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N° 304 - Juin / June 2019

Global
Connections

CIGRE Ordinary General Assembly:


e-vote ends on June 28, 2019
Assemblée Générale Ordinaire du CIGRE :
fin du vote électronique le 28 Juin 2019
Meetings* of
Interest to
Members
©CIGRE.couloir3.com

*For updated list of events, please visit


our events section of the website at cigre.org

CIGRE Events OTHER Events


CIGRE International Symposium CIRED 2019 – The International
Aalborg, Denmark
Conference and Exhibition on Electricity
Distribution
June 4–7, 2019
Madrid, Spain
CIGRE SC D2 Colloquium 2019 June 3-6, 2019
Helsinki, Finland
JICABLE’19 - International Conference
June 11–14, 2019 on Insulated Power Cables
CIGRE SC B5 Colloquium 2019
Helsinki, Finland
Tromso, Norway June 23–27, 2019
June 24–28, 2019
IEEE-PES General Meeting
Workshop Electricity for all – CIGRE Brazil
Atlanta, USA
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
August 4-8, 2019
August 20-21, 2019
ISH 2019 Conference
CIDER 19 – Conference on the Integration
of Distributed Energy Resources – Budapest, Hungary
CIGRE Australia August 26-30, 2019
Melbourne, Australia EPE’19 ECCE Europe - EPE
August 20-21, 2019 Genova, Italy
2019 Grid of the Future September 2, 2019
Atlanta, GA, United States MATPOST 2019
November 3–6, 2019 Lyon, France
November 20 –22, 2019

©CIGRE.couloir3.com
N° 304 - Juin / June 2019

Global
Connections

N° 304 Juin | June 2019

>>> Résumés Summaries


CIGRE Ordinary General Assembly:
e-vote ends on June 28, 2019
Assemblée Générale Ordinaire du CIGRE :
fin du vote électronique le 28 Juin 2019

metamorworks │iStock

RÉSUMÉ - BT 760 - GT B5.53 afin de garantir une certaine cohérence des évaluations des modes
Stratégie d’essai des fonctions de protection, de défaillance de tous les transformateurs. Un système de notation
d’automatisation et de contrôle (PAC) dans un poste utilisé pour qualifier l’état d’un transformateur devrait également
entièrement numérique mettant en application fournir une indication de l’action la plus appropriée requise, ainsi
la CEI 61850 que du délai cette action.
Le développement, et la mise en place, à grande échelle des
systèmes de protection, d’automatisation et de contrôle des postes SUMMARY - TB 761 - WG A2.49
(SPACS), basés sur la CEI 61850, et utilisant essentiellement les Condition assessment of power transformers
messages GOOSE et les communications client/serveur, ont fait Transformer assessment indices can be developed to allow asset
prendre conscience à l’industrie des avantages des systèmes managers to rank transformers in their fleet. A scoring matrix
basés sur les communications. Parallèlement on a vu au cours should be used to ensure that scoring of each failure mode of each
des dernières années arriver sur le marché des transformateurs transformer is consistent. The scoring system used to calculate
de mesures non conventionnels, autonomes ou intégrés, avec une the transformer’s score, should provide an indication of the most
interface présentant des grandeurs échantillonnées du type CEI appropriate action and the time when the action will be required.
61850.
Pour cette raison, l’essai de chaînes fonctionnelles entièrement RÉSUMÉ - BT 762 - GT D2.40
numériques est devenue un sujet important, du fait du déploiement Spécifications de sécurité pour les services à distance
de postes basés sur la CEI 61850, mettant en œuvre des Unités La Brochure Technique décrit les exigences de sécurité pour les
de Concentration Autonomes (SAMU), et/ou des Transformateurs accès à distance des dispositifs électroniques intelligents (IED),
de Mesure Non Conventionnels (NCIT), et comportant à la fois des dans le réseau d’exploitation d’une compagnie d’électricité. Une
bus poste (CEI 61850-8-1) et des bus processus (CEI 61850-9-2). méthodologie d’étude des systèmes basée sur un modèle, qui
La Brochure couvre tous les aspects relatifs aux essais des SPACS s’appuie sur le cadre du cycle de vie de Zachman a été appliquée
entièrement numériques et aux équipements, dont les essais de pour évaluer les risques, et les moyens envisageables de réduction
certification des NCIT/SAMU, les essais d’interopérabilité au niveau de ces risques. Pour protéger l'intégrité et la confidentialité des
d’un SPACS, les essais d’acceptation en usine, la mise en service, données sensibles, l'analyse a souligné la nécessité de combiner
les essais d’acceptation sur site et les essais de maintenance après des contrôles d'accès basés respectivement sur les rôles et sur les
la mise en service. attributs. Si une donnée sensible est compromise, une plateforme
de confiance est nécessaire pour collecter et garder de façon sure
SUMMARY - TB 760 - WG B5.53 les preuves dont on a besoin pour l'analyse a posteriori.
Test strategy for Protection, Automation and Control
(PAC) functions in a fully digital substation based on SUMMARY - TB 762 - WG D2.40
IEC 61850 applications Remote service security requirement objectives
The wide spread development and implementation of IEC 61850 This Technical Brochure describes the security requirements
based Substation Protection, Automation and Control Systems for remote services to access intelligent electronic devices on an
(SPACS) using predominantly GOOSE messages and client/server electric power utility’s operational network. A model-based system
communications has raised the awareness of the industry regarding engineering methodology based on Zachman’s lifecycle framework
the benefits of communications based systems. At the same time, was used to assess the risks and potential means to mitigate
the last years have seen a significant change in the availability these risks. The analysis stressed the need to combine role-based
of stand-alone and embedded Non-Conventional Instrument and attribute-based access control to protect the integrity and
Transformers (NCIT) with IEC 61850 sampled values interfaces. confidentiality of the sensitive data. If sensitive data is compromised,
For this reason, the testing of fully digital functional chains has a trusted platform is needed to securely collect and safeguard the
become an important issue with the deployment of IEC 61850- evidence needed for forensic analysis.
based substations using Stand Alone Merging Units (SAMU), and/
or NCIT and featuring both station bus (IEC 61850-8-1) and process RÉSUMÉ - BT 763 - GT B2.55
bus (IEC 61850-9-2). Conducteurs pour l'augmentation de la capacité
This Brochure covers all test related aspects of a fully digital nominale des lignes aériennes existantes
SPACS and equipment, including NCIT/SAMU Certification tests, La production d’électricité renouvelable, ou décentralisée,
SPACS level interoperability tests, factory acceptance tests, remplace la production d’électricité de base conventionnelle
commissioning and site acceptance tests and maintenance tests des centrales à charbon et nucléaires. Ceci provoque de
after commissioning. grands balancements des flux d’électricité dans les réseaux
de transport, aussi bien en régime normal d’exploitation qu’en
RÉSUMÉ - BT 761 - GT A2.49 régime d’urgence, et le résultat est que certaines lignes aériennes
Evaluation d’état des transformateurs de puissance de transport CA existantes peuvent dépasser leurs capacités
Des index d’état des transformateurs ont été développés thermiques nominales, tant en régime normal que d’urgence.
afin de permettre aux gestionnaires d’actifs d’interclasser les Dans la brochure on examine les méthodes d’augmentation de
transformateurs de leur parc. Une matrice de classement est utilisée la capacité thermique nominale des lignes aériennes existantes,
par augmentation de la température maximale des conducteurs SUMMARY - TB 765 - WG D1.71
d’origine ou par réagencement de la ligne avec une plus forte section Understanding and mitigating corrosion
de conducteurs, ou avec des conducteurs à haute température et This brochure provides a resource in matters relating to corrosion.
à faible flèche, sans remplacement ou renforcement extensifs des It brochure provides a comprehensive overview of the basics of
supports existants. Dans la plupart des cas, pour appliquer ces corrosion and offers a good reference document. Throughout the
méthodes, les structures des lignes doivent être en bon ou excellent brochure examples are highlighted of different corrosion processes
état. Les conducteurs de phase, cependant, peuvent être remplacés in action, from the electrotechnical community or from common
par des conducteurs à haute température et faible flèche (HTLS). situations.
Si la tension de service de la ligne doit être augmentée, d'autres
publications CIGRE doivent être consultées. RÉSUMÉ - BT 766 - GTC C4/B4.38
Modélisation des réseaux pour les études d’harmoniques
SUMMARY - TB 763 - WG B2.55 La Brochure Technique a pour objectif de fournir des instructions très
Conductors for the uprating of existing overhead lines complètes aux ingénieurs opérationnels des réseaux électriques, qui
Renewable and distributed power generation is displacing doivent réaliser des évaluations de distorsion harmonique. Celles-ci
conventional base load coal and nuclear plants. This often causes portent essentiellement sur les aspects pratiques de la modélisation
large shifts in power flow during both normal and emergency dans le domaine fréquence, pour une application directe dans le
operation of the transmission system. As a result, certain existing
processus de planification d’une connexion d’un nouveau client
AC overhead transmission lines may exceed their design thermal
au réseau de transport ou de distribution, ou dans le cas d’une
rating during either normal or emergency operation.
modification apportée au réseau, à la suite du remplacement d'un
This brochure concerns methods of increasing the thermal rating
ouvrage ou d'une extension du réseau. Elles aideront aussi les tiers
of existing overhead lines by raising the maximum temperature
connectés quand ils modéliseront leur installation, pour évaluer ou
of the original conductor or re-conductoring the line with larger
démontrer sa conformité avec les limites d'émissions définies par
or high-temperature, low-sag conductors while avoiding the
l'Opérateur du Système, ou pour étudier et spécifier des mesures de
replacement or extensive reinforcement of existing transmission
réduction telles des filtres d'harmoniques. En outre la Brochure peut
structures. In most applications, the line structures must be in
good or excellent condition, to use these uprating methods. aussi être utilisée après la mise en service, pour étudier un incident
The existing phase conductors, however, may be replaced with ou pour aider à répondre à des réclamations de clients, au moyen
High-Temperature, Low-Sag (HTLS) conductors. d'une modélisation et d'une analyse.
If the existing line voltage is to be increased (Voltage Upgrading),
other CIGRE brochures should be consulted. SUMMARY - TB 766 - JWG C4/B4.38
Network modelling for harmonic studies
RÉSUMÉ - BT 764 - GT B3.34 This Technical Brochure provides comprehensive guidelines for
Les réseaux du futur et leur impact attendu sur la practising power system engineers when they need to perform
gestion des postes harmonic distortion assessments. The focus is on practical aspects
Les évolutions à venir du paysage de l’électricité vont imposer of frequency-domain modelling for direct application in the planning
des changements dans la gestion des postes, qui impacteront la process of connecting a new customer to the transmission or
stratégie de gestion de leur durée de vie. Le Groupe de Travail a distribution system, or when introducing a change to the system
analysé les éléments qui impactent la gestion des postes existants as part of asset replacement or system expansion. They will also
et a étudié les impacts anticipés de ces changements sur la gestion assist connectees when modelling their installation to assess or
des postes du futur. La brochure traite de nouveaux modèles de demonstrate compliance with the emission limits provided by the
gestion des actifs, de technologies émergentes, de numérisation, System Operator and to investigate and specify mitigation measures
de la surveillance d’état, de gestion de données et de palette such as harmonic filters. Furthermore, this document can also be
d’expertises. Les postes vont à coup sûr changer à l’avenir ! used post-commissioning for any incident investigation or to assist
resolution of customer complaints via modelling and analysis.
SUMMARY - TB 764 - WG B3.34
Expected impact on substation management from Page Advert - Annonces

future grids
Future developments in the energy landscape will impose changes Page 2 Meetings of interest
in substation management affecting the total life cycle management
strategy. The Working Group reviewed the drivers impacting the GOTF - Call for Papers -
Page 7
management of the existing substations and analysed the expected Atlanta, November 2019

impact of these changes on future substation management. The


brochure addresses new asset management models, emerging Pages 50-51 Electra 2019 - Ad. Rates & Instructions
technologies, digitalisation, condition monitoring, data management
and skills sets. The substations will inevitably change in the future!
Page 109 RTDS TECHNOLOGIES

RÉSUMÉ - BT 765 - GT D1.71


Comprendre et maîtriser la corrosion Page 110
CIGRE India - International Colloquium SC A1 -
New Delhi, September 2019
La brochure constitue une source d’informations relatives à la
corrosion. Elle donne un point de vue exhaustif sur les aspects de CIGRE India - International Colloquium SC A2, B2 & D1 -
Page 111
base de la corrosion et constitue un bon document de référence. New Delhi, November 2019

Tout au long de la brochure sont mis en avant des exemples de


différents processus de corrosion actifs venant de la communauté Page 112 Session 2020 - Save the date
de l’électrotechnique, ou d’autres situations courantes.

4 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


SOMMAIRE|CONTENTS
N° 304 Juin | June 2019
N° 304 - Juin / June 2019

EDITO 6
Global  CIGRE Global Connections - By Mike Heyeck
Connections GENERAL ASSEMBLY 8
 CIGRE Ordinary General Assembly

GLOBAL 9 - 21
CONNECTIONS  Q&A with Nick Akins, American Electric Power CEO
 Energy transition with holistic, pragmatic and sustainable
approaches - Part 1
metamorworks │iStock

LIFE OF ASSOCIATION 22 - 31
CIGRE Ordinary General Assembly:
e-vote ends on June 28, 2019
Assemblée Générale Ordinaire du CIGRE :
fin du vote électronique le 28 Juin 2019
 CIGRE NGN - United States Next Generation Network Paper
Competition
 CIGRE UK - Seminar on energy system resilience - London
- March 21, 2019
 CIGRE India - International Conference on Integration of
renewable with synchronous grid - New Delhi - April 3-4,
2019
 CIGRE-IEC 2019 Conference on EHV and UHV (AC & DC)
- Hakodate - April 23-26, 2019
ANNUAL REPORT 32 - 47
 B3 Substations and electrical installations
 B4 DC systems and power electronics
 B5 Protection and automation
REFERENCE PAPER 48 - 49
 Power System system Restoration – World practices &
future trends
BROCHURES 52 -59
Revue éditée par le CIGRE THEMATIQUES  760 - GT B5.53 : Stratégie d'essai des fonctions de
Magazine edited by CIGRE
TECHNICAL protection, d'automatisation et de contrôle (PAC) dans un
Président/ Robert STEPHEN BROCHURES poste entièrement numérique mettant en application la CEI
Chairman: 61850
Président du Marcio SZECHTMAN  760 - WG B5.53: Test strategy for Protection, Automation
Conseil and Control (PAC) functions in a fully digital substation
Technique/ based on IEC 61850 applications
Chairman of the
Technical 60 - 67
Council:  761 - GT A2.49 : Evaluation d'état des transformateurs de
Michel AUGONNET puissance
Trésorier/
Treasurer:  761 - WG A2.49: Condition assessment of power transformers
Secrétaire Philippe ADAM 68 - 77
Général/ philippe.adam@cigre.org  762 - GT D2.40 : Spécifications de sécurité pour les services
Secretary à distance
General:  762 - WG D2.40: Remote service security requirement
objectives
Edition/ Marie TAILLANDIER
Redaction: edition@cigre.org 78 - 83
Tél. : 01 53 89 10 07  763 - GT B2.55 : Conducteurs pour l'augmentation de la
capacité nominale des lignes aériennes existantes
Publicité/ Estelle TIJOU-LEZÉ  763 - WG B2.55: Conductors for the uprating of existing
Advertising: estelle.tijou@cigre.org overhead lines
Tél. : 01 53 89 12 95
84 - 91
Conception Christine DEMANGE  764 - GT B3.34 : Les réseaux du futur et leur impact attendu
réalisation: cdpaoprod@gmail.com sur la gestion des postes
 764 - WG B3.34: Expected impact on substation management
from future grids
Dépôt légal : N° 304 Juin 2019
92 - 101
ISSN : 1286-1146  765 - GT D1.71 : Comprendre et maîtriser la corrosion
CIGRE
 765 - WG D1.71: Understanding and mitigating corrosion
© Copyright
Photo de 102 - 109
couverture/  766 - GTC C4/B4.38 : Modélisation des réseaux pour les
Front cover Page: metamorworks │iStock études d'harmoniques
 766 - JWG C4/B4.38: Network modelling for harmonic
studies
Copyright ©2019
21 rue d’Artois - 75008 Paris - France
33 (0)1 53 89 12 90 - http://www.cigre.org

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 5


EDITORIAL

CIGRE Global Connections


By Mike Heyeck, Member, CIGRE Administrative
Council & Steering Committee
Mike Heyeck

As part of our strategic plan, our branding initiative was inaugurated in Paris
2018 as prelude to our upcoming 2nd Century. We are CIGRE across the end-
to-end (E2E) spectrum for power system expertise. Who better to offer visionary
benchmarks across the globe for CEOs and policy makers, as well as our
technology leaders.

In this Electra Edition, we introduce a "Global Connections" section. Invited articles


and interviews will be offered for members and prospective members. We have
appointed an Electra Editorial Board to assist the Central Office to ensure quality
and relevance, but also to ensure we retain our apolitical and noncommercial
culture. The opinions will be the author's opinion alone, but we thought our
readership may enjoy these opinions.

Our Marketing and Communications Task Force branding efforts continue with a
digital Electra platform in development. This platform with be augmented by three
distinctive newsletters and periodic Global Briefs. These channels will seed the
Global Connections section of Electra.

The three newsletters include:


1) our General Newsletter (to be renamed),
2) Leadership Circle for CEO levels, and
3) Future Connections for technology leaders (to be inaugurated in the Fall
2019).

You may have noticed that Electra's February 2019 Edition began as PDF form
via e-CIGRE. We announced this transition in Paris 2018 to progress to a full
digital Electra platform by April 2020 across the globe.

Our vision is to invite people to CIGRE across the globe. The Global Connections
section and a few other front sections will be free to all landing on CIGRE.org. We
hope to attract subscribers to Electra who will then become members.

By our Centennial Celebration in Paris 2020, we will have implemented a new


digital Electra with content responsive to any device. Imagine Electra with Global
Connections and other free content attracting subscribers, sponsors and ultimately
new members with full access. Imagine a view of CIGRE in this Electra digital space
matching our forward-looking culture. Imagine our 2nd Century with Electra. 

6 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


2019
Grid
of the
Future
Technology November 3–6
for the 21st Atlanta, GA
Century Utility
The Grid of the Future™
symposium is sponsored by the Call For Papers
CIGRE US National Committee Complete manuscripts must be submitted by July 26,
(USNC) and the Electric Power 2019. Symposium topics include:
Research Institute (EPRI).
The 2019 GOTF symposium is Generation Transmission and System Operation
hosted by Southern Company
and provides participants with Distribution Smart Grid Innovation
the opportunity to network with
their peers in the generation, If you have any questions regarding preparing
transmission, distribution, or submitting a paper, please contact John
markets, and smart grid McDonald, Technical Program Chair at
technologies industries, and johnD.mcdonald@ge.com.
provides a variety of seminars
and workshops in addition to
educational speakers and tutorial Registration now open!
sessions.
cigre-usnc.org
Contributions from Next
Generation Network (NGN)
young engineers are encouraged.
CIGRE Ordinary General Assembly:
e-vote ends on June 28, 2019
As part of the French Legislation, and in order to approve the Accounts of the previous year, CIGRE
organizes an Ordinary General Assembly each year in June.

Article 7 of the CIGRE Statutes also states that the Ordinary General Assembly of CIGRE members
may take place electronically, by correspondence, or any other modern or conventional means.

At the end of May 2019, the members of CIGRE entitled to vote received an e-mail with a personal
code giving them access to electronic voting: agenda, ballot and documents relating to the General
Ordinary Assembly.

Access to electronic voting will be closed on Friday June 28, 2019 at 5.00 p.m. (GMT+1).

Assemblée Générale Ordinaire du CIGRE :


fin du vote électronique le 28 Juin 2019
Dans le cadre de la Législation Française, et afin d’approuver les Comptes de l’année précédente, le
CIGRE organise une Assemblée Générale Ordinaire chaque année en Juin.

L’Article 7 des Statuts du CIGRE précise aussi que l’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire des membres du
CIGRE peut avoir lieu par voie électronique, par correspondance, ou tout autre moyen moderne ou
conventionnel.

Fin Mai 2019, les membres du CIGRE habilités à voter ont reçu un courrier électronique avec un code
personnel leur donnant accès au vote électronique : ordre du jour, bulletin de vote et documents
relatifs à l’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire.

L’accès au vote électronique sera clos vendredi 28 Juin 2019 à 17h00 (GMT + 1).

