the place in Serbia, there were no discussions on the conflicts in relation to use of
food to energy production. Although there are strong discussions in the international level,
dealing with this topic, the use of biomass for energy production in Serbia, is just observed as
a significant potential for additional income for farmers and nature protection. Agriculture
production in Serbia is one of the most important sources of income for almost half of the
population and agricultural products are already exported in a large number of countries. On
the other hand there is a large portion of land that is available for agriculture production and
this land presents a strong potential for additional production of agricultural products.
Obviously the price of the biomass and final agriculture products will play an important role
in discussions that will come in the future, and this market instrument will influence the
farmer’s choice. At this moment the Government is not influencing the farmer’s decisions on
selection of crops and has no mechanisms to prevent them from redirecting to sowing the
energy crops. One of the promotional measures of the Government could be the support
mechanisms in subsidy form for energy crops, but because of the significant cuts in the total
budget this measure is still not certain in the coming period.

The importance of energy potential of biomass fuel can be shown by comparison with present
annual production of coal in domestic mines and with consumption of imported fuel oil.
About two third of electricity generation in Serbia is based on domestic coal, while one third
of electricity is generated in hydro power plants. The total annual coal production is about
6.2·106 toe. It is less than 2.5 times greater than the annual biomass energy potential. The
total annual consumption of liquid fuel is about 3·106 tons. Since a great part of this liquid
fuel consumption is used in motor vehicles, it can be concluded that total consumption of fuel
oil consumed for heating in industry and dwellings, can be fully replaced with biomass fuel.

3.1 National policy

Starting from 2002. Serbia introduced the National Program of Energy Efficiency where
Program for utilization of renewable energy was incorporated. Several pilot projects and
research studies were conducted for use of renewable and alternative energy resources. In the
process of harmonization of the national legislation with the EU requirements, the Ministry of
Mining and Energy of the Republic of Serbia has prepared a reform of the energy sector,
establishing a new legal, institutional and regulatory framework in order to create a more
efficient energy market. The above reform is based on the Energy Law (2004)3 and the
Energy Sector Development Strategy by 2015 (ESDS)4, adopted by the Government of the
Republic of Serbia at the end of 2004, and approved by the Serbian Parliament in May, 2005.
The ESDS has foreseen the development of the Program for the Implementation of the ESDS,
focused on the main priorities: modernization of the existing power plants, rational utilization
of the fossil fuel sources, utilization of the renewable energy sources and implementation of
the clean technologies, as well as construction of the new power plants. Beside the latter, the
ESDS identifies the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol as a useful tool in order to achieve
the European standards on environmental protection.

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National agricultural policy was never linked to direct support to utilization of renewable
energy resources. One of the main reasons was the lack of proper base line analysis and plan
for introduction of renewable energy resources. Also the institutional set up was not fully in
place, as well as other preconditions for preparation of sustainable subsidy measures.
Although there were some initiatives from the field, the MAFWM didn’t have the capacities
to deal with this issue, and the benefits of utilization of Renewable energy sources (RES) for
agriculture sector was not recognized as the most important factor in agriculture development.
Also the preparations of support measures include the detailed elaboration of technical
characteristics, criteria for approval of applications and projects and proper monitoring and
evaluation. The market of the available technologies for utilization of biomass in Serbia is still
not developed in a way to secure the provision of modern technologies from several suppliers,
which is important for tendering procedures. Due to this and absence of expertise in this field
in the MAFWM this type of support measures were never introduced in practise before.

Also the environmental protection, although identified as one of the strategic aims and
important topic, was never supported with significant budget resources. This was because of
the very limited budget for agriculture, and at the same time because of the very difficult
situation in the Agriculture sector. That is also one of the reasons why there was no specific
support from the budget that was aiming the increase of energy plant production or utilization
of biomass. The only support measure that was conducted in the previous years that could be
linked to RES, is the support to farmers for assistance in land cultivation in the sowing
seasons. This measure provide subsidy to farmers to cover some of the costs for procurement
of sufficient amount of diesel for cultivation of land. Farmers who used biodiesel had 10%
higher subsidy. In 2009 this measure is no longer active and this type of support is
incorporated in payments per hectare, and biodiesel is no longer present as positive exception.

In 2006 the topic of RES became more important and the MAWFM started with some
promotional actives mainly with donor support in organization of conference for promotion of
utilization of biomass in agriculture, and realization of several seminars for potential users.

