Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 28

úåûiüÉýiþÿBA

| —–(z(x)“}yz 8| ˜ñ“-|ñ~s–6r x)“-~š˜  Aðñ|%r

“-–(z(tvru|8}y“}yz 8| ˜  Aðñ|%r x)“}ïu|ñ“-z6wyr

’DCFE

  99 !#"G5 %;$ & ')( * + %HG!, .)"; 3 , !#"'#+ 0 " % !* 0G.)!
5 A , + ( * & 4/%7 %;" ( @
49.)5 * ( , !87 % "$ , !#3 % + * ( " " % .)+ "0 5 % $ * + , !#( : .#% "7 %G'#.)( " " !$ %$ ' 1 5 %7 %G')+ % !7 + %
% !$ , 4'#* %8.)!%8$ + $ * 0 + ( " * ( : .#%8( 7 0 5 %I7-B ( !* % + + . '* % .)+8* , .#*% !öA + 7 !*.)!
" % .)5% !#" % 4/1 5 %97-B 0 : .# * ( , !#"9* , '), 5 , A ( : .#% "G' , .)+5 %9$ , !#3 % + * ( " " % .)+ E
 !#"9$ %/$ &) '#( * + %/!, .)"9 ' '#5 ( : .#, !#"/$ % *G 5 A , + ( * & 4/%/H
5
" ( 49.)5 * ( , !e7B .)!
" D " * 2 4/%97 % " * ( !09H/ 5 ( 4/% !* % +.)!%$ * 0 ! ( + %7-B .)!I* + ( !8H9A + !7 %3 ( * % " " % E?J#
') + * ( $ .)5 + ( * 07 %$ %" D " * 2 4/%9$ , !#" ( " * %7 !#"5 %;A + !7/!, 4/1 + %97-B ( !* % + + . '* % .)+ "
'#+ 0 " % !* "/© ˆ I ª EKJ!%/ ! 5 D " %/% !e* , ' , 5 , A ( %93 + ( 1 5 %/" . ' ' , " % + ( *=5
$ , !#" * + .#$ @
* ( , !
7 %'#5 .)"G7 %;L M M M M M9% !#" % 4/1 5 % "G7 ( L;0 + % !* "=7-B 0 : .# * ( , !#"G* !7 ( "G: .B .)!%; ! @
5 D " %% !
* , ' , 5 , A ( %¬N %;" . ' ' , " % + ( *5 9+ % $ &)% + $ &)%7 %=')5 .)" ( % .)+ "$ + $ * 0 + ( " * ( : .#% "
( 7 0 5 ( " 0 % "7 ( L;0 + % !* % ",© ' , .)+
" B 7 '* % + .)N8$ , !#" * !* % "7 %
* % 4')"
7 % "7 ( L;0 @
+ % !* % "G') + * ( % "97 ." D " * 2 4/% ª E
J=B 5 A , + ( * & 4/%H/* , '), 5 , A ( %G')" % .#7 , @ 3 + ( 1 5 %% " *7 , !D
$ … * + %1 ( % ! 7 '* 0H9$ %
* D ' %7 %" D " * 2 4/% EO/, .)";5 B .#* ( 5 ( " , !#"=' , .)+;3 5 ( 7 % +.)!%;" * + .#$ * .)+ %7 %$ , 494/ !7 %
7 %9$ % * * %9 5 ( 4/% !* * ( , !E
J=B ! 5 D " %7 %$ %9" D " * 2 4/%7-B 5 ( 4/% !* * ( , !e$ , 494/% !$ %') +/5 B 0 * 1 5 ( " " % 4/% !*
7-B .)!e4/, 7 2 5 %7 %93 5 % .)+ "94/, D % !#!% "/% !I3 .#%/7 %95 $ , !#" * + .#$ * ( , !e7-B .)!% + $ & ( @
* % $ * .)+ %7 %+ 0 A .)5 * ( , ! E , 4'* %* % !#.7 .
$ + $ * 2 + %> , + * % 4/% !*-!, !@ 5 ( !0 ( + %7 .
" D " * 2 4/%!, .)" 3 , !#", '#* 0;'), .)+5 B .#* ( 5 ( " * ( , !87 % "9* % $ & !#( : .#% "7 %5 ( !0 + ( " * ( , !
% !* + 0 % @ " , + * ( % ENG+ O $ %IH5 B , .#* ( 5;7 %8" ( 49.)5 * ( , !!, .)"8 3 , !#"80 * 1 5 (9: .#%I7 !#"
··
··p ÔX X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ ô=Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
$ % + * ( !#"/$ "/% N * + … 4/% " <=5 %$ + $ * 2 + %/7 ( " $ + % *G7 .
> , !$ * ( , !#!% 4/% !*G7 .I$ , !#3 % + @
* ( " " % .)+0 5 % $ * + , !#( : .#%;7 %=').)( " " !$ %=' , .)3 ( *$ , !7 .)( + %H.)!%G( !#" * 1 ( 5 ( * 07 ./" D " @
* 2 4/% E
R T Y y Z ó ö[ V R ‹ õ P ··¿
“9^ ]TS 1! –  .,- 2 5&

^ O M U d Dƒ O =†< B L P @ = C @ ` 5T< M C L M G D†M K U @ < DYC M L T ‡< U KD = @5H ‡< M J @G K U K d D L B L c M K @ `
B @ U(H O D M < = C U6< cU O M cK U0… O = C(< T T< M < ‹ C M @,D =5G K U K d D L B L c M @U D M6B @ U6C @ =U L O =U0@ =M < L U O =
G @ U(H ‡ D C @ U(G @#C @ =U L O =?d Dƒ L B U(T M O N O d D @ = C(U D M(B @ U6L P TK G < =H @ U6L = C @ M = @ U(G D5M K U @ < DZ
S @ H L@ U C6B @#H < U6@ =5T< M C L H D B L @ M,G @ U,H ‡< M J @ U0PO = O T ‡< U K @ U Z
^ @6G K U K d D L B L c M @6G @ UAC @ =U L O =UA@ U CK N L G @ PP @ = CGAƒ < D C < = CAT B DUAJ M < =Gd D @0B @ UH O D E
M < = C U6< cU O M cK U0T< M6B < H ‡< M J @,@ C(B @ U0L P TAK G < =H @ U6L = C @ M = @ U(G D5M K U @ < DU O = C6K B @ N K @ U Z
l0=GAƒ < D C M @ U#P O C U ` B ƒ L P TO M C < =H @G DG K U K d D L B L c M @@ U C#… O =H C L O =†G DŠM < T TO M C#@ ‚ L U E
C < = C,@ = C M @#B <T D L U U < =H @#< T T< M @ = C @ G @#B <H ‡< M J @@ C(B < T D L U U < =H @ G @ H O D M C E H L M H D L C
G DYM K U @ < D?< DYTO L = CG @ M < H H O M G @ P @ = C Z m LB @ M < T TO M C(@ ‚ L U C < = C,@ = C M @#B <T D L U U < =H @
< T T< M @ = C @#G @B < H ‡< M J @,@ C6B <#T D L U U < =H @G @#H O D M C E H L M H D L C(G D5M K U @ < D=ƒ @ U C6T< U(U D … E
‰U < P P@ = C,… < L c B @ ` B @ G K U K d D L B L c M @#G @ U6C @ =U L O =U(T@ D C< C C @ L =G M @#D =?= L N @ < D5J ˆ =< = C
TAO D M(B @ U(< D C M @ U6K d D L T@ P@ = C U6M < H H O M G K U6 T M O ‚ L P L C K#G @B <H ‡< M J @G K U K d D L B L c M K @ Z
a0< M PL6B @ U H ‡< M J @ U= O =†K d D L B L c M K @ U U DU H @ T C L c B @ U G @T@ M C D M c@ M G @… < ¶ O =†C M „ U
U L J = L ‰H < C L N @B @M K U @ < D ` O =ŠTA@ D CH L C @ M B @ U U O DU E U C < C L O =U#GAƒ < B L P @ = C < C L O =†G @5H < C K E
=< L M @ UŠH O D M < = C< B C @ M =< C L … Z S ƒ @ U C@ =H O M @5T B DU N M < L,G < =UB @YH < UG @ U= O D N @ B B @ U
B L J = @ U#>([ ` G @C M „ U… O M C @T D L U U < =H @ ` U L C D K @ U G < =U#B @ U O = @ U#U O D N @ = C#M D M < B @ U#
… < L c B @G @ =U L C KG @TO T D B < C L O =\ TO D MK N L C @ MB @ U÷ = D L U < =H @ U ÷ _ ` O €YB <T D L U U < =H @G @
H O D M C E H L M H D L C(G D5M K U @ < D@ U C(T< M,H O =U K d D @ = C(U O D N @ = C(… < L c B @ Z
aO D M0M K G D L M @(B @G K U K d D L B L c M @(L =G D L C6T< M6G @(C @ B B @ U6H ‡< M J @ U ` G L N @ M U @ UC @ H ‡ = L d D @ U
@ ‚ L U C @ = C Z ;,< =U6B ƒ < M C L H B ; µ;µ ;¶@ U è ¦ °0´ Ç AÇ ¶ V = O DU6< N O =U0L = N @ U C L J D K,@ =T< M C L H D B L @ M6B @ U
U O B D C L O =Uc< U K @ UU D MB ƒ D C L B L U < C L O =G @Y‰ B C M @ U ` d Dƒ L B UU O L @ = CT< U U L … U?\ P O = C < J @YG @
m C @ L = P@ C #@ C,U @ U6N < M L < = C @ U _ O D?< H C L … U\ D C L B L U < = CG @ U(H O = N @ M C L U U @ D M U0K B @ H C M O = L d D @ U
G @5T D L U U < =H @ _ d D L6T@ M P@ C C @ = CG @M @ = N O W @ M U D M B @5M K U @ < D†G @ UH O D M < = C UM K < H C L … U
G @H O PT@ =U < C L O =Z ^ @#P O = C < J @ G @ m C @ L = P @ C \ O DYU @ U(N < M L < = C @ U6TO D M,B @ U,H ‡< M J @ U
… < H C @ D MG @ T D L U U < =H @#= O =?D = L C < L M @ _ = @ … O =H C L O = = @H O M M @ H C @ P @ = C,d D @ TO D MG @ U
H ‡< M J @ U6H O =U C < = C @ U\ H @#d D LA=ƒ @ U C6K N L G @ P P@ = C(T< U6B @ H < U(G @ U(B L J = @ U(G @C M < H C L O = _ Z
^ @ U0‰ B C M @ U6< H C L … U0= K H @ U U L C @ = C6B ƒ @ PT B O LAGAƒ L = C @ M M D T C @ D M U6H O PT B „ C @ P@ = C(H O PP< =G K U
H @,d D L =ƒ @ U C0T< UB ƒ L G K < B\ K H O = O P L d D @ P@ = C0= O C < P P@ = C _ #H @,= L N @ < DG @(T D L U U < =H @ Z
^ @(T< U U < J @(T< M6B ƒ L = C @ M PK G L < L M @,GAƒ D = @,B L < L U O =#H O D M < = C6H O = C L = D@ U C0D = @< D C M @
TAO U U L c L B L C KG @#H O PT@ =U < C L O = ` d D LAP K M L C @GAƒ ˆ C M @,L = N @ U C L J D K ; µ;µ ;¶
@ U è ¦ °0´ Ç AÇ ¶ V Z a0< M
B <?PL U @5@ =U K M L @5GAƒ D =M @ G M @ U U @ D M?C ‡ W M L U C O M U#@ CGAƒ D =O =G D B @ D M< U U L U C K5T< MB <
H ‡< M J @\ ‰ J D M @#pZ · _ ` L B@ U C(TAO U U L c B @#@ =?@ Ž@ CGAƒ < B L P@ = C @ M,D = @ H ‡< M J @#P O = O T ‡< U K @
@ =< T T@ B < = C6< DM K U @ < DG @ U0H O D M < = C UC O D V O D M UT< M … < L C @ P@ = C0K d D L B L c M K U(\ @ =M K J L P@
TA@ M P< = @ = Cc L @ = U ƒ M _ Z ](=> S j\ C ‡ W M L U C O M0H O = C M O B B @ GM @ < H C O M _ @ U C= K H @ U U < L M @,\ H O C K
PO = O T ‡< U K _ TO D M(H O P TA@ =U @ M6B @ U6N < M L < C L O =U6G @B <#TU @ DG O E T D B U < C L O =5GAƒ O U H L B B < C L O =
G @#B ƒ @ =U @ P c B @#H ‡< M J @ ‰ B C M @ E Z
í
^ @ TO L = C#G K B L H < C#G < =UB <PL U @ @ / = ÓD N M @GAƒ D = @ C @ B B @U O B D C L O =YM K U L G @G < =UB @
L C
··Ò ÔX X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
Onduleur monophasé Charge
Redresseur de courant autopiloté
Filtre de CC variable
Filtre de sortie
(caténaire)
R
Lf TS L
C
S Z
RS CS
T
Circuit de TCR
démarrage

Ä Å Æ Ç È ÉXW Ë Ê?ÍÜ F Ç Å Ô Å Þ È Ï Æ É%A ÇGÈ Ó Ò É Ï ÇG× È Å B Ñ Ï Ò Ó?É ÖB Ï Ò Ò Ï Ö × B Ï ÈÔ C Å Ö × É È ÕÓ A Å Ï Å È É$A Ç=Ð Ø Ö × Å Ö Ç
û   ÿ  Ä ý ø;þ ø;ý #  ú  ø )û øGø ÿGþ ø;ý
 ý  ÿ )þ øþ ø;ý ÿ ø )ù   +    ü ù ú ø  þ
ÿ  ÿ
 ý )ù øý ø ù ø ý ÿ   )ù=ø  ÿ  øû ø ù  )þ ø  ù=ø ÿGý ø ù;û   )þ ø ù;þ / ø þ  ø ù ù ø Gþ ø
ÿ ; ÿ ø )þ øGý
 )þ ý ø ø ÿ=þ ZY("Âù   ÿ=þ ø ù" ø ý ÿ   )ù%    ý   ú   ø ù 
à ø;û  !  þ ø ù ú ø;ù ý ;ÿ ø û ü    ø;þ øGý   ú   ù ÿ   9ø  ÿ  ú øGù   ÿ  ø " ø 
ÿ  ;þ
ú ÿ ÿ0 . ý  2 2  4?þ