8 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


GLOBALCONNECTIONS  #   GLOBALCONNECTIONS  #   GLOBALCONNECTIONS   #   GLOBALCONNECTIONS
Q&A with Nick Akins,
American Electric Power CEO
By Mike Heyeck, Member, CIGRE Administrative Council & Steering Committee

1) How is American Electric Power


(AEP) pursuing policies to battle
climate change for the electric
utility industry?
American Electric Power (AEP) and the U.S.
electric energy industry as a whole have
made significant reductions in carbon dioxide
emissions. AEP already has cut CO2 emissions
by 59% from 2000 levels, and our long-term
strategy includes investing in a more balanced
portfolio of power generation that includes
renewable resources. We’ve set a goal to
reduce our CO2 emissions 80% from 2000
emission levels by 2050.

We are investing $2.7 billion in renewable energy between 2019 and 2023, which includes our recent
purchase of 724 megawatts of contracted wind and battery storage. By the end of June, we will complete
the purchase of another 227 megawatts from the Santa Rita East wind generation project being built in San
Angelo, Texas. These two acquisitions will quickly add 951 megawatts of wind generation and storage to our
renewable energy portfolio. We also plan to increase the renewable resources in our regulated generation
fleet by more than 8,800 megawatts by 2030.

AEP has retired more than 7,800 megawatts of coal-fueled generation since 2011, and we’ve announced the
retirement of another 1,931 megawatts by the end of 2020. AEP’s generation capacity has gone from 70%
coal-fueled in 2005 to 46% today. Our natural gas capacity increased from 19% in 2005 to 27% today, and
our renewable generation capacity has increased from 4% in 2005 to 16% today. AEP’s nuclear generation
capacity has remained stable, increasing slightly from 6% in 2005 to 7% today. •••

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 9


GLOBALCONNECTIONS  #   GLOBALCONNECTIONS  #   GLOBALCONNECTIONS   #   GLOBALCONNECTIONS

Our emissions will continue to decline as we retire less efficient generating units, increase renewable energy
and natural gas, invest in a more efficient and modern grid to enable greater penetration of renewable and
distributed resources, and embrace new technologies that improve operational efficiencies and meet our
customers’ needs.

2) AEP has a long history in Transmission technology development. What do


you envision for the transformation in Distribution given automation and
distributed resources?
We see a future where the power grid is fully digital with a diverse and decentralized network of distributed
energy resources, advanced monitoring and controls, and a system that is truly self-healing. We also
anticipate that customers will be able to understand and manage their energy use much more actively than
today.

To ensure we are evolving to meet future system needs and customer expectations, we are partnering with
start-up companies and global innovation hubs to incubate and test new, leading-edge technologies and
processes. We launched IlluminationLAB this year to help us identify promising entrepreneurs and early
growth stage companies in four areas: customer experience; grid optimization; efficiency, operations and
maintenance; and electric mobility. L Marks, a global start-up accelerator, is helping us select promising tech
startup companies that we can collaborate with to advance and shape innovative energy solutions.

We also joined with Free Electrons, a global technology accelerator for the energy industry that gives us
access to hundreds of start-ups from 60 countries around the world. AEP is one of 10 international utilities
in the Free Electrons program. Free Electrons gives us access to the most innovative thinking in the energy
industry so we can select and validate promising technologies that we think will best fit our customers’ needs
and expectations.

Beyond seeking out the newest energy innovations, we also are deploying advanced, digital technologies
today to help transform our distribution system.

Distribution Automation and Circuit Reconfiguration (DACR) is enabling us to automate restoration. DACR
will reduce the impact of outages through intelligent and automatic switching of field devices.

Volt Var Optimization (VVO) is allowing us to dynamically manage system voltage by automatically reducing
customers’ energy use without requiring any behavior changes from them. VVO also will optimize the
operation of the grid by reducing demand on our facilities.

Smart Line Sensors are providing real-time information to help our field teams respond to system problems
more effectively and reduce restoration times through intelligent fault location.

We also recently completed a $600 million, large-scale underground asset replacement and advanced
monitoring system for our urban-centered network systems. State-of-the-art underground network systems
support safer operation, enable predictive maintenance to save money, and provide pre-fault indicators that
can help us prevent major service interruptions and safety concerns for our employees and the public.

3) Describe your vision for the power system mid-century noting disrupters
along the way?
There will be significant opportunities for AEP and other electric energy companies in the next few decades as
decentralized power generation, beneficial electrification, and digitization and process automation reshape
our business. We see pervasive electrification, especially in the transportation sector, and distributed power
generation as key factors that will impact how the power system evolves. Control devices will become
intelligent and interconnected. The real unknown is just how quickly these transformations will occur. 

In the same way that fracking and a cheap, plentiful natural gas supply has been a game changer for coal-
fueled power generation in the U.S., the development of effective large-scale energy storage will have

10 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


GLOBALCONNECTIONS  #   GLOBALCONNECTIONS  #   GLOBALCONNECTIONS   #   GLOBALCONNECTIONS
significant implications for our future power system. When technology evolution delivers energy storage
capability beyond today’s “4-hour battery,” the industry will be in a position to truly redesign the grid.

In the near term, there will continue to be an evolution in the U.S. fuel mix toward cleaner, renewable
generation resources. Our projections for AEP’s power generation mix in 2030 are 40% renewables (hydro,
wind, solar and pumped storage), 27% coal, 22% natural gas, 7% nuclear and 4% energy efficiency and
demand response. That is a significant change from our capacity mix of 70% coal-fueled and 4% renewable
generation in 2005.

Electric energy companies, like AEP, are uniquely positioned to provide the scope and scale that will enable
faster technology adoption, while also providing universal access to the benefits of the clean energy economy.

4) Describe your vision for the workforce mid-century to achieve the power
system at mid-century?
We know that the success we’ve had for the last 113 years will not continue if we don’t ensure that we have
a diverse, engaged team of employees. To make that happen, we’ve developed a Diversity and Inclusion
Roadmap that sets accountability metrics to help us attract, develop and retain inclusive, diverse talent
while also enhancing the engagement, knowledge and skills of our current employees. We are focused on
achieving gender parity, maintaining wage parity and breaking down barriers created by unconscious biases
so that the entire team at AEP is equipped and empowered to contribute to our success.

We also are focused on digitization – automating routine processes – so that time and skills of our employees
can be focused on the highest-value work. As the power system evolves, the workforce of the future will need
new, different skills. We are partnering with high schools, community colleges, universities and vocational
and technical schools to help develop the training programs and curriculum needed to ensure that there is
a pool of talented, highly skilled potential employees who are ready to develop and maintain the innovative
and technologically advanced power systems of the future.

We are changing the culture at AEP to ensure that we support an open, collaborative, diverse and vibrant
workplace that is focused on solutions the benefit our customers. I like to say that we are moving from a
culture built around hard engineering science to one that combines hard science with the creativity of the
arts – that kind of culture and the workforce it attracts will provide the ingenuity to support our future success.

American Electric Power, based in Columbus, Ohio, is focused on building a smarter energy infrastructure
and delivering new technologies and custom energy solutions to our customers. AEP’s approximately 18,000
employees operate and maintain the nation’s largest electricity transmission system and more than 219,000
miles of distribution lines to efficiently deliver safe, reliable power to nearly 5.4 million regulated customers
in 11 states. AEP also is one of the nation’s largest electricity producers with more than 32,000 megawatts
of diverse generating capacity, including more than 5,000 megawatts of renewable energy. AEP’s family of
companies includes utilities AEP Ohio, AEP Texas, Appalachian Power (in Virginia and West Virginia), AEP
Appalachian Power (in Tennessee), Indiana Michigan Power, Kentucky Power, Public Service Company
of Oklahoma, and Southwestern Electric Power Company (in Arkansas, Louisiana, east Texas and the
Texas Panhandle). AEP also owns AEP Energy, AEP Energy Partners, AEP OnSite Partners, and AEP
Renewables, which provide innovative competitive energy solutions nationwide. For more information, visit
aep.com. 

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Energy transition with holistic,


pragmatic and sustainable
approaches
PART 1: Global energy resources
and outstanding developments
of wind and solar
By Alessandro Clerici, Honorary Chairman WEC Italy, IEEE Life Fellow

1. Introduction
The transition to a low carbon and sustainable economy took the first steps in 1992 in Rio with the “United Nation
Conference on Environment and Development”, posing the necessity to substitute with RES (Renewable Energy
Sources) the fossil fuels considered responsible for global warming. Through a series of subsequent protocols
and conferences, and with declared engagements for decarbonization from many countries/regions, it is quite
clear how environmental issues are now the basis of the energy policies worldwide.

In a present situation still dominated by fossil fuels both in primary energy consumption (85%) and in electricity
production (65%), it is quite clear that an energy transition must be pursued in an effective way to leave a
better world to future generations through an extensive application of RES, which has seen, for wind and solar,
impressive technological developments and cost reductions.

The energy transition will be affected by the countries not belonging to OECD (Organization for Economic Co-
operation and Development, comprising the 36 liberal world’s most advanced economies); they are responsible
now of 2/3 of  emissions  and will face the effects of indispensable access to energy for around 0.8 billion persons
and of population increase. The path has, however, not only political impacts but also social and economic ones,
which in some cases are not negligible and sometimes not duly quantified and underlined.

A sophisticated holistic approach is indispensable with a correct valuation of the positive externalities of a
green economy (e.g. on CO2 reduction, health, job creation, less dependence on energy imports etc.) but due
considerations should also be given to:
• the challenges created to the electrical system from non-programmable RES;
• energy efficiency intervention;
• sustainable mobility;
• stranded assets of both primary energy resources and energy infrastructures; and
• requalification/integration of people as those deriving for instance by closure of fossil fuel plants.

Even if the approach is valid in general, specific analyses country by country are indispensable to take care
of local conditions in order to reach the objectives with the mix of interventions in the different sectors which
minimizes the overall cost to a nation preserving its competitiveness in a global market.

Politicians and the public opinion must be aware that the transition could not be simple and very quick and
painless, especially for those who are going to pay directly the costs on energy bills or indirectly in taxes.
Adequate communications and involvement are indispensable to avoid negative reactions, which could create
stops and goes or even abortion of a valuable transition when costs of energy bills would become evident and
unsustainable.

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The scope of this part 1 paper is to provide data and facts on the present energy situation worldwide and its
possible evolutions and to show the global great development of wind and solar. Part 2 will underline the general
challenges posed by integration of variable RES into power systems and will report actual situations in some
specific countries (e.g. Italy and Germany) with hidden costs or non-optimum choices to minimize costs of RES
at same impact on the environment.

Considering the scope and activity of CIGRE, the emphasis in this paper is on the electrical power system.

2. Energy resources and CO2 emissions


2.1 Consumption of primary energy resources
The global consumption of primary energy resources in 2017 has been 13.5 GTEP with an 85% share of
fossil fuels, compared to 92% in 2005, with the oil share now at 33%, coal 28% and gas 24%. RES has a
share of 10%, up from 6.8% in 2005 with hydro at 6.6% and wind and solar, even with an AAG (Average
Annual Growth) in the last 12 years of around 20% and 45 % respectively, together at 3%. 

There is no scarcity of fossil fuels. The present ratio “Actual Proven Reserves”/ “Present Consumptions”
according to WEC (World Energy Council) is 150 years for coal, 50 years for conventional gas and 55 years for
conventional oil. Even with the substantial consumptions in the past decades, conventional oil and gas proven
reserves have increased 50% in the last 20 years and, in addition, there are huge potentials for shale gas and
oil (see USA explosion).

This is without considering the discovery of new resources with human ingenuity. In 1972, the forecast was for
the complete depletion of natural resources in 40 years!

A key factor is the great change in the consumption areas worldwide. Consumption of primary resources in
non-OECD countries has overtaken that of the OECD ones and ASIA (led by China) is now, according to
BP, the largest player with a 42% share, followed by Europe (21.5%), North America (21%), the Middle East
(6.7%), South and Central America (5.3%). Africa, even with 15% of the world population, has only a 3.3 %
share. The difference in primary energy consumption between non-OECD and OECD countries is continuously
increasing considering an AAG in last 10 years of around 4% in Asia and the Middle East, 3% in South and
Central America. This compares to a negative AAG of -0.4% in the European Union and -0.2 in North America.
The consumption of oil and gas in non-OECD countries has reached a 53% share of global consumption and
coal a share of 78%, and both are increasing.

With reference to the rate of development of primary resources, figure 1 reports the analyses of 9 different
international entities for the period 2015-2035 and showing the yearly expected % increase of consumption
divided among the different sources. •••

Figure 1 - Expected average yearly % increase of primary energy consumption in the 2015-2035 period
and contribution from the various sources (Elaborations of WEC Italy from IEA

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The average yearly percentage increase in consumption of all the primary energy sources is varying from about
0.95 to about 1.45. Extrapolating the various energy sources in the 9 scenarios, the average contribution of each
source, as a percentage of the estimated global increase of energy consumption, is Gas 39.5%, RES 24.0%,
Oil 20.5%, Nuclear 9.0%, Coal 7.0%.

Gas is projected to have the leading share in future increase of consumption of energy resources
followed by renewables; oil keeps a share for transports and petrochemicals – Coal contribution is even
lower than that of nuclear. 

Fossil fuels will have in primary energy consumption a non-negligible role up to the middle of the
century. IEA in its Sustainable Development Scenario (the most optimistic among the 3 considered)
envisages in 2040 a fossil fuel contribution of 60% to the global energy demand.

2.2 CO2 emissions


As a consequence of their primary resources consumption, in 2017 non-OECD countries have been
responsible for 63 % of CO2 emissions (an AAG of 3.4% in 10 years) compared to 37% from OECD
countries with an AAG of -1% in the last 10 years. 

Considering decarbonization is a global problem, it is quite clear that non-OECD countries have a large role to
play (China has a 27.3 % share of CO2) but the US is at 17.5%, followed by India 6%, Russia 4.4%, Japan 3.2%,
Germany 2.3%, Iran 1.8%, South Korea/Canada/Saudi Arabia 1.6-1.7% and Indonesia/South Africa at 1.4%.

European Union (excluding UK) has a CO2 share of 9.2% with -2% AAG in last 10 years; Germany (now
36% of electricity production with lignite and coal) has a 2.3% world CO2 share, Italy 1%, France and Poland
0.9% and Spain 0.8% - UK is at 1.2%. The EU contribution is always more marginal and in 2050 without
UK it should be around 6%. This is leading to the question: are the strong efforts to reduce local EU emissions
really effective from a global point of view with respect to investments in non OECD countries directed to reduce
their emissions?

2.3 The electricity sector


The electricity sector is the one that has seen the major changes in market rules, in development of RES (mainly
wind and solar) and a pervasive application of ICT at all the levels.

The 2017 global electricity production from the around 7200 GW of installed capacity of the different
technologies has been 25570 TWh, subdivided among the various sources as in table 1 which compares
the consolidated 2017 data with those relevant to 2001:
Table 1 - Contribution of the different primary energy sources to the global production of electricity (elaborations from IEA)

2001 2017

Coal 38.7% 38.0%


FF 64,7 % FF 65%
Oil 7.4% 4.0%
Gas 18.6% 23.0%
Nuclear 17.1% 10.0%

Hydro 16.5% 16.2%


RES 18,2% RES 25%
Biomass 1.1% 2.3%
Other RES 0.6% 6.5%

The share of fossil fuels has been practically constant since the beginning of the century and close to 65%, with
coal varying in the range 37.5-39% and with a gas increase from 18.6 to 23% with a collapse of oil from 7.4 to
4%. RES has seen an increase in share from 18.2 to 25%, practically equal to the collapse of nuclear. Hydro
has maintained a share close to 16%, biomasses have more than doubled their share and the other RES (mainly
solar and wind) have increased their share more than 10 times.

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The share of electricity production from coal has dropped in developed countries from 38% in 2000 to 28% in
2017, while in developing countries coal has increased from 38 % to 50 %. The share of gas has increased from
15% to 28% in developed countries, keeping practically a constant value of 20% in developing ones.

With respect to possible future trends up to 2040 for the electricity sector, the scenarios from 2 rather extreme
sources are reported in Figure 2.

According to BP, in 2040 the contribution to electricity production will be 53 % from fossil fuels (27% coal,24%
gas,2% oil), 38% from RES (of which hydro 13%) and 9% from nuclear. Coal still remains the major source. For
Bloomberg in 2040 the global production of 38000 TWh is expected to be 51% from RES (2/3 of which is from
wind and solar), 40% from fossil fuels and 9% from nuclear.

Figure 2 - Contribution to electricity production from different primary resources


according to BP World Energy Outlook 2018 (left side) and Bloomberg (right side)

The IEA WEO 2018 “New Policy Scenario” to overcome the “Current Policy” envisages a 50% of
production from fossil fuels in 2040 and 41% from RES. The optimistic, “Sustainable Development
Scenario” envisages 20% from fossil fuels and 66% from RES.

3. Outstanding development of wind and solar worldwide for


electricity production
With some more details with respect to Table 1, Figure 3 provides a clear picture on the outstanding RES
development in the last 13 years with respect both to installed capacity and generated energy, in which
RES have reached a share of 33% and 24% respectively.

2004 is the practical starting point for the initial appreciable commencement for PV (0.1% of cumulative global
installed capacity) with wind at 1%, while 2017 is the last year with available consolidated figures for global
production of electricity from the various primary resources.

The cumulative capacity of PV has had an AAG of 43% and that of wind of 20% compared to 5% for hydro
and 8% for biomasses. Wind and solar have been the major contributors to the global increase in share of RES
capacity and electricity production, while hydro has still a 55% and 67% share of global installed RES capacity
and electricity production respectively.

The relative lower % share in energy production of solar and wind with respect to their share in capacity
is due to their lower equivalent operating hours compared to the other resources (around in average
1,150 hours for PV and 2,200 for wind, even if in some countries/specific places they reach values above 2,000
and 5,000 hours per year). European Union has been the frontrunner in the initial development of both wind and
solar with generous feed in tariffs. But a combination of technology & construction improvements, increasing •••

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volumes and the adoption of auctions and PPA’s (Power Purchasing Agreements) has driven down CAPEX
and OPEX costs and electricity prices for VRES (Variable Renewable Energy Sources) production from
large plants to values in some countries (eg UAE, S. Arabia, Chile, Mexico, India) unimaginable just some
years ago: around 18-27 $/MWh. Extrapolation of low auction and PPA values should be done with caution,
however, as the low prices are in locations with very high wind or solar load factors and low local costs for
installation and O&M, combined, in some cases, with special financing and other facilitations.

Figure 3 - World global power capacity additions and energy production by source in the period 2004 to 2017

It is of interest to observe the worldwide evolution of wind and solar through the years in the different countries
with the progressive undisputable leadership acquired by China in both technologies. In any case Figure 4
reports the 10 top countries with the maximum combined share on total local generation from wind and solar
at December 2017.

Figure 4 - Share of Electricity Generation from VRES, Top 10 Countries in 2017 (Source: Ref 2)

European Union as mentioned above has been the frontrunner in the initial development of both wind and solar
but the share of EU in PV cumulative global capacity has dropped from 80% in 2010 to 50% in 2014 and 27%
in 2017-18.The share of wind cumulative EU capacity has dropped from 65% in 2006 to 50% in 2011 and 33%
in 2017-18.

In China the share of global PV capacity from a 3% value in 2011 has increased to around 20% in 2015 and to
34% in 2018. The share of global wind cumulative installed capacity from 3 % in 2006 has increased to 21% in
2011 and 37% in 2018-

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In the US the wind share of global capacity has increased from 16% in 2006 to around 23% in 2011 and down
to 16% in 2018-In PV the share has decreased from 22% in 2000 to 15% in 2006 and around 7% in 2011 to go
up to around 11% in 2018.

It is worth noticing the development in Asia Pacific for PV; it is mainly in Japan that from 2.15 GW in 2008 has
reached 48.6 GW in 2017 becoming the 3rd country in the world and with 55.5 GW in 2018 surpassing the
second US.

But let us analyze the separate development of solar and wind worldwide.

3.1 PV and Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) development


Figure 5 provides a clear picture on PV capacity global development and its subdivision in countries/regions
based on recent provisional data for 2018 and the forecast for 2019 derived from actual projects in the various
countries which are going to add in 2019 new 125 GW. With the global addition of 109 GW in 2018 (98 GW in
2017-76 GW in 2016 and 51 GW in 2015) the global PV capacity has reached 511 GW at December 31, 2018.