Even there were no available budget funds, in 2006, MAFWM prepared the project proposal
together with PKB Agro Combinate and Institute for Nuclear Sciences Vinca (VINCA), in
order to assist in realization of construction and installation of first boiler for soya sow
combustion under the Biom-Adria Project. For this purpose MAFWM allocated 5 mil RSD
from National Investment Fund, and the project was realized in 2007 when the first pilot
boiler was constructed and installed at the PKB Corporation.

In 2007 and 2008 the Province Secretariat for Energy and Mining introduced the subsidy
support for financing the projects related to construction or reconstruction of facilities for
direct use of waste biomass from wood processing industry for energy purpose and subsidy
for co financing of construction of facilities for use of land energy by system of heat pump
water/water or land/water for heating/cooling of objects, promoting the use of geo thermal
resources. These measures were created under the Energy Efficiency program.

3.2 National concepts and programmes

Although renewable energy is becoming more and more important on the Governmental level,
there are no subsidies or other defined support measures developed or implemented in Serbia,
excluding the small pilot projects and programs. One of the reasons is the lack of legal
documents and absence of clear strategic plans. On the other hand existence of this type of the
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support in the previous period, and strong latest initiatives on the Government level,
introduction of support measures can be expected in the near future.

Establishment of decentralised energy-supply systems is very important for assurance of the

stable electrical grid and reduction of import of electricity and other fossil fuels. That is the
reason why the Government initiated the preparation of National Strategy Plan for utilization
of RE which is to be finalized until the end of 2009. For the purpose of preparation of this
document Government of Serbia has formed special inter-ministerial working group with
representatives from the Ministries of Energy and Mining, Ministry of Spatial Planning and
Environment Protection, Ministry of Economy and Regional Development and Ministry of
Agriculture Forestry and Water Management and several experts from institute and faculties
from related fields. This group already started with their work and with assessment of
potentials and plans in line with actual legal frames and existing strategies and policy.

In 2006. MAFWM prepared the project proposal together with PKB Agro Combinate and
Institute for Nuclear Sciences Vinca (VINCA), in order to assist in realization of construction
and installation of first boiler for soya sow combustion under the Biom-Adria Project. For this
purpose MAFWM allocated 5 mil RSD, and the project was realized in 2007 when the first
pilot boiler was constructed and installed on specially constructed facility on one of the land
parcels of PKB, near the glass houses. The PKB corporation management accept to add a
new facility for combined heat and power generation to the existing boiler room. Also there is
an agreement of the largest company in Belgrade and Serbia for distribution of thermal
energy, the Public Utility Company BEOGRADSKE ELEKTRANE, which guarantees skilled
work with the facility and by which the facility gets the formal owner. The fact that the city of
Belgrade is owner of the Public Utility Company BEOGRADSKE ELEKTRANE indirectly
means that the city of Belgrade is managing the facility which operates for the purpose of the
citizens communal needs. Major donor of this project was the Italian Region Emilia-Romagna
(RER) and constructed boiler for heating of greenhouses is 1.5 MWt.

Since prices of electricity are very low and “privileges” have not been implemented (although
defined in Energy Law), privileged producers cannot compete with EPS, even if they manage
to break trough the long list of permits and approvals, and connect to the grid. The
Government of Serbia is planning to introduce the Fund for support to production of energy
from renewable resources as well as feed in tariffs until the end of 2009, as foreseen in the
New Energy Law which should came in power in August 2009. This new changes in Law
should provide better assistance for producers of green energy with feed in tariffs, tax reliefs,
easier procedures for obtaining the permits and financial support through establishment of
special Fund for assistance in investments for construction of facilities for production of
energy from renewable resources.

Producers with power of 1-10MW have to be licensed by the Serbian Energy Agency. As
until July 2008, Serbian Energy Agency has issued 618 licenses for energy related activities to
companies in the electricity sector and in the natural gas sector. No privately-owned
production facilities can be found in the Register of Licenses. However, there are private
companies active on the electricity market in Serbia. 33 licenses have been issued for
electricity trade. Main interest of these companies is seasonal export-import transactions.

With the new legislation that should be in place in the second part of 2009, this situation is
expected to change. According to the recent announcements made by the Ministry of Energy,
Electrical Company of Serbia will offer a 12 years contract with guaranteed price of Euro
0,114 – 0,136 per kWh to all investors who want to produce electricity from RES.