ÿ ø ý?ù & ù ÿ  ø 9ú ÿ ú    ù ú øþ )ù;[ \] ^X_;` a=ab`=c=` d 
(?ø ÿ ÿ øû   )þ øø ù ÿGû  )ù ÿ   ÿ ø  ÿ  Gþ 8 þ  ý øû   ÿ   ú   ý ø  ÿGþ
þ  ù 
  ù  ÿ  $ # [ \] ^X_;` a=ab`=cbe d=ø ÿþ  )ûø , ú  ý   ø  ÿ;ÿ  )ù;ý ø ù;ø )ø ÿ ùþ ø/þ  ù û  ú ÿ  ù ÿ   
ÿ ø    ø ý ù?ý  ú ù";ý
ø  ý  #þ
  ÿ ø    ÿ ø  ù?ú ý ø û ÿ      ø ùþ ø  ù ù )û ø  (% øGý
#  ú  ø )û øþ øû   ÿ ÿ   
þ ø ù=û   ø  ÿ  ù ù ø  ù" ùø 
û ù û þ ø ø)ø ÿ ù; ÿ  ø
û  )ù  þ ú  ú ø;û  øGý   ø ø  ÿ=ù )ú   ø  ø;ý þ &    ø     ø;þ ù & ù ÿ  ø  ý
û  ! )þ øGþ ú þ  ÿ ø;þ ! þ  ý ø;û   ÿ   9ú   ý ø  ÿ" ú û ø ù ù  ÿ øGþ
; ÿ  ø ý  þ ú ø  ÿ
þ
; ÿ  ø  ý  ÿ ú ø 
(
ø ù ÿý ø Ä ý øGþ ø;ý ù   ý ÿ     ^ )ù"  ÿ  ø   )ùþ )ùû ø ù  ÿ øGý
ý   
  ÿ ü ø;þ øù   ý ÿ   +    ù ú=ø ù ÿ + ÿ  ý   ÿ  û ý    ø ø  ÿ"  ø 8 þ  ÿ ú
6   û ø
 ý)ø  ø ÿþ øÿ   ý ý ø "=ÿ   ý    ø  ø*  ý&  û   2  ÿ ø    ÿ ø  ù
  ý   ú ùø ÿ=þ  )û ý )ùþ øÎ ) )) ) );ÿ   ý    ø ù% ù ù   ý ø ù - 
6   û ø8
 ý)ø  ø ÿþ
ÿ  ý  ù ø 9þ )ùû ü  øû   ø  ÿ  ù ù ø ú ý ø û ÿ      ø/þ ø
  ù ù )û øGý ø; ø)þ  ý ø;þ
  ÿ ø    ÿ ø * + þ  ý ø þ ú ý - 

f á àhghîê(i"è é å!ð é ãë ì$j äæãëð çõî


kÛ ÜÛ Úml8î=ä=é=â á#é=ôIä=áß#ò?é=ô í-îå8á#åIã íCß à=í-ô n?á
÷ ,   8ø Ê 38þ    ø
ý øù û ü ú ! 8þ ø/   )û  #øþ
§ )þ ý ø 8 ù ù  ù ÿ ú/ /ý
û ü   ø   ý  ø  ÿ !
ú    ø/ù   û ø/û   ÿ   øþ ø/û    ÿ $ ý=þ ú   ÿ ø/ù   ø
û ü   ø R L C   ý ý  ý ø  ÷#ø=û    ÿ i ø ù %ÿ 9û    ÿ-ú  ýIDCò I   I ù ø ý  
 ø;ý    ø;þ øGÿ ü &   ù ÿ   ù T  T  T  T ø ù ÿ  ù ù  ÿ ø  DC DC
1 4 2 3
Ø;P ô Š T R X-V R Y U
Qõ ö9Y U#V [ Ù P ··Ï
(“ Q“ ;“
ç Ç ¤ ¤ î ̱ ª ß ¦ ª Ÿ   ¯ « ± «¬ ¦
^ @#H L M H D L C E E G @ H ‡< M J @G @B ƒ O =G D B @ D , M @ U C(H < M < H C K M L U K,T< #
M X
RLC
‚ D = @#T D B U < C L O =5T M O T M @GAƒ O U H L B B < C L O = ` @ =5B ƒ < cU @ =H @#GAƒ < PO M C L U U @ P@ = CX
ω0
1 \ pZ · _
ω0 = √
L.C
‚ D =?H O @ ŒH L @ = C,GAƒ < PO M C L U U @ P@ = C#X
1 \ pZ n _
α=
2.R.C
‚ B @6M < T TO M C@ = C M @6B @,H O @ ŒH L @ = C6GAƒ < PO M C L U U @ P@ = C@ CB <,T D B U < C L O = T M O T M @(GAƒ O U E
H L B B < C L O =YX
\ pZ  _
r
α 1 L
ξ= =
ω0 2R C
^ O M U d D @B ƒ < P O M C L U U @
P @ = C(@ U C(‡ W TO H M L C L d D @B @ H L M H D L C,@ U C(T@ D?< PO M C LA@ C(L BO U E
H L B B @##D = @#TU @ DG O E T D B U < C L O =5G # @ M K U O =< =H @ B L K @# T < M#X
ωr ω0
p \ pZ p _
ωr = ω 0 . 1 − ξ2
m LT< M(B <H O PP< =G @O =5L PTO U @D = @T D B U < C L O =5G @… O =H C L O = = @ P@ = C,G @#B ƒ O =G D B @ D M
U D TK M L @ D M @? B <YH ‡< M J @5< T T< M < ‹ C H O P P@5H < T< H L C L N @ ` B O M U d D @B ƒ < P O M C L U U @ E
P@ = C#@ U C‡ W TO H M L C L d D @ ® ^ < cE · Á Á ¿ ¯ Z ^ @ U,… O M P@ UGAƒ O =G @ U#G DŠH O D M < = C#G @H ‡< M J @
ω ωr
G @(B ƒ O =G D B @ D M@ C0G @6B <(C @ =U L O = < D ‚cAO M = @ UG @6B <,H ‡< M J @(U O = CH @ B B @ UG @6B <(‰ J D M @6pZ  Z
S O PP @O =5T@ D C(N O L M ` B <#… O =G < P @ = C < B @ G @B <#C @ =U L O =?G @#U O M C L @@ U C(G K T ‡< U K @
@ =?< M M L „ M @T< M6M < T TO M C(< D5H O D M < = C,G < = U(uB C<H ‡< M J @ Z 1

;,< =UH @H < U ` B <PL U @#@ 8 = ÓD N M @ G @#B ƒ O =G D B @ D M,TA@ D CU @#… < L M @#@ =?D C L B L U < = C,D = L E
d D @ P @ = C#G @ U,C ‡ W M L U C O M U Z ^ <P L U @@ =ŠH O =G DH C L O =ŠGAƒ D = @T< L M @G @C ‡ W M L U C O M U ` T< M
@ ‚ @ PT B @6B @ UC ‡ W M L U C O M U @ C ` @ = C M < ‹ = @0B ƒ @ ‚ C L =H C L O =GAƒ < D C M @0T< L M @,\ B @ UC ‡ W M L U C O M U
T2 T3
@C _Z
T1 T4

IDC
T2
T1
i
iC iL iR
U C L uC R

T3 T4

Ä Å Æ Ç È ÉW Ë L?Í3åÖ A Ç Ô É Ç È#È Ó Ò Ø Ö Ö Ï Ö × A É-Ð Ø Ç È Ï Ö ×


··ä ÔX X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
i, uC, uC1 uC
j1 uC1
i
T/2
Dt

Dt wt
T/2

iT , uT uT1
iT1

T/2 T wt

Ž   ‘ ’ “?» • ·–Ž £ ’  “ #š › £ œ š “ ¥ £ ‘ ’‘ œ=£ œ š ‘ ¢ “ ‘ ’š “-™ £ ‘ ’ ¦ œ ˜-¥  ¢ £ ˜ ¡?¥ ¦ ’#¢ ¦™ ¹ ¦ ’  “

(“ Q“ ;“
ç Ç ¤ Ç î ¯¢Š¢Š± « § ¦ § ¦ ° Ë ¯ « §¡° ¦ ¡Aª

^ ƒ @ = C M @ C L @ =YG @ U(O U H L B B < C L O =U,G @ B <C @ =U L O = U @ … < L C,T< M,B @ T L B O C < J @ G @#B ƒ O = E
uC
G D B @ D M X
‚ @ = D C L B L U < = C0B @(T< U U < J @(G @(B <,C @ =U L O = uC GAƒ D = @(N < B @ D M0= K J < C L N @(,D = @(N < B @ D M
TO U L C L N @(H O PP @6M K … K M @ =H @6TO D MB <H O PP< =G @(,B ƒ < P O M ¶ < J @6G @ @C \d D L
T 2 T3
U @ M O = C(< P O M H K U6< T M „ U6D =5M @ C < M G _`
∆t
‚ @ =YD C L B L U < = C,B @ T< U U < J @ T< M K M O5G @B <C @ =U L O = uC ` H @ C C @… O L UG < =U,B ƒ < D C M @
U @ =U ` H O PP @,M K … K M @ =H @(TO D M0B <H O P P< =G @ ` T B DU0C < M G ` G @,B ƒ < P O M ¶ < J @(G @
∆t
@C Z
T1 T4
I B … < D C0M @ P< M d D @ M0d D @,B <… M K d D @ =H @G @(B <C @ =U L O =G @U O M C L @(TA@ D C0ˆ C M @,P O G L ‰ K @
@ =?< J L U U < = C(U D M(B @M @ C < M G  B ƒ < PO M ¶ < J @#G @ U(C ‡ W M L U C O M U\ T B DU G L PL = D @#T B DU
∆t ∆t
B < … M K d D @ =H @#< D J P@ = C @ _ Z
S O P P@6TO D M0H @ C C @,< T T B L H < C L O =#B <(… M K d D @ =H @(G @6B <(C @ =U L O = G @,U O M C L @\ d D L @ U CB <
C @ =U L O =G @,B <#H < C K =< L M @ _ @ U C(H @ = U K @,M @ U C @ M6H O =U C < = C @ \ #U < N O L M ¿ o#k( _ ` B @,M @ C < M G
B ƒ < P O M ¶ < J @ M @ U C @ M <(H O =U C < = C Z ;< =UH @ UH O =G L C L O =U ` TAO D M< U U D M @ MB @ UH O =G L C L O =U
G @H O P P D C < ∆t C L O ==< C D M @ B B @ \ #U < N O L M ·oB O M U d Dƒ O =< P O M H @(B @ U0C ‡ W M L U C O M U T E
T3
@C
uC
¶ÉoB O M U d Dƒ O =Š< P O M H @ B @ UC ‡ W M L U C O M U T E T _ L B0… < D C#U ƒ < U U D M @ M#d D @2B <
uC
T D B U < C L O =?G @#TU @ DG O E M K U O =< =H @ M @ U C @C O D V O D M U(1 L = … K M 4L @ D M @  B < T D B U < C L O = G @
ωr ω
H O P P< =G @#G @B ƒ O =G D B @ D M Z
Ø;P ô Š T R X-V R Y U
Qõ ö9Y U#V [ Ù P ··Á
ç(“ ÇQ“ ¤;“ ¶ žo ° ¦ §¡ è î ž
^ <ŠH ‡< M J @5‰ =< B @YG @?B ƒ O =G D B @ D M ` d D @YH O =U C L C D @?B <†H < C K =< L M @ ` @ U CL =G DH C L N @ Z
;< =U D = @?T M @ P L „ M @?< T T M O H ‡ @@ B B @5T@ D Cˆ C M @5PO G K B L U K @5T< MD = @?P L U @5@ =U K M L @
GAƒ D = @#M K U L U C < =H @ @ C,GAƒ D = @#L =G DH C < =H @ Z;(„ U6B O M U ` B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @#J B O c< B @#G D
RT LT
H L M H D L CO U H L B B < = C#G K T@ =GYG @ B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @ G DY‰ B C M @ E @ C#G @ B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @G @
L LC
H ‡< M J @ Z
^ ƒ L P LTTK G < =H @#G @#H ‡< M J @ ` PO G K B L U @,D =C M < L =d D L< cU O M c@,G D5H O D M < = C6
LT R T
^
B <H < C K =< L M @ Z @ UT< M < P„ C M @ UG @,H @ C C @6L P TK G < =H @(N O L @ = CB @ D M UN < B @ D M UU @6P OG L ‰ @ M
@ = … O =H C L O =G @6B <,G L U C < =H @(G D C M < L = ,B <U O DU E U C < C L O =#d D L B ƒ < B L P @ = C @6@ C@ =#… O =H C L O =
G @ B < T D L U U < =H @ d Dƒ L B< cU O M c@ Z S @ C C @#N < M L < C L O =?G @#B ƒ L PTK G < =H @\ C < = C,G @ dD @
G @ _ … < L C,G O =H,N < M L @ M(B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @C O C < B @#G D?H L M H D L C(O U H L B B < = C ` H @ d D LA@ L= C TM < ‹ = @
D = @#RP T OG L ‰H < C L O =?G @#B < T D B U < C L O =?GAƒ O U H L B B < C L O =5G @#H @#H L M H D L C Z
S @ H L<G @ D ‚5H O =U K d D @ =H @ U0L P PK G L < C @ U#X
‚ B <(… O M P @6GAƒ O =G @6G @6B <6C @ =U L O = G @(U O M C L @6U @ M <6PO G L ‰ K @,\ T B DUAO D#PO L =UT M O H ‡ @
GAƒ D = @,U L = DU O § G @(U @ B O =d D @ @ U C0T B DU0O D PO L =UT M O H ‡ @,G @ _ )` ® ^ < c5E · Á Á ¿ ¯
ω ωr
‚ U L(B @ U N < M L < C L O =U U O = CL PTO M C < = C @ U ` B <?T D B U < C L O = ωr T@ D C< D J P@ = C @ M< D E
G @ U U DU0G @,B <T D B U < C L O =G @H O P P< =G @,G @,B ƒ O =G D B @ D M(H @d D LAH O PT M O P@ C C M < L C
B @cO =5… O =H C L O = = @ P @ = C,G @#H @ B D L E H L Z
m L(B ƒ O =†N @ D C T M O G D L M @D = @5C @ =U L O =?B <?… M K d D @ =H @?G @ ¿ oYk( ` O =G O L C< B O M U
< V DU C @ M#B <N < B @ D M#G @B <5U @ B … G DŠ‰ B C M @ E G @P< = L „ M @5H @d D @B <5U @ B …6C O C < B @
G DyH L M H D L CO U H L B B < = C< L C B <YN L< B @ D Md Dƒ L B(L… < D CCTO D Md D @5B <YTU @ DG OŠ… M K d D @ =H @?G @
M K U O =< =H @0U O L CB K J „ M @ P@ = CAL = … K M L @ D M @6 ¿ o(k( Z S @0M K J B < J @T@ D Cˆ C M @6< U U D M K ` H O PP @
B @(P O = C M @6B <,‰ J D M @6pZ · ` @ = T B < ¶ < = CD => S j†@ =U K M L @(< N @ H6B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @ G D ‰ B C M @
H @(d D L T@ M P@ C0GAƒ @ = … < L M @6N < M L @ MB <(N < B @ D M0< T T< M @ = C @(G @6… < ¶ O =,H @(d D @6B <,LT D B U < C L O =
M @ U C @#H O = U C < = C @ Z
ωr