Figure 5 - Solar PV Global Capacity Annual Development from 2010 to 2019 (expected)
subdivided by countries/regions (Source Ref 1)

Figure 6 is based on the available consolidated data for 2017 at end of February 2019 and relevant to the top 10
countries for PV capacity: for each country the annual additions during 2017 are reported. In 2017 the added
PV capacity of 98 GW is the highest among all the types of power generation technology and 85% of that
has been in 5 countries.

China has connected 53.1 GW to the network in 2017, 54 % of the global PV capacity additions. In 2018 new
capacity connections have been 44.3 GW with a 20% decrease with respect to the previous year. In the same
year, China has installed around 25 GW of wind, 11 GW of hydro, 38 GW of thermal fossil units and 8 GW
of nuclear reactors. Considering the average equivalent hours per year of the different technologies, the new
added PV capacity would produce around 50 TWh compared to 350 TWh from the additional other sources.
This is a great jump if one considers that in 2017 the theoretical production of electricity from PV has been
around 2% in China, a value similar to those of US and India while Germany and Italy have had a share
of PV production close to 8%. •••

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Figure 6 - Solar PV Capacity and Annual Additions Top 10 Countries in 2017 (Source Ref 2)

Figure 7 reports the consolidated development of concentrating solar thermal power capacity (CSP) at global
level and by country/region from 2007 to 2017. It is quite evident how practically more than 80% of capacity was
concentrated in Spain and US. From regional data available in February 2019, the global CSP capacity at end of
2018 was 5.5 GW (1.1% of the PV capacity) but it is expected to double in 2022. Spain has 2.3 GW and US 1.75
GW both in a flat situation in the last 4 years and are followed by Morocco with 0.53 GW, South Africa 0.4 GW,
India 0.23 GW,UAE 0.1GW and many sites with a capacity smaller than 100 MW. From a system perspective
CSP offers advantages compared to PV; it can continue to produce electricity during the night and early morning
or when clouds block the sun but the same may be achieved by PV with battery storage.

Figure 7 - Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Global Capacity: Development 2007-2017 by Country (Source Ref 2)

3.2 Wind on shore and off shore development


Table 2 from World Wind Energy Association reports from 2015 to 2018 the wind installed capacity in the top
10 countries. The 2018 data are preliminary for some countries and in addition for Brazil and India the data are
relevant to end of November-From regional data available at end of February 2019 it is possible to confirm that
the data in the table are practicallythe final at December 31,2018. The global wind capacity ( including on
shore and off shore) has therefore in 2018 overcome 600 GW with an increase of 54 GW to be compared
with the 59.4 and 51.6 of 2017 and 2016 respectively These data present some few % differences with respect
to those of Ref 2 which underlines that the maximum annual increase has been in 2015 with 64 GW.

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Table 2- Wind installed capacity in the present 10 top countries from 2015 to 2018 (Source WWEA)

The global consolidated trend from 2007 to 2017 is reported in Figure 8 while the wind capacity additions of the
top 10 countries in 2017 are in Figure 9. In 2018 about 85% of global capacity has been in 10 countries over the
90 ones with wind commercial capacity and the same applies to annual additions.

Figure 8 - Wind Global Capacity and Annual Development from 2007 to 2017(Source Ref 2)

Figure 9 - Wind Capacity and Annual Additions Top 10 Countries in 2017 (Source Ref 2) •••

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With reference to off shore wind, Figure10 shows the global consolidated capacity development from 2007
to 2017 subdivided in main areas. A total of 17 countries (11 in Europe) had offshore wind capacity by the
end of 2017 for 19 GW. From analyses of regional data available at end of February 2019 it is possible to
state a global capacity of 23.6 GW at end of 2018 (around 4 % of global wind capacity) with the United
Kingdom maintaining its lead with 8.3 GW , followed by Germany (6.4 GW), China (4.6 GW), Denmark (1.3
GW),Begium (1.2 GW) and the Netherlands (1.1 GW). Europe has a share of about 80% of global offshore
wind generation at December 31, 2018.

Figure 10 - Wind Power Offshore Capacity Development from 2007 to 2017 by Regions (Source Ref 2)

4. Conclusions
• There is no scarcity of fossil fuels worldwide and they are still dominating the primary energy consumption
and electricity production with present shares of 85% and 65% respectively.

• Environmental issues, however, have become the driving factors of energy policies worldwide and, in
particular, the reduction of CO2 emissions from fossil fuels with the consequent strong development of
RES.

• Around 2/3 of present CO2 emissions are coming from non-OECD countries which have had a 3.4%
AAG in the last 10 years,compared to a negative AAG of OECD countries in the same period.

• With initial generous incentives, especially for wind and solar, there has been a tremendous AAG
among RES. Considering their starting developments in last decades and their world average low
electricity production load factors (25% for wind and 13% for PV), wind and solar have, however, a
combined share of around 3% of primary energy resource consumption and 7% of electricity production.

• Due to outstanding technological development, increased production volumes, introduction of auctions


and PPA’s, wind and solar have drastically reduced their costs of produced kWh to values unimaginable
only a few years ago. With large plants they have reached costs of the produced kWh lower than that
of conventional plants and even by far lower in areas of strong wind/insolation and local low costs for
installation and O&M.

• PV is the RES technology with the fastest development. From a negligible global installed capacity
in 2004 (3 GW) PV has reached 511 GW in 2018, with an addition of 109 GW in the last year. PV in
around 2 years could surpass global wind capacity and the annual increase is concentrated (85% of the
increase) in the top 10 countries, with China as the undisputed leader now, after the initial leadership of
EU (with more than 50% of the global share up to 2014). China is followed at end 2018 by Japan, USA
and Germany having rather equal capacities at one third of the Chinese (175 GW capacity in 2018).

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• Wind, from a global capacity of 50 GW in 2004, has reached 600 GW in 2018 with an annual increase
in the range 52-55 GW in the last 3 years (well below the 64 GW record of 2015). Also, in wind capacity
and annual additions, China, after an initial dominant position of EU, is by far the leader in the last years
with a 222 GW cumulative capacity in 2018. China is followed by the USA (96 GW), Germany (59 GW)
and India (35 GW).

• Looking at solar energy, CSP represents now only 1.1 % of the PV global capacity with 80% in Spain
and the USA, even if it is expected to double in 2022. For some applications it will have to compete with
PV plus battery storage.

• Off shore wind has now a global capacity around 4 % of the total wind capacity. The present great
market is in EU but China and India are expanding together with sites on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts
in America, Africa and Asia.

• The global share of VRES (PV and Wind) in electricity generation is something less than 7% but in
some countries the share has reached very high values with respect to national consumption: 57% in
Denmark, 30% in Uruguay, around 27% in Germany and Ireland followed by Portugal, Spain, UK and
Greece in the range from 25% to around 20%.

• PV and wind in 2018 generating plants have seen investments of $130 billion each, according
to Bloomberg, and they have therefore become a great business. Due to their variability and small
contribution to short circuit power to the network, PV and wind require additional investments for their
smooth integration and a reliable operation of power systems with security and quality of supply (Ref
3). This will be dealt with in part 2 of the paper, which will underline the main technical challenges and
needs of holistic and rational approaches with detailed analyses, new market rules and regulation.

5. References
1 “Snapshot of Photovoltaics-February 2019 by Arnulf Jager-Waldau--European Commission, Joint Research Center-Published
on Energies 2019, 12(5), 769; doi:10.3390/en12050769
2 “Renewables 2018 global status report”- REN21
3 “Variable Renewables Integration in Electricity Systems: How to Get it Right” by a WEC Study Group led by A.Clerici-2016-
www.worldenergy.org

Note. manuscript received at beginning of March 2018 

Global Connections Section includes invited articles and interviews along with CIGRE articles to broaden global power
system expertise.
Invited authors and interviews approved by the Electra Editorial Board may express opinions solely their own.

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 21


L I F E O F T H E A S S O C I AT I O N

United States Next Generation


Network (NGN)
Paper Competition

The United States Next Generation Network (NGN) Paper Competition was established to encourage students
and early professionals to share their experience and knowledge with others in the industry. The pool of
participants is narrowed down over a series of three elimination rounds. Five judges volunteer over a cumulative
2500 hours to determine the number one paper and presentation submitted. The judging group is composed
of industry professionals, both senior and early in career.

In 2018, judges were John McDonald of General Electric Grid Solutions, Mark McVey of Dominion Energy
Virginia, Jessica Lau of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ryan Quint of North American Electric
Reliability Corporation (NERC), and Paul Collins of Leidos.

2018 marked the fourth US NGN Paper Competition. The winning paper and presentation this year, submitted
by Shaun Murphy of PJM Interconnection, was Simulating the Economic Impact of a Dynamic Line Rating
Project in a Regional Transmission Operator (RTO) Environment.

The paper is a continuation of one published in 2017 documenting a Dynamic Line Ratings (DLR) collaboration
project between Jonathan Marmillo and Nate Pinney of Genscape (now LineVision), Ben Mehraban or American
Electric Power (AEP), and Shaun Murphy and Nicolae Dumitriu of PJM Interconnection. The U.S Department
of Energy, through Oak Ridge National Laboratory, organized and funded the project.

The three companies piloted a DLR system on the Cook-Olive 345 kV line in AEP. Then, a PROMOD economic
simulation was performed at PJM to estimate the overall economic savings the technology might make in the
PJM market.

Using historic National Oceanic and Atmospheric weather data, one year of back-casted dynamic ratings were
created for one of PJM’s most congested transmission lines. The ratings for this line were used in a PROMOD
market efficiency simulation. Then, results from the simulation were compared to a base case run that used
traditional static ratings for the same line. Analysis showed that the use of a DLR technology on the line would
have reduced overall congestion payments by more than $4 million over the one-year period.

In addition to the economic benefits studied, the DLR technology would also identify times when ambient
conditions were more severe than those used in formulating the static rating, requiring that the line operate
at less than the static rating. The paper identified that even in this scenario, the technology would provide an
improvement to reliability.

22 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


L I F E O F T H E A S S O C I AT I O N
The paper identifies a win-win opportunity for using an advanced technology to reduce congestion costs. A
possible scenario for its use would be as an interim solution to system congestion while another planning
project is under construction.

As a reward, Shaun will receive a travel stipend and registration to the 2020 Paris Session, where he will have
the opportunity to submit his presentation as part of the global Young Member Presentation Showcase, to be
presented in front of a study committee session with an audience of professionals from around the world. 

From left to right :

Ben Mehraban (American Electric Power),


Shaun Murphy (PJM) Competition winner,
John Marmillo (LineVision, Inc.)

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L I F E O F T H E A S S O C I AT I O N

CIGRE UK – Seminar on
energy system resilience
London, United Kingdom
March 21, 2019

CIGRE UK’s seminar in March 2019 on Energy


System Resilience brought together leading ex-
perts from the energy, electrical transmission
and power distribution industries to review and
debate the critical issues around the future of
the UK’s energy networks.

Within the UK end to end energy landscape,


the keynote political and regulatory issues were
presented by the Chief Scientific Advisor to the
UK Government and a senior technical repre-
sentative of the UK Energy Regulator, OFGEM.

Senior leaders from the Energy Research


Partnership (the public / private partnership
driving the Energy System Resilience agenda
in the UK), the UK Transmission System Op-
erator and representatives from major industry
stakeholders presented and debated up to the
minute case material and thought leadership
around the future of the UK energy landscape.

CIGRE’s Executive committee, together with


leaders from host’s ARUP, chaired lively and
thought-provoking Q&A, including participants
from the European energy network companies.

CIGRE UK’s Continuous Professional Develop-


ment (CPD) accreditation meant that the semi-
nar participants could benefit from a core learn-
ing module towards improved understanding of
the key issues within the UK energy landscape.

CIGRE: THE Global expert network addressing


the Future Energy web. 

24 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


LIFE O
OFF TTHHEE AASSSSOOCCI AT
CIGRE India – International
Conference on Integration
of renewable with synchronous grid
New Delhi, India
April 3-4, 2019

I ATI O
I ONN
CIGRE India, with support of CIGRE SC C6 ‘Active Distribution System & Distributed Energy Resources’,
organized an International Conference on “Integration of Renewable with Synchronous Grid”, on 3-4 April
2019 at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi during GRIDTECH 2019.

Keynotes and welcome speeches during inaugural session

Mr. I.S.Jha Mr. Praveen Kumar Mr. Philippe Adam

Mr. R.P. Singh Guests on Dais- listening to welcome speeches Mr. V.K. Kanjlia

Prof. Nikos Hatziargyriou Prof. Christine Schwaegerl Mr. Harish Agarwal Mr. P.P. Wahi

Christine Schwaegerl, Chair of CIGRE SC C6 was the Conference Chair. In total 35 papers were accepted
and published for the conference. About 200 delegates participated in interesting discussions on benefits,
drawbacks and intelligent solutions for a future reliable, affordable and sustainable supply with electricity
with increasing shares of Renewable Energy Sources (RES).

Opening of the conference


At the opening of the conference the attendees were addressed by Mr. V K Kanjlia, Secretary CIGRE-
India, Mr. I.S. Jha, Member, CERC & President CIGRE- India, Mr. Praveen Kumar, Additional Secretary,
Govt. of India, Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, India, Mr. R.P. Singh, CMD POWERGRID, •••

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 25


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Mr. Harish Agarwal, President IEEMA. Mr. Philippe Adam, Secretary General of CIGRE, presented in his
welcome speech the key aspects and challenges of CIGRE’s work. Keynote speeches were given by Ms.
Christine, Schwaegerl (Germany), chair of CIGRE SC C6 and Mr. Nikos Hatziargyriou (Greece), former
Chairman of CIGRE SC C6 and Mr. P.P Wahi, Director CIGRE India, expressed votes of thanks.

Technical sessions
India has observed an enormous capacity addition from RES. The country has an ambitious target of
175 GW installed capacity with RES by 2022 and it is expected to surpass the target by 50 GW. But, with
increasing penetration of highly intermittent and volatile RES and decentralized generation and in parallel
increasing demand, i.e. due to electric vehicles, planners and system operators face various challenges.
To balance intermittency and variability of renewables intelligent technologies and solutions for planning
and operation of the system are required, such as energy storage, demand side management, etc. As
discussed during the conference a robust power infrastructure has to be developed to provide the required
capacity and flexibility utilising sophisticated sensing, communication, as well as monitoring and control.

The exhibition and the two days conferences during GRIDTECH 2019 provided a unique opportunity to
professionals and stakeholders to have a glimpse of new technological products or operational solutions
as well as for direct interaction with the manufacturers, experts, utilities etc. in this field. The conference
provided a forum for open discussions and exchange of information on the latest state-of-the-art technology
and solutions on the subject and was organised in six technical sessions conducted over two days:

Technical sessions

Technical Session 1 Application of Smart Technical Session 2 Technical Session 3


Grid Technologies Energy Storage Technologies Microgrids

Technical Session 4 Technical Session 5 Technical Session 6


RE integration Large Scale Renewable integration PV integration in distribution grids

The presentations and discussions were very focussed, of high technical content but simple to understand.
The presenters made every effort to make it easy for the participants to grasp the subject.

General recommendations
Increasing RE penetration in India has created increased concern as well as awareness regarding
challenges. Planning for mitigation measures/techniques were discussed during the conference. The ‘5Ds’
that impact electricity supply worldwide also impact on Indian power system: decarbonisation that can
be achieved with increasing electrification, decentralisation with increasing number of RES connected
to distribution networks, demand flexibility provided by active consumers, digitalisation and deficiency
reduction by enabling electricity access to all thus allowing people to afford power, protect the environment
and guarantee security of supply.

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Visit of guests from CIGRE to GRIDTECH Exhibition 2019 during the event

A group photo

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L I F E O F T H E A S S O C I AT I O N

CIGRE-IEC 2019
Conference on EHV and
UHV (AC & DC)
Hakodate, Japan
April 23-26, 2019
By Tetsuya Yamanaka, Secretary Organizing Committee

CIGRE-IEC 2019 Conference on EHV and UHV (AC & DC) - New Trends in Advanced Technologies
for Efficient, Economical and Resilient Power Systems - was held in Hakodate, Japan from April 23 to
26, 2019. It was the 5th International Conference on EHV and UHV in association with 8 CIGRE Study
Committees: A2, A3 B1, B2, B3, B4, C4 and and 3 IEC Technical Committees: 7, 17 and 122. This
important Conference brought together key players in the electric power systems sector: Transmission
and substation engineers, generation engineers, system operators, designers, manufacturers, contractors,
regulators, research institutions, testing laboratories and universities with a total number of participants
over 330 from 27 countries.

Five tutorials were held on April 23 with over 120 participants:

 Introduction of New Hokkaido - Honshu HVDC Link


 Promotion Project - Novel switchgear for future multi-terminal HVDC grids -
 IEC Standardization of UHV AC transmission systems in cooperation with CIGRE
 Transmission line surge arresters and their standardization
 Latest Transmission Tower Design Method in Japan

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Technical sessions took place on April 24 and 25. In the Opening Session, five speakers were invited.

Mr. Yutaka Fujii, Vice President, Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc. and Dr. Marcio Szechtman, Vice
President and Technical Council Chair of CIGRE gave welcome greetings, Prof. Klaus Fröhlich, former
President of CIGRE talked about “UHV and EHV in View of the Energy Transition” and Prof. Akihiko
Yokoyama, Chairman of Japanese National Committee of CIGRE about “Challenges in EHV Transmission
System Planning with a massive penetration of RES considering resiliency against Natural Disaster in
Japan”. Then Conference Chair Prof. Konstantin. O. Papailiou opened the Conference with a dedicated
“Haiku” poem about the famous cherry blossom, which had just started.

In total 82 papers from 19 countries were submitted and 54 papers were presented in 11 oral sessions
with 28 papers in 2 poster sessions. In the Closing Session Mr. Herbert Lugschitz, Chairman of SC B2,
summarized the highlights of the Technical Sessions per Study Committee as follows:

 A2: Case study of 765kV bushing, vibration analysis of transformer tank, field experience of natural
ester transformer, Insulation diagnostics.
 A3: Development of HVDC transmission equipment and EHV transmission line arrester, switching
duty and investigation on SF6 alternatives.
 B1: Ageing phenomenon and diagnosis method of oil filled cables, improving the power transmission
capacity of underground cable system by cooling system, prompt repair work after failure.
 B2: Tool for live-line maintenance, inspection frequency, evaluation of corrosion environment,
electrical safety during line construction, application of melting ice method, DLR applications and use
cases, evaluation of HTLS fittings, development of an innovative optical system, field test experience
of spacer dampers.
 B3: Compaction and evolution in HVDC substations in supporting a sustainable energy network.
 B4: Coherency phenomena of large AC-DC grids, new energy management control of MMC, HVDC
circuit breaker, new MMC STATCOM, VSC HVDC application enabling high reliability transmission,
recent HVDC projects.

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 C4: Surge characteristics of grounding electrodes, transmission line surge arresters, on-line
monitoring systems, current-breaking phenomena on EHV AC transmission systems with phase-
shifters and overvoltages in HVDC systems.
 D1: Test techniques for DC gas-insulated systems, HVDC long-term test techniques, modular and
mobile DC test systems, Proficiency Test Scheme for HV testing, cable fault location technique,
optical voltage measurement technique, numerical PD simulation, SF6-alternative gases.

Brazil was appointed as the host country of the next Conference in spring 2022 and Dr. Marcio Szechtman,
Vice President and Technical Council Chair of CIGRE made a presentation.

Young Engineers Paper Awards were given to three authors who were under 35 years of age as follows:

 Grand Prize Award


 Author: Mr. Akifumi Yamanaka
Title of the paper: Effect of Earth Surface on Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation

 Outstanding Performance Awards


 Author: Mr. Konstantinos Velitsikakis
Title of the paper: Application Strategies for Externally Gapped Line Arresters Against Lightning
Outages on the 400 kV Overhead Transmission Lines in Hong Kong

 Author: Mr. Martin Hallas


Title of the paper: General overview of AC and DC current injection on high voltage potential for
HVDC long-term tests

Various WG meetings were held in relation with the Hakodate Conference from April 20 to 29. Specifically:
B1: 1 WG, B2: 11 WGs, 2 TAGs, 1 JTAG, B3: 3 WGs, SAG, CAG, TAG, B4: 1 WG, C4: 2 WGs, B4/A3:
1 JWG, D1/B3: 1 JWG

16 International companies participated at the Exhibition held in parallel with the Conference on April
24 and 25. The latest products were displayed and meaningful discussions were held between exhibitors
and participants.