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4 Impact of the promotion of renewable energies

One of the main preconditions of sustainable development and political stability of every
country is the stability of energy supply. That is one of the main experiences that Serbia got
from the sanction period. Lack of energy was one of the key problems that Serbia faced on the
beginning of the transition period. That is why one of the first supports from abroad, came in
energy sector facilitating the sufficient supply of energy and further development of economic
activities. All big investments were followed with co-financing from the Government side but
most of the project that were conducted were financed through donor support with small share
of investments from the beneficiary side.

Multilateral/ Bilateral Institutions for Support of the Sector

European Agency for Reconstruction has, on behalf of the EU, supported Serbian energy
sector with projects in total- Euro 450 million. This has had a major impact leading to record
outputs from the power stations, significant reductions in pollution, and much more reliable
and stable power supply system.

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD funded the single largest
investment in RES in Serbia, Victoria Oil (first bio-diesel factory in Serbia), as well as a
number of projects in energy and environment sector, including Duboko solid waste land mill,
which has plans to develop biogas facility.

EU/EBRD Western Balkan Sustainable Energy Credit Line Facility provides financing for
energy efficiency and renewable energy projects through participation of local banks. The
EBRD is currently implementing these Facilities in Bulgaria, Ukraine, Slovakia, Romania,
Georgia and Kazakhstan. The similar facility is under development in a Serbia as well.

EIB (European Investment Bank) - Western Balkan Energy Efficiency Fund European
Commission (EC) will give the Grant for Energy Efficiency (EE) investments. All grants
available at the EIB are € 6 million, which will be allocated across EIB’s clients on a first
come first served basis. The grants are given as percentages of EIB Global Loan lending from
Financial Intermediaries to End Borrowers.

EU Seventh Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP7)

inherited FP6 that funded several projects related to RES and establishment of SEE Energy
Community. It is the EU's main instrument for funding research in Europe, and it will run
from 2007 until 2013. Researchers will help transform the current energy system into a more
sustainable one, making it less dependent on imported fuels. The end result will be a diverse
mix of energy sources, in particular renewable ones, energy carriers, and non-polluting
sources. The budget available for energy is Euro 2.35 billion. Serbia is eligible for FP7 as an
associated country. Eligible projects/activities include renewable electricity generation,
renewable fuel production, renewable for heating and cooling, energy efficiency and savings,
and knowledge for energy policy making.

World Bank (WB) has been engaged in a number of projects including Serbia component of
the Energy Community of South East Europe Program Project (ECSEE APL3-Serbia) which
provides investment support and technical assistance for Serbia and complements donor
assistance that creates and develops the capacity of the Transmission, System, and Market
Operator and the regulatory agency, all obligations that Serbia has to fulfil under the Athens

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Memorandum. The project aims to improve electricity market access for consumers and
suppliers by increasing the quantity, quality, reliability, safety and efficiency of the bulk
power transmission system. The Project consists of two components:

• Component 1: 110 kV Substations and Related activities for construction of five new
110 kV substations. The construction of these five 110 kV substations will be carried
out in two phases;
• Component 2: 110 kV Interconnecting Transmission Lines and Related Activities for
construction of new 110 kV interconnecting transmission lines for the substations
selected for investment under Component 1 of the project. The construction of these
110 kV interconnecting transmission lines will also be carried out in two phases.

In BiH, this project has a direct link with RES, through financing hydro power plants repairs.

Central European Initiative - CEI Special Fund for Climate and Environmental Protection –
grants (up to 40.000 EUR per project) for projects in the area of climate and environment
protection in the non-EU CEI Member States. Among others, it supports activities conducive
to increasing energy efficiency, improving and disseminating environmentally friendly
technologies, sanitation of old ecological burdens, and waste management. The eligible
projects could take the form of feasibility studies, development plans, expert meetings, know-
how transfer, research grants, study tours, training courses etc.

UN ECE-Financing Energy Efficiency Investment for Climate Change Mitigation Project has
recently awarded contract in the amount of US$ 988,300 to undertake Regional Analysis of
Policy Reforms to Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Investments. Another
project of US$ 1,250,000 will structure and prepare the Investment Fund to reduce
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 12 countries of Eastern Europe, South-Eastern Europe
(including Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia) and Central Asia, as well as an
analysis of the financial, legal and fiscal issues; solicit public sector entities and private sector
investor participation; and prepare the terms of reference for an experienced fund manager. In
addition to these, a number of bilateral donors are also present.

