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I start in the name of Allah who is most

beneficent and most merciful.

Concept of Touheed in divine religion

• Zoroastrianism
• Hinduism
• Christianity
• Buddhism
• Judaism
• Islam

Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism is the oldest of the revealed world-religions, and it has probably


had more influence on mankind, directly and indirectly, than any other single faith

Beliefs
A single god Ahura Mazda who is supreme. Communication between Himself
and humans is by a number of Attributes, called Amesha Spentas or Bounteous Immortals.
Within the Gathas, the original Zoroastrian sacred text, these Immortals are sometimes described
as concepts, and are sometimes personified.
One school of thought promotes a cosmic dualism between:
An all powerful God Ahura Mazda who is the only deity worthy of being worshipped. An evil
spirit of violence and death, Angra Mainyu, who opposes Ahura Mazda. Good and Evil as an
ethical dualism.
The three great Commandments:
Zarathushtra gave three commandments to his followers to enable them lead perfect lives and
work for their own evolution. These are humata (good thought), hukhta (good word), and
havarshta (good deeds). Good thoughts are very important in the spiritual journey of man,
because all else comes out of out of thoughts only. Without good thoughts, there cannot be
progress on the spiritual path. Without good thoughts one cannot subject oneself to Divine will
and become qualified to receive boons from Vohu Mano. Thinking good alone is not sufficient.
But one must have the courage to speak Truth all the time. One must be truthful to oneself and to
others. There is no place for hypocrisy or duplicity in the life of a true Zoroastrian. Performance
of good deeds is equally important. The supreme Power of God, in the aspect of Kshatra Vairya
comes to Him who engages himself in good actions. Good actions include Sraosha or service.
Active participation in life through good thoughts, good words and good deeds is necessary to
ensure happiness
After death, the urvan (soul) is allowed three days to meditate on his/her past life. The soul is
then judged by a troika Mithra, Sraosha and Rashnu. If the good thoughts, words and deeds
outweigh the bad, then the soul is taken into heaven. Otherwise, the soul is led to hell.
The universe will go through three eras;

i) Creation.
ii) The present world where good and evil are mixed. People's good works are seen as
gradually transforming the world towards its heavenly ideal.
iii) And a final state after this renovation when good and evil will be separated.

Eventually, everything will be purified. Even the occupants of hell will be released.

Hinduism

Hinduism is commonly perceived as a polytheistic religion. Indeed, most Hindus


would attest to this, by professing belief in multiple Gods. While some Hindus believe in the
existence of three gods, some believe in thousands of gods, and some others in thirty three crore
i.e. 330 million Gods. However, learned Hindus, who are well versed in their scriptures, insist
that a Hindu should believe in and worship only one God.

Hindus’ belief in the philosophy of Pantheism. Pantheism considers everything, living and non-
living, to be Divine and Sacred. The common Hindu, therefore, considers everything as God. He
considers the trees as God, the sun as God, the moon as God, the monkey as God, the snake as
God and even human beings as manifestations of God!

BASIC BELIEF OF HINDUISM

Hinduism is based on the concept that human and animal spirit reincarnate, or
come back to life to live many times in different forms. The believe that soul move up and
Down an infinite hierarchy depending on the behavior they practice in their lives. The
Cast system survives on charity towards others is unheard of because each individual
deserves to be in the social class they were born in. A person is born into the higher
class bacause they exhibited and behaved well in the past life and a person born into
extreme poverty and shame because of their misbehavior in a past life.
Today a Hindu can be polytheistic (more than one god), monotheistic (one god),
Pantheistic (god and the universe are one), agnostic (unsure if god exist) or atheist
(No god at all) and still claim to be Hindu. This open theology makes it difficult to
discuss basic belief since there are many ideas about what Hinduism means.
Central to Hinduism are the concept of reincarnation, the cast system, merging
with BRAHMA(or the ultimate reality), and reach the peaceful escape of the cycle
of reincarnation, known as (MOKSHA).

Cast system
Hindus believe on a very strong cast system. There are four castes on which
Hindus believe. These are as follows
i) Brahmin
ii) Khashtari
iii) Vesh
iv) Shudar

The Brahmins or priests:


The highest varna, believed to have emerged from Brahma's mouth. They are
monopolist and they are for worship and to acquire knowledge is necessary for them.

The Kshatriyas:
The warrior or ruling class who were made from Brahma's arms.

The Vaishyas:
Merchants or artisans who came from Brahma's thighs.