(“ Q“ ;“
ç Ç ¤ çqp « ¨ ¬ ¨ ± ° ¨   ± ¬ ¨ ¯ « § ¦ ° Ë ¯ « §¡° ¦ ¡ª
aO D # M < U U D M @ MB <PL U @ @ =YM O D C @G @B ƒ O =G D B @ D M ` L B0… < D C#@ =YO D C M @ … < L M @H L M H D B @ M
< N < = C0G @,H O P P@ =H @ M6H O P P< =G @ M0B @ UC ‡ W M L U C O M U @ C \O D @ C _ ` D =H O D E
T 1 T4 T2 T3
M<= C G < =UB ƒ L =G DH C < =H @ Z S ƒ @ U CB @(M ë B @(G DH L M H D L C0G @,G K P< M M < J @6M @ T M K U @ = C K
IDC
U D M,B < ‰ J D M @ pZ · Z ^ O M U,G DYG K LPf < M M < J @ G @#B ƒ O =G D B @ D MB @ C ‡ W M L U C O M @ U C< PO M H K Z
^ @YH O D M < = C H O P P@ =H @?YH M O ‹ C M @5N @ M U#D = @?N < B @ D MG @5M K J L P T@ S O€
IDC UDC í RS
@ U C,B <C @ =U L O =Y… O D M = L @ T< M,B @#M @ G M @ U U @ D M Z S @ C C @ N < B @ D M#G @#M K J L P @G O L Cˆ C M @
UDC
< D5PO L =U6K J < B @# B < N < B @ D M6= O PL =< B @#G D?H O D M < = C _ Z;(„ U(d D @#B @#H O D M < = C
< C C @ L = C6D = @,N < B @ D M(< T T M O T M L K @ ` D = @,T< L M @,G @C ‡ W M L U IC DC
O M U0G @,B ƒ O =G D B @ D M6@ U C6P L U I@,DC
@=
H O =G DH C L O =5@ C(B @#H L M H D L C,G @#G K P< M M < J @#U @#H O D T@#U TAO = C < = K P @ = C Z
;(„ U6H @ C0L =U C < = C6B <#H ‡< M J @G @(B ƒ O = G D B @ D M(H O P P@ =H @,#O U H L B B @ M Z ^ ƒ @ = C M @ C L @ =5G @ U
O U H L B B < C L O =U6U @… < L C(@ =?< T T B L d D< = C6B <H O PP< =G @#G K H M L C @# B <U @ H C L O =5pZ n Z · Z n Z
·no )X Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
ÔX
lg ©g ©èIl#|=u lq q l#t=uI|=len r#n l
^ # < U O D M H @G @H O D M < = C6d D LA< B L P @ = C @,B ƒ O =G D B @ D M6M K U O =< = C0T@ D C6ˆ C M @,… O M PK @,T< M
D =5M @ G M @ U U @ D M(G K c L C < = C,U D M(B ƒ O =G D B @ D M,#C M < N @ M U6D = @L =G DH C < =H @#G @B L U U < J @ Z
^ <6N < B @ D MA@ ŒH < H @0G @0B <6C @ =U L O =#@ =#U O M C L @0G @0B ƒ O =G D B @ D MG K T@ =G#G @ UAT< M < P„LC fM @ U
G D5H L M H D L C0O U H L B B < = C,\ T M L =H L T< B @ P@ = C6G @,B <T D L U U < =H @< cU O M cK @(T< M6B @,C M < L = _ @ C6G @
B < N < B @ D M,G D?H O D M < = C d D L< B L P @ = C @#B ƒ O =G D B @ D M(M K U O =< = C Z
S O P P@#B <H ‡< M J @I@ DC U C,… O M C @ P@ = C,N < M L < c B @ ` TO D M,TO D N O L M,J < M G @ M,H O =U C < = C @#B <
N < B @ D M6@ ŒH < H @G @B <#C @ =U L O =5G @#H < C K =< L M @ ` L BU ƒ < N „ M @(= K H @ U U < L M @,G @TO D N O L M6M K J B @ M
B @#H O D M < = C Z
aO D M(< U IU DC D M @ M6B @M K J B < J @G @B <#N < B @ D M(G D?H O D M < = C \ @ C(G O =H,L PT B L H L C @ P@ = C
B <#N < B @ D M6@ ŒH < H @#G @B <#C @ =U L O = _ ` L BA@ U C6L =G L U TA@ =U < IcDC B @#GAƒ D C L B L U @ M6D =5M @ G M @ U U @ D M
H O P T B „ C @ P @ = C0H O PP< =G K Z l0= T uB DCU ` B ƒ D C L B L U < C L O =G @(H @6C W T@(G @6M @ G M @ U U @ D MT@ M P @ C
GAƒ < U U D M @ M(B < M K N @ M U L c L B L C K G D5C M < =U … @ M C,G @#T D L U U < =H @#B O M U d D @#B <H < C K =< L M @#M @ = N O L @
G @,B ƒ K = @ M J L @\ H ƒ @ U C E  E G L M @6B O M U0G @ UT ‡< U @ U0G @(… M @ L =< J @,G @ UC M < L =U0d Dƒ @ B B @,< B L P @ = C @ _ Z
^ O M U d D @#B @ M @ G M @ U U @ D M,@ U CD =YM @ G M @ U U @ D M,C M L T ‡< U K< B L P @ = C K T< MD =YC M < =U … O M E
P< C @ D M H O = = @ H C K< DYM K U @ < D ` U O =YL =G L H @5G @T D B U < C L O =Y@ U C Ò ` < N @ H#D =Š… < H C @ D M G @
T D L U U < =H @#G D5PO = C < J @#d D LAN < D C(o Z Á ¿ ¿ Z H O U \ K C < = C(B ƒ < = J B @#G @M @ C < M G B ƒ < P O M E
¶ < J @#G @C ‡ W M L U C O M U(G D5M @ G M @ U U @ D M =_ ® m @ JE · αÁ ä p α¯ Z
](=?M @ G M @ U U @ D M< N @ HD =?P@ L B B @ D M#H O PTO M C @ P@ = C,N L U E  E N L U,G D?M K U @ < D5C M L T ‡< U K
TA@ D C,ˆ C M @#O c C @ = D?@ =?J M O D T< = C(@ =YU K M L @#G @ D ‚TAO = C U(M @ G M @ U U @ D M U6C M L T ‡< U K U, C ‡ W E
M L U C O M U Z ;,< =U,H @ H < U ` B @ U(G @ D ‚TO = C U6M @ G M @ U U @ D M U6G O L N @ = C(ˆ C M @#< B L P@ = C K U( T< M C L M
G D5M K U @ < DC M L T ‡< U K##C M < N @ M U0D =C M < =U … O M P< C @ D M( G @ D ‚U @ H O =G < L M @ U6G O = C6D =5@ U C
H O = = @ H C K@ =5C M L < = J B @,@ C6B ƒ < D C M @,@ =K C O L B @ Z ^ @ U6G @ D ‚U W U C „ P @ U6G @C @ =U L O =U0C M L T ‡< E
U K U6< L =U LO c C @ = DU,\ d D LAG O L N @ = C6< N O L M6B <#P ˆ P @,N < B @ D M6@ ŒH < H @ _ U O = C6G K T ‡< U K U0B ƒ D =
T< M#M < T TAO M C#B ƒ < D C M @G @ Ò Z S @P O = C < J @5\ ‰ J D M @ pZ p _ G O = CB ƒ L =G L H @G @T D B U < E
C L O =@ U C · n ` T M K U @ = C @5D =π… < í H C @ D MG @?T D L U U < =H @5K J < B,Yo Z Á ä Á Z H O U ® m @ JE · Á ä p ¯ `
® f6O =E6n o o o ¯ Z α
^ ƒ L =G DH C < =H @G @ ‰ B C M < J @ TAO D Mc D C#G @ B L PL C @ MB ƒ O =G D B < C L O =ŠG DŠH O D M < = C
U O DUAB ƒ @ Ž@ CG @6B ƒ O =G D B < C L O L=#f G @ UAC @ =U L O =U \ (B <,U O M C L @0G D#M @ G M @ U U @ D M _ @ C
IDC UDC
\ #B ƒ @ = C M K @G @(B ƒ O =G D B @ D M _ Z S O P P@(B <C @ =U L O = <D =L =G L H @G @,T D B U < C L O =K J U< B
UDC
 · n@ C(d D @,B <C @ =U L O =B ƒ @ = C M K @G @,B ƒ O =G D B @ D M6<#D =L =G L H @G @,T D B U < C L O = n\ L B
U ƒ < J L C#GAƒ D = @C @ =U L O =YPO = O T ‡< U K @ M @ G M @ U U K @ _ ` H ƒ @ U C@ U U @ = C L @ B B @ P @ = CB ƒ O =pG D p B < C L O =
G @#B < C @ =U L O = d D LA‰ ‚ @B ƒ O =G D B < C L O =?G D?H O D M < = C Z
^ @B L U U < J @UG D†H O D M < = C @ U C GAƒ < D C < = C#P@ L B BI@ DC D Md D @B <5N < B @ D M G @B ƒ L =G DH E
C < =H @ @ U C#K B @ N K @ Zh?< L U#IH DC O P P@= O DUB @N @ M M O =U#B <5U @ H C L O =ŠpZ p?M @ B < C L …(5B <
Lf
M K J D B < C L O =G DU W U C „ P @ ` B @YH O D M < = C G O L CTO D N O L MN < M L @ M M < T L G @ P @ = CU L(O =
IDC
N @ D CP< L = C @ = L MB <C @ =U L O =YH < C K =< L M @H O =U C < = C @ B O M UGAƒ D = @N < M L < C L O =?c M DU d D @G @
B <T D L U U < =H @H O =U O PP K @ Z ](= @,N < B @ D M0C M O TK B @ N K @G @ < D M <#G O =H(D = @,L = ò D @ =H @
= K J < C L N @#U D M(B < M K J D B < C L O =5G @B <#N < B @ D M(@ ŒH < H @#G @B <#LC f@ =U L O =5G @ H < C K =< L M @ Z
Ø;P ô Š T R X-V R Y U
Qõ ö9Y U#V [ Ù P ·n ·

Lf IDC
n1
T1 T2 T3

P1
T4 T5 T6
n2 UDC
T7 T8 T9

P2
T10 T11 T12
n2Ö3

Ž   ‘ ’ “?» • »–{ s “  ¥ ¢ “-š “?’ “ š ’ “   “ ‘ ’ |  œ š  ™ “-š “-¥ ‘ ¢  ¦ ˜  £ œ;” °

lg ©g ‰ss-n lq t=u8x l|=o Sl{=q o s?{={=l Sl{?n8|=t q ­q n ½ Sl
^ @G L P @ = U L O = = @ P@ = C G @ UK B K  P @ = C UM K < H C L … UG D†H L M H D L CO U H L B B < = C\ @ C _ U @
… < L C,@ =?C @ =< =  C H O PT C @ G @ U,H O = C M < L = C @ U(d D LG O L N @ = C(ˆ C M @#M @ U T@ H C K @ U(TO LD M,< U CU D M @ M
B @… O =H C L O = = @ P @ = C,G @B ƒ O =G D B @ D M Z
m LO =ŠU D T TO U @d D @ B <5H ‡< M J @ < cU O M c@ D = @ T D L U U < =H @< T T< M @ = C @G @ ¿ oh50g
U O DU6D = @C @ =U L O =?G @#n ¿ †  ` T< M(@ ‚ @ P T B @ ` < N @ H(D =5… < H C @ D M,G @T D L U U < =H @= O P L =< B
G @#o ` ä ` O =T@ D C6@ =5G K G D L M @d D @B <N < B @ D M6= O P L =< B @G @,B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @G @,B <#H ‡< M J @
@ U C,G @ Ò Ò Pk ` U LAO =M @ T M K U @ = C @B < H ‡< M J @,T< M(D =?H L M H D L C E U K M L@ Z
R T LT
aO D M(P L = L PL U @ M,B < C < L B B @#G @ U(K B K P@ = C U(M K < H C L … U(G @#B ƒ O =G D B @ D M(O =?H ‡ O L U L M <#D = @
U @ B …M K J B < c B @0T< M0J M < G < C @ D MGAƒ D = @6N < B @ D MK J < B @6O D B K J „ M @ P @ = C0U D TK M L @ D M @ ` U O L CT< M
@ ‚ @ PT B @ Ï o#Pk#Z
m L B <(T D L U U < =H @(< T T< M @ = C @(G @0B <,H ‡< M J @6G L PL = D @6O D U L U O =#… < H C @ D M0G @6T D L U U < =H @
< D J P@ = C @5O =†TO D M M <Y< L =U L6P< L = C @ = L MB <YU @ B …,C O C < B @5G @5M K U O =< =H @5 Ï o?Pk)@ =
< J L U U < = CU D MB @?J M < G < C @ D M Z ^ <YN < B @ D MG @?B <†U @ B … K C < = C< L =U L,‰ ‚ K @ ` B <YN < B @ D M
G @B <5H < T< H L C K U @H < B H D B @ TO D M#d Dƒ @ =YB ƒ < cU @ =H @LG @ B <H ‡< M J @ ` B <T D B U < C L O =YG @
C
H O P P< =G @YG @5B ƒ O =G D B @ D MY\ M < G U @ H _ U O L CB K J „ M @ P @ = CU D TK M L @ D M @?
B <5T D B U < C L O =ŠT M O T M @G D†H L M H ωD L C = E 2.π.50 \ _ Z m L0í O =Š‰ ‚ @B @M < T TO M C@ = C M @H @ U#G @ D ‚
T D B U < C L O =U · ` · ` @ =#D C L B L U < = CB <(M L@ B < CC L O = ω0
\ pZ · _ B <,H < T< H L C K <(TO D MN < B @ D M · Ï ¿ b6Z
C µ
aO D M(H @#d D LA@ U C(G @#B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @#G @B L U U < J @ ` U O =5G L P @ =U L O = = @ P@ = C(M K U D B C @
GAƒ D =5H O P T M O P L U@ = C M @,B <#M K G DH C L O =G @B ƒ O =G D B < LC fL O =G D5H O D M < = C @ C6B <= K H @ U E
U L C K6G @6J < M G @ MD = @(G W =< PL d D @(G @(H @6H O D M < = CU D ŒU < = C @6TO D M0< U U D IM DC @ MB <,M K J D B < C L O =
G @#B < N < B @ D M6@ ŒH < H @#G @#B < C @ =U L O = T< M(M < T TO M C(< D ‚N < M L < C L O =U(G @#H ‡< M J @ Z
uC
·nn ÔX X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
Sous-système 1 Convertisseur Sous-système 2 Convertisseur Sous-système 3 Convertisseur
charge résonante
3
(TCR)
1er accès 1er accès
3ème accès Sij 1er accès
Sij 3èmeaccès Sij
2ème accès 2 ème
accès 2ème accès