German Credit fur Wiederafbau (KfW) which focuses primarily on the development of the
financial sector, improvement of the energy supply, particularly renewable energy and
municipal water supply and wastewater treatment.

Spanish Azahar Program which is active in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
projects and the development of renewable energies in the Mediterranean Region (Serbia and
BiH included).

Austrian Development Agency whose project includes Wind power in Bosnia Herzegovina
and Bio-fuel and bio-gas in Serbia.

Italian CDM Capacity Building-Related Projects in the Balkans Region which take place in
Serbia, Montenegro, Albania and Macedonia. Activities include support for the establishment
of the Designated National Authority in Serbia, Montenegro, Albania and Macedonia; and
development of the CDM Portfolio for Serbia, Montenegro, Albania and Macedonia.

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4.1 Impact on the agricultural sector

In Serbia, production of energy from agriculture is still on the pilot project phases and there is
no detailed analysis on this topic conducted. In this period farmers are just getting the new
information’s and only a small number of them are interested in further involvement in energy
production. Most of these farmers are cattle and pig producers with larger number of animals,
but it can be expected that this number will increase in the future when more information’s
and support mechanisms become available. This situation is quite normal considering the
mentioned obstacles and situation in Serbia.

Present incomes from agriculture even in the EU countries with substantial subsidies, is
getting smaller. Average yields and added values are not providing significant increase in the
farmer’s income. Market situation and price changes in Serbia are not stable and general
prices of a large number of agricultural products is reducing in the last period. Due to the
difficult transition period, large number of farmers is facing a very difficult period to sustain
their usual production. Some of the solutions for the farmers to overcome this hard period and
to find their place in the global market of agricultural products are to get in cooperatives and
unions of agriculture producers and to apply all modern agro measures and science trying to
reduce the production costs.

Unfortunately, these activities are not making a significant changes in their income and that is
why more and more farmers a seeking for new sources of income, out of agriculture sector.
Part of the rural development measures, created in the Ministry of Agriculture, is trying to
assist those farmers in diversification of their activities on households. Some measures are
promoting the rural tourism, conservation of genetic resources, maintenance of meadows and
pastures. In EU countries the range of these support schemes is much larger and covers the
production of energy as a significant, additional, source of income for farmers. In some
countries farmers became significant producers of energy (bio diesel and bio ethanol) and
energy. Combination of biomass utilization can contribute to higher production of electricity
and heat energy.

Introduction of this practise in Serbia will allow stronger engagement of available land in
production of energy and open some new perspectives for farmers to provide additional
incomes. New technologies are easier for application and the price of these facilities is
reducing and becoming affordable to a larger scale of farmers. EU experience are showing
that production of energy from agriculture resources can provide not just additional income to
single farmers, but can also influence on opening of new working places.

4.2 Impact on rural development

According to this researches best results can be expected if cogeneration of biomass is applied
if heat energy will be used for technology purposes enabling the full annual engagement of
more than 5 000 hours. Even if we select the fuel with lower price, with higher investment
costs, favourable economic benefits can be achieved, assuming that facility works longer and
heat energy can be fully used, or in as bigger share as possible. Every possibility for longer
annual engagement of the facility is contributing to the lower price of the produced electricity
and higher efficiency.

According to the examples from other countries, it can be concluded that utilization of solid
biomass as a fuel, the price of produced electric energy with profitable production could be

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from 7 to 12 €c/kWh. The price of electricity produced by cogeneration of biogas would be

11 do 16 €c/kWh, where higher value is linked to utilization of co substrate. Price of
electricity in Serbia is 4,45 euro cents for households and 4,0 euro cents for industry and it is
much lower than it is in most of the EU countries.

The size of the facility will have big influence on the price of produced electricity, as well as
the annual operational time and level of utilization of produced heat energy. However the
expected introduction of feed- in tariffs will be the first step for sustainable work and initial
investments in this sector. Any how before the construction of first demo facilities in Serbia it
will be impossible to give accurate information’s on engineering, operational and economic
issues and proper solutions, especially having in mind the very low price of electricity.
According to the latest developments the Ministry of Energy and Mining of Republic of
Serbia is planning to adopt the regulation for introduction of feed in tariffs in the second part
of the 2009.