The Shudras:
The unskilled labourers and servants who emerged from Brahma's feet. These
were the lowest class and they are untouchables.

Deities

Brahma
Brahma is the first god in the Hindu triumvirate, or trimurti. He is regarded as the senior god and
his job was creation.
Vishnu
Vishnu is the second god in the Hindu triumvirate of Brahman, Vishnu is destroyer. Vishnu and
Shiva, and is therefore one of the most important characters in Indian belief.
Shiva
Shiva is the third god in the Hindu triumvirate. He is the destroyer, but also the re-creator. Shiva
is the source of both good and evil who combines many contradictory elements.
Lakshmi
Lakshmi is the consort of the god Vishnu. She is one of the most popular goddesses of Hindu
mythology and is known as the goddess of wealth and purity.
Concept of trinity

The Trinity is a Christian doctrine, stating that God exists as three persons. The
persons are understood to exist as

i) God the Father, God.


ii) The Son (incarnate as Jesus Christ).
iii) God the Holy Spirit.

Each of them having the one identical essence or nature, not merely similar
natures. Since the beginning of the third century the doctrine of the Trinity has been stated as
"the one God exists in three Persons and one substance, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit."
Trinitarianism, belief in the Trinity, is a mark of Oriental and Eastern Orthodoxy, Oxford
Dictionary of the Christian Church describes the Trinity as "the central dogma of Christian
theology"
This doctrine is in contrast to Nontrinitarian positions which include Binitarianism (one
deity/two persons), Unitarianism (one deity/one person), the Oneness belief held by certain
Pentecostal groups, Modalism, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' view of the
Godhead as three separate beings who are one in purpose rather than essence.

The most difficult thing about the Christian concept of the Trinity is that there is
no way to adequately explain it. The Trinity is a concept that is impossible for any human being
to fully understand, let alone explain. God is infinitely greater than we are, therefore we should
not expect to be able to fully understand Him. The Bible teaches that the Father is God, that
Jesus is God, and that the Holy Spirit is God. The Bible also teaches that there is only one God.
Though we can understand some facts about the relationship of the different persons of the
Trinity to one another, ultimately, it is incomprehensible to the human mind. However, this does
not mean it is not true or not based on the teachings of the Bible.

Keep in mind when studying this subject that the word "Trinity" is not used in
Scripture. This is a term that is used to attempt to describe the triune God, the fact that there are 3
coexistent, co-eternal persons that make up God. Understand that this is NOT in any way
suggesting 3 Gods. The Trinity is 1 God made up of 3 persons. There is nothing wrong with
using the term "Trinity" even though the word is not found in the Bible. It is shorter to say the
word "Trinity" than to say "3 coexistent, co-eternal persons making up 1 God." If this presents a
problem to you, consider this: the word grandfather is not used in the Bible either. Yet, we know
there were grandfathers in the Bible. Abraham was the grandfather of Jacob. So don't get hung
up on the term "Trinity" itself. What should be of real importance is that the concept that is
represented by the word "Trinity" does exist in Scripture.

Buddhism

The Buddha was born Siddhartha Gautama, a prince of the Sakya tribe of Nepal,
in approximately 566 BC. When he was twenty-nine years old, he left the comforts of his home
to seek the meaning of the suffering he saw around him. After six years of arduous yogic
training, he abandoned the way of self-mortification and instead sat in mindful meditation
beneath a bodhi tree. On the full moon of May, with the rising of the morning star, Siddhartha
Gautama became the Buddha, the enlightened one. The Buddha wandered the plains of
northeastern India for 45 years more, teaching the path or Dharma he had realized in that
moment. Around him developed a community or Sangha of monks and, later, nuns, drawn from
every tribe and caste, devoted to practicing this path.
Buddhism based upon three principles

i) Contemplation
ii) Thoughtfulness
iii) Utmost satisfaction

The Four Noble Truths were the first teaching of Goutma Buddha after attaining
Nirvana.They are sometimes considered as containing the essence of the Buddha's teachings and
are presented in the manner of a medical diagnosis and remedial prescription – a style common
at that time:

1. Life as we know it ultimately is or leads to suffering (dukkha) in one way or another.


2. Suffering is caused by craving or attachments to worldly pleasures of all kinds. This is
often expressed as a deluded clinging to a certain sense of existence, to selfhood, or to the things
or people that we consider the cause of happiness or unhappiness.
3. Suffering ends when craving ends, when one is freed from desire. This is achieved by
eliminating all delusion, thereby reaching a liberated state of Enlightenment (bodhi)
4. Reaching this satisfaction state is achieved by following the path laid out by the Buddha.