3ème accès
4ème accès
4ème accès

Ž   ‘ ’ “?» • ½?–=— ˜ ’ ‘ ™ ˜ ‘ ’ “š “?º ¦  “-š ‘= ž  ˜ Ÿ  “-¡ ˜ ‘ š  ¡


“9^ t ¯ c # &("
!$+( &/6!#"# "æ.(2 ,

^ @ U#H O = N @ M C L U U @ D M U,K B @ H C M O = L d D @ U#G @T D L U U < =H @U O = C#G K H M L C UT< M D =†U W U C „ P@
GAƒ K d D< C L O =Ud D L#H O = C L @ = C5G @ UN < M L < c B @ UB O J L d D @ UG L U H M „ C @ U ` H O M M @ U TO =G < = C< D ‚
K C < C U » F » bbyG @ U#L = C @ M M D T C @ D M U ZaO D MH O =H @ N O L M#B <5M K J D B < C L O =†GAƒ D =U W U C „ P@
K B @ H C M O = L d í D @?G @5T D L U U < =H @ ` L B(@ U CD C L B @?G @5H O =U C M D L M @D =P O G „ B @?H O = C L = D†K d D L E
N < B @ = C G D†U W U C „ P@ ` d D L6K B L PL = @B @ UN < M L < c B @ U#G L U H M „ C @ UC O D C#@ =ŠM @ T M OG D L U < = C#B <
G W =< PL d D @#T M L =H L T< B @ ` H O PP @O =5B ƒ <G K V  G L C,< D5H ‡< T L C M @ · Z
^ @#U W U C „ P @  B ƒ K C DG @#L H LH O = C L @ = C,C M O L U(H O = N @ M C L U U @ D M U6K B @ H C M O = L d D @ U(G @#T D L U E
U < =H @\ B @#M @ G M @ U U @ D M(G @#C ˆ C @ ` B ƒ O =G D B @ D M,G @ H O D M < = C(@ C,B @ > S j _ d D LAM @ B L @ = C(C M O L U
U O DU E U W U C „ P @ U#H O = C L = DU5\ B @5M K U @ < DŠC M L T ‡< U K ` B @?H L M H D L CYH O D M < = C H O = C L = D†@ CB <
H ‡< M J @M K U O =< = C @W5H O PT M L U0B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @M K J B < c B @#G D?> S jE0‰ J D M @pZ ¿ _ Z
a0D L U d D @?B @YH L M H D L CG @YG K P< M M < J @5=ƒ L = C @ M N L @ = CT< UG < =U B @?… O =H C L O = = @ P @ = C
= O M P< BG D?U W U C „ P @ ` U O =5P O G „ B @#= @#U @ M < T< U6T M L U6@ =?H O PT C @ Z

lg ‰g fÞª¬s|½x l|=lx z s?{=|=t=x l#t=uIl)nI|=lq wCm R=w-u n?l


l =ÑU D T TO U < = C?d D @ŠB @ U?H O PP#D C < C L O =U5G @ UC ‡ W M L U C O M U5U O = C5L =U C < = C < = K @ U@ C
0
H O P T C @C @ = D5G D… < L C(d D @,B ƒ O =G D B @ D M6C M < N < L B B @,G < =U0D =PO G @H O PT B „ C @ P@ = C(H O P E
P< =G KY\ B <?P L U @@ =†H O =G D H C L O =†GAƒ D = @T< L M @5G @C ‡ W M L U C O M UL PT B L d D @B <?H O PP#D E
C < C L O =?G @B ƒ < D C M @T< L M @ ` < D C M @ P @ = C,G L C(C O D C @ U6B @ U(H O P P D C < C L O =U6L = C @ M N L @ = = @ = C,
G @ U0L =U C < = C U6G @,C @ PTU0c L @ =T M K H L U K U _ ` H @ B D L E H LT@ D C0ˆ C M @,M @ P T B < H K(T< M6D = @,U O D M H @
G @ H M K = @ < D ‚G @#H O D M < = C(G @#N < B @ D M Z
^ @> S jU @ M <M @ P T B < H K,T< M(U O =iL =G DH C < =H @,K d D L N < B @ = C @ TO D M6B < d D @ B B @,O =
<H O =U L G K M K < DU U LD = @ M K U L U C < =H @#L = C @ M = @ \ ‰ J D M @#pZ Ò _ Z l0L=Y eq
L PTO U < = CH O PP @
H M L C „ M @0GAƒ K d D L N < B @ =H @B @0… < L Cd D @0B <6N < B @ D MA@ R ŒeqH < H @6G D#H O D M < = C G < =UAB ƒ L =G DH C < =H @
U O L C,K J < B @B <N < B @ D M@ ŒH < H @ G DŠH O D M < = C G < =U,B ƒ L =G iDLH C < =H @ K d D L N < B @ = C @
L
` O =?T@ D C,@ ‚ T M L P @ M,B <N < B @ D MG @ @ =?… O iL=H C L O =YG @H @ B B @ G @ @ CG @#B ƒ < = J B @
eq

Leq Leq L
Ú
Y Q ® Z PGŠ Y U#V R Uõó ‹ õ R Œ [ Z P U#V ·n
G @#M @ C < M G5#B ƒ < PO M ¶ < J @ G @ U6C ‡ W M L U C O M U6G D?> S j½X
β
L \ pZ ¿ _
Leq =
1 − cosβ
;,< = U(H @ U6H O =G L C L O =U ` B ƒ K N O B D C L O =5G @ U6N < M L < c B @ U0d D LH < M < H C K M L U @ = C0B < H ‡< M J @G @
B ƒ O = G D B @ D M,T@ D C(ˆ C M @@ ‚ T M L P K @X
diLeq

 = L1 (uC − Req .iLeq )
 dt \ pZ Ò _

eq

diLT 1 (u − R .i )
= LT C T LT
 dt
 duC

 1
= C (i − iLeq − iT )
dt
m L B <,T D B U < C L O = G @6T L B O C < J @(G @6B ƒ O =G D B @ D M@ U CT M O H ‡ @(G @6B <(T D B U < C L O = G @6TU @ DG O
M K U O =< =H @G DŠH L M H D L CO U H L B B < = Cd D @ M @ T M K U @ = C @U <5H ‡< M J @ ` B <C @ =U L O =Y< D ‚?cO M = @ U
G @B < H ‡< M J @ \ _ @ U C(d D< U LAU L = DU O § G < B @(@ C0@ B B @,T@ D C0ˆ C M @< B O M U6< T T M O ‚ L PK @D = @
U L = DU O § G @#U < =U6uC… < L M @C M O T?GAƒ @ M M @ D M ® ^ < c5E · Á Á ¿ ¯ Z S @ C C @C @ =U L O =5U ƒ @ ‚ T M L P @X
\ pZ Ï _
uC = UC (t).cos(ωt + ϕu (t))
O €ŠX
‚ @ U C(B <#N < B @ D M,G @#H M ˆ C @#G @B < C @ =U L O =5< D ‚cO M = @ U(G @B < H ‡< M J @ `
UC
‚ M @ T M K U @ = C @,B <#T ‡< U @,L = L C L < B @#G @#H @ C C @C @ =U L O =5T< M6M < T TO M C6 B ƒ L =U C < = C
ϕu (t)
G @#M K … K M @ =H @ Z
;,< =UH @ UH O =G L C L O =U ` @ == K J B L J @ < = CB @ UN < M L < C L O =UG DyH O D M < = C ` O == @
M @ C L @ = C6G DH O D M < = CG K c L C K(T< M0B ƒ O =G D B @ D M ` d D L @ U CD =H O D M < = C@ =H M K = @ I< DC D ‚ ` d D @,U <
H O P TAO U < = C @6… O =G < P @ = C < B @#\ ‡ W TO C ‡ „ U @,G DY÷ T M @ P L @ M0‡< M PO = L d D @ ÷ _?® ^ < c5E · Á Á ¿ ¯ X
4 \ pZ ä _
i1 = IDC .cos(ωt + ϕi (t))
π
^ @ UT D B U < C L O =U#G @B <C @ = U L O = @ C G DY… O =G < P @ = C < B0G D†H O D M < = C U O = CK N L E
G @ P P@ = C B @ UPˆ P@ U#@ C#K J < B @ U#5uB <5 C
T D BU < C LO = L PTO U K @T< M#B <?H O PiP< =G @G @
ω
B ƒO = G D B @ D M Z

IDC
i iLeq iC iT
Req
U uC RT
C
Leq
LT

Onduleur

Ž   ‘ ’ “?» • Ï–¿G£ š Ÿ ¢ “?š “?¢ › £ œ š ‘ ¢ “ ‘ ’#“ ˜#š “- ¦™ ¹ ¦ ’  “


·np ÔXX)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
a0D L U d D @B <C @ = U L O = @ U C H O =U L G K M K @H O P P@K C < = C U L = DU O § G < B @ ` B @5H O D M < = C
u
G < =U#B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @K Cd D L N < B @ = C @5G D> S 3 j < L =U L(d D @B @5H O D M < = C G < =U B <
iL
H ‡< M J @,B @U @ M O = C(< DU U L Z l0=M K J L P@,T@ M P< = @ = C ` = O DU6TO D N O =U6G K H O P TiLO U @ M6C O D C @ U
eq T

H @ U(J M < =G @ D M U(U L = DU O § G < B @ U6@ =?G @ D ‚5H O PTO U < = C @ U0M @ U T@ H C L N @ P @ = C ÷ @ =5T ‡< U @ ÷(@ C
÷ @ =?d D< G M < C D M @ ÷#X
\ pZ Á _
x(t) = Xd sinωt + Xq cosωt
O€ @C U O = C0B @ UN < B @ D M U0G @H M ˆ C @G @ U6H O PTO U < = C @ UG @ @ =T ‡< U @(@ C0@ =d D< E
G M<X C D dM @ Z » X=#q T@ D C0< G P @ C C M @(d Dƒ @ =#M K J L P@0C M < =U L C O L M @ ` B @ UA@ ‚ T xM @ U U L O =UG @ UAC @ =U L O =U
@ C H O D M < = C UJ < M G @ = CB <Pˆ P@… O M P@d Dƒ @ =ŠM K J L P @T@ M P< = @ = C#P< L U#d D @ @C
U O = C,< B O M U(G @ U6J M < =G @ D M U6d D LAN < M L @ = C(@ =5… O =H C L O =5G D5C @ P TU ® ^ < c5E · Á Á X ä ¯ dX
Xq
\ pZ · o _
x(t) = Xd (t)sinωt + Xq (t)cosωt
l0=5N @ M C D5G @\ pZ · o _ B @#U W U C „ P @ Gƒ K d D < C L O =U\ pZ Ò _ G @ N L @ = C#X
duCd

=C 1 (i + ω.C.u − i
LTd − iLeqd )
 d Cq
dt


du

1 (i − ω.C.u − i
 C q
=C LTq − iLeqq )


q Cd
dt


i

1

 Leqd
 dt = L (uCd − Req .iLeqd + ω.Leq .iLeqq ) \ pZ · · _


eq
iLeqq 1
 = L (uCq − Req .iLeqq − ω.Leq .iLeqd )


 dt eq
i

LT d 1

= L (uCd − RT .iLTd + ω.LT .iLTq )


dt

T


 i
 LTq = 1 (uC − RT .iL − ω.LT .iL )


dt LT q Tq Td

S @(U W U C „ P @(GAƒ K d D< C L O =UM @ T M K U @ = C @6B @6PO G „ B @(H O = C L = D K d D L N < B @ = C0G @6B <,H ‡< M J @
H < ML B = @6H O P TAO M C @0T B DU< DH D = @6N < M L < c B @6G L U H O = C L = D @0@ =#C @ P TU Z I B T@ D Cˆ C M @0M K G D L C

@ =?H ‡ O L U L U U < = C (D =5M K … K M @ = C L @ BAC @ Bd D @B <#C @ =U L O =
uC
=ƒ < L C6T< U(G @#H O P TO U < = C @,@ =
d D< G M < C D M @\ o_Z
‘ ž œ/¦ ‘ ˜ ’ “;’ u¡ } ¡ ’ “ œ p ˜  “ ¢- œ ˜ ¡ ’ “   ¦ œ ˜= “ ’ ¦  ˜™ “ ¢ ‘ ¤ ‘ -  ¥ £  “ ’ ¦  ˜
Cq
q •¿G¦  ¤ ‘ “ ¢ ¤ ‘ “; £  ˜
¢ “G’ ¡ } ¡ ’ “ œ ˜  “ ¢™ ¹ £    € ¢ “G ž  ˜ Ÿ  “ | ’ ¡  ‘ ¢ “ ’“  ˜œ £ œ ´ ¢  œ ¡ ¦  ’ “ ~ ™ £   i“=£ Ñ œ9¢ “=² “ ’ ’ ¦ | ¢ ¦G “ ™ ˜  £ œ
q

 ‘  ² ¦ œ ˜ “ #“ ˜¥ £ ‘ ’- ¦’ ¡  ‘ ¢ ¦ ˜  £ œ; ¢ } ¦ ‘ ˜ } ¦  ’ “¦ ¥ ¥ “ ¢)¦ ‘ s=˜ “ ™ ¹ œ  ¤ ‘ “ -š “?¢  œ ¡ ¦ ’   ¦ ˜  £ œG¥ ¦ ’-’ “ ˜ £ ‘ ’
š › ¡ ˜ ¦ ˜ ~ ² £  ’ “ ™ ˜  £ œ=» • »  •
À “-’ ¡ } ¡ ’ “ œ ˜  “ ¢ | q? “  º ¢ “- œ ˜ ¡ ’ “   ¦ œ ˜™ ¦ ’ £ œG£ ’    œ “ ~ ¡  ¦ ¢ | ¢ ›  œ  ˜ ¦ œ ˜#š “-™ £   ‘ ˜ ¦ ˜  £ œ
š “ =˜ ¹ ž ’   ˜ £ ’  “  ˜i ™ Ñ£ œ œ ‘ ~ “ ˜r s ¡;¥ ¦ ’¢ ¦;™ £   =¦ œ š “Gš “;¢ › £ œ š ‘ ¢ “ ‘ ’  •³-¦ œ Ht u‚ ˆ v w w v x y z
q

œ £ ‘ ¦ ² £ œ # £ œ ˜ ’ ¡-¤ ‘ › “ œ=™ ¹ £      ¦ œ ˜#‘ œ=’ ¡ } ¡ ’ “ œ ˜  “ ¢ ˜ “ ¢ ¤ ‘ “ i Ñ q € œ £ ‘ £ º ˜ “ œ £ œ ‘ œ= ž  ˜ Ÿ  “
¢  œ ¡ ¦  ’ “ =¦  )š £ œ ˜)¢ “ ) £ ’ ˜  “ # £ œ ˜#œ £ œ ´ ¢  œ ¡ ¦  ’ “  • { œ=¦ ¥ ¥ ¢  ¤ ‘ ¦ œ ˜#¢ “ )˜ “ ™ ¹ œ  ¤ ‘ “ š “¢  œ ¡ ¦ ’   ¦ ˜  £ œ
q

“ œ ˜ ’ ¡ “ ´  £ ’ ˜  “-£ œ£ º ˜  “ œ ˜)‘ œ ž  ˜ Ÿ  “#š › £ ’ š ’ “’ “ ¢ ¦ ˜  } · € ™ “¤ ‘  ™ £  ¥ ¢  ¤ ‘ “ } £ ’ ˜ “  “ œ ˜)¢ ¦’ ¡  ‘ ¢ ¦ ˜  £ œ
š ‘; ž  ˜ Ÿ  “ =¦ ¢  ’ ¡?¢ “ } ¦  ˜¤ ‘ “™ “’ ¡ } ¡ ’ “ œ ˜  “ ¢# “  º ¢ “?¥ ¢ ‘ -œ ¦ ˜ ‘ ’ “ ¢)™ ¦ ’ € ¡ ˜ ¦ œ ˜?“ œ;¥ ¹ ¦  “¦ ² “ ™¢ “
™ £ ‘ ’ ¦ œ ˜ i  ¢ } ¦ ™  ¢  ˜ ¦  ˜# “ œ   º ¢ “  “ œ ˜#¢ ¦?™ £   =¦ œ š “-š “ ˜ ¹ ž ’   ˜ £ ’  •
³-¦ œ t u‚ ˆ Xv w w v x v z œ £ ‘ -¦ ² £ œ  £ œ ˜ ’ ¡-¤ ‘ › “ œ=™ ¹ £      ¦ œ ˜#‘ œG’ ¡ } ¡ ’ “ œ ˜  “ ¢ ˜ “ ¢ ¤ ‘ “ q€
£ œ9£ º ˜  “ œ ˜‘ œ ž  ˜ Ÿ  “=œ £ œ ´ ¢  œ ¡ ¦  ’ “G =¦  š £ œ ˜¢ “  £ ’ ˜  “ = £ œ ˜¢  œ ¡ ¦  ’ “  • { œ9¦ ¥ ¥ ¢  ¤ u‘ ¦ œ ˜Ñ ¢ “  Cq