It can be expected that higher utilization of renewable energy will get full attention when
Serbia becomes a candidate country. One of the first steps would be to legally regulate all
aspects of green energy relevant issues and delivery of produced electricity to the grid. At the
same time the introduction of feed-in tariffs should be placed in power so that potential
investors could be fostered to invest in production of energy from renewable resources.
Couple of demonstration facilities would significantly promote renewable energy and assist in
determination of all necessary steps and obstacles in the process of construction and operation
of facilities and technologies for cogeneration of electricity in Serbia and foster the
introduction of support mechanisms.

Conduction of feasibility study which will explore the possibility of utilization of biomass for
facilities that:
- Could use heat energy for technology purposes or combined for technology and heat.
Also possibilities for other ways of use of heat, aside from the use for heat, mainly for
acclimatization in summer period, in order to increase the annual work hours and level
of efficiency
- Detail elaboration of influence of biomass on fertility and soil quality, with handbooks
for future users
- Elaborate the technologies and mechanization for collection and utilization of biomass
from the field
- That will determine the locations for planting of fast growing forests and other plants
for production of biomass for energy purposes.

Experience from other EU countries and conducted studies are indicating that use of RES can
make significant support to household incomes and at the same time create additional work
places. With ought significant number this type of installations and built value-added chains
with respect to RE, exact impact on rural development can’t be elaborated.

Serbia is implementing the National rural development program which is from 2004
structured in line with EU SAPARD programme. Measures changed in last period but never
included direct support to RE. Since present activities of the MAFWM are linked to
preparation of IPARD programme, it can be expected that, under the axis II, measures for
promotion of utilization of biomass from agriculture will be included. These measures will
make significant contribution to achievement of some national strategic targets and execution
of undertaken obligations by signed international treaties and convections.

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On the other hand, these measures will significantly assist agricultural households in
obtaining additional incomes, and bring possibilities for new employments in rural areas.
Introduction of the utilization of biomass and other RES, will make strong contribution to
achievement of some common national and local aims and interests, like: diversification of
rural economy, nature protection, introduction of good agriculture practise, and creation of
better living conditions in rural areas of Serbia. Mobilization of biomass potentials and
achievement of these results are incorporated in National Strategy for Sustainable
Development, and introduction of rural development measures for RE is foreseen in the future
period, in respect to the budget constrains and in accordance with alleviation of above
mentioned obstacles in the process of preparation, implementation and monitoring and
evaluation of these measures by the Ministry officials.

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5 Strengths and weaknesses of renewable energies

Table 19: Summary of SWOT analysis

Strengths Weaknesses
− Renewable energy potentials − The use of biomass for energy that can also be used for
− Favorable geographic location of the country animal feed or products
− Liberated electricity market − Low awareness about RES potential
− Third party access to the network secured − No marketing strategy for RES
− Trading legislation in accordance to EU − Poorly developed consumer market
− Distribution − Institutional capacity
− Property rights generally assured − No proper investment strategy
− General labor conditions defined by law − Incomplete legislation
− Guaranteed social economic rights − Infrastructure in energy sector
− Environmental concerns aiming at EU level − Insufficient locally available know-how
− Additional source of income − Production of equipment in the country
− Support to rural development − Poorly functioning judiciary

Opportunities Threats
− Growing demand − Long period for obtaining permissions
− Establishment of supporting schemes − Long procedure of contract enforcements
− Funding opportunities − Supply in increase
− IFI program and donors − Lot of EU companies already present
− JI/CDM opportunities − Corruption risks
− Public procurements − Political risks
− Projects financed through private sector − Unions play a huge role in public debate
− Import opportunities − Possibility of late payments
− Low labor costs − No feed in tariffs in place
− Local production of quality components − Subsidy assistance absent due to the budget constrains

5.1 Strengths and weaknesses


• According to existing research documents Serbia has a great potential for utilization of
renewable resources for energy production and a favourable geographic location in respect
to wind, geo thermal and solar potentials as well as for possible export possibilities of

• Legal regulations are regulating the free electricity market and providing the frame for
delivering of the electricity to the grid as well as free trading with electricity in line with
EU regulations. This also allows the existence of private electricity producers and their
legal rights.

• Production of energy from renewable resources can provide additional source of income
and create new working positions. Use of renewable resources is contributing to reduction
of utilization of coal and other environmentally harmful resources for production of
energy preserving the environment in line with EU requirements.