Technical tour was carried out on April 26. 120 participants visited Hokuto Converter Station (VSC) for
Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link owned by Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc. and Hakodate Converter Station
(LCC) for Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link owned by Electric Power Development Co, Ltd. (J-Power). The tour
groups also visited Old Fort Goryokaku and Onuma park.

Welcome reception and Gala Dinner took place in the evening on April 23 and 24 respectively with a String
Quintet from NHK Symphony Orchestra members and a Shakuhachi (Japanese flute) performer played
traditional Western and Japanese music.

Accompany Persons Tours took place on April 24 and 25. The tours comprised three sightseeing courses
in Hakodate city, Japanese Cultural Experience, Koto (Japanese harp) Performance and Shakuhachi
(Bamboo flute) Performance.

83 English class students of lai (Remembrance of Love) Girls Hiqh School participated in the Conference
from April 24 to 26 as volunteers and they assisted not only at the reception and the conference halls but
also Accompany Persons and Technical Tours as English tour guides. 87 students from lai Girls High
School Wind Ensemble sang beautiful hymns and performed inspiring brass band music in the evening on
April 24. The Organizing Committee of CIGRE-IEC 2019 Conference attended a Thanks Concert at Iai Girls
High School after school on April 25 with participation of the String Quintet from NHK Symphony Orchestra
members.

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On April 22 and 23, Prof. Konstantin O. Papailiou, Conference Chair, visited Hakodate’s local high schools
and on April 23, Mr. Philippe Adam, Secretary General of CIGRE visited a local university for gave them a
lecture named “School on Electrical Power by CIGRE”. The number of students were 40 in Hakodate Chubu
High School, 80 in Hakodate Technical High School and 90 in Hokkaido University of Education and their
age between 16 to 18 years old in the high schools and 18 to 20 years old in the university. The schools and
the university appreciated the idea to give the students an opportunity to interact with international CIGRE
experts and the local newspapers reported that “CIGRE executives have become lecturers and encouraged
local students”. This was the first time for CIGRE to provide such lectures, which revealed a high potential
to make aware young people on the challenges and opportunities of the electrical power grid and should
be repeated in future CIGRE events.

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 31


ANNUAL
REPORT
2019 Substations and electrical
installations
by Koji Kawakita, Chairman of SC B3
SC B3 & Romain Migné, Secretary of SC B3

Substations play a key role as nodes within electrical networks, providing the capability for the network
to deliver safe, reliable energy with high availability.

To support the realization of a sustainable society, substations’ research & development continues
to make advances in new technologies and applications that offer substation owners and operators
the flexibility, security and stability they need to continue to expand their systems in an efficient and
environmentally friendly manner.

While, Transmission substations remain essential for bulk power transmission such as interconnecting
load regions, large generation resources and energy storage, and offshore supplies.

The focus area for SC B3 is the coordinated design and operation between transmission and distribution,
to facilitate more flexible and active distribution networks. Facilitating this connectivity to support the
integration of decentralized renewable energy resources, energy storage, and more active customer
participation with bilateral power flows is increasingly important. At the same time, these challenges
need to consider asset management practices which can identify the best use of installed assets by
optimising their functionality, interventions and lifetime.

Figure 1 - 345-kV substation recently constructed for a US utility

The challenges mentioned above have resulted in several new initiatives:


 Impact on substation design with integration of renewable energy resources, energy storage
system and other installations;
 Mitigating environmental, health, safety and security impacts, including the reduction of the
substation carbon footprint;
 Optimising substation asset intervention (retrofit, uprating, upgrading, renewal, extensions);

32 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


ANNUAL
REPORT
 Increased substation operational efficiency and availability;
 Integration of intelligence for digitalization;
 Competency development and its management.
2019
These solutions aim to include the needs of developing communities and emerging economies, as well
as those of established industrialized countries.

The SC B3 mission is to:


SC B3
 Facilitate and promote the progress of engineering and the international exchange of information
and knowledge in the field of substations.
 Add value to this information and knowledge by synthesizing state-of-the-art best practice and
developing recommendations and guidance.

Strategy and Direction


The Study Committee strategy and direction is continuously reviewed to ensure it is meeting the needs
of our stakeholders. Our current strategic plan covers the period from 2018 to 2028. The main technical
directions are follows.

T1. New substation concepts:


Development of new concepts including bus arrangements, hybrid solutions, new applications and
functions. The impact from distributed generation and power flow control systems including specification
of corresponding design/layout criteria for substations constituting integral parts of totally optimised
networks. Reduction of carbon footprint impact through new technologies.

T2. Substation ownership issues:


Organisational aspects including human resource and training needs, in-service support, software
management including quality control and maintenance. Management of assets including environmental,
health, safety, and security.

T3. Life cycle management:


Monitoring in-service experience, substation condition assessment, aspects of maintenance outsourcing,
short-and long-term needs, opportunities for cost reduction, spare parts. Increased utilisation (life
extension, upgrading, and dynamic loading), refurbishment /renovation concepts, and investment
strategies, principles for combining existing and new equipment, accounting for specific demands from
network-reliability and customer demand-side points of view.

T4. Integration of intelligence for digitalization on substations:


New digital technologies (Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, 3-Dimensional technology etc.) and
applications to be used in all aspects of substation design, operation and management. Identify the
opportunities offered from the increased use of advanced information and communication technologies.

300kV LIVE OHLs TRACING OF CRANE BOOM


as indication of SAFETY CLEARANCE

Structure

Building
Building

GIS installation space

Figure 2 - Example: 3D-Modeling using 3D scanner for substation construction work

Our work to support the CIGRE vision “sustainable energy for all” includes assisting in the Technical
Council project aimed at dissemination of knowledge for development of the power sector in sub-Saharan
Africa and the estimated 690 million people without access to reliable electricity in that region. •••

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 33


ANNUAL
REPORT
A key focus is considering how to improve the opportunities for younger member participation in
2019 connection with CIGRE “Next Generation Network” as well as increasing the involvement of women
experts in our activities coordinating with the “Women in Engineering” initiative.

Membership and Experts


Our work continues through the support of our national committee representatives, substation specialists

SC B3 and experts from across the globe. We value this support in our 20 different Working Groups plus 2 Joint
Working Groups and 1 Green Book Task Force. At the end of 2018 our Working Groups comprised 366
individual experts representing 38 countries, demonstrating the inherent diversity of Study Committee
membership and expertise across the globe. The number of substation experts and the composition of
Working Groups continue to grow and to evolve as we complete our work and start new projects.

This year we have accepted as country representatives, 24 Regular members plus an additional 6
members representing electricity sectors other than Transmission and 16 Observer members. These
members represent 40 countries and we are pleased to welcome four new countries this year. We
continue to encourage the involvement of younger members in all aspects of our work.

Figure 3 - SC B3 Members and Experts represent the global community

Working Areas
Our Working Groups are arranged in 4 key work areas to assist in managing the flow of work. These areas
facilitate how we organise our work, bringing together our global experts to focus their understanding to
achieve our objectives.

Figure 4 - SC B3 Work Areas

34 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


ANNUAL
REPORT
Working Groups
The Working Groups are the “engine room” of CIGRE work. During 2018, a number of Working Groups
2019
completed their work and new ones were commenced. The total number of active Working Groups at the
end of 2018 was 20 plus 2 Joint Working Groups 1 Green Book task force.

These Working Groups have been transitioned to the new technical directions as illustrated as Figure 5.

20
SC B3
T1: New
Substation
15 Concepts: 8
Number of Working Groups

T1: New
Substation
Concepts: 6
T2: Substation
Ownership Issues: 2
10
T2: Substation
Management Issues: 2
T3: Life Cycle
Management: 6
5
T3: Life Cycle
Management: 6
T4: Integration of
Intelligence for
T4: Impact of New Digitalization on
Communication Standards: 2 Substations: 4
0
WGs in the Past WGs for the Future (2018 -)

Figure 5 - SC B3 WG Activities Transition

New Working Groups that were approved in 2018 include:


 B3.52 - Neutral Grounding Method Selection and Fault Handling for Substations in the Distribution Grid
 B3.53 - Guidelines for Fire Risk Management in Substations
 B3.54 - Earthing System Testing Methods - historic approaches, recent developments and recommended
approaches
 B3.55 - Design guidelines for substations connecting battery energy storage solutions (BESS)
 B3.56 - Application of 3D Technologies in Substation Engineering Works
 B3.57 - Impact on Engineering and Lifetime Management of Outdoor HV GIS

Many new topics are currently under consideration including:


 Implementing the digital substation
 Requirements for metering with low power instrument transformers (LPIT)
 Substations Security: Physical & Cyber
 International survey for Offshore Substation Assets

Many other topics are being considered and will be announced shortly. Working Groups are not possible
without support from National Committees in nominating suitable experts and specialists to
participate in the work. We value and encourage all National Committees to review each new
terms of reference and to consider suitable experts available to support.

Young Members are particularly encouraged to join Working Groups as supporting or active
members.

Publications
Recent publications for Study Committee B3 include:
 TB 734 - Management of Risk in Substations
 TB 740 - Contemporary design of low cost substations in developing countries
 TB 749 - Substation earthing system design optimisation through the application of
quantified risk analysis
 TB 764 - Expected Impact on Substation Management from Future Grids •••

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ANNUAL
REPORT
The following Working Group brochures are expected to be completed in 2019:
2019  B3.39 - Impact of LPIT applications on HV Gas Insulated Switchgear
 B3.41 - Mobile Substations Incorporating HV GIS
 B3.42 - Reliability analysis and design guidelines for LV AC/DC Auxiliary Systems
 B3.45 - Application of non-SF6 gases or mixtures in medium voltage and high voltage gas
insulated switchgear

SC B3  Green Book: SF6 Guidebook - a Springer publication

The SC B3 Green Book was published in time for the Paris Session
in 2018. The book was dedicated to one of our colleagues, the
late Mr Adriaan Zomers who passed away during 2017. To
express appreciation for the contribution of Adriaan, copies of the
Green Book were presented to family members. This included his
widow Martha and his daughters by past SC B3 Chairman Terry
Krieg immediately after the 2018 Paris Session in Hardegarijp on
4 September 2018.

This work encapsulate and present the consolidated information


 Figure 6 - Martha Zomers available in the CIGRE body of work in relation to Substations
and Terry Krieg,
4 September 2018 and to identify new study areas for future direction of B3 activities.

Tutorials
Tutorials are an important way that we share new knowledge of substation concepts and developments,
management and challenges. Tutorials are based on the outcomes of our study in Working Groups and
their associated Technical Brochures. Tutorials can be arranged in association with any industry event
and are a great way for our experts to present their work and share knowledge. The following events
were supported by SC B3 in the last 12 months:
 Paris, France – Contemporary Cost-Effective Substation Design, 29 August 2018 (1 Tutorial)
and Safe Working in Substations, 31 August 2018 (1 Workshop)
 Reston, VA, USA - Grounding and insulation coordination (1 tutorial), 28 October 2018
 Paraná, Brazil – Contemporary Cost-Effective Substation Design (1 tutorial), 26 November 2018
 Cairo, Egypt - Savings through Optimized Maintenance in Air Insulated substations (1 tutorial),
06 March 2019

Many other topics for Tutorial and Webinar are being considered for 2019 and will be announced shortly
including the CIGRE Chengdu 2019 symposium and CIGRE regional events.

Figure 7 - Sergio Feitoza of Study Committee B3 presenting the tutorial "Contemporary Cost-Effective Substation Design",
Paraná, Brazil on 26 November 2018

36 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


ANNUAL
REPORT
Events
Study Committee B3 held a very successful Group Discussion Meeting (GDM) in 2018 Paris Session on
2019
30 August 2018. The GDM attracted 568 attendance with 42 papers presented and the record of total
147 contributions (56 prepared, 36 spontaneous, 2 Young Member showcase and 53 KMS).

Upcoming special events for the Study Committee include:


 Bucharest, Romania - CMDM 2019 & SC A3 Colloquium with SC B3 participation, 7-13
SC B3
September 2019
 Chengdu, China - Chengdu 2019 Symposium, 20-25 September 2019

Figure 8 - Study Committee B3 attendees in Paris, France in August 2018

The next annual meeting for Study Committee B3 will be held on Tuesday, 26 September in Chengdu,
China. In 2021, our annual meeting will be held in Bucharest, Romania in conjunction with SC A2 & B3
Joint Colloquium.

Study Committee B3 is committed to addressing the needs of our members and stakeholders and
satisfaction surveys are collected during each meeting to ensure that we are meeting the needs of all
delegates.

There were many other events in 2018 that included SC B3 involvement and we continue to interact with
the global community, sharing knowledge and best practices.

Conclusions
As Chairman, I am extremely grateful for the on-going support of members and members’ organisations
and our Substation experts as we continue with the development of the future power network. 

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 37


ANNUAL
REPORT
2019 DC Systems and Power
Electronics
by Dr. Mohamed Rashwan, Chairman of SC B4
SC B4 & Ms. Joanne Hu, Secretary of SC B4

Scope of work
The scope of SC B4 covers DC systems and power electronic equipment for AC systems. The scope
of B4 includes DC equipment for UHVDC, HVDC, MVDC and LVDC. It is important to note that the
definition of MV and LV DCDC does not necessary refer to the actual DCDC voltage but more related
to the application that the system is utilized for. For example, a back to back converter station that may
have a DC voltage of 70 kV DC but utilized in the transmission system cannot be categorized as an LV
DC system just by comparison to an 800 kV system. The Study Committee also covers DC systems
and equipment and Power Electronics for other applications such as distribution, and Power Quality
improvement. Overhead lines or cables, which may be used in DC systems are not included in the
scope of SC B4. DC converters for energy storage are part of the activities of SC B4. The members of
SC B4 come from manufacturers, utilities, transmission system operators (TSOs), distribution system
operators (DSOs), consultants and research institutes. SC B4 is active in recruiting young and women
engineers to participate in its activities.

The integration of renewable energy sources predominantly wind and solar, is leading to a great
interest in DC transmission as well as power electronic equipment. The offshore wind integration
has resulted in many innovative solutions specially for voltage source converters (VSC) designed for
offshore platforms. The converter ratings are increasing mainly because of demand and thanks for
higher semiconductor device ratings that are assisting the DC industry in achieving higher system
ratings. Another area of expansion is still the integration of bulk power generation mostly hydro
resources from remote geographical locations to load centers. In such cases HVDC and UHVDC (800
kV and 1100 kV bipolar systems, are utilized and obviously the line commutated converters (LCC)
seem still to be the preferred solutions

The addition of terminals to an existing system or simply multi-terminal DC projects from the onset are
another area that is being considered by utilities and developers. In some cases hybrid DC systems
are being considered to take advantage offered by both LCC and VSC DC technologies.

Refurbishment of older DC systems is also another area of interest. Refurbishment in some cases are
limited to the control and protection and in other cases it does expand to other equipment such as
valves and ac filters.

The expansion in the PV area is leading to the increase in the number of inverters operating in parallel
in one system. There are definitely challenges that are necessary for Study Committee to tackle.

The retirement of the conventional rotating machines from the system and the rapid growth in renewable
sources applications as well as the increase of HVDC feeding a particular system is certainly creating
operating challenges for the system operators which would require innovative DC solutions. SC B4 in
2018 has been active in all these areas. This is evident and strategically addressed by the scope of
the existing and the newly formed Working Groups.

38 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


ANNUAL
REPORT
The performance of DC systems and FACTS equipment are very important. SC B4 continues to collect
and publish the reliability and availability statistics of DC systems. In 2018, the Study Committee
extended the survey of reliability and availability (RAM) to include FACTS devices. A new protocol of
2019
RAM reporting was prepared by AG04 and published as TB 717.

2018 SC meeting
In 2018 the Study Committee meeting was held during the 47th General session in Paris together with
SC B4
other Study Committees. In addition to the reports from the active Working Groups and Joint Working
Groups, one of the key highlines of the Study Committee B4 meetings is the report from Members on
new projects and activities in their respective organizations. This type of reporting and discussions
allows the SC Members to discuss either the latest in the field of DC and power electronics application
as well as hearing what projects are being materialized. Just to give a glimpse of such reporting, some
of the projects that were presented are listed below:

 France to Italy HVDC link +/- 320 kV two Symmetrical monopoles each 600 MW (VSC)
 Buk-Dangjin Monopole at 500 kV DC and 500 MW that can be expanded to bipole (LCC)
 Eastern Power HVDC link (EP) 400 MW +/- 500 kV DC (LCC)
 +/- 800 kV hybrid HVDC project Three terminal LCC and VSC
 NEMO HVDC link between Elia and National Grid rated at 1000 MW Symmetrical monopole at
+/- 400 kV (VSC)
 Kriegers Flak Germany-Denmark Back to Back 400 MW VSC
 Cobra Cable Netherlands to Denmark 700 MW VSC
 Upgrade of the control system of Konti Skan LCC
 Iking HVDC link 1400MW VSC
 Zhangbei DC grid project four terminals in a DC grid at +/- 500 kV VSC
 Raigarah-Pugalur 6000 MW +- 800 kV DC link LCC
 Chunji-Guquan 12000 MW at +/- 1100 kV LCC
 North Sea Network Norway to UK 1400 MW +/- 525 kV VSC link
 IFA2 UK -France two Symmetrical monopoles at 1000 MW at +/- 320 kV
 HVDC project Kimal-Lo Aguirre Chile planned capacity 3000 MW at +/- 600 kV
 Eurotunnel -Folkestone STATCOM rated at +360/-120 Mvars

At SC B4 group discussion meeting, a total of 67 prepared contributions and 27 spontaneous


contributions were presented corresponding to the questions prepared by the special reporters based
upon 45 Session papers that covered all aspects of DC and power electronics as well as distribution
systems. The number of contributions well reflected the interest in the field.

Study Committee B4 is collaboratively working in liaisons with other organizations that are also active
in the areas of DC and power electronics. B4 consistently receive the reports from IEC, IEEE, and
ENTSO-E. A report from ENTSO-E regarding the activities of their reliability task force was discussed
during the Study Committee meeting. SC B4 AG 04 is tasked with producing its annual reliability and
availability statistics report. Close cooperation with ENTSO-E is very important.

Active Working Groups


 WG B4.64 - Impact of AC System Characteristics on the Performance of HVDC schemes
 WG B4.66 - Implications for harmonics and filtering of the staggered installation of HVDC
converter stations in proximate locations
 WG B4.68 - Revision of Technical Brochure 92 – DC Harmonics and Filtering
 WG B4.69 - Minimizing loss of transmitted power by VSC during overhead line faults
 WG B4.70 - Guide for Electromagnetic Transient Studies involving VSC converters
 WG B4.71 - Application guide for the insulation coordination of Voltage Source Converter
HVDC (VSC HVDC) stations
 WG B4.72 - DC grid benchmark models for system studies
 WG B4.74 - Guide to Develop Real Time Simulation Models (RTSM) for HVDC Operational
Studies
 WG B4.75 - Feasibility Study for assessment of lab losses measurement of VSC valves •••

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ANNUAL
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 WG B4.76 - DC/DC converters in HVDC Grids and for connections to HVDC systems
2019  JWG B4/B1/C4.73 - Surge and extended overvoltage testing of HVDC Cable Systems
 JWG C2/B4.38 - Capabilities and requirements definition for Power Electronics based
technology for secure and efficient system operation and control.
 WG B4.78 - Cyber Asset Management for HVDC and FACTS
 New Working Groups and JWGs formed in 2018

SC B4  WG B4.79 - Hybrid LCC/VSC HVDC Systems


 JWG C6/B4 37 - Medium Voltage DC distribution systems
 JWG C4/B4 52 - Guidelines for Sub-synchronous Oscillation Studies in Power Electronics
Dominated Power Systems
 JWG B4/A3 80 - HVDC Circuit Breakers - Technical Requirements, Stresses and Testing
Methods to investigate the interaction with the system
 JWG B4.82/IEEE - Guidelines for use of real code in EMT models for HVDC, FACTS, and
inverter based generators in power systems analysis

Planned SC meetings
 SC B4 participated in the Hakodate-Japan CIGRE/IEC UHV and EHV between April 23 and
April 26, 2019
 SC B4 will be participating in the Aalborg-Denmark Symposium between June 3 and June 6,
2019
 SC B4 will host Study Committee 2019 meeting is in South Africa (September 28 to October 4)

SC B4 meeting in 2021 is scheduled in Austria between September 11 and September 17. The WG
meetings are scheduled for Salzburg and the Study Committee meeting are scheduled for Vienna. 