˜ “ ™ ¹ œ  ¤ ‘ “ )š “#¢  œ ¡ ¦ ’   ¦ ˜  £ œ“ œ ˜ ’ ¡ “ ´  £ ’ ˜  “£ œ£ º ˜  “ œ ˜)‘ œ ž  ˜ Ÿ  “#š › £ ’ š ’ “’ “ ¢ ¦ ˜  } ° • — ¦-’ ¡  ‘ ¢ ¦ ˜  £ œ
“  ˜¥ ¢ ‘ #   ¥ ¢ “ •
Ú
Y Q ® Z PGŠ Y U#V R Uõó ‹ õ R Œ [ Z P U#V ·n¿
S O P T C @#C @ = D?G @B <#N < B @ D M,G @#H M ˆ C @\ pZ ä _ G @ @ C,G D5… < L C,d D @X
i1
\ pZ · n _
i21 = i2d + i2q
O =5C M O D N @X
\ pZ ·  _
r
16 2
id = I − i2q
π 2 DC
l0=L P TO U < = C o ` U < G K M L N K @ U @ M <L G @ = C L d D @ P @ = C6= D B B @ Z ;< =U6H @#H < U `
uC p u̇C
B <G @ D ‚ L „ P@K d D< C L O =5G @\ pZ · · _ G O = = 
q
@ B < N < B @ D M(G @ X
iq
\ pZ · p _
iq = ω.C.uCd + iLTq + iLeqq

lg ‰g ©«ª¬s|½x lm#s?{?n o {t €t=o v?w-x l#{n8|=t u l|=u l#q q lt=uIl)nI|=t m#o u 
m#t=o n8o {?n lu S€#|=o w-o u lbPCm#s?t=u w-{?nIm#s?{n o {t
aO D M(H O =U C M D L M @,B @PO G „ B @H O = C L = D5G D5M @ G M @ U U @ D M(G @C ˆ C @ ` O =5H O =U L G „ M @#d D @ X
‚ B @ U#U @ H O =G < L M @ UG DYC M < =U … O M P< C @ D M#U O = CM @ PT B < H K U,T< M G @ D ‚YU W U C „ P @ UG @
C @ =U L O =U0C M L T ‡< U K U0G @,Pˆ P@,N < B @ D M6@ ŒH < H @,P< L U6G K T ‡< U K U0G @ Ò B ƒ D =T< M
πí
M < T TO M C,#B ƒ < D C M @ `
‚ B @ U,L =G DH C < =H @ UG @… D L C @G @H ‡< d D @ T ‡< U @G @H @ U#U W U C „ P@ U,C M L T ‡< U K UU O = C
K J < B @ U0@ = C M @@ B B @ U `
‚ H ‡< H D =?G @#H @ U(U W U C „ P @ U(< B L P @ = C @#D =5TO = C(M @ G M @ U U @ D M Z
R’ L’ Lf Rf
Lf Rf
i IDC i
U1
uC UDC U(t) uC
U(t)
U1

Onduleur
R’ L’ Onduleur

Ž   ‘ ’ “?» • Ô?–¿G£ š Ÿ ¢ “?™ £ œ ˜  œ ‘Gš ‘=’ “ š ’ “   “ ‘ ’


;,< =U,H @ U,H O =G L C L O =U ` B ƒ @ =U @ P#c B @#C M < =U … O M P< C @ D M6E6M @ G M @ U U @ D M(T@ D C(ˆ C M @ < U U L E
PL B K# D = @#U O D M H @G @C @ =U L O =5K d D L N < B @ = C @#G @N < B @ D M Z S @ C C @#U O D M H @,@ U C(P L U @
UDC
@ =?U K M L @#< N @ H \ ‰ J D M @pZ Ï _ X
‚ G @ D ‚M K U L U C < =H @ U R0 ` H ‡ < H D = @6G @6N < B @ D M  Z ω∞ Z ls í π ` d D L M @ T M K U @ = C @ = CD = @0M K E
U L U C < =H @(K d D L N < B @ = C @,G D @B ƒ @ PT L K C @ P@ = C(< D = L N @ < DG @H ‡< d D @(M @ G M @ U U @ D M `
® m @ JE · Á ä p ¯ #` ® ^ < c5E · Á Á ä ¯
·nÒ ÔX X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
‚G @ D ‚ŠL =G DH C < =H @ U 0 ` H ‡< H D = 5 @ G @5N < B @ D M · ä Z ` d D L(M @ T M K U @ = C @ = C D = @
L ls í π 2
L =G DH C < =H @K d D L N < B @ = C @5d D L0@ U 
C U O D PL U @< D ‚YN < M L < C L O =U#G D†H O D M < = C `
® m @ JE · Á ä p ¯ `#® ^ < c5E · Á Á ä ¯ IDC
gÉU D T TO U @ Md D @ H @ C C @ U O D M H @#K d D L N < B @ = C @ G K B L N M @#D =YH O D M < = C ` U < N < B @ D M
IDC
@ U C#X
\ pZ · ¿ _
UDC = U1 + U2 − 2.UR0 − 2.UL0
O D5@ =H O M @ X

3 3 6ω∞ ls 36 dIDC \ pZ · Ò _
UDC =2 e.cosα − IDC − 2 ls
π π π dt
O €ŠX

‚ B @ U(C @ =U L O =U M @ T M K U @ = C @ = C(B @ U6C @ =U L O =U6P O W @ = = @ U(
U1 p U2 p 3 π 3 e.cosα
N L G @,… O D M = L @ U0T< M(H ‡< d D @,TO = C6M @ G M @ U U @ D M6B O M U d D @,B @ U0M @ C < M G U0#B ƒ < PO M ¶ < J @
G @ U6C ‡ W M L U C O M U6U O = C6K J < D ‚ `
α
‚ ω∞ M @ T M K U @ = C @5B <YT D B U < C L O =G DM K U @ < D†C M L T ‡< U K?GAƒ < B L P @ = C < C L O =Z S O PP @
B <5T D B U < C L O =†G @B <?H < C K =< L M @@ U C K J < B @YH @ C C @T D B U < C L O = ` T< M B <?U D L C @O =
D C L B L U @ M < B @#U W P#cO B @ TO D M(B @ U(G @ D ‚AZ
ω
‚ ls M @ T M K U @ = C @B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @ G @#… D L C @ G D?C M < =U … O M P< C @ D M(N D @#T< M,U O =?U @ H O = E
G < LM @ Z
l0=5M @ PT B < ¶ < = C(B ƒ @ = C M K @ G @B ƒ O =G D B @ D MG @ H O D M < = C(T< M(D = @ U O D M H @ G @C @ =U L O =
H O M M @ U TO =G < = C6#B <#N < B @ D M6PO W @ = = @#G @,B <#C @ =U L O =5 U O =@ = C M K @ ` B <#G W =< PL d D @
U
G D?H O D M < = C @ U C(G O = = K @T< M#X
IDC

dIDC \ pZ · Ï _
UDC − Rf .IDC − Lf . −U =0
dt
O D5@ =@ ‚ T B L H L C < = C(B < C @ =U L O = T< M,U O =5@ ‚ T M @ U U L O =Y\ pZ · Ò _ X
UDC
à √
\ pZ · ä _
!
dIDC π2 6 3 6ωls
= ecosα − IDC − Rf .IDC − U
dt Lf π 2 + 36ls π π

lg ‰g ‰«ª¬s|½x lm#s?{?n o {t €t=o v?w-x l#{?nI|=t q ­q n ½ Sll#{n o l#u
^ @P O G „ B @5H O = C L = DŠK d D L N < B @ = C G DU W U C „ P@@ = C L @ MU ƒ O c C L @ = C#@ =†K B L PL =< = C B <
N < M L< c B@ G @?B ƒ K d D< C L O =Ñ\ pZ · ä _ Z S @ H L,@ U CTO U U L c B @?@ =T M @ =< = C@ =yH O PT C @5B @ U
H O = C M < L = C U@ U,L = C M O G D L C @ UT< M#B ƒ O =G D B @ D M@ = C M @B @H L M H D L C#5H O D M < = C#H O = C L = DŠ@ C U <
H ‡< M J @ Z
g(L =U L ` @ =†U D T TO U < = C d D @B ƒ O =G D B @ D M@ U C#D =†U W U C „ P@ = O = E G L U U L T< C L … ` B <T D L U E
U < =H @#U O =5@ = C M K @@ U C(K J < B @# B < T D L U U < =H @# U < U O M C L @ X
\ pZ · Á _
IDC .U = uC .i
Ú
Y Q ® Z PGŠ Y U#V R Uõó ‹ õ R Œ [ Z P U#V ·n Ï
S O P P@ @ U CD = @J M < =G @ D MU L = DU O § G < B @ ` B <YH O = C M L c D C L O =†‡< M P O = L d D @5G D
uC
H O D M < = C ` @ =C @ M P @YG @?T D L U U < =H @Y< H C L N @ ` @ U C= D B B @ ` @ CU @ D B @YU O =H O P TAO U < = C @
… O =G < P @ = i C < B @ L = C @ M N L @ = C Z;(„ U#B O M U ` H @ C C @M @ B < C L O =ŠT@ D C ˆ C M @M K K H M L C @5H O PP @
i1
U D L C#X
\ pZ n o _
IDC .U = uC .i1 = UCef f .Ief f .cosϕ = uCd .id
O €ŠX
‚ @ U C(B < N < B @ D M(@ ŒH < H @#G @B <#C @ =U L O =?G @#U O M C L @G @#B ƒ O =G D B @ D M `
UCef f
‚ @ U C(B < N < B @ D M6@ ŒH < H @#G D?H O D M < = C(G @ U O M C L @#G @B ƒ O =G D B @ D M `
Ief f
‚ @ U C6B @G K T ‡< U < J @,@ = C M @B <#… O =G < P@ = C < B @G @,B <C @ =U L O = @6C B <#… O =G < E
ϕ UC
P @ = C < B @#G D?H O D M < = C
 Z ef f

^ <#C @ =U L O =5 B ƒ @ = C M K @ G I@efB ƒ fO =G D B @ D M(T@ D C,< B O M U6U ƒ @ ‚ T M L P @ MX

uCd .id \ pZ n · _


U=
IDC
O €5@ =H O M @ ` H O PT C @C @ = DYG @\ pZ ·  _ X
r
16 2
u Cd . I − i2q
π 2 DC \ pZ n n _
U=
IDC
^ @PO G „ B @H O = C L = Š D K d D L N < B @ = C G D†U W U C „ P @@ = C L @ M#@ U C#O c C @ = DŠ@ =†H O P c L =< = C
\ pZ · · _ ` \ pZ ·  _ ` \ pZ · ä _ @ C#\ pZ n n _ Z g(L =U LAB ƒ K N O B D C L O =5G D?U W U C „ P @@ U C,G O = = K @T< M#X
 µr ¶
duCd 1 16 I 2 − i2 − i
 = Leqd − iTd
dt C π 2 DC q




diLeqd
 ³ ´
1 u − R .i


 = Leq C eq L + ω.L eq .i L
dt

 d eqd eqq

diLeqq

 ³ ´


= 1 u − R .i − ω.L .i
C eq L eq L



 dt Leq q eq q eq d

 iL T d ³
1 u − R .i
´
= T LTd + ω.LT .iLTq \ pZ n  _


dt LT ³ C d

iL T q 1 u − R .i
´
 = LT Cq T L − ω.L .i
T LT d


 dt µ √Tq
π2


 IDC = 6 3 ecosα − 6ωls I −
π π DC

dt Lf π 2 + 36ls



 r 
16 2


 2

 u Cd I − iq 
π 2 DC



 −Rf .IDC − I

DC

 

<N@H Z » == O C @ M <#d D @#H @ U0K d D< C L O =U6H O M M @ U TAO =G @ = C6
= U W iU qC „ =P ω.C.u
D ? d
@ = iC(L= O = +E B iL =LK < L M @ Z
@#… O M C @CP+ Tq eqq
·nä ÔX X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ

1.67
1.33
1.33
1
1

0.67 0.67

0.33 0.33

u [PU]
u [PU]

0 0

C
C

-0.33 -0.33

-0.67 -0.67
-1
-1
-1.33
-1.67
-1.67
0 0.5 1 1.5 0.46 0.48 0.5 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.58 0.6 0.62 0.64
temps [s] temps [s]

a) b)

Ž   ‘ ’ “?» • –³ž œ ¦   ¤ ‘ “?š “?¢ ¦?˜ “ œ   £ œGš “?™ ¦ ˜ ¡ œ ¦  ’ “ uC

1.4

1.2

0.8
[PU]
DC
I

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.5 1 1.5
temps [s]

Ä Å Æ Ç È ÉXW Ë KÍ|{ D Ö Ï ÕÅ F Ç É%A ÇGÐ Ø Ç È Ï Ö × IDC

÷#ø ù"   ø ù"Ê ];ø ÿÊ 2)ø  ø ÿ ÿ ø  ÿþ øû    ø ý ø;û    ÿ ø ø  ÿ=þ &    ø
þ ù & ù ÿ  ø  ÿ ø  8   øù   ý ÿ   þ ú ÿ  ý ý ú øù   ÿý
ý     ÿ ü ø;þ ú û   ÿ
û ü   ÿ  øÆø ÿ Gý ø þ  ý øû   ÿ  
ú   ý ø  ÿ* Ê 3 Æ - 7 )ù=ý ø ùGþ ø 
û ù /
û  )ù  þ ú  ú  ø   ÿ   þ ø;ý   ù ù )û ø û ÿ  ø )ù   )ú ø ý û ü   øþ ø Î ) }
  ùþ ø ò 3 Î }!
(% ø !)ø ÿý ø;û  )ù ÿ ÿ ø   ý þ &    ø;þ ù & ù ÿ  øGø ù ÿ"  ø + ø    þ  ÿ ø
 Gý ø þ  ý øû   ÿ   8    ù ú )÷ 9ù ø ý øþ  )ø  ø )û ø     ÿ 8 þ  ý øþ ú 
ÿ  ý ý ú/ø ù ÿý
)ù ø )û ø/þ ø ù   ÿ   )ùþ ø ù  )þ ø  ùþ ø ù 8û   ÿ ÿ   )ùþ ø ù
 ÿ ø    ÿ ø  ù 
Ö Y öö[ U#Q P=U#Y U ‰ Z R Uó [ R T PX#[ TT P V Y õ TGQ-ˆ ó V [ V ·nÁ
“9^ “•u ! 8-#"$5&i"!#"9b   ".(# 1& 4 #1)1&6!#51)$a .6