• Since most of the biomass is located in remote and rural areas of the country utilization of
this resource could also significantly foster the sustainable rural development and improve

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the quality of life in this areas preserving the nature and providing the additional source of


• Although the biomass presents a valuable source for production of energy, it also presents
the animal feed or product for human or other use. This increases the price for this
biomass increasing the price of production of energy and making it more expensive. One
of the problem for better utilization of the biomass is the low awareness about potentials
and possibilities that RE presents, mainly due to a bad marketing and low level of
promotional activities of this type of production of energy. This is also linked to a low
institutional capacities and lack of qualified persons in the institutions who should create
better environment for this type of production and marketing.
• Existence of the proper investment strategy could promote utilization of RE, but an
important precondition for that would be the creation of full set of legal documents.

• Infrastructure in the energy sector is very old and rehabilitation and improvement of
production facilities and the grid is needed to secure better production and transport of

• There is a very low know how in production of energy from RE on local level making it
more difficult and hard to implement or initiate this type of investments, especially with
ought possibilities to procure proper and modern equipment in the country.

• At this moment even is someone decide to invest in production of green energy, a big
legal barriers and procedures are ahead of them making it very difficult to obtain all
permits and conditions predicted in the present legal environment.

5.2 Opportunities and Threats


• Production of green energy could have bright future in Serbia due to a growing
demand for electricity, establishment of supporting schemes by the Government and
emerging new funding donor possibilities, including the establishment of the adequate
CDM mechanism by the Government.

• Since private entities have the possibility to invest in this sector, better response from
the local level could be expected and additional source of funding can be presented.
Private investors could be interested in this type of production since it provides the
possibility for export of biomass and electricity, assuming that the price of the
produced energy would be lower due to an existing lower labour cost and possibilities
to procure some of the equipment form local producers.


The most significant obstacle for larger number of investments in production of green energy
is a very long period for obtaining the permissions from authorities and long procedure for
contracts enforcements. This is slowing down the whole process and makes it very difficult to

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make time frame for competition of construction works and proper planning of the investment

Lot of foreign companies are already looking for the possible locations for investments and
are already making some arrangements for construction of facilities, making the price of
identified locations higher.

Corruption risk always exists and it could complicate some procedures for obtaining of the
permits and compliances. Usually it is linked to some political changes and structures in the
authorities which are issuing these licences are changeable in line with political changes, and
this could prolong the whole process or even cease the whole process.

Unions of workers are wary strong organizations and they could play a huge role in public
debate and an important partner or antagonist in introduction of RE utilization.

Difficult financial situation in the country influenced by world economic crisis as well as with
ongoing transition period could impact the late payments and jeopardise the regular planned
income from production foreseen for pay of the loans or other credit arrangements.

Lack of Government support mechanisms and no feed in tariffs in place are increasing the
level of self financing and prolonging the pay back period for investors. This situation is not
in favour to promotion of RE since the main reason for investors is income and in this
situation it comes after to long period of time.

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6 Conclusions

• Utilization of renewable resources is important factor for reduction of emissions of

green house gasses, and reduction of use of fossil fuels whose resources are limited.
Biomass represents of the most significant renewable resources for energy production
and regulates the pollution from the agriculture by resolving the situation of manure
management and utilization of leftovers from agriculture, forestry and other industries.

• According to the orientation of the Serbian Government towards the EU and the
necessity of harmonization of the legislation, and compliance with international
treaties and conventions, Serbia will have to look up at the energy policy of the EU.
This implies the intensified utilization of renewable resources, promotion of energy
efficiency, development and utilization of modern technologies for utilization of
biomass. Ratification of the Kyoto protocol and establishment of the CDM
mechanisms imposes and assists in higher utilization of renewable resources fro
energy production. This will also contribute to the economy development, fuel
independency from the export and create new working places.

• Economic data of cogeneration with utilization of biomass depend on the sum needed
for investment for production facility, price of fuel, annual work load, maintenance
costs, operational costs, efficiency level, price of electricity and heat energy. Every of
these parameters can play a significant impact on economic indicators.

• The most important potentials of biomass for production of electric and heat energy
are residues of agriculture production in small and medium sized households. If
collection of mealie would be improved, and if production of fast growing forests, as
well as collection of other plant residues, including the technology for cogeneration,
the potential would be significantly increased. In the scenario of full priority to
electricity production, the main task would be the construction of electric power plants
that work on biomass. With 3 electric power plants of 15MW, annual production could
be 320GWh of electric energy, with utilization of 250.000t of plant residues.

