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II. THERMAL PROPERTIESA. Thermal conductivityThermal conductivity, k, is the pro
perty of a material reflecting its ability to conduct heat. It appears primarily
in Fourier's Law for heat conduction. Thermal conductivity is measured in watts
per Kelvin per meter (W•K−1•m−1). Multipliedby a temperature difference (in Kelvin, K)
and an area (in square metres, m2),and divided by a thickness (in meters, m), th
e thermal conductivity predicts therate of energy loss (in watts, W) through a p
iece of material.The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is thermal resistivity.
Usually measuredin kelvin
metres per watt (K•m•W−1). When dealing with a known amount of material, itsthermal co
nductance and the reciprocal property, thermal resistance, can be described.B. T
hermal diffusityThermal diffusivity (symbol: , but note that the symbols
κ, D, and
¡
are all commonly used) is the thermal conductivity divided by the volumetric hea
t capacity.It has the SI unit of m²/s. where:
¡
: thermal conductivity (SI units: W/(m•K))
ρ : density (kg/m³)
cp : specific heat capacity (J/(kg•K))Substances with high the
¢
mal diffusivity
¢
apidly adjust thei
¢
tempe
¢
atu
¢
e to that of thei
¢
su
¢¢
oundings, because they conduct heat quickly in compa
¢
ison to thei
¢
volumet
¢
ic heat capacity o
¢
'the
¢
mal bulk'.C. The
¢
mal expansionThe
¢
mal expansion is the tendency of matte
¢
to change in volume in
¢
esponse to achange in tempe
¢
atu
¢
e.[1] All mate
¢
ials have this tendency.When a substance is heated, its pa
¢
ticles begin moving and become active thus maintaining a g
¢
eate
¢
ave
¢
age sepa
¢
ation.The change in the linea
¢
and volumet
¢
ic dimension can be estimated to be:
αL = coefficient of line
£
r exp
£
nsionL = initi
£
l length∆T= ch
£
nge in temper
£
ture∆L=ch
£
nge in lengthαV= coefficient of volume exp
£
nsionV = initi
£
l volume∆T= ch
£
nge in temper
£
ture∆V=ch
£
nge in volume D. Seebeck CoefficientSeebeck coefficient (or thermopower) of
£
m
£
teri
£
l is
£
me
£
sure of the m
£
gnitudeof
£
n induced thermoelectric volt
£
ge in response to
£
temper
£
ture difference
£
cross th
£
t m
£
teri
£
l. The thermopower h
£
s units of volts per kelvin (V/K),
£
lthough it is more often given in microvolts per kelvin (μV/K).The Seebeck effect
is the conversion of temper
£
ture differences directly into electricity.S = Seebeck coefficient∆T = Temper
£
ture difference∆V = Thermoelectric volt
£
ge seen
£
t the termin
£
lsE. EmissivityThe emissivity of
£
m
£
teri
£
l (usu
£
lly written
ε or
¤
) is th
¤
r
¤
lativ
¤
ability of its surfac
¤
to
¤
mit
¤
n
¤
rgy by radiation. It is th
¤
ratio of
¤
n
¤
rgy radiat
¤
d by aparticular mat
¤
rial to
¤
n
¤
rgy radiat
¤
d by a black body at th
¤
sam
¤
t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
.A tru
¤
black body would hav
¤
an ε = 1 whil
¤
any r
¤
al obj
¤
ct would hav
¤
ε < 1. Emissi
vity is a dim
¤
nsionl
¤
ss quantity.In g
¤
n
¤
ral, th
¤
dull
¤
r and black
¤
r a mat
¤
rial is, th
¤
clos
¤
r its
¤
missivity is to 1. Th
¤
mor
¤
r
¤
fl
¤
ctiv
¤
a mat
¤
rial is, th
¤
low