^ # @ U W U C „ P @#GAƒ < B L P@ = C < C L O =?G @#B <H < C K =< L M @#G @ >([,)\ TO D M,B @ d D @ BD =5P OG „ B @
H O = C L = D5K d D L N < B @ = C6@ U C,G O = = KT< M#\ pZ n  _ _ G O L C6ˆ C M @#H < T< c B @X
‚ GAƒ < U U D M @ M6D = @#N < B @ D M(@ ŒH < H @#H O =U C < = C @#G @B <#C @ =U L O =5G @ U O M C L @ uC `
‚ GAƒ < U U D M @ MYB <yH O =G L C L O =½G @H O PP#D C < C L O =ÉTO D MŠB ƒ O =G D B @ D MYT L B O C KT< MŠB <
H ‡< M J @ `
‚ GAƒ < U U D M @ M6D = @#… M K d D @ =H @#H O =U C < = C @TO D M(B <#C @ =U L O = uC `
‚ GAƒ < U U D M @ M6D = @#… O M P @#GAƒ O =G @#d D< U L E U L = DU O § G < B @TO D M,H @ C C @C @ =U L O =Z
L =G K TA@ =G < PP @ = CG @ U6N < M L < C L O =U6G @#H ‡< M J @ Z
aO D MD = @?H @ M C < L = @5T D L U U < =H @?< cU O M cK @5T< MB <ŠH ‡< M J @ ` B <YC @ =U L O = ŠU @ U
cAO M = @ U@ U C(G K T@ =G < = C @G @,B <N < B @ D M(G DH O D M < = C Z gyU O =C O D M ` B <#N < B u@ D CM(G @H @
IDC
H O D M < = CG K T@ =G @ M <B <C @ =U L O = @ =YU O M C L @ G DY M @ G M @ U U @ D Md D L@ U C… O =H C L O =YG @
B ƒ < = J B @G @ M @ C < M G B ƒ < P O M ¶ < J @ G @ U,C ‡ W M L U C O M U ZA;,< =UH @ UH O =G L C L O =U,L B6U @ P#c B @
UDC
< U U @ =< C D M @ BG @ H αO = C M ë B @ M(B < N < B @ D M(@ ŒH < H @#G @#B < C @ =U L O = @ =?< J L U U < = C(U D M,B @
HOD M<= C N L < B ƒ < = J B @ G @M @ C < M G5#B ƒ < PO M ¶ < J @G @ U(C ‡ W M uL CU C O M U Z
IDC α
^ @ U0C M O L U0G @ M = L „ M @ U… O =H C L O =U0d D @,B @H O = C M ë B @,G O L C0M @ P T B L M\ H O =G L C L O =G @H O P E
P D C < C L O =ŠTAO D M#B ƒ O =G D B @ D M ` … M K d D @ =H @5G @B <5C @ =U L O =†G @5U O M C L @H O =U C < = C @@ C#D = @
C @ =U L O = d D< U L E U L = DU O § G < B @ _ N O = C,G @#T< L M Z g(L =U L ` U LAB @ U,H O PP#D C < C L O =U,G @B ƒ O = E
G D B @ D MU uO C= C,< U U D M K @ U\ B <P L U @#@ =YH O =G DH C L O =YGAƒ D = @#T< L M @ G @#C ‡ W M L U C O M U6@ = C M < ‹ = @
B <H O P P D C < C L O = » bbG @ B ƒ < D C M @ T< L M @G @ C ‡ W M L U C O M U _ B <C @ =U L O = U @ M <d D< U L E
U L = DU O § G < B @ Z uC

aO D M6d D @,B @ U0H O P P D C < C L O =UT D L U U @ = C6U ƒ @ Ž@ H C D @ M6=< C D M @ B B @ P@ = C ` L B… < D C6d D @,B <
H ‡< M J @< T T< M < L U U @,C O D V O D M U6H O P P@H < T< H L C L N @ ` < D C M @ P@ = C(G L C(d D @B <#C @ =U L O =
U O L C G K T ‡< U K @@ =Š< M M L „ M @G D†H O D M < = C O DY@ =H O M @d D @B @H O D M < = C U O L C#TO U LuC CL …
i iq
< DP O P@ = C5G @?B <ŠH O P P D C < C L O =Z S @ H L,@ U CTO U U L c B @?@ =PO G L ‰< = CB <YN < B @ D MG @
B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @(K d D L N < B @ = C @,G D> S jG @,… < ¶ O =#H @,d D @ H O PT@ =U @(B @ UN < M L < C L O =U
G @6B ƒ L =G DH C < =H @6G @6B <,H ‡< M J @ Z I B … < D C= O C @ MB @6… < L Cd LD eq@0B <6N < B @ D MG @6B <(M K U L U C < = H @
G @6H @ C C @6L =G DH C < =H @(U @ M <6LPTO G L ‰ K @6G < =UAB @0Pˆ P@0M < T TAO M Cd D @6B <(N < B @ D MG @
Req
\ B @#M < T TO M C @ U CH O =U C < = C _ ZA;,< =U,H @ H < U ` B < N < M L < c B @ G @ H O P P< =LG eq@
τ p Leq í Req
U@M< · Z
í Leq
^ @ U,N < M L < c B @ U,H O = C M ë B @ M,U O = CG O =HB <C @ =U L O = \ O D?T B DU,T M K H L U K P @ = CU <
N < B @ D M#@ ŒH < H @ _ ` @ C#B <N < B @ D M G @B <?H O PTO U < = C @ uG CD†H O D M < = C @ =†d D< G M < C D M @ d

< N @ H,B < C @ =U L O = Z S @ U(N < M L < c B @ U(U @ M O = C,H O = C M ë B iK q@ U6M @ U T@ H C L N @ P i @ = C,@ =?< J L U U < = C
U D M(B @ U(< = J B @ U(G @M @ C < M G B ƒ < P O M ¶ < J @G @ U6C ‡ W M L U C O M U6G D5M @ G M @ U U @ D M6@ C(G D?> S j#Z
uC

^ <,T M L =H L T< B @(G L ŒH D B C Kd D @(B ƒ O = N <,M @ =H O = C M @ MM K U L G @,G < =UB <,= O = E B L = K < M L C K(G @
B ƒ K d D< C L O =YGAƒ K N O B D C L O =YG DŠU W U C „ P @?\ pZ n  _ @ C#< DY… < L Cd D @B @ UU O M C L @ UG DŠU W U C „ P@
= @G @ T@ =G @ = C6T< U0G L M @ H C @ P @ = C(G @ U0N < M L < c B @ U0G @H O PP< =G @ Z l0=5GAƒ < D C M @ UC @ M P@ U `
·o ÔX X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ

u Système non- x y
linéaire Fonction linéaire

Ä Å Æ Ç È ÉXW Ë Ê â?ÍW Ð Ñ Ó Õ=Ï%Þ Ô Ø Ð%A ÇGÒ D Ò × ô ÕÉ


ý
ú   ÿ   /* Ê 3 Æ -ù
ú û   ÿù  )ùý #   ø5
ẋ = f (x) + g(x).u
* Ê 3 Ê -
 ',5
6 ø ù ÿý ø ø û ÿ ø =þ
ú ÿ ÿ5 x ~ * u i i i i I )t 
6
x
ø ù ÿ  ø#  )û ÿ   +    ý   ú C  øGþ Lø;ý  L    Lý ø x  L DC
d eqd eqq Td Tq

6 ø ù ÿý û   )þ ø   ý   ú ø /ù & ù ÿ  ø  u ~ * û  ù α Leq )t 


f (x)

6
u
ø ù ÿ  ø#  )û ÿ   /ý   ú   ø;þ øGý     ý ø ù x 
÷#ø ø û ÿ ø  y þ ø ù    ý ø ù;þ ø/ù   ÿ  ø9ø ù ÿ  ø!#  )û ÿ   ý   ú   ø9þ ø9ý
ú ÿ ÿþ
g(x)
ù & ù ÿ  ø!5
y = (uC ω.C.uC + iL + iL )t
* Ê 3 Î -
÷#ø;ù & ù ÿ  ø)ø ÿ=þ  )û; ÿ  ø;þ ú û   ÿ ý ø;ù û ü ú   ý  û;þ øGý    øÊ  ) 
d d eqq Tq

=$ -û øù & ù ÿ  ø"  ÿ  ý  ù ø  ý ø ùÿ ø û ü    ø ùþ øý   ú   ù ÿ      ø ÿ  -þ
ú ÿ ÿ 
þ   ÿý ø   )û  )øGø ù ÿý ø;ù   ÿ0 . ý  2 2  4"5
6  þ ú   øû ü û  øþ ø ùGù   ÿ  ø ù yi * ú ý ú ø  ÿ ù;þ 8 ø û ÿ ø  y -  ÿ  ÿGþ ø#   ù
 ø" ú û ø ù ù   ø O )ù 
=û ø
  )ù  øþ ø ù-û   ù  ÿ ø ùþ  ø û ÿ ø ?þ ø ù
û  ! )þ ø ù"     ù ù ø  Í   ÿ  ø  ÿ"  ý ø ø  ÿ"  ø=ú   ÿ   9þ ø=ý #   ø5

d(r1 ) y1

dtr1
* Ê 3  -
 

 d(r2 ) y2 

 dtr2  = A(x) + B(x).u
...
 
 
d(rn ) yn
 
dtrn
6 ù #ý  ÿ   û ø B(x) ø ù ÿ  ø  ù   ý ø   !     ù ø 
   ÿ ø ø ýû  
  ÿ ø ø  ÿ=þ &    ø /ù   ÿ  ø ùþ ù & ù ÿ  ø   ø  ø  ý ø5

d(r1 ) y1
= ν1

dtr1


* Ê 3 9 -

 d(r2 ) y2


= ν2
dtr2


 ...
(r )

 d nr yn = ν


n
dt n
Ö Y öö[ U#Q P=U#Y U ‰ Z R Uó [ R T PX#[ TT P V Y õ GT Q-ˆ ó V [ V · ·

v u Système non- x y
B-1 (x).[- A(x) + v] Fonction linéaire
linéaire

retour d'état Système linéaire

Ž   ‘ ’ “?» • ” ”-–À  œ ¡ ¦ ’   ¦ ˜  £ œGš › ‘ œ= ž  ˜ Ÿ  “-œ £ œ ´ ¢  œ ¡ ¦  ’ “-¥ ¦ ’’ “ ˜ £ ‘ ’-š › ¡ ˜ ¦ ˜


@ =5L PTO U < = C,H O PP @ H O PP< =G @ X
u
\ pZ n ä _
u = B −1 (x).[−A(x) + ν]
O€ @ U C D =ŠN @ H C @ D M H O B O = = @5G O = C#B @ U#K B K P @ = C UU O = C ` · ` ZZZ` Z » Š = Oc E
P νjP< j=p G @ @ C B n<YU O M C L @
C L @ = νC< L =U L(D = @5M @ B < C L O =†B L = K < L M @@ = C M @5B <?= O D N @ B B @?H O 
ν y
\ ‰ J D M @pZ · · _ Z

lg lg fúù


s?{n u ?x l8|=l8x wIv-w-x lt=u
l=€ym#w-m#lI|=l8x wIn l{=q o s?{C|=lIq s?u n o l
a0D L U d D @#B <C @ =U L O = =ƒ <T< U,G @H O PTO U < = C @ GAƒ < ‚ @ \ _ ` B <N < B @ D M
@ Œ H < H @?G @?H @ C C @?C @ =U L O u=†C @ U CT M O TO M C L O = = @ B B @5ŠU <YH O P TAOq U < u= CC @5= GAƒ < 0‚ @ \ _ Z
q

^ < C @ =U L O = = @ G @ T@ =G?GAƒ < DH D = @ G @ U(N < M L < c B @ U(G @ H O P P< =G @\ O D d uC _ Z d

S @ C C @C @ =U L O u=Š


C
d
G O L Cˆ C M @G K M L N K @#V DU d Dƒ ?H @d Dƒ D = @G @ UN < M L < c B @ UG α@H O P 1/L P< =eqG @
< T T< M < L U U @ Z g(T M „ U(G @ D ‚5G K M L N < C L O =U6O =5O c C L @ = C#X

d2 u Cd 96 3.IDC .e uC 1 \ pZ n Á _
2
= 2 .cosα − d . + B1 (x)
dt π(π Lf + 36ls ).C.id C Leq

³ 2 2
´
B1 (x) = − 16 6ωls IDC
+ Rf
IDC
+ u Cd +
2 π id id
(π Lf + 36ls ).C

i
³ ´
+ C.iq 2ωiLeqd + 2ωiLTd + τ1 iLeqq + 1
τ T iL T q −
d
³ ´ ³ ´
ω i +i
+C 1 iLeqd + iLTd 1 u
q Leqq + iTq + C τ τT − C.L Cd
T

» =YH O =U C < C @#d D @#B @ U,G @ D ‚5N < M L < c B @ U(G @ H O P P< = G @#U O = C(T M K U @ = C @ U,G < =U(B ƒ @ ‚ E
T M @ U U L O =5G @#B <G @ D ‚ L „ P@#G K M L N K @#G @B < C @ =U L O = Z
u Cd
·n X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ ô=Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
ÔX
lg lg ©¯ù
s?{n u ?x le|=löx wöm#s?{=|=o n o s?{ |=lm#s%SUSCtn wn o s?{
; @,Pˆ P@d D @(TAO D M0B <C @ =U L O =
( ` B <#H O P TO U < = C @ = @G K T @ =GG L M @ H C @ P @ = C
l =< T T B L d D< = CB <,Pˆ i
GAƒ < DH D = @,N < M L < c B @(G @H O PP< =G @ Z 0uC d
P q @(C @ H ‡ = L d D @ ` < T M „ UG @ D ‚
G K M L N < C L O =U ` O =5C M O D N @X

d 2 iq 96 3.ω.IDC .e 1 \ pZ  o _
2
= 2 .cosα − 2.ω.uCd + B2 (x)
dt π(π Lf + 36ls ).id Leq

³ 2 2
´
B2 (x) = − 16 6ωls IDC
+ Rf
IDC
+ u Cd +
(π 2 Lf + 36ls ).C π id id

ω.i
³ ´
+ i q 2ωiLeqd + 2ωiLTd + τ1 iLeqq + 1
τ T iL T q −
d
³ ´ ³ ´
i iLTd
−ω 2 iq + iLeqq + iTq + 3ω Leqτ
d
+ τT +

+ 12 iLeqq + 12 iLTq − L
2ω u
Cd
τ τT T
S @ C C @M @ B < C L O =PO = C M @#d D 
@ B <G @ D ‚ L „ P @#G K M L N K @#G @B <H O PTO U < = C @ G K T@ =G
iq
G @ U(G @ D ‚N < M L < c B @ U(G @#H O = C M ë B @ Z

lg lg ‰¥Òn u t=m)n t=u lm#s%Sr=x ½)n le|=löx wöm#s%SUSw-{=|=l


^ @ U0M @ B < C L O =U6\ pZ n Á _ @ C,\ pZ  o _ T@ D N @ = C0ˆ C M @(K H M L C @ U0U O DUD = @,… O M P @,P< C M L H L @ B B @
H O P P@#U D L C @X
 
d2 cosα \ pZ  · _
µ ¶
u Cd
= A(x).  1  + B(x)
dt2 iq
Leq
O€ @ U C(D = @P< C M L H @#H < M M K @X
A(x)
 √ 
96 3.IDC .e u Cd
 π(π 2 L + 36l ).C.i − C 
 f s d 
A(x) =  
 √ 
96 3.ω.IDC .e
 
−2.ω.uCd
π(π 2 Lf + 36ls ).id
@C
µ ¶
B1 (x)
B(x) =
B2 (x)
^ @ UC @ H ‡ = L d D @ U5G @?B L = K < M L U < C L O =@ = C M K @?EU O M C L @?T< MM @ C O D 5 M GAƒ K C < 
C T@ D N @ = C
U ƒ < T T B L d D @ M,U LA@ C(D = L d D @ P@ = C U LB < P< C M L H @ @ U C,M K J D B L „ M @ Z m O =?G K C @ M P L =< = C
A(x)
Ö Y öö[ U#Q P=U#Y U ‰ Z R Uó [ R T PX#[ TT P V Y õ GT Q-ˆ ó V [ V ·
@ U C#X