• The biggest obstacle for utilization of biomass as renewable resource is the burden of
collection from the land and impact on reduced fertility of the soil. This moment was
not elaborated in more details, but according to different opinions, the common one
that predominates is that taking of 1/3 up to ½ of plant residues, should not have any
negative impact on the quality of the soil. Big impact can be linked to the variety of
the crops, state of soil, weather the manure from the stables is applied, climate
conditions, mechanization etc.

• Another obstacle for planning of the utilization of biomass is the significant variation
in the price of crops and inputs in production and un reliable supply. This could be
solved if collection is done from several different households.

• Significant impact has the quality of applied technology and the possibility for
utilization of produced heat energy during the whole year.

• One of the conclusions is that best performance can be reached if biomass

cogeneration is applied with use of heat energy for technology purposes. If heat

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energy which is produced in the steam turbine is used only for heating, than the degree
of utilization is 63%. This significantly influence on increase of cost of production of
electric energy.

• According to conducted analysis, and the experience from other countries, it can be
concluded that utilization of solid biomass as fuel, the price of produced electric
energy could be 7 to 12 €c/kWh. The price of electric energy obtained from biogas
would be 11 to 16 €c/kWh, and even higher if use of co substrate is included.

• The size of the facility, and annual work load, including the efficiency, will have the
biggest impact on the on the price. Therefore it would be of the great importance if the
Government would introduce the feed-in tariffs for so called green energy and if at
least three demonstration facilities could be constructed in order to deeply elaborate
and analyze engineering, operational and economic problems and solutions.

• To what extent the biomass energy potential would be efficiently utilized depends not
only on energy policy, but also on ability and readiness of different stakeholders,
investors, manufacturers, research institutions, agriculture and forestry sectors,
financial sector, to take a part in an organized way in a programme of sustainable
biomass utilisation.

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Annex 1 Consulted literature List of Key interviewed persons

1. Ministry of Science and Technological Development (2003) - Energetski potencijal i

karakteristike ostataka biomase i tehnologije za njenu pripremu i energetsko iskorišćenje u Srbiji-
2. Ministry of Science and Technological Development (2004) - Proizvodnja i korišćenje biodizela –
alternativnog i ekološkog goriva za dizel motore-
3. Ministry of Science and Technological Development (2003) - Analiza raspoloživih tehnologija i
opreme za korišćenje briketa i peleta, i mogućnosti njihovog korišćenja kao zamene za korišćenje
električne energije za grejanje-
4. Ministry of Science and Technological Development (2006) -Alternativna goriva za pogon motora
sus u 21 veku-
5. Tešić M, Igić S, Adamović D. (2006) - Energy Production – New Task And Revenue Source For
Agriculture - Proizvodnja i korišćenje biodizela- alternativnog i ekološkog goriva za dizel motore
Savremena poljoprivredna tehnika, Cont. Agr. Engng. Vol. 32, No. 1-2, p. 1-131, Novi Sad,
6. Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea/ Department for Environmental Research and
Development (2007)Assessment Of The Project`S Potential In The Fields Of Renewable Energy
Sources, Energy Efficiency And Forestry Management, In The Framework Of Clean Development
Mechanism Foreseen By The Kyoto Protocol In The Republic Of Serbia-
7. World Bank (2007): Serbia: Analysis of Policies to Increase Renewable Energy Use- Study
Funded by the ESMAP,
8. Ilic Mladen, Borislav Grubor, and Milos Tesic (2004): The State Of Biomass Energy In Serbia,
Original scientific paper UDC: 662.636/.638 BIBLID: 0354-9836, 8, 2, pp.5-19
9. Fakultet tehničkih nauka Institut za energetiku, procesnu tehniku i zaštitu okoline: Mogućnost
proizvodnje i korišćenja biodizela u AP Vojvodini-,Novi Sad
10. Ministarstvo nauke i zaštite životne sredine Republike Srbije (2004) - Studija energetskog
potencijala Srbije za korsicenje suncevog zracenja i energije vetra
11. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), (2006): Serbia Country Profile
12. Pokrajinski sekretarijat za energetiku i mineralne sirovine IV AP Vojvodine (2008)- Mogućnosti
kombinovane proizvodnje električne i toplotne energije iz biomase u AP Vojvodini-
13. Pokrajinski sekretarijat za energetiku i mineralne sirovine IV AP Vojvodine, (2007) Potencijali i
mogućnosti briketiranja i peletiranja otpadne biomase na teritoriji pokrajine Vojvodine
14. Pregled stanja životne sredine, serijski br. 26- IZDANJE UJEDINJENIH NACIJA br.E.07.II.E.16
15. European Commission, December (2006): SERBIA Country Report-.
16. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) - Feasibility Study On Wood
Waste Utilization In Serbia-
17. Jasper Faber, Geert Bergsma,Jan Vroonhof, Delft, CE, (2006): Bio-energy in Europe 2005: Policy
trends and issues-
18. Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina - Renewable energy- carried out by Larive Serbia, by
order of EVD and in cooperation with the Dutch embassy in Zagreb, January 2009
19. Prof. dr Miloš Tešić, Prof. dr Milun Babić, Prof. dr Milan Martinov - Predstojeći podsticaji za
korišćenje biomase kao energenta-
20. Nataša Đereg, Zvezdan Kalmar, Krnajski Jović, Ionut Apostol: Obnovljivi izvori energije
u Srbiji - preporuke, potencijali i kriterijumi