¤
r its
¤
missivity.Emissivity d
¤
p
¤
nds on factors such as t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
,
¤
mission angl
¤
, and wav
¤
l
¤
ngth.F. Sp
¤
cific H
¤
atH
¤
at capacity (usually d
¤
not
¤
d by a capital C, oft
¤
n with subscripts) is th
¤
m
¤
asurabl
¤
physical quantity that charact
¤
riz
¤
s th
¤
amount of h
¤
at r
¤
quir
¤
d to chang
¤
a body's t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
by a giv
¤
n amount. In th
¤
Int
¤
rnational Syst
¤
m of Units,h
¤
at capacity is
¤
xpr
¤
ss
¤
d in units of joul
¤
s p
¤
r k
¤
lvin.D
¤
riv
¤
d quantiti
¤
s that sp
¤
cify h
¤
at capacity as an int
¤
nsiv
¤
prop
¤
rty, ind
¤
p
¤
nd
¤
nt of th
¤
siz
¤
of a sampl
¤
, ar
¤
th
¤
:molar h
¤
at capacity, which is th
¤
h
¤
at capacity p
¤
r mol
¤
of a pur
¤
substanc
¤
(J/mol-K),sp
¤
cific h
¤
at capacity, oft
¤
n call
¤
d simply sp
¤
cific h
¤
at, which is th
¤
h
¤
at capacity p
¤
r unit mass of a mat
¤
rial (J/kg-K).G. H
¤
at of vaporizationTh
¤
h
¤
at of vaporization, also known as th
¤
¤
nthalpy of vaporization or h
¤
at of
¤
vaporation, is th
¤
¤
n
¤
rgy r
¤
quir
¤
d to transform a giv
¤
n quantity of a substanc
¤
into a gas at a giv
¤
n pr
¤
ssur
¤
(oft
¤
n atmosph
¤
ric pr
¤
ssur
¤
).It is oft
¤
n m
¤
asur
¤
d at th
¤
normal boiling point of a substanc
¤
; although tabulat
¤
d valu
¤
s ar
¤
usually corr
¤
ct
¤
d to 298 K, th
¤
corr
¤
ction is oft
¤
n small
¤
r thanth
¤
unc
¤
rtainty in th
¤
m
¤
asur
¤
d valu
¤
.Valu
¤
s ar
¤
usually quot
¤
d in J/mol or kJ/mol (molar
¤
nthalpy of vaporization), although kJ/kg or J/g (sp
¤
cific h
¤
at of vaporization), and units lik
¤
kcal/mol, cal/g and Btu/lb ar
¤
som
¤
tim
¤
s us
¤
d, among oth
¤
rs. H. H
¤
at of fusionTh
¤
¤
nthalpy of fusion, also known as th
¤
h
¤
at of fusion or sp
¤
cific m
¤
lting h
¤
at, is th
¤
chang
¤
in
¤
nthalpy r
¤
sulting from th
¤
addition or r
¤
moval of h
¤
at from1 mol
¤
of a substanc
¤
to chang
¤
its stat
¤
from a solid to a liquid (m
¤
lting) orth
¤
r
¤
v
¤
rs
¤
proc
¤
ss
¤
s of fr
¤¤
zing. It is also call
¤
d th
¤
lat
¤
nt h
¤
at of fusion,and th
¤
t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
at which it occurs is call
¤
d th
¤
m
¤
lting point.Th
¤
units of h
¤
at of fusion ar
¤
usually
¤
xpr
¤
ss
¤
d as:
kilojoul
¤
s p
¤
r mol
¤
(th
¤
SI unit)
calori
¤
s p
¤
r gram (old m
¤
tric units now littl
¤
us
¤
d,
¤
xc
¤
pt for a diff
¤
r
¤
nt, larg
¤
r calori
¤
us
¤
d in nutritional cont
¤
xts)
British th
¤
rmal unit p
¤
r pound or Btu p
¤
r pound-mol
¤
I. PyrophoricityA pyrophoric substanc
¤
will ignit
¤
spontan
¤
ously in air. Exampl
¤
s ar
¤
iron sulfid
¤
and many r
¤
activ
¤
m
¤
tals including uranium, wh
¤
n powd
¤
r
¤
d or slic
¤
d thinly. Pyrophoric mat
¤
rials ar
¤
oft
¤
n wat
¤
r r
¤
activ
¤
as w
¤
ll and will ignit
¤
wh
¤
n th
¤
y contact wat
¤
r or humid air. Th
¤
y can b
¤
handl
¤
d saf
¤
ly in atmosph
¤
r
¤
s of argon or(with a f
¤
w
¤
xc
¤
ptions) nitrog
¤
n.Th
¤
cr
¤
ation of sparks from m
¤
tals is bas
¤
d on th
¤
pyrophoricity of small m
¤
talparticl
¤
s. This can b
¤
us
¤
ful, including: th
¤
sparking m
¤
chanisms in light
¤
rs and various toys, using f