96 3.e.ω.IDC .uCd \ pZ  n _
det(A) =
π(π 2 Lf + 36ls ).C.id
@ C(L B@ U C(= O = E = D BU L0X
‚ ω 6= o
‚ uC 6= o
‚ IDC 6= o
d

^ <ŠT M @ PL „ M @ŠH O =G L C L O =@ U C?< D C O P< C L d D @ P @ = C5U < C L U … < L C @YT< M5B <H O P P< =G @
G @ŠB ƒ O =G D B @ D M Z m L#B @YTAO L = C?G @Š… O =H C L O = = @ P @ = C5@ U C?T M O H ‡ @ŠG DyTO L = C5= O PL =< B `
`O€ @ U C0B <,N < B @ D M0@ ŒH < H @,G @(M K … K M @ =H @,G @,B <C @ =U L O =G @,H < C K E
uC p uC uC
=< L M @
d dref
\ d D L@ U C,U C M L H C @ P @ = C(TO U L C L N @ _ Z l0=?T M K U @ =H @#G D?M K J D B < C @ D M(G @ H O D M < = C `
dref

iq p iq
uC
` O€
iq
·yo @ U C(B <#N < B @ D M,G @M K … K M @ =H @TO D M(B @ H O D M < = C i \ H O =G L C L O =
q
G @H O PP#D C < C L O =YG @B ƒ O =G D B @ D M _ Z S O PP @ p q 2 2 ` H @H O D M < = CU @ M <
ref ref

U C M L H C @ P @ = C TO U L C L … Zg(DG K P< M M < J @5H @ U H O =DC


I p í π i +i
G L C L O =U#= @?U O d= C Tq< U#= K H @ U U < L M @ P @ = C
U < C L U … < L C @ U6X @ = o ` o@ C o Z ^ @,G K P< M M < J @(U @ M <,< B O M U… < L C@ = cAO DH B @
tp uC p IDC p
O D N @MC@ Z
aO D MD =… O =H C L O = = @ P @ = C5< D C O D M5G @YB <ŠC @ =U L O == O P L =< B @ ` B @ UN < M L < c B @ UG @
H O P P< =G @\ H O U @ C · _ TA@ D N @ = C(ˆ C M @#H < B H D B K @ UX
α í Leq
\ pZ   _
à !
cosα
· µ ¶ ¸
ν1
1 = A−1 (x). − B(x)
Leq ν2
O D5@ =H O M @ X

π(π 2 Lf + 36ls ).C.id π(π 2 Lf + 36ls ).id


 
  √ − √
cosα 
 48 3.e.IDC 3.ω.IDC 

 1 = 



Leq  C 1 

u Cd ω.uCd
· µ ¶ ¸
ν1
. − B(x)
ν2
O€ @C U O = C6B @ U(N < B @ D M,U O D ‡< L C K @ U6TO D M 2 2 @ C 2Z
l = D C νL B 2L U < = C0D =H O M M @ H C @ D Ma6;O =T@ D C0L PdTuO CU @ M0í dt
#H @ UN d< M L i< qc í Bdt@ U ` T< M0@ ‚ @ P T B @ `
2
ν1
0 d

D = @ G W =< P L d D @#G @#U @ H O =GO M G M @#G @B <#… O M P@X


 2
d u Cd duCd
 dt2 = D1 dt + P1 .uCd = ν1

\ pZ  p _

2
 d iq = D2 diq + P2 .iq = ν2



dt2 dt
·p ÔX X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
B1(x)
uCdmeas x
- -
uCdref n1 cosa uCd
Correcteur
+ PD +
A-1(x) Système
iqref n2 1/L eq
Correcteur
+
-
PD +
-
iq
iqmeas B2(x)
x

Ž   ‘ ’ “-» • ” °–— ™ ¹ ¡  =¦º ¢ £ ™-š ‘G™ £ œ ˜ ’ ¼ ¢ “?¥ £ ‘ ’¢ “- ž  ˜ Ÿ  “-¥ ’ £ ¥ £  ¡


S @ H L H O =G D L C< DU H ‡ K P<,c B O H6G @6B <(‰ J D M @6pZ · n Z a0< MB <(C @ H ‡ = L d D @,G @6T B < H @ P@ = C
D1 = 150

G @ U6Të B @ U ` O =5< O c C @ = D5B @ U6N < B @ D M U6U D L N < = C @ UX


P1 = 29000

 D2 = 30


P2 = 1000

“9^ ÷    !#"%$& 8'!#  !#" 4 1! 4 !#'.(&
;,< =UB @Yc D C?G @YN < B L G @ M5B ƒ < M H ‡ L C @ H C D M @ŠG @ŠH O = C M ë B @YT M O TO U K @ ` = O DUB ƒ < N O =U
L P T B < = C K#G < =U0B ƒ < B J O M L C ‡ P @G @#U L P D B < C L O =T M O TO U K< D5H ‡< T L C M @  Z ^ @#U H ‡ K P< G D
U W U C „ P @ U L P#D B K#@ U C(T M K U @ = C K#U D M(B < ‰ J D M @,pZ ·  Z
» =<#G ƒ< L =U LH M K @ M0D =c B O H(G K G L H < H K< D ‚ P@ U D M @ U@ C6< D ‚H < B H D B U0G @ U0H O P TO E
U < = C @ U(@ =5T ‡< U @@ C(@ =Yd D< G M < C D M @#< N @ HB < C @ =U L O = \ B @ U,H O PTO U < = C @ U(GAƒ < ‚ @
M @ U T@ H C L N @ P @ = C _ Z ^ @ UN < B @ D M U@ ŒH < H @ UG @ UJ M < =G @ D uM CUU O = C0H < B H D B K @ UA@ = D C L B L U < = dC
D = @PO W @ = = @J B qL U U < = C @U D M#D = @TK M L O G @ ` @ =Š… < L U < = C#B ƒ ‡ W TO C ‡ „ U @5d D @C O D C @ UB @ U
J M < =G @ D M U6U O = C(U L = DU O § G < B @ U Z
aO D M(B <U L P#D B < C L O =5= O DU(< N O =U(H O =U L G K M K d D @B @#U W U C „ P @ G K P< M M @@ =5cAO DH B @
O D N @ M C @ Z ^ <T M O H @ G D M @G @G K P< M M < J @ @ U C G K H M L C @5B <?U @ H C L O =YpZ n Z · Z n Za@ =G < = C
B <ŠT ‡< U @ŠG @ŠG K P< M M < J @?= O DU5< N O =UH O =U L G K M KYd D @YB <†H ‡< M J @?@ U C5G K H O = = @ H C K @
\ o_Z
iT p
;(„ U,d D @#B @ H O D M < = C < C C @ L = C(D = @ N < B @ D M,K J < B @ U < N < B @ D M(= O PL =< B @ ` D = @
IDC
T< L M @#G @ U6C ‡ W M L U C O M U6G @B ƒ O =G D B @ D M(@ U C,< P O M H K @,@ C(B <#C @ =U L O = < T T< M < ‹ C Z gÑH @ C
uC
L =U C < = C(B @#H O = C M ë B @ D M6TA@ D C(ˆ C M @#G K P< M M K Z
F(O DU< N O =UA< DU U L H O =U L G K M K6d D @ ` U L P#D B C < = K P@ = C< N @ HB @6G K P< M M < J @0G D H O = C M ë E
B @ D M ` D = @(H ‡< M J @0T D M @ P@ = CM @ U L U C L N @ \ H O M M @ U TO =G < = C(B <(T D L U U < =H @6= O P L =< B @ _
ZT
@ U C(T M K U @ = C @#U D M(B <H < C K =< L M @ Z
g(T M „ U0o `  B <#H ‡< M J @,G @ N L @ = C0c M DU d D @ P @ = C6M K < H C L N @ ` < N @ H6D =… < H C @ D M6G @,T D L U E
s
Ù R
ö õ Z [ V R Y U
Q PZ [ô Y Z õ V R Y U9X)T Y X-Y ô ó P ·¿

IDC Lf Rf
n1
T14 T16
T1 T2 T3 i
iT
T13
L
T4 T5 T6 C RT
n2 UDC uC R
T7 T8 T9 RT
Cs
Rs
T10 T11 T12 T15 T17
n2Ö3

Contrôle du circuit Contrôle de


Contrôle du TCR
de démarrage l’onduleur

Contrôle de l’angle - w A-1(x)


A-1(x)
- Mesures et calcul
d’amorçage des composantes
+
dans les axes d - q

Correcteur Correcteur + - B2(x)


PD PD

uCref + - iqref + -

B1(x)

Ä Å Æ Ç È ÉXW Ë Ê ¾?ÍW Ð Ñ Ó Õ=Ï"Þ Ô Ø Ð$A Ç=Ò D Ò × ô ÕÉ-Ò Å ÕÇ Ô Ó


ù )û ø cosϕT ~ )  9/* û ø+ û    ø ù  )þ/+ 8þ ú  ü ù  øø  ÿ  ø uC ø ÿ iT ú  ý"
π
Ê -%!  ù ø û  ø )ú þ )û ø Z  )û ü   ú ø* ú  ý ø Z - 
 ý
 )ù ÿ  ÿ t ~ )   s ý /û ü   øþ ø  ø  ÿ;þ ø  ø 8T ø ù  ù ÿ  ø  ùGû ø ÿ ÿ ø#   ù
û    ø ù  )þ  ÿ;ý     ù ù )û ø    ý ø* Z ~ 3 Z - 
 ý
 )ù ÿ  ÿ )  2   )ùû  )ù  þ ú   )ù øý û ü   øþ ø  ø  ÿ9þ ø8  ø
 ú û ÿ  ø  ÿ  O  t ù"~ ø ûs +# û ÿ ø =þ ø  ù ù )û ø cosϕ ~ )  9Gø ÿ=þ
 )ú þ )û ø Z
~ 3  Z T ý ø ø  ÿ ý
 )ù ÿ  ÿ
T

  3 s  øû ü   ø
þ
 #ú þ )û ø Z "  ø ø  ÿ
 )þ )û ÿ  øGø ù ÿ=û  )ù  þ ú  ú ø  t ~ T

. ;ý +   ø!Ê  Ê8  )ù  )ù ø    ùGý


ú  ý ÿ   8þ ø9ý + ý ø ;ø ûû û ø/þ ø9ý
ÿ ø )ù    u þ ø9û ÿ ú    øø ÿþ øý ! ý ø Gø ûû û øþ øý /û   ù  ÿ ø i * ø ,  
þ  ÿ  ø! C ø ûû ø ÿ ÿ øÿ ø )ù   -;þ 8û    ÿ i /ý ù   ÿ  ø9þ ø9ý
 )þ ý ø q ;ÿ  ÿ ø
ý
ú  ý ÿ   /þ ø;ý û ü   ø  ú ù ø  ÿ ú ø;û   þ ø ù ù )ù 
=% ø    ø ø  ÿ    )ù  )ù" )ù ø  ø  ø )þ   ÿ=ý ø ù"  ø    ø ù"   ÿ   )ù
þ ø;ý û ü   ø  ý ø ù=þ ø !    ý ø ù"  ú ù ø  ÿ ø  ÿ  ø;ø   ø =ù ÿ ÿ   ø!* þ
ø     , Î }
  Gý 9ÿ ø )ù    u ø ÿÆ Î }m ;ý ø9û    ÿ i - $(?ø û "
ø ù ÿ ùGÿ   ù ;   ÿGø ÿ
#ø ÿ; ÿ  øGø   ý   úC ý
)ù ø )û ø;þ
/ÿ ø  ø  qÿ ú   ýþ )ùý
ø    ø ù ù   /* Ê Æ Ê - 
7ø    ø ø  ÿ  ý   ùþ ø ù"   ÿ   )ù%  ÿ ý ø ùþ ø ù"   ÿ  ø ùþ øGý û ü   ø  ý
ý ø =ø ûû û øþ ø;ý ÿ ø )ù   
þ øû ÿ ú    øù   ÿ9ù  ÿ  Gþ ø ù   ÿ   )ù ù ù ø <
·Ò ÔX X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
1.5 1.5

1 1
UC [PU]

Iq [PU]
0.5 0.5

0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
temps [s] temps [s]

a) b)

Ž   ‘ ’ “?» • ” »–{ ² £ ¢ ‘ ˜  £ œG¦  ´)š “-¢ ¦² ¦ ¢ “ ‘ ’“ ™ ¦ ™ “?š “?¢ ¦?˜ “ œ   £ œGš “?™ ¦ ˜ ¡ œ ¦  ’ ““ ˜º  ´)š ‘=™ £ ‘ ’ ¦ œ ˜
i q
€ ¥ £ ‘ ’‘ œ “-™ ¹ ¦ ’  “?² ¦ ’  ¦ º ¢ “-’ ¦ ¥  š “ ~  £ š Ÿ ¢ “-š   ™ ’ “ ˜ 

L P TAO M C < = C @ U\ G @#B ƒ O M G M @#G @#p o ‚½G @B <#N < B @ D M(= O P L =< B @ _ Z
a0D L U d D @6B @ UAN < M L < C L O = UAc M D C < B @ UG @ UAT< M < P „ C M @ UGAƒ D = @(H ‡< M J @0C @ B B @(d Dƒ D =#C M < L =
T< M < L U U @ = CT@ D M K < B L U C @ U ` = O DU< N O =UM @ … < L CB <U L P#D B < C L O = TAO D M0B <,Pˆ P@(K N O B D C L O =
G @ B <H ‡< M J @ ` H @ C C @#… O L U(@ =YH O =U L G K M < = C,d D @#B @ U,T< M < P„ C M @ U(G @ B <H ‡< M J @N < M L @ = C
G < =U,G @ D ‚TK M L OG @ U(G @B <#C @ =U L O =?G @#H < C K =< L M @#U O L C6p o#PU Z
m D M#B <5‰ J D M @pZ · ¿ = O DU#< N O =UM @ T M L UB ƒ K N O B D C L O =†G @B <5N < B @ D M#@ ŒH < H @5G @B <
C @ =U L O = G @H < C K =< L M @ ` G @B <N < B @ D M@ ŒH < H @G @ B <H O P TO U < = C @ G DŠH O D M < = C
uC iq
B <U O M C L @ G @ B ƒ O =G D B @ D M,@ C,B ƒ K N O B D C L O =YG @#B < N < B @ D M,L =U C < = C < = K @G @#B < C @ =U L O =
i
TO D M(D = @#K N O B D C L O =B @ = C @ G @B <H ‡< M J @ Z
uC
aO D M H @ C C @5G @ M = L „ M @K N O B D C L O =ŠB <5N < B @ D M#@ ŒH < H @5G @B <5C @ =U L O =†G @5H < C K =< L M @
T M K U @ = C @C O D V O D M U(G @ U6N < M L < C L O =U6P< L U(d D L ` H @ C C @#… O L U ` M @ U C @ = C(M < L U O = =< c B @ U Z
a0B DUL PTO M C < = C@ U CB @6… < L Cd D @ ` C < = CTAO D MD = @(N < M L < C L O =#c M DU d D @6d D @6TO D MD = @
N < M L < C L O = B @ = C @G @ U0T< M < P„ C M @ U0G @,B < H ‡< M J @ ` B @U W U C „ P@,G @ N L @ = C0L =U C < c B @(B O M U d D @
B <ŠH ‡< M J @5@ U CT D M @ P @ = CM K < H C L N @ Z ^ <ŠU L P#D B < C L O =c< U K @?U D MB @?P O G „ B @YH O = C L = D
K d D L N < B @ = C(=ƒ < T< U(T M K G L CH @ C C @#L =U C < c L B L C K\ B <‰ J D M @#pZ · Ò PO = C M @#B ƒ @ N O B D C L O =?G @
B <C @ =U L O = O c C @ = D @ @ =YD C L B L U < = C#H @ P O G „ B @ ` G < =U,B @H < U,B @ T B DUG K … < N O M < c B @ `
H ƒ @ U C,G L M @uD C= @N < M L < C L O =c M DU d D @ G @ U6T< M < P „ C M @ U6G @B <H ‡< M J @ _ Z
^ <G L Ž@ M @ =H @ GAƒ K N O B D C L O =@ = C M @#B @ U(G @ D ‚P OG „ B @ U6TA@ D C(ˆ C M @#@ ‚ T B L d D K @T< M,B <
T M K U @ =H @#G @ U(M @ C < M G U(G @P @ U D M @@ C,G @#C @ PTU6PO M C UX
‚ B @ U,N < B @ D M U(@ ŒH < H @ UU O = C,O c C @ = D @ U< T M „ U,D = @ L = C K J M < C L O =YG @ U,N < B @ D M U(L =U E
C < = C < = K @ U ` U D M(D =L = C @ M N < B B @K J < BA n#O € @ U C6B <#TK M L O G @#G @ U6J M < =G @ D M U
Tí T
H O =U L G K M K @ U `
‚ B @#H O = C M ë B @@ U C,< T T B L d D K#< T M „ U6D =5C @ PTU6PO M C(K d D L N < B @ = C(G @ T í n p TO D M(B @
Ù R
ö õ Z [ V R Y U
Q PZ [ô Y Z õ V R Y U9X)T Y X-Y ô ó P · Ï
1.2 1.2