Middle Way An important guiding principle of Buddhist practice is the middle way which is
said to have been discovered by Guanta Buddha prior to his enlightenment (bodhi). The middle
way or Middle Path has several definitions.

Eight rights

1 Right believe
2 Right speech
3 Right economy
4 Right humbleness
5 Right intention
6 Right character
7 Right thinking
8 Right contemplation

Buddhism is a path of practice and spiritual development leading to Insight into


the true nature of life. Buddhist practices such as meditation are means of changing oneself in
order to develop the qualities of awareness, kindness, and wisdom. The experience developed
within the Buddhist tradition over thousands of years has created an incomparable resource for
all those who wish to follow a path — a path which ultimately culminates in Enlightenment or
Buddhahood.
Because Buddhism does not include the idea of worshipping a creator god, some
people do not see it as a religion in the normal, Western sense. The basic tenets of Buddhist
teaching are straightforward and practical: nothing is fixed or permanent; actions have
consequences; change is possible. Thus Buddhism addresses itself to all people irrespective of
race, nationality, or gender. It teaches practical methods (such as meditation) which enable
people to realize and utilize its teachings in order to transform their experience, to be fully
responsible for their lives and to develop the qualities of Wisdom and Compassion.

Judaism
Judaism is a monotheistic religion which believes that the world was created by a
single, all-knowing divinity, and that all things within that world were designed to have meaning
and purpose as part of a divine order. According to the teachings of Judaism, God's will for
human behavior was revealed to Moses and the Israelites at Mount Sinai. The Torah, or
commandments, which regulate how humans are to live their lives, was a gift from God so that
they might live in according to His will.

Statement of Faith
I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, is the Creator
and Guide of everything that has been created; He alone has made, does make, and will make all
things.

Three Branches of Judaism

These are the three branches of Judaism which form the framework for the type of
lifestyle and beliefs of Jewish individuals:

Orthodox- Traditionalists who observe most of the traditional dietary and ceremonial laws of
Judaism

Conservative- Do not hold to the importance of a Jewish political state, but put more emphasis
on the historic and religious aspects of Judaism, doctrinally somewhere between Orthodox and
Reform

Reform- The liberal wing of Judaism, culture and race oriented with little consensus on doctrinal
or religious belief.

According to traditional Jewish Law, a Jew is anyone born of a Jewish mother or


converted to Judaism in accord with Jewish Law. All mainstream forms of Judaism today are
open to sincere converts. The conversion process is evaluated by an authority, and the convert is
examined on his sincerity and knowledge.Traditional Judaism maintains that a Jew, whether by
birth or conversion, is a Jew forever. Thus a Jew who claims to be an atheist or converts to
another religion is still considered by traditional Judaism to be Jewish.
Concept of touheed in Islam

The word touheed is come out from the Arabic word “ahad” mean one. The
concept of touheed is also same in Islam. Touheed is explained purely in the 112th surrah of
Holy Quran "He is Allah, the One and Only.Allah is Independent of all and all are
dependent on Him. Neither has He an offspring nor is He the offspring of anyone. And none is
equal with Him in rank."

So it is clearly explained in Quran that Allah Almghty is one in his attributes and independent.
Touheed is belief in Allah with all His powers. Allah is All knowing , All wise.

Qualities that Exists in God

Eternal: That He is from ever and will be for ever. Death is not for him.

Capable: That He is Capable: That He is capable of doing everything, with His own consent.
Capable of doing everything, with His own consent.

Knowledgeable: That He knows everything at its root, without any aid. He don't have any need
of eyes, ears, hands, nose, etc. or any other means for His knowledge. He knows everything from
ever and is never forgetful of anything.

Truthful: That He is Truth Worthy.

One: God is Absolutely One and only One, having no parts of any kind. He is Unique, nothing
is similar to Him.

Absolute: He is Absolute in the Absolute sense.

Creator: He is Absolute and Perfect Creator. He created everything from nothing. The Almighty
Creator brings to existence everything with utmost Perfection and nothing in His Universe is
imperfect.

Originator: He is the Originator of all causes and effects with no effect on Him.

Ever-Present: His presence is absolutely ubiquitous.

Independent: He is absolutely independent of anything and everything that exists.