40 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


ANNUAL
REPORT
Protection and automation 2019
by Rannveig S. J. Løken, Chairman of SC B5

& Richard Adams, Secretary of SC B5


SC B5

Introduction
This report reviews the organization, processes, results and activities of Study Committee B5 (SC B5)
in the year 2018. CIGRE Study Committee B5 - Protection and Automation, or SC B5 for short, focus
on Protection, Control, Monitoring and Metering and aims to cover the whole Power system, end-to-end
related to this topic, from transmission systems, to distribution systems, including generation and HVDC
systems.

Objectives
Study Committee B5 promotes the synthesis and dissemination of state of the art practices,
recommendations and information about Power System Protection and Automation on a worldwide
basis. Its main activities cover the principles, design, application and management of power system
protection, substation control, automation, monitoring, recording and metering, as well as the associated
internal and external communications and interfacing for remote control and monitoring. SC B5 aims to
be an independent analyzer of different solutions and provider of high quality unbiased publications and
contributions to the electrical supply industry. Members of SC B5 from all regions of the world provide a
global perspective on the issues and challenges facing the protection of electrical power systems, aimed
at top and medium management and technical staff of utilities, suppliers and consultants, universities
and research centers, including young and experienced engineers and standardization organizations.

Organization
During the closing of the SC B5 session, the outgoing Chair
Dr.  Iony Patriota de Siqueira (BR) announced that the new Chair
for SC B5 will be Rannveig Loken (NO). Rannveig has acted as
the Secretary of SC B5 since 2012 and has been actively involved
in the work of different Working Groups.

It was also announced the new Secretary of


SC B5 will be Richard Adams (UK). He has been
the Special advisor for TG 53 New Network
Requirements.

To attain its objectives, SC B5 is organized as


shown on Picture 1. Five advisory groups support
the decisions of the chair and secretary: the Strategic Advisory Group (SAG), the
Tutorial Advisory Group (TAG), and three Strategic Thematic Groups (TG) specialized
in Substation and Automation, Protection and Monitoring, and New Network
Requirements, respectively. The study committee is formed by twenty-four regular
country members, four additional regular Members from distribution, six additional
expert members, eighteen observer members, and several Working Groups (WG) and
Joint Working Groups with other Study Committees and organizations. •••

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 41


ANNUAL
REPORT
2019

SC B5

Picture 1 – SC B5 Organization

It is the mission of the Strategic Advisory Group (SAG) to advise the chair about strategic issues
related to the activities of the committee, helping in the elaboration of the SC Strategic Plan. The
Tutorial Advisory Group (TAG) advises about the organization and promotion of tutorial activities of
the committee, selecting the topics for the tutorials, the presentation material, appointment of lecturers
and monitoring their quality. The three permanent Strategic Thematic Groups (TG) organize the
proposals of new Working Groups and Special Subjects related to Substation Automation, Protection
and Monitoring, and New Network Requirements for discussion and voting during SC B5 meetings and
select reviewers of the final reports of the Working Groups. Picture 2 shows the WGs that were active
at the end of 2018, organized by thematic topics, with their respective Conveners.

Picture 2 – SC B5 Working Groups

42 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


ANNUAL
REPORT
Technical Activities
In 2018, three new Working Groups were approved by SC B5 to address current issues related to
2019
protection and automation of power systems:

 WG B5.68 – Optimisation of the IEC 61850 Protection, Automation and Control Systems (PACS)
engineering process and tools
The general aim of the WG is to elaborate requirements for the characteristics that an IEC
SC B5
61850 PACS engineering tool should have if used for a top-down IEC 61850 based configuration
of a multi-manufacturer PACS; for the characteristics of an IEC 61850 IED configuration tool
to be used with the PACS configuration tool mentioned above; for the elaboration process of
PACS engineering from single line diagram to PACS configuration creation; to guarantee the
consistency and the continuity of the PACS engineering process, including in case of modifications
occurring during its whole lifecycle. The Technical Brochure elaborated by the WG will include
description of the configuration process defined in IEC 61850 and the associated files. It will
include review of recent publications and discussion sessions related to IEC 61850 PACS and
IED configuration tools. Review of best practices related to the engineering of PACS based
on IEC 61850. Requirements in addition to IEC 61850 compliance for interoperability between
configuration tools.

 WG B5.69 – Experience gained and Recommendations for Implementation of Process Bus in


Protection, Automation and Control Systems (PACS)
The general aim of the WG is to perform a review of PACS employing IEC 61850 based process
bus. This review shall be based on available publications (cf. references) from demonstrators
and pilot projects of PACS involving process bus. The Technical Brochure elaborated by the
WG will include review of process-bus based PACS projects (demonstrations, pilot, pre-series
or series), experience gained for PACS with process bus, economic evaluations and associated
assumptions, including equipment and labour cost. Experience with interfacing of LPIT and
SAMU to PACS applications. Experience with functional protection chains. Use of process bus
to monitor High Voltage (HV) equipment or for other innovative functions. Recommendations for
PACS with process bus based on the experience gained, A significative number of references
about PACS demonstrators have been published in the recent years.

 WG B5.70 – Reliability of Protection Automation and Control System (PACS) of power systems
– Evaluation Methods and Comparison of Architectures
The aim of the WG will be to produce a guide for reliability calculation and its specification
for PACS functions and architecture. It will develop methodologies for evaluating reliability
including overall architectures from integrated devices to full process bus, allocation of PACS
function and redundancy methods, hardware, firmware, communications, software, algorithms,
configuration and parameters, causes, impact and mitigation of human errors in configuration
and maintenance, including tools and processes, failure rates of different PACS components
and types of failures, and consequences of failures. The work will also consider justification of
requirements, compliance with performance requirements, human factors and risk assessment

Two JWG’s were disbanded by the chair with the technical brochure sent for publication:

 JWG B4/B5.59 - Protection and local control of DC-grids.


 JWG A3/B5/C4 - System conditions for and probability of out-of-phase

A summary of the Technical Brochure 716 – SC A3/B5/C4, System conditions for and probability of
out-of-phase, was published in the CIGRE Electra Magazine, with investigation of the probability
of power system separation with its consequences for related power plant, protection/control
and circuit breaker requirements. The influence of non-synchronous power plants has been
studied. Transmission system operators’ policies with respect to power swings and grid code
requirements have been included in the investigations. Recommendations for future studies are
in more adequate models to simulate the behaviour of power systems in distress with special
attention to type testing protection relays and to support decision makers, system designers/
planners, and the operational staff in control centers. •••

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 43


ANNUAL
REPORT
Additionally, a summary of the Technical Brochure 739 – SC B4/B5, Protection and local control
2019 of HVDC-grids, was published in the CIGRE Electra Magazine, this Technical Brochure presents
the principal design of HVDC meshed grid protection and local control systems. It describes
the requirement on HVDC grid protection and control, system earthing schemes, short circuit
phenomena, short circuit interruption and short circuit limiting methods, protection philosophies
and functions. The guide includes the possible measurement methods and protection functions

SC B5 for HVDC grid protections including fault location methods to minimise the repair time after a
short circuit occurrence.

The best paper from the Paris session B5_PS1_101 Power Swing Blocking and Tripping -
Brazilian Study Case was published in CIGRE Science & Engineering (CSE).

Tutorials
To promote the discussion of current issues related to protection and automation, and as part of its
mission to help the dissemination of knowledge about protection and automation, in 2018 the following
tutorials were presented by SC B5 members, during the Paris session in France August 2018:

 Challenges and Solutions for the Maintenance of Fully Digital Substations

• Introduction by Klaus-Peter Brand (CH), the


Tutorial Advisor for SC B5

• Concepts and IEC 61850 Modelling by


Alexander Apostolov (US)

• Experience Feedback for Maintenance


Architectures and procedures by Volker Leitloff
(FR)

44 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


ANNUAL
REPORT
Speeches
To disseminate the activities of CIGRE, the SC B5 chair has participated and presented Keynote
2019
speeches in the following event:

SC B5

• Keynote Speech on PMU data


during the XIV Technical Seminar on
Protection and Control, STPC, Foz do
Iguacu, Brazil October 2018

Discussion Sessions
As the main forum for technical debates about Protection and Automation issues, SC B5 conducted two
discussion sessions during the annual Discussion Session in Paris, France, about papers submitted
on the following Preferential Subjects:

 PS1 – Protection under System Emergency Conditions


Topics selected for discussion included Emergency loading, load shedding and islanding practices
and experiences; System oscillation detection and out of step / pole slipping techniques; and
Thermal protection. The session was reported by Dr Nirmal Nair (NZ)

 PS2 - User Experience and Current Practice with IEC 61850 Process Bus
Topics selected for discussion included the Interoperability between merging units, stand alone
and associated to NCIT, and Protection functions; Experience from FAT, SAT, commissioning
and maintenance of process bus-based equipment and functions; and Use of process bus for
metering and monitoring of HV equipment. The session was reported by Dr Ray Zhang (UK).

For this year, SC B5 has selected the following Preferential Subjects to be discussed during its annual
Colloquium in Tromsø, Norway, about papers submitted on the following Preferential Subjects:

 PS1 - Leveraging PMU data for better Protection, Automation and Control Systems
Topics selected for discussion include Use of PMU data to improve system models and to monitor
analogue inputs, Adaptive protection concepts utilizing PMU data, Wide area schemes, novel
backup protection, power swing protection, and synchronizing schemes based on PMU data,
Improvements in PACS commissioning and post‐event analysis using PMU data. The session
will be reported by Rafael Fernandes (BR)

 PS2 - Time in Protection Applications – Time sources and distribution Methods


Topics selected for discussion include Sources and distribution of time references in PACS and
Wide Area Systems and the related accuracy, Engineering of time synchronisation and time
reference distribution for IEC 61850 process bus based protection and control applications,
Commissioning and testing of time reference sources and distribution means, Expected
behaviour of PACS functions in case of loss and recovery of time synchronization. The session
will be reported by Dr. Yubo Yuan (CN).

 PS3 - Future technologies for inter-substation communication, Migrating


Topics selected for discussion include Digital Teleprotection Channels to Packet-Based Networks,
Migration of Serial Teleprotection Channels to Packet‐Based Networks and best practices •••

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 45


ANNUAL
REPORT
for specifying, testing, commissioning and monitoring, Specification of channel or network
2019 performance, data transmission and management of constraints for PACS, Data Segregation
including use of virtual networks and WDM (Wavelength Division, Multiplexing) for PACS and
performance analysis methods, Substitution of serial interface: Technologies, topologies,
constraints and experience feedback. The session will be reported by Dr. Fred Steinhauser (AT).

SC B5 Awards
In recognition for their contribution to the activities of CIGRE, SC B5 has nominated the following
recipients for awards in 2018:

 CIGRE Honorary Member 2018


This Award is granted to a few CIGRE Members who have proven
participation in CIGRE technical activities in a leadership role of
CIGRE, and for members whose service of CIGRE has been judged
exceptional.

For this year, the award was delivered to Iony PATRIOTA de


SIQUEIRA, from BR, outgoing Chair of SC B5, “Protection and
automation" in recognition of his contribution, commitment and
dedication to the objectives of CIGRE. A recognized expert in power
systems, Chair of SC B5 for 6 years, previously secretary of SC B5,
he has also been a frequent contributor to CIGRE Working Groups
and Task Forces, as WG Convener,Teacher and Member of SC B5.
The award ceremony was conducted by the President of CIGRE, during the opening panel of the CIGRE
Session, in Paris.

 CIGRE Technical Council Award


This Award is granted to a few CIGRE Members as a reward for their
active participation in the activities of the technical work of the Study
Committees.

For this year, the award was delivered to Dr. Goda Nudelman, from
RU, Chairman of All-Russian Research Institute of Relay Manufacture,
in recognition of his contribution, commitment and dedication to the
objectives of CIGRE. A recognized expert in power systems, he has been
a frequent contributor to CIGRE Working Groups and Task Forces, as WG Convener, Teacher and
Member of SC B5. The award ceremony was conducted by the Chair of SC B5, during the annual
meeting of the CIGRE Study Committee, in Paris.

 CIGRE Distinguished Members Award


The Distinguished Members Award of CIGRE is granted by the Central Office and nominated by
the National Committee to Members in recognition for outstanding participation and contribution to
the activities of the CIGRE. For the last year, the award went to; Massimo Petrini (Italy), Nirmal
Nair (New Zealand), Andrei Podshivalin (Russia) and Mladen Kezunovic (USA) in recognition of their
contribution, commitment and dedication to the objectives of CIGRE. They are recognized experts
in power system automation, have been frequent contributors to CIGRE Working Groups, as WG
Conveners, and Members of SC B5.

 CIGRE Thesis Award 2018 


This award is intended to recognize a paper written by a student
based on their research, or Ph.D., or M.Sc. thesis.

Dr Gen LI from Cardiff University UK has been awarded the


CIGRE Thesis Award for his Ph.D. thesis “Analysis and
Protection of HVDC Systems subject to AC and DC Faults”.
Noting that this is the first CIGRE Thesis Award, it is intended to
recognize a paper written by a student based on their research,

46 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


ANNUAL
REPORT
or Ph.D., or M.Sc. thesis. The paper was peer-reviewed by the CIGRE Science & Engineering (CSE)
editorial committee and published in CSE No. 12. He was awarded for the contributions of his Ph.D.
research work and an excellent publication record in top journals and conferences.
2019
Strategic Planning
The strategic plan of CIGRE Study Committee B5 – sets out the strategic technical directions to be
followed by the B5 Committee over the period 2019–2028 in order to address the main objectives set
SC B5
by CIGRE Technical Committee.

Based on this analysis, the following technical directions were validated by SC B5 Strategic Plan for
the period 2019-2028:

 Influence and Contribute towards Protection and Automation Global Expertise


• Providing Key Technical SC B5 PACS information to Executives, Regulators, Policy Makers
and Technology Innovators
• Increase brand and visibility of SC B5 PACS amongst membership, research academics,
trade associations, regulators, policy makers and government.
• Developing Marketing avenues and platforms to support leading edge innovative concepts of
B5
• CIGRE B5 Africa Strategy

 Supporting CIGRE Power System of the Future Vision: SC-B5 Strategy


• Understand and influence the development of new technology and practices for all voltages
and systems

 Supporting CIGRE Peoples and Skill of Future Strategy: SC-B5 Efforts


• Engaging actively with Central Office efforts towards operation Excellence

Details about the process adopted by SC B5 and the complete result can be found in the Strategic Plan.

Conclusions
The year of 2018 was full or achievements for SC B5, a result of the voluntary work of dedicated individuals
and organizations, including the secretary, advisors, conveners, members and observers from many
countries around the world. For the future, the strategic directions set by SC B5 aim to facilitate the
human development and application of new technology to improve the efficiency of the engineering,
design, operation and maintenance of protection and automation of electric power systems and keeping
the spirit of collaboration that distinguishes CIGRE among organizations around the world. 

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 47


PA P E R
R E F E R E N C E

Power system restoration – World


practices & future trends
By S. Almeida de Graaff (NL) – SC C2 Chair

Complete or partial blackout of the electric power grid The bottom-up restoration strategy is based on the use
does occur from time to time, despite prudent planning of blackstart generators (those able to re-energise the
and operations, due to disturbances that either exceed system without relying on the external electric power
the basic design criteria, or due to various causes transmission network), and applies in case of total
such as natural disasters, multiple equipment failure, system blackout and non-existent interconnection
protection relay miscoordination or malfunctioning, assistance. On the contrary, the top-down restoration
and human errors. Restoration of the power system, strategy is based on neighbouring interconnections.
following such disturbances, is an extremely important These are used to energize the bulk power transmission
aspect of the System Operator’s role in managing the system first, after which loads and other generators are
bulk power system and has as objectives to enable the energized. Both approaches have their advantages and
power system to return to normal conditions securely disadvantages, and many system operators choose a
and rapidly, minimizing restoration time and associated hybrid approach to restoration (see Table 1 - Examples
losses, and diminishing adverse impacts on society. of implemented blackstart strategies).

State of the art Restoration in the future


In general, there are two basic strategies for power A common practice for System Operators is to use
system restoration, namely the bottom-up and the top- conventional power plants for system restoration, making
down strategy. it a stable and predictable process. In a future where

Table 1 - Examples of implemented blackstart strategies

Country Approach Blackstart: Top-down Blackstart: Bottom-up

Hydro + pumped storage + gas


Australia Hybrid AC interconnections from bordering states
turbines

Brazil Hybrid AC interconnections from bordering states Hydro

India Hybrid AC interconnections from bordering states Hydro + gas turbines

Hydro + pumped storage + gas


Ireland Hybrid VSC HVDC + AC interconnection
turbines

AC interconnections from bordering national power


Italy Top-down
system

USA Top-down AC interconnections from bordering states

48 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


less or no synchronous generators will be available, critical data such as synchrophasor measurements from
it is important to rethink restoration strategies. Due to generating units and critical load.
the fact that the share of renewable energy sources
(RES) in distribution networks is nowadays significant Concluding remarks
(with the tendency to grow even further), there is a need
for TSO/DSO integrated restoration plans, which will System Operators have predominantly been using
involve increased coordination, information exchange, conventional synchronous generators in the restoration
joint operator training, and most likely common tools. process. With the rapidly developing power system,
Depending on the amount as well as controllability changes in the power system restoration strategy
of DSO-connected RES, the responsibilities and become necessary to adequately address the future
contribution of each entity in the restoration process will challenges.
differ.
With increasing distributed energy resources, the
With the increasing RES and other power electronics role of the distribution system operator in power
devices in the power system, their capabilities need to system restoration will become more important, where
be utilised as much as possible. Whereas HVDC links coordination between different stakeholders will be key.
are not commonly used for providing restoration service, Furthermore, this increasing generation in distribution
their participation is expected to increase in the future. networks demands an improved observability and
The functionalities of these links can be utilised in order increased information exchange. The use of WAMS can
to aid the system restoration, including providing active greatly help to achieve this, especially during restoration
and reactive support during blackstart and building activities where situational awareness in the control
of the cranking path. Furthermore, Battery Energy room is of utmost important. With increasing integration
Storage Systems (BESS) can be used in several ways of power electronics interfaced devices in the power
for supporting the restoration process. One example is system, it is also worth investigating how these can
the participation of BESS in load restoration. Another support the system operator in enabling an effective
example is the use of BESS as blackstart source and efficient restoration process. The use of available
for providing the required power to non-blackstart HVDC links and battery energy storage systems in
generators. the restoration process is expected to increase in the
future. This is tackled in the newly established working
The role of Wide Area Monitoring Systems based on group C2.26 “Power system restoration accounting for
Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) for restoration a rapidly changing power system and generation mix”.
purposes is expected to increase in the future. When
compared to traditional SCADA measurements, Further reading
synchrophasors have an added value of synchronised
voltage phase angle information between areas that This article is a summary of a Reference Paper prepared
have to be re-energized and/or re-connected, which by a small task force of Study Committee C2 – System
can significantly benefit the restoration process. In Operation and Control. The full paper elaborates in more
the preparation phase of the restoration process, and detail also on the currently used restoration strategies
when complemented with state estimation data, the throughout the world, the importance of operator
synchrophasors provide precise information of the training for restoration and addresses the future,
remaining system, its division in islands and available providing examples of innovative solutions. Readers are
components in the system. This information helps to encouraged to reach out and read the full paper in the
construct the restoration strategy. From a restoration CIGRE Science & Engineering Journal’s Volume No 14,
viewpoint, the restoration stage can be enhanced with June 2019 issue. 

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 49


ELECTRA IS THE BILINGUAL
JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION

A total of 6 ELECTRA issues are published


per year.
The first one comes out in February
and then every 2 months.
ELECTRA contents include results of work
in the field of electric power systems i.e.
high quality articles written by the Working
Groups of the Study Committees.