1 1

0.8 0.8
UC [PU]

I q [PU]
0.6 0.6

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
temps [s] temps [s]

a) b)

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5
u C [PU]

u C [PU]

0 0

-0.5 -0.5

-1 -1

-1.5 -1.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 0.9 0.905 0.91 0.915 0.92 0.925 0.93 0.935 0.94 0.945
temps [s] temps [s]

c) d)

Ž   ‘ ’ “-» • ” ½-–{ ² £ ¢ ‘ ˜  £ œG¦  ´ š “-¢ ¦-² ¦ ¢ “ ‘ ’#“ ™ ¦ ™ “-š “¢ ¦-˜ “ œ   £ œ=š “-™ ¦ ˜ ¡ œ ¦  ’ “ € º  ´ š ‘™ £ ‘ ’ ¦ œ ˜ €
™  ´ š “¢ ¦-² ¦ ¢ “ ‘ ’# œ  ˜ ¦ œ ˜ ¦ œ ¡ “-š “¢ ¦-˜ “ œ   £ œš “™ ¦ ˜ ¡ œ ¦  ’ “-“ ˜)š  ´ š ¡ ˜ ¦  ¢ š “¢ ¦-˜ “ œ   £ œ=š “-™ ¦ ˜ ¡ œ ¦  ’i“ € q

¥ £ ‘ ’‘ œ “-™ ¹ ¦ ’  “?² ¦ ’  ¦ º ¢ “?¢ “ œ ˜ “ ~  £ š Ÿ ¢ “-š   ™ ’ “ ˜ 


1.5

1
UC [PU]

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5
temps [s]

Ž   ‘ ’ “;» • ” Ï;–{ ² £ ¢ ‘ ˜  £ œ9š “G¢ ¦;² ¦ ¢ “ ‘ ’=“ ™ ¦ ™ “;š “;¢ ¦;˜ “ œ   £ œ9š “G™ ¦ ˜ ¡ œ ¦  ’ “;¥ £ ‘ ’‘ œ “;™ ¹ ¦ ’  “
² ¦ ’  ¦ º ¢ “?’ ¦ ¥  š “ ~  £ š Ÿ ¢ “-™ £ œ ˜  œ ‘G¡ ¤ ‘  ² ¦ ¢ “ œ ˜ 
·ä ÔX X)Z R Š [ V R Y UQ [ UôZ PGŠ [ =ô Q-ˆ õ U#PG[ Z R ö9P U)V [ V R Y U
Q-ˆ õ U#P;Š [ V ó U [ R T P#ÓPKQ
M @ G M @ U U @ D M(G @C ˆ C @@ C pG < =U6B @#H < U(G D?> S j `
l0=ŠT B DU ` G < =U,B @ P O G „ B @H O T= Cí L = DYK d D L N < B @ = C,C O D C @ U,B @ U,J M < =G @ D M U(O = CD = @ K N O E
B D C L O =yU L = DU O § G < B @?@ C5B @ UO =G D B < C L O =UG @ UJ M < =G @ D M UH O = C L = D @ U5U O = C= K J B L J K @ U
\ H O P P@T< M(@ ‚ @ PT B @#H @ B B @ U(G D?H O D M < = C _Z
IDC
aO D M#M @ =G M @B @U W U C „ P@U C < c B @ ` d D @ B d D @ U#U O B D C L O =U,TA@ D N @ = C H @ T@ =G < = C#ˆ C M @
@ = N L U < J K @ U,X
‚ B ƒ D C L B L U < C L O =G @ UN < B @ D M UG @(M K … K M @ =H @6O D = O P L =< B @ UTO D M0H < B H D B @ MB @ UC @ M P @ U
G @ H O PT@ =U < C L O =Š\ \ _ @ C \ _ _ E0N O L M#\ pZ n Á _ @ C#\ pZ  o _
B1 x B2 x
‚ B 
@ G K H O D T B < J
@ G Š
D H O = C M ë B
@ G
@ B 
< C @ =U L O = @ CG DYH O D M < = C @ =?D C L B L U < = C
B @ D M U N < B @ D M UG @?M K … K M @ =H @5TO D M5H < B H D B @ MuCB @ UC @ M P @ U< ŽK M @ = iqC UG @?B <ŠP< E
C M L H @ −1 Z l0=K N L C < = C0B @ UcO DH B @ U0G @(M K < H C L O = M K C M O < H C L N @6B <#U C < c L B L C K,G D
A (x)
U W U C „ P @TA@ D C(ˆ C M @#< D J P@ = C K @ Z
‚ B ƒ D C L B L U < C L O =?GAƒ < D C M @ U6P K C ‡ O G @ U(G @#H O = C M ë B @= O = E B L = K < L M @ `
‚ B ƒ K B L
P L 
= < C L O =†G @ UC @ PTUP O M C U#G DU< D†H O = C M ë B @G D†> S jÉT< MB ƒ D C L B L U < C L O =
GAƒ D = @L =G DH C < =H @#U < C D M < c B @ ` T< M(@ ‚ @ P T B @ Z
‚ ƒ L = C M O G DH C L O =ŠGAƒ D =ŠG @ J M KG @B L c@ M C KU D T T B K P@ = C < L M @ ` T< M@ ‚ @ PT B @B <… M K E
B
d D @ =H @(G @(B <H < C K =< L M @ Z g(L =U LU L H @ C C @(… M K d D @ =H @6T@ D Cˆ C M @6B K J „ M @ P @ = C0U D TAK E
M L @ D M @ ¿ o k( \ L B… < D C0N O L M0@ =H O M @,H @d D LN < D C÷ B K J „ M @ P @ = C ÷ _ B <#H O P P< =G @
G D5> S jU @U L PT B L ‰ @ M < L C0@ C0O =TO D M M < L C0T@ D C0ˆ C M @< C C @ L =G M @(D =… O =H C L O = = @ E
P@ = C,U C < c B @ Z
>AO D C @ U H @ U U O B D C L O =U#= K H @ U U L C @ = C GAƒ ˆ C M @L = N @ U C L J D K @ U#@ C N < B L G K @ U Z ^ ƒ O D C L B(G @
U L P D B < C L O =?T M O TO U K#U @ P c B @#TAO C @ = C L @ B B @ P@ = CT@ M C L = @ = CTO D M,@ Ž@ H C D @ MH @ C C @ N < B L E
G < C L O =ŠX
‚ T< M H @,d Dƒ L BT@ M P @ C6G @(C M < N < L B B @ M6,C O TO B O J L @(‰ ‚ @#\ L BW <L H L · Á L = C @ M M D T C @ D M U
L P T B L d D K U6@ C,G O =HT B DU(G @ ¿ o o o o o#C O TO B O J L @ U0TO U U L c B @ U _ `
‚ T< M H @?d Dƒ L B(T@ M P @ CGAƒ D C L B L U @ MG < =UH ‡< d D @?H O = N @ M C L U U @ D M K B @ H C M O = L d D @5G @
T D L U U < =H @B @P ˆ P @#P OG „ B @#GAƒ L = C @ M M D T C @ D M \ D =5P O G „ B @L G K < B _ Z

“9^ vu !#"/6 5' !#"

;,< =U(H @#H ‡< T L C M @= O DU(< N O =U0T M K U @ = C KD =@ ‚ @ PT B @#GAƒ < T T B L H < C L O =L =G DU C M L @ B B @
G @#B ƒ < B J O M L C ‡ P@G @ U L P#D B < C L O =?G @ U,H L M H D L C U6K B @ H C M L d D @ U6T M O TO U K< D?H ‡< T L C M @  Z
S @ C C @#< T T B L H < C L O = ` H O =U < H M K @,#B ƒ K C DG @#GAƒ D =?U W U C „ P@G @ U C L = K < B L P@ = C @ M(G @ U
H < C K =< L M @ U G @?>([, ` @ U C T< M C L H D B L „ M @T< M B @… < L Cd Dƒ @ B B @… < L C< T TA@ B,?D =†J M < =G
= O P c M @YGAƒ L = C @ M M D T C @ D M U?\ @ =B ƒ @ U T„ H @YG @ UC ‡ W M L U C O M U _ @ C5d D @ ` T< MM < T TO M C< D ‚
< T T B L H < C L O =U< H < G K P L d D @ U ` B @ UM K U D B C < C UG @YU L P#D B < C L O =U = @YU O = CT< UH O = = DU<
T M LO M LZ
a0D L U d D @YB @Y= L N @ < DyG @YT D L U U < =H @YP L U@ =V @ D@ U C?< U U @ YL PTO M C < = CY\ V DU d Dƒ 
Ò o h50g _ ` < N < = CGAƒ ˆ C M @ L PT B < = C K ` H @U W U C „ P@G O L Cˆ C M @#c L @ =ŠH < M < H C K M L U K\ T@ M … O M E
Ö Y U#Š Z õ ô R Y U ·Á
P< =H @ U,G W = < PL d D @ U ` U C < c L B L C K ` ‰< c L B L C K ` @ C H Z Z Z _ Z S @ H LU @#… < L C,GAƒ ‡< c L C DG @#@ =?G @ D ‚
T ‡< U @ U?X0GAƒ < cAO M G†D = @?U L P#D B < C L O =@ C@ =U D L C @?B ƒ L PT B < = C < C L O =GAƒ D = @?P< d D @ C C @?
B ƒ K H ‡ @ B B @M K G D L C @ Z
^ ƒ K H M L C D M @ GAƒ D =?PO G „ B @H O = C L = D?K d D L N < B @ = C<T@ M PL UG @ P@ C C M @#@ =?K N L G @ =H @
B @ U= O = B L = K < M L C K UG DU W U C „ P@ Z S @ T@ =G < = CB ƒ < T T B L H < C L O = G @ UC @ H ‡ = L d D @ UG @6B L = K < M L E
U < C L O = T< MM @ C O D M6GAƒ K C < C0@ U CTO U U L c B @ Z ^ ƒ D C L B L U < C L O =G DP O G „ B @,H O = C L = DK d D L N < B @ = C
TA@ M P @ CGAƒ K C < c B L MD = @< M H ‡ L C @ H C D M @ G @H O P P< =G @ Zl0=YT B DU ` B @ U,T M @ P L „ M @ UU L P#D E
B < C L O =U ` c< U K @ U(U D M,H @PO G „ B @ ` P O = C M @ = C,d D @B @#U W U C „ P@@ U C,U C < c B @ Z
a0D L U d D @†B @†PO G „ B @H O = C L = DÉT M O TO U KŠ= @C L @ = CYT< UYH O PT C @G @ U?N < M L < C L O =U
G @ UJ M < =G @ D M UG D @ U#< D ‚ŠH O P P D C < C L O =U ` D = @G @ D ‚ L „ P @T ‡< U @5G @B <?U L P#D B < C L O =
H O =U L U C @5U L P#D B @ MB <U O B D C L O =?T M O TO U K @#@ =YD C L B L U < = C,D =YPO G „ B @G L U H M @ CGAƒ L = C @ M E
MD T C@D MZ
DŠB @J M < =G?= O P c M @GAƒ L = C @ M M D T C @ D M UT M K U @ = C UG < =UB @H L M H D L C#@ C#B @… < L C#d D @
G < =U#H @ C C @T ‡< U @GAƒ K C DG @O =Š= @H O = =< ‹ CT< U,@ =H O M @ B @ D M UH < M < H C K M L U C L d D @ U \ H < E
B L c M @,@ =H O D M < = C ` @ =C @ =U L O = _ D =P O G „ B @,L G K < BAGAƒ L = C @ M M D T C @ D M6@ U C0T M K … K M < c B @D =
PO G „ B @÷ L PTK G < =H @ ÷ Z l0=T B DU ` H O P P@(O == @H O = =< ‹ C0T< U0<T M L O M LB ƒ K N O B D C L O =G D
U W U C „ P @ ` D = @,L =U C < c L B L C KG D5U W U C „ P @G < =U6H @#G @ D ‚ L „ P@H < U0TO D M M < L C0M @ P @ C C M @,@ =
d D @ U C L O =U O L CB @,U W U C „ P @,B D L E P ˆ P @U O L CB @ U0N < B @ D M U0G @ UL P TK G < =H @ UD C L B L U K @ U0TO D M
PO G K B L U @ M6B ƒ K C < C,G @ U(L = C @ M M D T C @ D M U\ » FyO D » bb _ Z
^ @ U,U L P#D B < C L O =U(D C L B L U < = C,D =5PO G „ B @#T< M … < L CGAƒ L = C @ M M D T C @ D M,PO = C M @ = Cd D @#B @
U W U C „ P @#T@ D CG @ N @ = L M(L =U C < c B @ Z F(O DU,U O PP @ U(G „ U(B O M U6H @ M C < L =U(d D @#B @#T M O c B „ P@
U @5U L C D @5< DŠ= L N @ < DG @B <?M K J D B < C L O =ZAa0B DU L @ D M U#U O B D C L O =U U O = C#@ = N L U < J @ < c B @ U@ C
PK M L C @ = CGAƒ ˆ C M @@ =H O M @L = N @ U C L J D K @ U ` H < M B @5U W U C „ P @@ U C L = C K M @ U U < = C#T< M B @5… < L C
d Dƒ L B6= @5… < L C< T T@ B(d Dƒ YG @ U#C ‡ W M L U C O M U#@ Cd Dƒ @ =M K J L P@L B,< U U D M @5D =†K d D L B L c M @
T< M … < L C5G @ UH O D M < = C UC L M K UG DM K U @ < DC M L T ‡< U K Z ^ ƒ O D C L BG @ŠU L P#D B < C L O =T M O TAO U K
U @ P c B @#c L @ =?< G < T C KTO D M(B @ U6N < B L G @ M Z

Vous aimerez peut-être aussi