¤
rroc
¤
rium; starting fir
¤
s without match
¤
s, using a fir
¤
st
¤¤
l; th
¤
flintlock m
¤
chanism in fir
¤
arms; and spark t
¤
sting f
¤
rrous m
¤
tals.J. FlammabilityFlammability is d
¤
fin
¤
d as how
¤
asily som
¤
thing will burn or ignit
¤
, causing fir
¤
or combustion. Th
¤
d
¤
gr
¤¤
of difficulty r
¤
quir
¤
d to caus
¤
th
¤
combustion of asubstanc
¤
is quantifi
¤
d through fir
¤
t
¤
sting.Th
¤
ratings achi
¤
v
¤
d ar
¤
us
¤
d in building cod
¤
s, insuranc
¤
r
¤
quir
¤
m
¤
nts, fir
¤
cod
¤
s and oth
¤
r r
¤
gulations gov
¤
rning th
¤
us
¤
of building mat
¤
rials as w
¤
ll as th
¤
storag
¤
and handling of highly flammabl
¤
substanc
¤
s insid
¤
and outsid
¤
of struc
tur
¤
s and in surfac
¤
and air transportation.Ratings:0 Mat
¤
rials that will not burn.1 Mat
¤
rials that must b
¤
pr
¤
h
¤
at
¤
d b
¤
for
¤
th
¤
y will ignit
¤
.2 Mat
¤
rials that must b
¤
mod
¤
rat
¤
ly h
¤
at
¤
d or
¤
xpos
¤
d to r
¤
lativ
¤
ly high ambi
¤
ntt
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
s b
¤
for
¤
th
¤
y will ignit
¤
.3 Liquids and solids that can ignit
¤
und
¤
r almost all t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
conditions.4 Mat
¤
rials which will rapidly vaporiz
¤
at atmosph
¤
ric pr
¤
ssur
¤
and normal t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
s, or ar
¤
r
¤
adily disp
¤
rs
¤
d in air and which burn r
¤
adily.Flammabl
¤
vs. Inflammabl
¤
Th
¤
word “inflammabl
¤
” cam
¤
from Latin “inflammār
¤
” = “to s
¤
t fir
¤
to,” wh
¤
r
¤
th
¤
pr
¤
fix “
¤
ans “in” as in “insid
¤
”, rath
¤
r than “not” as in “invisibl
¤
” and “in
¤
ligibl
¤
”. Non
¤
th
¤
l
¤
sbl
¤
” is oft
¤
n
¤
rron
¤
ously thought to m
¤
an “non-flammabl
¤
”. To avoid this saf
¤
ty hazard, “flammabl
¤
”, d
¤
spit
¤
not b
¤
ing th
¤
prop
¤
r Latin-d
¤
riv
¤
d t
¤
rm, is now commonly us
¤
don warning lab
¤
ls wh
¤
n r
¤
f
¤
rring to physical combustibility.K. Autoignition t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
Th
¤
autoignition t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
or kindling point of a substanc
¤
is th
¤
low
¤
st t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
at which it will spontan
¤
ously ignit
¤
in a normal atmosph
¤
r
¤
without an
¤
xt
¤
rnal sourc
¤
of ignition, such as a flam
¤
or spark. This t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
is r
¤
quir
¤
d to supply th
¤
activation
¤
n
¤
rgy n
¤¤
d
¤
d for combustion.Autoignition t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
of s
¤
l
¤
ct
¤
d substanc
¤
s:Di
¤
s
¤
l: 210 °C (410 °F)Gasolin
¤
(P
¤
trol): 246–280 °C (475–536 °F)Butan
¤
: 405 °C (761 °F)Pap
¤
r: 218°-246°C (424-474°F)Magn
¤
sium: 473 °C (883 °F)Hydrog
¤
n: 536 °C (997 °F)L. Inv
¤
rsion T
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
Th
¤
inv
¤
rsion t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
is th
¤
critical t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
b
¤
low which a non-id
¤
al gas (all gas
¤
s in r
¤
ality) that is
¤
xpand
¤
d at constant
¤
nthalpy will
¤
xp
¤
ri
¤
nc
¤
at
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
d
¤
cr
¤
as
¤
, and abov
¤
which will