Discover amongst others:


▪ Technical / Invited / Reference papers
▪ Reports on CIGRE Meetings /Activity
Reports
▪ Technical Brochures
▪ Information on CIGRE Session

specifications for supplying


advertising materials
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contain a minimal resolution of 300 dpi or TIFF
(for MAC)

Advertising closing dates


▪ Orders due: at least 2 months before
publication date
▪ Materials due: one month prior
to publication date

Estelle Tijou-Lezé | CIGRE Communications Manager


CONTACT: estelle.tijou@cigre.org | www.cigre.org | www.e-cigre.org
CIGRE’S BILINGUAL BIMONTHLY JOURNAL
FOR POWER SYSTEM PROFESSIONALS

Number of issues
6/Year

Circulation
15000 copies

Readership
15000 Power System Professionals
from 100 countries

Readership distribution
88% Companies
12% Educational bodies

Geographic representation
47% Europe
22% Americas
25% Pacific / Asia
6% Africa / Middle East

Advertise in the ELECTRA issues and promote your products, services and events.
Contents include results of work in the field of electric power systems:
▪ Technical Papers and Working Groups Reports
▪ Reports on CIGRE Meetings / Activity Reports

Ad rates 2019

4-COLOUR ADS 1x B&W ADS 1x SPECIAL PLACEMENT ADS 1x

Full Page 4 423 € Full Page 1 691 € Inside Back Cover 5 099 €
½ Page 3 797 € ½ Page 911 € Inside Front Cover 5 469 €
Back Cover 5 713 €
760 GT B5.53
brochure thématique

Stratégie d’essai des fonctions


de protection, d’automatisation
et de contrôle (PAC) dans un poste
entièrement numérique mettant
en application la CEI 61850

MEMBRES
A. APOSTOLOV, Chef de file (US), V. LEITLOFF, Secrétaire (FR), I. FERRERO (ES),
M. HÄCKER (DE), H. JACQUES (FR), W. JI FENG (CN),
N. KEARNS (IE), H. LI (GB), R. LØKEN (NO), G. MAIOLI (SE), F. MATSUKI (JP),
S. MELIOPOULOS (US), B. SHI (CN), T. SHONO (JP),
J. VERZOSA (US), I. VIŠIĆ (HR), A. WOYNÁROVICH (HU)
MEMBRES CORRESPONDANTS
L. CROMPTON (GB), R. HUNT (US), D. JENKINS (NZ), P. JUNIOR (BR), V. NAUMOV (RU),
F. RAHMATIAN (CA), A. REDEKOPP (CA), O. RINTAMÄKI (FI), R. SCHIMMEL (NL)

Pour cette raison, l’essai de chaînes fonctionnelles


Introduction entièrement numériques est devenue un sujet important,
En 2014 le Comité d’Etudes B5 (Protection et du fait du déploiement de postes basés sur la CEI
contrôle local des réseaux electriques) a proposé 61850, mettant en œuvre des Unités de concentration
la mise en place du Groupe de Travail B5.53, pour autonomes, des unités de contrôle des équipements
étudier et préparer un rapport sur l’état de l’art de coupure et/ou des transformateurs de mesures non
en matière de stratégie de test des fonctions de conventionnels, et comportant à la fois des bus poste
protection, d’automatisation et de contrôle dans un (CEI 61850-8-1) et des bus processus (CEI 61850-9-2).
poste entièrement numérique mettant en œuvre L’utilisation des bus numériques pour la transmission
des applications CEI 61850. Le test de l’ensemble des grandeurs échantillonnées et des signaux crée
d’une chaîne fonctionnelle numérique, intégrant de nouveaux cas d’essai en supplément des essais
l’utilisation d’un bus processus pour la transmission fonctionnels existants, concernant à la fois les protections
des grandeurs analogiques et du bus poste pour la et les fonctions d’automatisation et de contrôle. La
transmission des ordres de déclenchement et des conception des SPACS entièrement numériques doit
autres signaux, n’avait pas été jusqu’alors abordé par prendre en compte les contraintes relatives aux essais
un Groupe de Travail du B5. fonctionnels à réaliser après la mise en service des
systèmes d’automatisation du poste, par ex. les essais
Le développement, et la mise en place, à grande réalisés dans le cadre de la maintenance.
échelle des systèmes de protection, d’automatisation
et de contrôle des postes (SPACS), basés sur la CEI La Brochure couvre tous les aspects relatifs aux
61850, et utilisant essentiellement les messages essais des SPACS entièrement numériques et aux
GOOSE et les communications client/serveur, ont équipements, et en particulier les essais pratiqués au
fait prendre conscience à l’industrie des avantages cours des différentes étapes du cycle de vie de ces
des systèmes basés sur les communications. équipements :
Parallèlement on a vu au cours des dernières années  Certification (NCIT - Transformateurs de
arriver sur le marché des transformateurs de mesures mesures non conventionnels, SAMU – Unités
non conventionnels, autonomes ou intégrés, avec une de concentration autonomes, SCU – Unités
interface présentant des grandeurs échantillonnées de contrôle des équipements de coupure / des
du type CEI 61850. protections), •••

52 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


WG B5.53
technical brochure 760
Test strategy for Protection,
Automation and Control (PAC)
functions in a fully digital substation
based on IEC 61850 applications

MEMBERS
A. APOSTOLOV, Convenor (US), V. LEITLOFF, Secretary (FR), I. FERRERO (ES),
M. HÄCKER (DE), H. JACQUES (FR), W. JI FENG (CN),
N. KEARNS (IR), H. LI (UK), R. LØKEN (NO), G. MAIOLI (SE), F. MATSUKI (JP),
S. MELIOPOULOS (US), B. SHI (CN), T. SHONO (JP),
J. VERZOSA (US), I. VIŠIĆ (HR), A. WOYNÁROVICH (HU)
CORRESPONDING MEMBERS
L. CROMPTON (UK), R. HUNT (US), D. JENKINS (NZ), P. JUNIOR (BR), V. NAUMOV (RU),
F. RAHMATIAN (CA), A. REDEKOPP (CA), O. RINTAMÄKI (FI), R. SCHIMMEL (NL)

and / or Non-Conventional Instrument Transformers


Introduction and featuring both station bus (IEC 61850-8-1) and
In 2014, CIGRE Study Committee B5 (Power system process bus (IEC 61850-9-2). The use of digital buses
protection and local control) instigated the formation for the transmission of Sampled Values and Signals
of the Working Group B5.53 to investigate and report adds new test cases to the existing functional tests for
on the state of the art related to Test Strategy for both protection, automation and control functions. The
Protection, Automation and Control functions in a fully design of fully digital SPACS has to take into account
digital substation based on IEC 61850 applications. the constraints related to functional tests after the
The testing of a complete digital functional chain, commissioning of the substation automation systems,
including the use of process-bus for the transmission e.g. in the framework of maintenance.
of the analogue values and station bus for the
transmission of trip orders and other signals has not This Brochure covers all test related aspects of a fully
been covered before by a SC B5 Working Group. digital SPACS and equipment. The tests in all phases
of the lifecycle of these equipment are covered:
The wide spread development and implementation of  Certification (NCIT- Non-Conventional Instrument
IEC 61850 based Substation Protection, Automation Transformers, SAMU – Stand Alone Merging Units,
and Control Systems (SPACS) using predominantly SCU - Switchgear Control Units / protections),
GOOSE messages and client/server communications  Interoperability tests,
has raised the awareness of the industry regarding  Factory Acceptance Tests,
the benefits of communications based systems. At  Commissioning and Site Acceptance Tests,
the same time, the last years have seen a significant  Maintenance tests after commissioning.
change in the availability of stand-alone and embedded
non-conventional Instrument Transformers with IEC Structure of the Technical
61850 sampled values interfaces.
Brochure
For this reason, the testing of fully digital functional The Technical Brochure includes the following main
chains has become an important issue with the chapters:
deployment of IEC 61850-based substations using  §4 describes the SPACS communication system.
Stand Alone Merging Units, Switchgear Control Units This is relevant for testing of full digital SPACS •••

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Figure 1 - Cas d’application présentés pour la Protection contre les Surintensités des artères d’alimentation

 Essais d’interopérabilité, au moyen de plusieurs cas d’application, couvrant


 Essais d'acceptation en usine, une palette de situations d’essai et de périmètre
 Essais de mise en service et d'acceptation sur site, d’essai possibles (cf. Figure 1, Tableau 1).
 Essais de fonctionnement après maintenance.  § 10 et § 11 donnent une vue d’ensemble des
différents types d’essai, allant des essais de
Structure de la Brochure qualification d’une fonction unique, aux essais
de mise en service et aux essais de maintenance
Technique post-mise en service d’un SPACS complet.
La Brochure Technique comporte les chapitres §  § 12 est la synthèse des résultats d’une enquête
importants présentés ci-après : auprès des fournisseurs et des utilisateurs.
 § 4 décrit le système de communication des  § 13 présente la conclusion, des recommandations
SPACS. Pour les essais des SPACS entièrement et les questions importantes qui doivent être
numériques ceci est nécessaire parce qu’un traitées.
même système de communication supporte le
fonctionnement et les essais, qui peuvent aussi se Enquête auprès des utilisateurs
dérouler simultanément. et des fournisseurs
 § 5 donne un aperçu détaillé de tous les aspects
liés aux essais qu’on trouve dans la norme En 2014 une enquête a été diffusée auprès des
CEI 61850. Ceci constitue la base de toutes experts des systèmes de protection et de contrôle de
les applications d’essai portant sur les SPACS l’industrie. En répondant aux questions les utilisateurs
entièrement numériques. et les fournisseurs pouvaient partager leurs idées
 § 6 présente les exigences concernant les outils majeures sur la stratégie d’essai des fonctions des
d’essai et le système d’essai. SPACS dans un poste entièrement numérique mettant
 § 7 traite des moyens de surveillance des en œuvre des applications de la CEI 61850. L’analyse
composants et de leur utilisation éventuelle pour et la synthèse des réponses reçues fournissent
les essais des SPACS. un point de vue sur la manière dont les essais des
 § 8 présente les différents aspects du processus fonctions d’un SPACS entièrement numérique sont
générique d’essai des composants des SPACS ou réalisés au moment de cette enquête, et donnent une
du système complet, en particulier la méthodologie idée de ce pourraient être les tendances à l’avenir.
des essais, les problèmes liés à la configuration, et
la documentation. Les questions formulées portaient sur les sujets
 § 9 illustre le contenu des chapitres précédents importants de l’étude. Elles étaient différentes pour •••

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Figure 1 - Use cases discussed for the Overcurrent Feeder Protection

since the same communication system supports and control system experts of our industry. Through
SPACS operation and testing, which may take answering the questions, the users and the vendors
place at the same time. could share their main points of view on test strategy
 §5 gives a detailed overview over all test related for SPACS functions in a fully digital substation based
features contained in the IEC 61850 standard. This on IEC 61850 applications. The summary and analysis
lays the base for all test applications in fully digital of the obtained answers provides an insight on how
SPACS. testing of functions in fully digital SPACS was done at
 §6 describes the requirements for the testing tools the time of the survey, and gives an idea of what might
and the testing system. be the trends for the future.
 §7 discuss the monitoring of SPACS components
and its possible use for SPACS testing. The formulation of the questions was based on the
 §8 describes different aspects of the generic testing main topics of this study. Different questions were sent
process of parts of the SPACS or the complete to the users such as utilities and system integrators
system, including test methodology, issues related and to the vendors, as they are supposed to have
to configuration and documentation. different views on this topic. The questions mainly
 §9 illustrates the discussion of the previous cover the IEC 61850 ed. 2 the availability and the use
chapters with several use cases, covering a variety of test related features.
of possible test situations and test perimeters (cf.
Figure 1, Figure 2). The User Survey has highlighted a demand for user-
 §10 and §11 give an overview over the different configurable LD defined by the users containing
types of test, ranging from qualification tests of a standard LN classes, instead of pre-defined LN and LD
single function to commissioning tests and post- by vendors without a possibility to change. Also, some
commissioning maintenance tests of a complete flexibility in the naming of the LN/LD was requested.
SPACS.
 §12 summarises the results of the vendor and user Main findings and
survey.
 §13 gives the conclusion including
recommendations
recommendations and sensitive issues to be Testing of SPACS at its most basic is the creation
addressed. of simulated inputs to a function or device to verify
the operation and performance expectations taking
User and Vendor Survey into account the type of test and the traffic on the
communication network. When testing a fully digital
In 2014, a survey was circulated among the protection substation, it is necessary to create simulated data •••

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Tableau 1 - Extrait de la description détaillée des cas d’application présentés pour la Protection contre les Surintensités des artères d’alimentation

Domaine testé Objectif Arrangement d’essai et étapes d’essai

Tester le nœud Tester le nœud Un interrupteur unique peut être utilisé


logique logique PTOC sans PTOC1.Beh = ON,
interface avec le LPHD1.Sim = FALSE
processus 1- Injection des grandeurs échantillonnées (SV) avec le système d’essai
(simulation = FALSE)
2- Vérification de la sortie GOOSE de LN (PTOC1.Op.general, PTOC1.
Op.q) [PTOC1.Op.q.test = FALSE])
3- Vérification du temps de fonctionnement

Tester une Tester la fonction Un interrupteur unique peut être utilisé


fonction (PTOC+ PTRC) cpLD.Mod = ON,
(par ex. au sans MU et SCU PTOC1.Mod= ON, PTRC1.Mod= ON
niveau d’un  PTOC1.Beh = ON,
dispositif
logique) PTRC1.Beh = ON

LPHD1.Sim = FALSE
1- Injection des SV avec le système d’essai ( (simulation = FALSE).
2- Vérification de la sortie GOOSE de LN (PTRC1.Tr.general, PTRC1.
Tr.q) [PTRC1.Tr.q.test = FALSE])
3- Vérification du temps de fonctionnement

les utilisateurs, tels que les compagnies d’électricité et La réalisation des essais fonctionnels du système,
les intégrateurs, et les fournisseurs, qui sont censés tout particulièrement des essais de maintenance mais
avoir des points de vue différents sur ces sujets. Ces aussi des essais d’acceptation en usine (FAT) ou sur
questions se rapportaient essentiellement à la CEI site (SAT), implique que la configuration du système
61850 éd. 2, à la disponibilité et à l'utilisation des soit préparée pour permettre ces essais. Le concept
aspects relatifs aux essais. de réalisation des essais doit être défini par l’utilisateur
dans les premières étapes du projet, puisque cela
Les réponses des utilisateurs ont fait ressortir un besoin induit des exigences supplémentaires qui impactent
de LD (Logic Devices) définis par les utilisateurs et la conception et la configuration. Cela signifie qu’il
configurables par eux, qui contiennent des classes de faut tester toutes ces dispositions pendant les FAT.
LN (Logic Nodes) normalisées, plutôt que des LN et Considérant que le SPACS et l’équipement de test
LD prédéfinis par les fournisseurs et sans possibilité constitue un système, la connectivité entre les deux
de modification. Une certaine souplesse dans la doit être prise en compte dans la conception, dans la
dénomination des LN/LD a été aussi demandée. topologie du réseau et dans les configurations.

Enseignements et Parmi les aspects qui sont critiques dans les essais
des SPACS entièrement numériques basés sur la CEI
recommandations importants 61850, on peut mentionner :
Dans sa forme la plus basique l’essai des SPACS  Une compréhension approfondie de la mise en
consiste à créer des grandeurs simulées à l’entrée œuvre des dispositions d’essai basées sur la CEI
d’une fonction ou d’un dispositif, pour vérifier que 61850 dans les composants IED des SPACS, de la
le fonctionnement et les performances attendues, part du concepteur et du responsable des essais,
en tenant compte de la nature de l’essai et du flux est nécessaire pour garantir qu’ils pourront être
sur le réseau de communication. Quand on teste testés.
un poste entièrement numérique, il est nécessaire  Une parfaite compréhension des possibilités du
de créer des données simulées qui seront des système d’essai est nécessaire.
grandeurs d’entrée pour des Nœuds Logiques ou des  L’impact des flux de données de SV (Sampled
Dispositifs Logiques spécifiques. Pour produire des Values) créées par le système d’essai doit être
données de simulation pour les essais, il faut utiliser pris en compte dans la conception du réseau de
un message de donnée que le SPACS peut accepter communication des SPACS. Ceci est important
et transmettre. Ceci impose que le système d’essai pour les essais de maintenance pendant lesquels
produise des messages qui soient construits selon les les flux de SV d’essai s’ajoutent aux flux de SV en
définitions de la CEI 61850, et qu’ils soient inclus dans provenance du processus.
la configuration des SPACS.  Conformément à la CEI 61850 les fonctions •••

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Table 1 - Extract of the detailed description of the use cases related to the Overcurrent Feeder Protection

Tested Scope Purpose Test setup and test steps


Testing of the Testing of the Single switch can be used
Logical Node PTOC Logical PTOC1.Beh = ON,
Node without LPHD1.Sim = FALSE
interface to the
process 1- Injection of SV with test set (simulation = FALSE)
2- Verification of the output GOOSE from LN (PTOC1.Op.general, PTOC1.
Op.q) [PTOC1.Op.q.test = FALSE])
3- Verification of the operating time

Function testing Testing of the Single switch can be used


(e.g. Logical function (PTOC+ ocpLD.Mod = ON,
Device level) PTRC) without MU PTOC1.Mod= ON, PTRC1.Mod= ON
and SCU  PTOC1.Beh = ON,
PTRC1.Beh = ON

LPHD1.Sim = FALSE

1- Injection of SV with test set (simulation = FALSE).


2- Verification of the output GOOSE from LN (PTRC1.Tr.general, PTRC1.
Tr.q) [PTRC1.Tr.q.test = FALSE])
3- Verification of the operating time

as inputs to specific Logical Nodes or Logical Devices. SV streams are added to the SV stream coming
In order to publish simulated data for testing, it is from the process.
necessary to use a data message which the SPACS  According to IEC 61850, functions may subscribe
communication network can accept and transmit. This to and process at the same time signals coming
requires that the test system publishes messages from the test system and from the actual process.
based on the definitions of IEC 61850 and included in This has to be taken into account in the test
the configuration of the SPACS. procedure.
 In order to achieve interoperability and enable
Functional testing of the system, especially for testing, functions must properly implement the data
maintenance testing, but also during FAT and SAT, quality processing rules as given in IEC 61850.
requires the preparation of the system configuration to Only if all functions participating in a scheme are
support testing. The testing concept must be defined processing data quality (e.g. validity, test, source...)
by the user at an early stage of the project, since this in the same understanding, an effective isolation
comes with additional requirements impacting the and testing of a function can be reached. The
system design and the configuration. This includes quality attribute should be a mandatory member of
the need to test all of these features during FAT. all datasets.
Thinking of the SPACS and the test equipment as  Regarding Time Synchronisation and Accuracy
a system, the connectivity between the two must be of instrument transformers, SAMU and NCIT,
considered in the design, the network topology and in the concerned process interface devices must
the configurations. properly implement the rules as given in IEC
61850-9-3 (PTP) and IEC 61869. This covers loss
Issues which are critical for testing in fully digital IEC and recovery of time synchronisation and steady
61850 based SPACS include: state and transient characteristics of SAMU and
 A full understanding by the designer and by the NCIT.
tester of the implementation of the IEC 61850
based test features in the IED part of the SPACS The following points are not completely addressed
is required in order to ensure the capability for its today in the relevant parts of IEC 61850 and need to
testing. be clarified:
 A full understanding of the capabilities of the test  The behaviour of a function which is dynamically
system is required. blocked (Blk) should be described.
 The impact of SV data streams created by the test  The Simulation Flag described in IEC 61850 is
system has to be taken into account in the design applicable to the Physical Device and defines
of the SPACS communication network. This is the processing of the data by its communication
important for maintenance testing, where the test processor. This somehow limits the use of the •••