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21. Annex 2 List of Key interviewed persons

1. Dejan Stojadinovic, Assistant Minister, Sector for Renewable energy resources,

Ministry of Energy and Mining
2. Danijel Petrovic, Provincial Secretary, Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Provincal
Secreatriat of Agriculture, Water Economy and Forestry
3. Slobodan Teofanov, Assistant Minister, Sector for Rural Development, MAFWM
4. Aleksandar Macura, UNDP Programme Officer Energy and Environment
5. Dragan Vukotic,PE Electric Power Industry of Serbia, Head Department for Strategy
and Invesments, Serbia
6. Danijela Bozanic, Ministry of Spatial Planning and Environment Protection
7. Dusan Jovic, Forest Directorate, MAFWM
8. Dragana Vidojevic, Environmental Protection Agency, Srbia
9. Prof. Milos Tesic, Faculty of Technical Science, Novi Sad
10. Prof. Branko Glavonjic, Faculty of Forestry, University of Belgrade
11. Anelise Vollweiler, Anevo Trading Gmbh
12. Zoltan Edes, EnviTec Biogas
13. Dejan Minic, Cooperativa, Belgrade
14. Velimir Vukicevic, P-Saobracajac- consulting, engineering, trading, Serbia
15. Wilhem Gantefort, Bio Voltaik Gmbh, Germany
16. Zoran Kapor, GFA ENVEST Gmbh, Germany
17. Dip.ing. Dragoljub Dakic, Institute of Nuclear Sciences "Vinča", Laboratory for
Thermal Engineering and Energy, Belgrade
18. Smilja Latinovic, Larive Serbia
19. Milan Veljovic, General Director, PKB Corporation, Belgrade

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Annex 3 List of internet sites

1. www.aebiom.org
2. www.undp.org.rs
3. www.biogas.rs
4. www.minpolj.gov.rs
5. http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/president/focus/energy-package-
6. www.gfa-group.de
7. http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l28175.htm
8. http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l28188.htm
9. www.kogeneracija.rs
10. http://energija.wordpress.com
11. http://www.cekor.org/index.php?tx=izdavastvo_listing
12. http://pks.komora.net/PrivredauSrbiji/Privrednegrane/Energetika/Obnovljiviizvoriener
13. http://www.well.org.rs/Energije%20druge.htm
14. http://www.vreme.com/cms/view.php?id=460498
15. http://www.psemr.vojvodina.gov.rs
16. http://www.bifonline.rs/tekstovi.item.260/biomasa-kao-energent-u-srbiji-velika-
17. http://www.energetika.in.rs/sr
18. http://www.mem.sr.gov.yu
19. http://www.pregled.com/nauka.php?tmpl=nauka_tmpl&id_rubrika=3
20. http://www.poljopartner.rs/kljucne-reci/847.html
21. http://www.reec.ns.ac.yu
22. http://sr.wordpress.com/tag/male-elektrane
23. http://www.ekoplan.gov.rs
24. http://www.sepa.sr.gov.yu
25. http://www.seea.sr.gov.yu

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