How the God is One

If there was partner of God, it would have created disturbance in


Universe.Partnership is a defect of God that cannot be in God. All Messengers of God (Prophets)
are from one God. They all said that He is one. If there were other God, then he must have sent
his messengers. If we suppose two gods, then one of them will be able to remove other or not. If
first is able to remove other, then the second is not god. If first is not able to remove other, then
he cannot be god. God told his Prophets that He is one. If He tell them a lie, then lie is a defect,
defect cannot be in God.

Unity of God:

Some polytheists argue by saying that the existence of more than one God is not
illogical. Let us point out to them that if there were more than one God, they would dispute with
one another, each god trying to fulfill his will against the will of the other gods. This can be seen
in the mythology of the polytheistic and pantheistic religions. If a ‘God’ is defeated or unable to
defeat the others, he is surely not the one true God. Also popular among polytheistic religions is
the idea of many Gods, each having different responsibilities. Each one would be responsible for
a part of man’s existence e.g. a Sun-God, a Rain-God, etc. This indicates that one ‘God’ is
incompetent of certain acts and moreover he is also ignorant of the other Gods’ powers, duties,
functions and responsibilities. There cannot be an ignorant and incapable God. If there were
more than one God it would surely lead to confusion, disorder, chaos and destruction in the
universe. But the universe is in complete harmony. The Glorious Qur’an says:

"If there were, in the heavens and the earth, other gods Besides Allah, there would
have been confusion in both! But glory to Allah, the Lord of the Throne: (High is He) above
what they attribute to Him!" [Al-Qur’an 21:22]

Categories:

Islam believes in ‘Tawheed’ which is not merely monotheism i.e. belief in one
God, but much more. Tawheed literally means ‘unification’ i.e. ‘asserting oneness’ and is
derived from the Arabic verb ‘Wahhada’ which means to unite, unify or consolidate.

Tawheed can be divided into three categories.

1. Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah
2. Tawheed al-Asmaa-was-Sifaat
3. Tawheed al-Ibaadah.

1. Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah

The first category is ‘Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah’. ‘Ruboobeeyah’ is derived from


the root verb "Rabb" meaning Lord, Sustainer and Cherisher. Therefore ‘Tawheed-ar-
Ruboobeeyah’ means maintaining the unity of Lordship. This category is based on the
fundamental concept that Allah (swt) alone caused all things to exist when there was nothing. He
created or originated all that exists out of nothing. He alone is the sole Creator, Cherisher, and
Sustainer of the complete universe and all between it, without any need from it or for it.

2. Tawheed al-Asmaa-was-Sifaat

The second category is ‘Tawheed al Asmaa was Sifaat’ which means maintaining
the unity of Allah’s name and attributes.
3. Tawheed al-Ibaadah

Only believing in the first two categories of Tawheed without implementing


Tawheed-al-Ibaadah is useless. Thus ‘Tawheed al-Ibaadah’ i.e. maintaining the unity of worship
is the most important aspect of Tawheed. Allah (swt) alone deserves worship and He alone can
grant benefit to man for his worship.

Conclusion and contrast

In Zoroastrianism the concept of duality leads to contradiction. If there is two


Gods then there is no supremacy the powers divided into two none of one is supreme any more
but the concept of Allah ( God ) in Islam is He is the one and only, He is all supreme, all
powerful, all knowing each and every attribute belongs to Him alone.

In trinity, Christians believe in one God in shape of three entities. They are
physical and the third one is spiritual entity. The question is how one God in shape of two
opposite forms. They believe God as Father and the Son. Father and the son always dependent on
each other. But Quran says He Allah is one and independent of all. Christians them selves claims
that belief of trinity is mysterious cannot be understood by every one if it is like this then how
one can believe on it.

Hindus believe in many Gods even in million. Every thing which is useful for
them they claimed that thing as a God. When there are several million Gods then who is supreme
authority? It is totally against the basic concept of Allah (God) if absolute power divided into
millions then there is no more all superiority which only belongs to Allah Almighty.

Buddhism is little bit closer to Islam (to the right path) but they not believe in any
God. They believe in the life in death they believe universe as a place of problems. They make
hard effort to get utmost satisfaction but they are ignoring that how can this huge universe
created with out any effort of creator. They are ignoring God so the ignorance of God is the
ignorance of each and every thing

Judaism believes on one God. They are monotheist but they claim that we are
chosen people of God. Allah asks if you people are chosen then wish for death. And reply is they
never ever wish for death so they are not true in their claim. Chosen people are those who
believe in oneness of Allah Almighty and follow the instructions given by the Prophet
Muhammad SAW and they will be rewarded.