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peuvent souscrire aux signaux issus du système nombre de fonctions et de données doivent être
de test et du processus principal, et les traiter ajoutées dans la CEI 61850-7-4 pour permettre
simultanément. Ceci doit être pris en compte dans une description complète des échanges entre le
la procédure d’essai. SPACS et le système de test dans SCL. Ceci est
 Pour assurer l’interopérabilité et permettre les nécessaire pour permettre un développement des
essais, les fonctions doivent mettre en œuvre de SPACS basé sur des essais et pour faciliter la
façon appropriée les règles de traitement de la préparation et la réalisation des essais.
qualité des données, telles que données dans la
CEI 61850. C’est seulement si toutes les fonctions Au niveau de la conception d’un SPACS les aspects
participant à une configuration traitent la qualité suivants contribuent à permettre ou à faciliter les
des données avec la même interprétation (c. à d. essais :
validité, essai, source…), qu’une isolation et un  Un supplément de largeur de bande pour les SV
essai efficaces d’une fonction peut être obtenu. injectés et le flux d’essai de GOOSE doit être
L’attribut qualité doit un membre obligatoire de réservé.
tous les ensembles de données.  Des ports de commutation additionnels doivent
 Quant à la synchronisation temporelle et à être prévus pour connecter les systèmes d’essai.
la précision des transformateurs de mesure, Ils doivent être désactivés en fonctionnement
des SAMU et NCIT, les dispositifs d’interface normal pour des raisons de cyber sécurité.
des processus concernés doivent appliquer  Les éléments liés aux essais pris en compte dans
correctement les règles données dans la CEI un IED doivent être listés dans la documentation
61850-9-3 (PTP) et dans la CEI 61869. Ceci couvre technique du dispositif. Leur description complète
la perte et le rétablissement de la synchronisation doit être fournie dans le manuel d’utilisation.
temporelle, et les caractéristiques des SAMU et  Un document décrivant les dispositions d’essais
des NCIT en régime établi et en régime transitoire. disponibles et les procédures d’essai d’un projet
de SPACS doit être créé et faire partie intégrante
Les aspects suivants ne sont pas aujourd’hui de la documentation.
complètement traités dans les points correspondants  L’interface homme machine (HMI) doit pouvoir
de la CEI 61850, et appellent une clarification : prendre en charge les dispositions d’essai liées
 Le comportement d’une fonction qui est bloquée à la CEI 61850 basées sur le fichier SDL, telles
dynamiquement (Blk) devrait être décrite. que la commutation des LD/LN en mode essai et
 Le Drapeau de Simulation décrit dans la CEI la présentation des données relatives aux essais.
61850 s’applique au dispositif physique et définit Ceci doit être basé sur la future CEI 61850-6-2.
le traitement des données par son processeur  Si la mise en œuvre des Control Blocks des
de communication. Ceci limite d’une certaine grandeurs échantillonnées dans les Unités de
manière l’utilisation du Drapeau de Simulation Concentration permet de présenter plus d’un flux
pour les essais de maintenance, parce que les de données d’un même contenu, mais avec des
Dispositifs Logiques (LD) ne peuvent pas être identifiants différents, et si la capacité de traitement
testés indépendamment des autres Dispositifs de l’IED Client permet de souscrire à plusieurs
Logiques dans le même IED, qui peut devoir flux simultanément, il est possible d’assigner aux
rester opérationnel. Il pourrait donc être utile fonctions individuelles différents flux SV.
d’être capable d’utiliser le Drapeau Simulation  La conception des IED doit permettre de traiter
pour un seul LD uniquement (et non seulement au un modèle d’échange de données dérivé d’un
niveau d’un dispositif physique). Cette question va modèle de communication abstrait. Ceci facilitera
devenir plus importante avec l’accroissement de la préparation de la virtualisation des fonctions.
l’intégration des fonctions dans les SPACS.
 Il serait utile de mettre en œuvre la possibilité de Au-delà de la question de la conception des SPACS
commuter les grandeurs échantillonnées (SV) au eux-mêmes, les utilisateurs doivent savoir que
niveau des IED, des LD ou des LN. Ceci consiste à l’approche des essais basés sur la CEI 61850 demande
donner la possibilité de choisir la source de SV qui une expertise supplémentaire et une formation du
doit être utilisée par une fonction et ceci pourrait personnel d’essai. Elle peut aussi avoir un impact sur
être réalisé par une extension de InRef. la philosophie de la réalisation des essais, sur leur
 La modélisation d’un système de test n’est organisation et sur la formation du personnel. 
pas prise en charge dans la norme. Un certain

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Simulation for maintenance tests as Logical must be listed in the technical documentation of
Devices cannot be tested independently from the device. Their full description must be given in
other Logical Devices (LD) in the same IED who the user manual.
may have to stay operational. It might thus also be  A document describing the available test features
useful to be able to use Simulation for individual LD and test procedures for a SPACS project has to be
(and not only Physical Device level). This issue will created as part of the project documentation.
become more important as Functional Integration  The HMI should support the IEC 61850 related test
in SPACS increases. features based on the SCD file, such as switching
 It would be useful to implement the capability of LD/LN to test mode and reading out test related
Sampled Value (SV) switching on IED, LD or LN information. This should be based on the future
level. This consists in choosing the input source of IEC 61850-6-2.
SV to be used by a function and could be achieved  If the implementation of Sampled Value Control
by an extension of InRef. Blocks in Merging Units allows publishing of more
 The modelling of the test system is not supported than one data stream of the same content but with
in the standard. A number of functions and data different identifiers, and the processing capability
need to be added in IEC 61850-7-4 to allow the full of the subscribing IED allows to subscribe to
description of the exchanges between the SPACS a number of SV streams simultaneously, then
and the test system in SCL. This is required to individual functions could be assigned different SV
enable the test-based engineering of SPACS and streams to subscribe to.
to facilitate the preparation and realisation of tests.  The design of IEDs should support a data exchange
model derived from an abstract communication
The following features in the design of a SPACS help model. This will help to prepare the virtualisation of
to enable or support testing: functions.
 Additional bandwidth for injected SV and GOOSE
test streams has to be reserved. Beyond the design of the SPACS itself, users have to
 Additional switch ports should be provided to be aware that IEC 61850 based test approach calls
connect test systems. They should be disabled in for additional knowledge and training for the test staff.
normal operation for cyber security reasons. Also, there may be an impact on testing philosophy,
 The testing related features supported in an IED the organisation of testing and training. 

BROCHURE N° 760

(en anglais seulement)

(in English only)

Disponible sur / Available on:

www.e-cigre.org

Prix non-Membres / Non-Member Price:

300 €

Purchase (non-members)

Free download (members)

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 59


761 GT A2.49
brochure thématique

Evaluation d’état des


transformateurs de puissance

MEMBRES
P. COLE, Chef de file (AU), T.L. MACARTHUR, Secrétaire (AU), C. BEAUCHEMIN (CA),
C. BECKETT (AU), E. TENYENHUIS (CA), R. WILLOUGHBY (AU), L. LIDEN (SE), M. VERMEER (NL),
B. SPARLING (CA), P. PICHER (CA), T. MCGRAIL (US), S. MOHAMMAD (IN), N. MOODLEY (ZA),
W. FLEISCHMANN (DE), M. FOATA (DE), A. SBRAVATI (US), T. PREVOST (US),
B.N. DE BHOWMICK (IN), P. JARMAN (GB), A. MUDRYK (UA), M.A. MARTINS (PT),
D. WALKER (GB), T.V. SRIDHAR (IN), U. THIESS (DE), J. WATSON (US),
Y. FUSE (JP), M. KRUEGER (AT), J. ROUX (FR), B. NEMETH (HU)
AUTRE CONTRIBUTEUR
L. MAUGAIN (FR)

Introduction d’actifs et des besoins d’évaluation d’état pour les


L’objectif central du Groupe de Travail A2.49 (GT transformateurs ;
A2.49) était d’analyser les informations qui étaient  Une analyse des différents types d’index, de la
utilisées pour déterminer des Index d’Evaluation d’un manière dont on peut les construire, et de leurs
Transformateur, la manière de les consolider, et les limitations ;
usages auxquels les résultats pouvaient être destinés.  Des instructions sur le traitement des informations
manquantes ou dépassées, avec des exemples ;
De nombreux gestionnaires d’actifs utilisent  Des exemples détaillés d’établissement de différents
couramment un « Index de Santé » pour hiérarchiser les types d’index, dont des index de remplacement, de
remplacements des ouvrages. Mais dans de nombreux rénovation et de réparation ;
cas l’index ne fournit aucune indication sur le délai dans  Des directives portant sur les composants de
lequel il faudra intervenir sur les transformateurs les transformateur importants qu’il faut prendre en
plus malades de la liste, pas plus qu’il ne donne une compte quand on établit un index d’évaluation de
quelconque indication sur la nature de l’intervention la transformateur, ainsi que sur les techniques de
plus appropriée, c. à d. les remplacer, les réparer, ou maintenance appropriées.
les rénover. Beaucoup des index ne peuvent pas non
plus fournir une indication quelconque sur le degré de La BT est conçue pour être utilisée dans le cadre
confiance que le gestionnaire des actifs peut accorder d’une planification à long terme des actifs. Les index
à l’évaluation donnée par l’index. d’évaluation de transformateur ne sont pas destinés à
la prise de décision d’actions à court et moyen termes :
La Brochure Technique (BT) produite pat le GT A2.49 si l’état détecté lors de l’évaluation d’un transformateur
constitue un guide exhaustif sur la construction d’index annonce une défaillance imminente une action rapide
d’évaluation des transformateurs, destinés à différents doit être prise.
objectifs d’amélioration des résultats de la gestion
des transformateurs. Il constitue une des parties de Description de la Brochure
la série des étapes importantes de la gestion des Technique
transformateurs présentée dans la BT 445 du CIGRE
«  Guide pour la maintenance des transformateurs ». La BT se compose de deux grandes parties. La
Elle constitue également un guide de référence sur les première est un guide très complet sur l’évaluation
modes de défaillance des transformateurs et sur les des transformateurs et l’établissement des index
évaluations d'état les plus adaptées. d’évaluation d’état des transformateurs. La seconde
traite des modes de défaillance de tous les composants
Dans la BT on trouvera : importants des transformateurs et des techniques
 Une rapide présentation d’ensemble de la gestion d’évaluation qui s’y rapportent. •••

60 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


WG A2.49
technical brochure 761
Condition assessment of power
transformers

MEMBERS
P. COLE, Convenor (AU), T.L. MACARTHUR, Secretary (AU), C. BEAUCHEMIN (CA),
C. BECKETT (AU), E. TENYENHUIS (CA), R. WILLOUGHBY (AU), L. LIDEN (SE), M. VERMEER (NL),
B. SPARLING (CA), P. PICHER (CA), T. MCGRAIL (US), S. MOHAMMAD (IN), N. MOODLEY (ZA),
W. FLEISCHMANN (DE), M. FOATA (DE), A. SBRAVATI (US),
T. PREVOST (US), B.N. DE BHOWMICK (IN), P. JARMAN (GB), A. MUDRYK (UA), M.A. MARTINS (PT),
D. WALKER (GB), T.V. SRIDHAR (IN), U. THIEß (DE), J. WATSON (US),
Y. FUSE (JP), M. KRUEGER (AT), J. ROUX (FR), B. NEMETH (HU)
OTHER CONTRIBUTORS
L. MAUGAIN (FR)

Introduction indices, including replacement, refurbishment and


repair indices, and
The focus of Working Group A2.49 (WG A2.49) was  Guidance on key transformer components that
to investigate information used to derive Transformer should be considered when building a transformer
Assessment Indices, its consolidation, and the uses to assessment index, along with suitable diagnostic
which the output can be utilised. techniques.

Many asset managers currently use a ‘Health Index’ The TB is intended to be used for medium to long term
for prioritising asset replacement. However, in many asset planning. Transformer assessment indices are
cases the index does not provide any indication of not intended to assist in short term/operational decision
how quickly the worst transformers on the list need to making. If a condition indicating imminent failure is
be actioned, nor does it provide any indication of the detected during a transformer assessment, prompt
most appropriate action needed i.e. replace, repair action should be taken.
or refurbish. Many indices also fail to provide any
indication of the confidence that the asset manager Description of the Technical
should have in the assessments in the index. Brochure
The Technical Brochure (TB) developed by WG The TB is divided into two main sections; the first section
A2.49 is a comprehensive guide to the development is a comprehensive guide to transformer assessment
of transformer assessment indices for different and the development of transformer assessment
purposes to improve transformer management indices. The second section discuss the failure modes
outcomes. It forms part of the key series of steps for and relevant assessment techniques for all the main
transformer management outlined in CIGRE’s Guide elements of the transformer.
for Transformer Maintenance (TB 445). It also serves
as a reference guide to transformer failure modes and The first chapter covers the fundamentals of
suitable condition assessment techniques. transformer condition assessment and how transformer
assessment indices may assist in addressing the
The TB includes: problems faced by asset managers.
 A brief overview of transformer asset management
and condition assessment requirements; The second and third chapters give an overview
 Analysis of different types of indices, how they may of transformer assessment and the development of
be constructed, and their limitations; transformer assessment indices, including:
 Guidance on dealing with missing or obsolete 1. The most common types of transformer
information, including examples; assessment indices, and the key steps required to
 Detailed examples on developing different types of develop these indices; •••

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Le premier chapitre traite des fondamentaux de défaillance, des mécanismes de défaillance, et des
l’évaluation d’état des transformateurs, et explique méthodes de diagnostic applicables pour chacun
comment les index d’état des transformateurs peuvent des composants principaux des transformateurs.
aider à répondre aux problèmes que rencontrent les Ces chapitres sont consacrés aux parties actives
gestionnaires d’actifs. des transformateurs (chapitre 8), aux composants
importants tels que les traversées (chapitre 9) et les
Les deuxième et troisième chapitres donnent une changeurs de prises en charge (OLTC – chapitre 9), aux
vue d’ensemble de l’évaluation des transformateurs autres composants tels que la cuve et les équipements
et de la construction des index d’évaluation des auxiliaires (chapitre 11), et au liquide isolant (chapitre
transformateurs, avec en particulier : 12). Le contenu de ces chapitres correspond pour
1. Les types d’index d’évaluation de transformateur l’essentiel à un savoir existant, tiré de nombreuses
les plus courants, et les étapes clés de publications, rapports et normes, et il sert de corpus
l’établissement de ces index ; de référence pour l’évaluation des transformateurs et
2. L’établissement des différents index associés aux l’établissement des index.
différents objectifs, par ex. index de fiabilité, index
de remplacement, index de rénovation et index de L’annexe A contient une série de tableaux pour
réparation ; l’évaluation des transformateurs. L’annexe B
3. Les limitations propres aux index d’évaluation ; est consacrée à des exemples très complets
4. Les utilisations des index pour les décisions de d’établissement d’index d’évaluation. L’annexe C fait
gestion des actifs. un point de la bibliographie et donne un vue d’ensemble
des publications touchant aux travaux du GT A2.49.
Bien qu’une connaissance exhaustive d’un actif soit L’annexe D donne les références des principales
l’idéal quand on évalue un transformateur, il n’est normes relatives aux liquides isolants, et l’annexe E
pas toujours pratique ou économique d’obtenir tous donne des détails complémentaires sur les publications
les résultats des essais et toutes les informations référencées dans la BT.
de diagnostic possibles pour l’ensemble des
transformateurs. Dans le quatrième chapitre on traite Etablissement d’un index
des différentes techniques qu’on peut utiliser pour gérer De nombreux gestionnaires d’actifs utilisent leur «
l’absence d’informations (incertitude de l’index), parmi index de santé » pour les aider à déterminer quels
lesquelles des techniques subjectives et quantitatives. transformateurs de leur parc doivent être remplacés.
Le chapitre 4 présente également plusieurs exemples Mais certains transformateurs « non sains » peuvent
d’application de ces techniques. être réparés (relativement) facilement et n’ont pas
besoin d’être remplacés ; mais dans beaucoup de cas
Le chapitre 5 traite des systèmes de surveillance « l’index de santé » a été mis en place seulement pour
en ligne et de leur apport dans l’établissement et la identifier les transformateurs dans le plus mauvais
maintenance des index d’évaluation des transformateurs, état, sans suggérer l’action la plus appropriée. Par
où des volumes importants de données peuvent être conséquent un « index de santé » général peut ne pas
disponibles pour l’évaluation de certains modes de être l’outil idéal pour déterminer un remplacement de
défaillances les plus critiques d’un transformateur. On transformateur.
note dans le chapitre qu’une évaluation ou un index
basés uniquement sur des données en ligne peuvent ne Il est important d’être clair sur la question à laquelle un
pas couvrir tous les modes de défaut intéressants, et que index doit répondre. La question « quels transformateurs
pour une évaluation plus exhaustive les informations en de mon réseau présentent la plus forte probabilité d’être
ligne peuvent être utilisées en conjonction avec d’autres défaillants ? » est très différente de la question « Quels
informations de diagnostic. transformateurs sont susceptibles d’être remplacés ? ».
Dans le cas de la première question il faut prendre en
Le chapitre 6 s’intéresse à la criticité des actifs et compte tous les mécanismes de défaillance possibles,
à d’autres questions qu’il faut prendre en compte alors que dans le cas de la seconde on peut ne pas
quand exploite les résultats d’une évaluation de tenir compte des mécanismes de défaillance dont la
transformateur. correction peut se faire par une intervention autre qu’un
remplacement de transformateur. L’objectif de l’index
Dans le chapitre 7 expose des méthodes qu’on peut doit être pris en compte quand on détermine quels
utiliser pour estimer la probabilité de défaillance à partir modes ou mécanismes de défaillance doivent être
d’un index d’évaluation et on montre que la probabilité intégrés dans l’index en cours d’établissement. Dans
de défaillance estimée dépend fortement des la Figure 1 on montre un certain nombre de modes de
hypothèses faites dans l’établissement de l’estimation. défaillance d’un OLTC, et on voit comment ces modes
de défaillance peuvent être en compte dans un certain
Dans les chapitres 8 à 12 on traite des modes de nombre d’index différents. •••

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2. Development of different indices for different principal standards related to insulating liquids; and
purposes e.g. reliability index, replacement index, Annex E provides details of publications referenced in
refurbishment index and repair index; the TB.
3. Limitations of transformer assessment indices,
and Developing an Index
4. Using indices for asset management decisions. Many asset managers use their ‘health index’ to help
determine which transformers in their fleet to replace.
Whilst comprehensive asset knowledge is ideal when However, some “unhealthy” transformers can be
assessing a transformer, it is not always practical or (relatively) easily repaired and therefore do not need
cost-effective to obtain all possible test results and to be replaced; but in many cases the ‘health index’
diagnostic information for all transformers. The fourth has been developed only to identify the transformers
chapter covers various techniques that can be used to in the poorest condition, without suggesting the most
manage missing information (uncertainty in the index), appropriate action. A general ‘health’ index may
including subjective and quantitative techniques. therefore not be the ideal tool to determine transformer
Chapter 4 also includes several examples of the replacement.
application of these techniques.
It is important to be clear about the question that an index
Chapter 5 discusses the role of on-line monitoring needs to answer. The question, ‘which transformers on
systems in the development and maintenance of my system are more likely to fail?’ is very different to the
transformer assessment indices, where significant question ‘which transformers should be considered for
volumes of data may be available for the assessment of replacement?’ The first question would generally take
some of the more critical failure modes of a transformer. account of all the possible failure mechanisms, whereas
The chapter notes that an assessment or index based the second question could exclude mechanisms
only on on-line data may not cover all failure modes of that can be corrected by an intervention other than
interest, and that the on-line information can be used transformer replacement. The purpose of the index
in conjunction with other diagnostic information for a should be considered when determining which failure
more complete assessment. modes/mechanisms should be included in the index
being developed. Figure 1 shows a number of failures
Chapter 6 covers asset criticality and other issues that modes of an OLTC; and how these failure modes could
should be considered when applying the results of a be included into a number of different indices.
transformer assessment.
In the TB, the term ‘Transformer Assessment Index’
Chapter 7 illustrates methods that could be used to (TAI) is used as a generic term for the many types of
estimate the probability of failure from a transformer indices that can be developed e.g. Replacement Index
assessment index and shows that the estimated or Repair Index. The construction of these indices
probability of failure is very dependent upon the would generally be different. The TB discusses these
assumptions made in developing the estimate. concepts in detail and includes examples. Different
methods for developing indices are included and
Chapters 8 through 12 discuss the failure modes, discussed.
failure mechanisms, and diagnostic methods applicable
to each of the main transformer components. These The five key steps to develop a TAI are:
chapters discuss the transformer active part (Chapter 1. Determine the purpose of the Transformer
8), key components such as bushings (Chapter Assessment Score and Index
9) and onload tapchangers (OLTC – Chapter 10), 2. Identify the transformer components and failure
other components such as the tank and ancillary modes to be included in the TAI
components (Chapter 11), and the insulating liquid 3. Determine how each failure mode will be assessed
(Chapter 12). These chapters are mostly comprised 4. Design a calibrated system for categorising failure
of existing knowledge, compiled from numerous modes (scoring matrix), and
brochures, papers and standards, and serves as a 5. Develop a scoring system and calculate a TAI
body of reference for the assessment of transformers Score for each Transformer.
and the development of indices.
It should be noted that some users, particularly those
Annex A includes a series of tables for transformer with smaller fleets, or those performing a detailed
assessment. Annex B includes comprehensive assessment on a single transformer, may not want or
examples of the construction of assessment indices. need an index to allow transformers to be ranked. In
Annex C is a literature review which provides a brief this case Steps 14 can be followed. This will result in
overview of a number of publications related to WG the relevant failure modes of each transformer being
A2.49’s work. Annex D provides reference to the assessed and categorised in a consistent way. •••