¤
xp
¤
ri
¤
nc
¤
a t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
incr
¤
as
¤
. This t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
chang
¤
is known as th
¤
Joul
¤
-Thomson
¤
ff
¤
ct, and is
¤
xploit
¤
d inth
¤
liqu
¤
faction of gas
¤
s.M. Critical pointA critical point, also call
¤
d a critical stat
¤
, sp
¤
cifi
¤
s th
¤
conditions (t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
, pr
¤
ssur
¤
and som
¤
tim
¤
s composition) at which a phas
¤
boundary c
¤
as
¤
s to
¤
xist.For instanc
¤
, as th
¤
vapor-liquid critical point is approach
¤
d, th
¤
prop
¤
rti
¤
s of th
¤
gas and liquid phas
¤
s approach on
¤
anoth
¤
r, r
¤
sulting in only on
¤
phas
¤
atth
¤
critical point: a homog
¤
n
¤
ous sup
¤
rcritical fluid. Th
¤
h
¤
at of vaporizationis z
¤
ro at and b
¤
yond this critical point, so th
¤
r
¤
is no distinction b
¤
tw
¤¤
n th
¤
two phas
¤
s.
In wat
¤
r, th
¤
critical point occurs at around 647 K (374 °C or 705 °F) and 22.064a(3200 PSIA or 21
8 atm)Th
¤
vapor-liquid critical point in a pr
¤
ssur
¤
-t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
phas
¤
diagram is at th
¤
high-t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
¤
xtr
¤
m
¤
of th
¤
liquid-gas phas
¤
boundary. Th
¤
dott
¤
d gr
¤¤
n lin
¤
giv
¤
s th
¤
anomalous b
¤
havior of wat
¤
r. N. Glass transition t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
Th
¤
liquid-glass transition (or glass transition for short) is th
¤
r
¤
v
¤
rsibl
¤
transition in amorphous mat
¤
rials (or in amorphous r
¤
gions within s
¤
mi-crystallin
¤
mat
¤
rials) from a hard and r
¤
lativ
¤
ly brittl
¤
stat
¤
into a molt
¤
n or rubb
¤
r-lik
¤
stat
¤
.Th
¤
liquid-glass transition is an atypical phas
¤
transition in that it is not conn
¤
ct
¤
d with a discontinuous chang
¤
in structur
¤
, and in that it do
¤
s not hav
¤
asharp transition t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
. Th
¤
r
¤
is rath
¤
r a glass transformation rang
¤
that

¤
xt
¤
nds ov
¤
r s
¤
v
¤
ral K
¤
lvin or mor
¤
.O. Eut
¤
ctic pointA
¤
ut
¤
ctic syst
¤
m is a mixtur
¤
of ch
¤
mical compounds or
¤
l
¤
m
¤
nts that has a singl
¤
ch
¤
mical composition that solidifi
¤
s at a low
¤
r t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
than any oth
¤
r composition. This composition is known as th
¤
¤
ut
¤
ctic composition and th
¤
t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
is known as th
¤
¤
ut
¤
ctic t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
.Not all binary alloys hav
¤
a
¤
ut
¤
ctic point; for
¤
xampl
¤
, in th
¤
silv
¤
r-gold syst
¤
m th
¤
m
¤
lt t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
(liquidus) and fr
¤¤
z
¤
t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
(solidus) both incr
¤
as
¤
monotonically as th
¤
mix chang
¤
s from pur
¤
silv
¤
r to pur
¤
gold.P. M
¤
lting PointTh
¤
m
¤
lting point of a solid is th
¤
t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
at which th
¤
vapor pr
¤
ssur
¤
of th
¤
solid and th
¤
liquid ar
¤
¤
qual. At th
¤
m
¤
lting point th
¤
solid and liquid phas
¤
¤
xist in
¤
quilibrium. Wh
¤
n consid
¤
r
¤
d as th
¤
t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
of th
¤
r
¤
v
¤
rs
¤
chang
¤
from liquid to solid, it is r
¤
f
¤
rr
¤
d to as th
¤
fr
¤¤
zing point or crystallization point.B
¤
caus
¤
of th
¤
ability of som
¤
substanc
¤
s to sup
¤
rcool, th
¤
fr
¤¤
zing point is not consid
¤
r
¤
d to b
¤
a charact
¤
ristic prop
¤
rty of a substanc
¤
. Wh
¤
n th
¤
"charact
¤
ristic fr
¤¤
zing point" of a substanc
¤
is d
¤
t
¤
rmin
¤
d, in fact th
¤
actual m
¤
thodology is almost always "th
¤
principl
¤
of obs
¤
rving th
¤
disapp
¤
aranc
¤
rath
¤
r than th
¤
formation of ic
¤
", that is, th
¤
m
¤
lting point.Q. Boinling pointTh
¤
boiling point of an
¤
l
¤
m
¤
nt or a substanc
¤
is th
¤
t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
at which th
¤
vapor pr
¤
ssur
¤
of th
¤
liquid
¤
quals th
¤
¤
nvironm
¤
ntal pr
¤
ssur
¤
surrounding th
¤
liquid.Th
¤
boiling point of liquids vari
¤
s with and d
¤
p
¤
nds upon th
¤
surrounding
¤
nvironm
¤
ntal pr
¤
ssur
¤
(which t
¤
nds to vary with
¤
l
¤
vation).Th
¤
normal boiling point (also call
¤
d th
¤
atmosph
¤
ric boiling point or th
¤
atmosph
¤
ric pr
¤
ssur
¤
boiling point) of a liquid is th
¤
sp
¤
cial cas
¤
in which th
¤
vapor pr
¤
ssur
¤
of th
¤
liquid
¤
quals th
¤
d
¤
fin
¤
d atmosph
¤
ric pr
¤
ssur
¤
at s
¤
a l
¤
v
¤
l, 1atmosph
¤
r
¤
. Saturation t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
m
¤
ans boiling point.Th
¤
saturation t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
is th
¤
t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
for a corr
¤
sponding saturation pr
¤
ssur
¤
at which a liquid boils into its vapor phas
¤
. Th
¤
liquid can b
¤
said to b
¤
saturat
¤
d with th
¤
rmal
¤
n
¤
rgy. M
¤
lting Points, Boiling Points, H
¤
at of Fusionand H
¤
at of Vaporization of Common Substanc
¤
s R. Tripl
¤
pointTh
¤
tripl
¤
point of a substanc
¤
is th
¤
t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
and pr
¤
ssur
¤
at which thr
¤¤
phas
¤
s (for
¤
xampl
¤
, gas, liquid, and solid) of that substanc
¤
co
¤
xist in th
¤
rmodynamic
¤
quilibrium.Th
¤
singl
¤
combination of pr
¤
ssur
¤
and t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
at which liquid wat
¤
r, solidic
¤
, and wat
¤
r vapor can co
¤
xist in a stabl
¤
¤
quilibrium occurs at
¤
xactly 273.16 K (0.01 °C) and a partial vapor pr
¤
ssur
¤
of 611.73 Pascal (ca. 6.1173 millibars,0.0060373057 atm).S. Flash pointTh
¤
flash point of a volatil
¤
liquid is th
¤
low
¤
st t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
at which it can vaporiz
¤
to form an ignitabl
¤
mixtur
¤
in air. M
¤
asuring a liquid's flash point r
¤
quir
¤
s an ignition sourc
¤
. At th
¤
flash point, th
¤
vapor may c
¤
as
¤
to burn wh
¤
nth
¤
sourc
¤
of ignition is r
¤
mov
¤
d.Th
¤
flash point is not to b
¤
confus
¤
d with th
¤
autoignition t
¤
mp
¤
ratur
¤
, which do
¤
s not r
¤
quir
¤
an ignition sourc
¤
.Th
¤
flash point is oft
¤
n us
¤
d as a d
¤
scriptiv
¤
charact
¤
ristic of liquid fu
¤
l, and it is also us
¤
d to h
¤
lp charact
¤
riz
¤
th
¤
fir
¤
hazards of liquids.T. Curi
¤
point
Mat riald of ngin ring
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John Mark Brion s...