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Figure 1 – Evaluation des modes de défaillance des OLTC, et leur intégration dans les index. Dans cet exemple, l’état de l’huile de l’OLTC,
bien que mauvais, n’est pas intégré dans un index de remplacement parce qu’il peut être facilement corrigé

Dans la BT le terme « Index d’Evaluation des pour le mode de défaillance. Il est essentiel que les
Transformateurs » (TAI) est utilisé de façon générique scores soient aussi cohérents que possible. Une matrice
pour les différents types d’index qui peuvent être établis, de classement est par conséquent recommandée pour
c. à d. index de remplacement ou index de réparation. guider les utilisateurs quand ils établissent les scores.
L’établissement de ces index sera en général différent. Les utilisateurs peuvent mettre au point leur propre
Dans la BT on débat de ces concepts dans le détail, avec matrice de classement et définir autant de niveaux
des exemples ; différentes méthodes d’établissement qu’ils le souhaitent. Le Groupe de Travail a développé
des index y figurent et sont discutées. une matrice de classement (Figure 2), qui peut être
utilisée quand on détermine le score pour chaque
Les cinq étapes clés d’établissement d’un TAI sont : mode ou mécanisme de défaillance. Cette matrice de
1. Déterminer l’objectif du bilan de l’évaluation des classement a été utilisée dans l’ensemble de la BT,
transformateurs et des index ; mais dans certains cas elle a été réaménagée pour être
2. Identifier les composants des transformateurs et adaptée aux différents composants du transformateur.
des modes de défaillance qui sont à intégrer dans Il faut noter que pour assurer un classement, et un
le TAI ; résultat qui ait un sens, les termes « court terme »,
3. Déterminer comment chaque mode de défaillance « moyen terme », etc. (qui sont utilisés dans les
sera évalué ; matrices de classement), doivent être remplacés par
4. Concevoir un système calibré pour catégoriser les des échelles de temps choisies par l’utilisateur.
modes de défaillance (matrice de classification) ;
5. Mettre au point un système de notation et calculer Méthodes de calcul du score
un score TAI pour chaque transformateur. d'évaluation d'un transformateur
Il faut mentionner que certains utilisateurs, en particulier Certains index d’évaluation utilisent un simple système
ceux dont les parcs sont les plus petits, ou ceux réalisant de score numérique, dans lequel les scores de chaque
une évaluation détaillée d’un seul transformateur, mode ou mécanisme de défaillance sont additionnés
peuvent ne pas rechercher ou n’ont pas besoin d’index pour calculer le score total du transformateur. Dans
qui permettent d’interclasser les transformateurs. Dans certains cas on applique des facteurs de pondération
ce cas seules les étapes 1 à 4 peuvent être exécutées. à certains modes de défaillance. Ce système
Cela conduira à ce que les modes de défaillance peut convenir à des utilisateurs, mais quand un
intéressants de chaque transformateur auront été transformateur présente un mode de défaillance
évalués et interclassés de manière cohérente. avancé ceci n’est pas toujours mis en évidence dans
l’index, surtout si le transformateur est par ailleurs en
Matrice de classement bon état. Dans le cas d’un transformateur présentant
Pour déterminer un score pour un transformateur, un seul mode avancé de défaillance, l’usage des
chaque mode ou mécanisme de défaillance qui est facteurs de pondération peut même rendre l’index
inclus dans l’index doit d’abord être évalué en utilisant moins lisible, si les autres modes de défaillance,
les données disponibles, puis un score sera déterminé pour lequel le transformateur est en bon état, sont •••

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Figure 1 – Assessment of OLTC Failure modes, and their inclusion in indices. In this example, OLTC oil condition, while poor,
is not included in a Replacement index as it is easily rectified.

Scoring Matrix The TB details a number of scoring systems that can be


To determine a score for a transformer, each failure used to present the results from a fleet of transformers.
mode/mechanism that is included in the index must A number of simple options are detailed, along with a
firstly be assessed using the available data, then a number of more complex options which will be more
score determined for the failure mode. It is essential difficult to calculate and interpret but will provide more
that scores are as consistent as possible. A scoring useful information. Options which combine a number
matrix is therefore recommended to guide users when of simple methods can also be used e.g. a worst-case
allocating scores. Users can develop their own scoring score to highlight the most advanced failure mode and
matrix and include as many levels as they wish. The urgency for action, can be combined with a simple
Working Group has developed a generic scoring numeric score which shows the average condition of
matrix (Figure 2) which can be used when determining the transformer.
the score for each failure mode/mechanism. The
scoring matrix has been used throughout the TB but Confidence in the Assessment
in some cases, it has been customised to suit different All assessments of transformers include an unavoidable
components of the transformer. Note that to ensure level of uncertainty. This level of uncertainty may
consistent scoring, and a meaningful result, the terms be from many causes, including variable rates of
‘short term’, ‘medium term’ etc. (which are used in the degradation, or outdated or unavailable assessment
scoring matrices), must be replaced with appropriate data. The user of a transformer assessment or index
time scales selected by the user. should always consider the basic level of uncertainty
of their assessments. If too much confidence is given
Methods of calculating a transformer to the assessment result, incorrect decisions might be
assessment score taken, e.g. a bad assessment result may have led to a
Some assessment indices use a simple numeric replacement decision where in reality, taking additional
scoring system, where scores from each failure mode/ time to increase the amount of available information
mechanism are simply added together to calculate a may have resulted in a different decision. Therefore,
transformer’s total score. In some cases, weighting an indication of the uncertainty should be part of the
factors are used for some failure modes. Although this decision-making process.
system may suit some users, transformers with an
advanced failure mode are not always highlighted in It would be preferable if a transformer is able to be
the index, particularly if the transformer is otherwise in assessed and an assessment score generated, even
good condition. The use of weighting factors may make if some data is missing or does not match the required
a transformer with a single advanced failure mode attributes. Whilst it would be ideal to be able to conduct
less obvious in the index, if failure modes assessed as additional condition assessment to obtain the missing
being in good condition are weighted. Furthermore, the information, this is not always practical. A number of
score from a simple scoring system will not give a clear methods are available to estimate the missing data, with
indication of how urgently highlighted problems need to different levels of complexity. These include statistical
be addressed. inference, imputation or simply using a default value. •••

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Mettre hors service aussitôt que possible. Ne pas remettre en service jusqu’à réparation du problème.
F
Le composant est en fin de vie
Très mauvais état – forte probabilité de défaillance. Composant près de sa fin de vie. Une réduction de
E puissance nominale, ou des restrictions de fonctionnement peuvent être appropriées. Le fonctionnement
sous conditions extrêmes peut ne pas être acceptable jusqu’à ce que le remplacement soit possible

Mauvais état. Penser à réparer ou remplacer à court terme. Le fonctionnement fiable peut être empêché
D ou compromis. Le fonctionnement ou le composant peuvent être en train d’avoir des effets néfastes.
Penser à revoir la puissance maximale et les conditions de fonctionnement.

Etat acceptable, avec signes importants de vieillissement ou de détérioration. Fonctionnement fiable


C
attendu sur le moyen terme, mais envisager une maintenance basée sur l’état, si c’est faisable.

Bon état. Quelques signes de vieillissement ou de détérioration sont évidents.


B
Fonctionnement fiable attendu sur le long terme.
A Signes faibles de vieillissement ou de détérioration. Presque comme état neuf

Figure 2 – Exemple d’une matrice de classification

pondérés. En outre on ne peut pas avec un simple conduire une évaluation d’état complémentaire pour
système de notation donner une indication claire sur obtenir les informations manquantes, ceci n’est pas
l’urgence de l’intervention qu’appellent les problèmes toujours faisable en pratique. Un certain nombre de
décelés. méthodes sont disponibles pour estimer les données
manquantes, à des niveaux de complexité variables,
La BT expose de façon détaillée un certain nombre de parmi lesquelles l’inférence statistique, l’imputation ou
systèmes de notation qu’on peut utiliser pour présenter tout simplement une valeur par défaut. Ces méthodes
la situation d’un parc de transformateurs. Un certain sont examinées en détail dans la BT, avec des
nombre d’options simples sont décrites dans le détail, exemples à l’appui.
ainsi que des options plus complexes, plus difficiles
à calculer et à interpréter, mais qui apporteront des Un score de qualité ou de confiance doit être fourni
informations plus utiles. Des options qui combinent avec l’évaluation, afin que le Gestionnaire des Actifs
un certain nombre de méthodes simples peuvent comprenne quel niveau de confiance il peut accorder à
également être mises en œuvre, par ex. un score de l’évaluation, par ex. si certaines informations n’étaient
cas extrême qui met en avant le mode de défaillance pas disponibles au moment de l’établissement du
le plus avancé et l’urgence d’une intervention, peut score, la confiance à accorder au score sera plus faible
être combiné avec un simple système numérique qui que si toutes les données avaient été disponibles.
informe sur l’état moyen du transformateur.
Dans certains cas, il vaut mieux arrêter une évaluation
Confiance à accorder à l’évaluation si on ne dispose pas de suffisamment de données
Toute évaluation d'un transformateur inclut un niveau qui conviennent. Mais il est important que les
inévitable d'incertitude. Ce niveau d'incertitude peut transformateurs qui n’ont été évalués complètement
provenir de multiple causes, parmi lesquelles le degré soient aussi signalés à l’utilisateur, afin qu’il s’organise
variable des dégradations, ou des données d'évaluation pour faire que des données de qualités soient obtenues
trop anciennes ou indisponibles. Celui qui utilise une là où c’est nécessaire.
évaluation de transformateur, ou un index, doit toujours
prendre en compte le niveau d'incertitude intrinsèque Conclusions
attaché aux évaluations. Si on accorde trop de confiance Les index d’évaluation des transformateurs sont
à l'évaluation des décisions incorrectes peuvent être des outils largement utilisés par les gestionnaires
prises, par ex. un résultat d'évaluation erroné peut d’actifs pour donner une compréhension succincte de
conduire à une décision de remplacement alors qu'en l’état général d’un parc. Quand il établit un index, le
réalité, en prenant plus de temps pour disposer de plus gestionnaire des actifs doit avoir, dès le départ, une
d'informations on aurait abouti à une autre décision. Il vision claire de l’objectif recherché pour l’index. En effet
faut donc que l'indication de l'incertitude fasse partie du l’objectif va déterminer la manière dont l’index sera
processus de prise de décision. construit, et les décisions correctes pourront être prises.
Une compréhension claire du comportement de l’actif,
Il est préférable, s’il est possible d’évaluer l’état d’un de ses modes de défaillance et de l’interprétation des
transformateur, d’établir un score d’évaluation, même résultats, est nécessaire pour assurer une corrélation
si certaines données manquent ou ne satisfont pas les raisonnable entre l’état de l’actif et les décisions
conditions requises. Bien qu’il serait idéal de pouvoir appropriées à prendre. 

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F De-energize as soon as possible. Don’t return to service until problem is repaired. Component at end of life

Very Poor condition – high likelihood of failure. Component is near end of life. De-rating or restricted
E operation of transformer may be appropriate, and operation under extreme conditions may not be
appropriate until replacement is possible

Poor Condition. Repair or replacement should be considered within the short term. Reliable operation may
D be impaired or compromised. Performance or component may be causing deleterious effects. Consider
review of rating and operating condition.

Acceptable condition with significant signs of aging or deterioration. Reliable operation expected for medium
C
term – but consider condition-based maintenance if applicable

Good condition. Some signs of aging or deterioration are evident. Reliable operation expected
B
for a lengthy period.
A Minimal Signs of ageing or deterioration. As new condition

Figure 2 – Example of a scoring Matrix

These methods are explored in detail in the TB, with that they can arrange for quality data to be obtained
examples included. where appropriate.

A quality score or confidence score should be


Conclusions
generated with the assessment so that the Asset Transformer assessment indices are tools widely used by
Manager understands the level of confidence that asset managers to provide a succinct understanding of
they should have in the assessment e.g. if some data the overall condition of the fleet. In developing an index,
is unavailable when the assessment score has been the asset manager must have a clear understanding
developed, they should have less confidence in the from the outset about the intended purpose of the
score, than if all data was available. index, as the purpose will determine how the index is
constructed, so that appropriate decisions are made. A
In some cases, it may be appropriate to terminate an clear understanding of the asset performance, failure
assessment if sufficient suitable data is not available. modes and interpretation of the results is necessary
However, it is essential that transformers that have to ensure reasonable correlation between the asset’s
not been assessed are also highlighted to the user, so condition, and appropriate actions taken. 

BROCHURE N° 761

(en anglais seulement)


(in English only)

Disponible sur / Available on:

www.e-cigre.org
Prix non-Membres / Non-Member Price:

300 €

Purchase (non-members)
Free download (members)

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 67


762 GT D2.40
brochure thématique

Spécifications de sécurité
pour les services à distance

MEMBRES
J. ZEBST, Chef de file (SE), D. HOLSTEIN, Secrétaire (US),
M. SEEWALD, Investigateur Principal (DE), J. STEWART (US), J. WEISS (US),
C. POIRIER-GALMICHE (FR), R. MACKIEWICZ (US), J. LUSTIG (SE), V. TAN (AU),
P. MARCZAK (PL), P. ANTUNES (BR), J. WACK (US)

Introduction a) Identifier et caractériser les objectifs fondamentaux


d’exigence de sécurité qui sont attachés aux
Le GT D2.40 fait suite aux Groupes de de Travail des services à distance dans les EPU et, également,
Comités d’Etudes B5 et D2, et plus spécialement au analyser les relations qui existent entre les objectifs
GTC B5/D2.46 [1] , au GT D2.31 [2], et au GT D2.38 fondamentaux d’exigence de sécurité, et leur
[3]. Les travaux du D2.40 portent en particulier sur relation avec l’environnement opérationnel local.
les principes généraux d’architecture de sécurité b) Identifier les normes et réglementations qui
des systèmes numériques, et s’intéressent plus s’appliquent à la sécurité des services à distance.
précisément aux applications nouvelles et aux c) Analyser la conception de la sécurité des réseaux
spécifications fonctionnelles des systèmes numériques de communication (segmentation, détection
dans les compagnies d'électricité (EPU) et, de là, aux des menaces, et réduction) : Par exemple des
technologies nouvelles et à la montée continue d'un systèmes de détection d’intrusion (IDS) et des
environnement de risque. systèmes de protection contre les intrusions (IPS)
qui déclenchent des alarmes, et recommander
Le défi que les alarmes soient adressées via une
Les services à distance et la mobilité permettent aux interface spécifiée décrite dans la CEI 62351-7
EPU, de nombreuses manières, d’agir sur les coûts, la vers un centre opérationnel de sécurité intégré
performance et pour une meilleure disponibilité, et de (ISOC), dont la responsabilité est de traiter les
s’ouvrir de nouvelles opportunités d’activités. Mais en données d’alarme, pour établir des statistiques
même temps ils font appel à une technologie et une intéressantes sur les contrôles d’accès et
connectivité modernes accompagnées de risques de d’utilisation.
sécurité nouveaux, qu’il faut évaluer et maîtriser. d) Décrire des cas d'utilisation du monde réel,
qui mettent en évidence la mise en œuvre de
La sécurité des technologies d’information et des la sécurité dans les services à distance, et sa
technologies opérationnelles utilisées pour les services maintenance.
à distance est un sujet complexe qui exige, pour
exploiter et gérer en sécurité les services à distance, Architecture de référence
qu’une attention égale soit portée aux lois et aux La Figure 1 – Architecture de référence montre
réglementations locales, d’une part, aux contraintes l’architecture de référence du système d’intérêt
d’exploitation et d’organisation imposées par les EPU, (SoI) d’une compagnie d’électricité typique (EPU).
et aux contrôles techniques et non techniques, d’autre Deux hypothèses sont critiques dans cette analyse
part. Parcourir la complexité des exigences de sécurité technique :
des normes applicables et des directives constitue  L’accès à distance est fourni par un ou plusieurs
un défi que veulent relever ces travaux, tout au long réseaux non sécurisés,
de plusieurs sous-tâches dont les objectifs sont les  Dans le site distant le point d’entrée est non
suivants : sécurisé. •••

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Remote service security
requirement objectives

MEMBERS
J. ZEBST, Convenor (SE), D. HOLSTEIN, Secretary (US),
M. SEEWALD, Principal Investigator (DE), J. STEWART (US), J. WEISS (US),
C. POIRIER-GALMICHE (FR), R. MACKIEWICZ (US), J. LUSTIG (SE), V. TAN (AU),
P. MARCZAK (PL), P. ANTUNES (BR), J. WACK (US)

introduction b) Identify applicable standards and regulations for


remote service security.
WG D2.40 is a continuation of earlier Study Committee c) Discuss network security design (segmentation,
B5 and D2 Working Groups, specifically JWG B5/ threat detection, and mitigation. For example,
D2.46[1] ,WG D2.31[2], and WG D2.38[3]. The scope intrusion detection system (IDS) and intrusion
of work for D2.40 includes the discussion of general protection system (IPS) to trigger alarms, and to
security architecture principles for digital systems by recommend that alarms be output to a specified
mainly focusing on upcoming applications, connectivity, interface described in IEC 62351-7 to an
and functional requirements of digital systems in EPUs, integrated security operations center (ISOC). It is
and hence, the evolving technology and continuous the ISOC’s responsibility to process alarm data to
rise in the risk landscape. generate valuable access control and use control
statistics.
The challenge d) Describe real-world use cases to highlight
In many ways, remote services and mobility enable remote service security implementation and
EPUs to drive cost, performance, higher availability maintenance.
and open new business opportunities, but they also
introduce modern technology and connectivity with new Reference architecture
security risks, which must be assessed and mitigated. Figure 1 - Reference architecture shows the reference
architecture for a typical electric power utility (EPU)
Information technology (IT) and operational technology system of interest (SoI). Two assumptions are critical
(OT) security for remote services is a complex subject for this technical analysis:
that requires equal attention be given to local laws and  Remote access is provisioned through one or
regulations, operating and organizational constraints more untrusted networks
imposed by the EPU, and technical and non-technical  The end-point at the remote site is untrusted.
controls to securely operate and manage remote
services. Navigating the complexity of security Model-based systems Engineering
requirements from applicable standards and guidelines This Technical Brochure uses model-based systems
is the challenge addressed by this work in several sub- engineering (MBSE) to generate black-box and white-
tasks with the following objectives: box logical architecures that are extensions of IEC
a) Identify and characterize the fundamental 62351 and IEC 62443. The fundamental difference is
security requirement objectives imposed on MBSE leverages the remote services security protection
implementation and operation of EPU remote capabilities of non-technical requirement objectives to
services. Also, address the relationships between establish a foundation for the technical control security
fundamental security requirement objectives, objectives. Other traditional approaches separate
and their relationship to the local operating the two domains and do not account for the strong
environment. influence of non-technical controls. •••

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Figure 1 - Architecture de référence

Développement de systèmes basés sur croît dans les services à distance de technologie
des modèles numérique moderne.

La Brochure Technique utilise le développement de Objectifs de spécification des


systèmes basés sur un modèle (MBSE), pour créer des services à distance
architectures logiques de boîtes noires et d’espaces
vierges, qui sont des extensions de la CEI 62351 et Le point central du modèle présenté dans la Figure 2 est
de la CEI 62443. La différence fondamentale est que l’objectif de sécurité du service à distance (Id 1). Tout est
le MBSE démultiplie les possibilités de protection construit à partir de cet objectif. Plus important, l’approche
de la sécurité des services à distance des objectifs retenue a été d’utiliser un langage qui peut s’appliquer
d’exigences non techniques pour constituer une base à la fois aux contrôles techniques et aux contrôles non
des objectifs de sécurité des contrôles techniques. techniques, comme par ex. le choix du personnel.
Les autres approches traditionnelles séparent les
deux domaines et ne tiennent pas compte de la forte Dans la Brochure Technique on utilise la notation
influence des contrôles non techniques. du System Modeling Language (SysML), qui a été
développée par le « Open Management Group –
L’explication du choix de cette approchante innovante OMG ». Delligatti [4] and Friedenthal [5] ont publié les
peut se trouver dans d’autres rapports CIGRE qui ont livres de référence qui décrivent le mieux la notation
examiné la question : « Existe-t-il une quelconque SysML et la façon de l'utiliser. Pour faciliter l'analyse
preuve que la mise en œuvre de contrôles techniques appliquée dans la Brochure Technique des outils
ait eu beaucoup d'impact sur la protection de cyber commerciaux ont été utilisés, parce qu'ils apportent la
sécurité ? Si c'est le cas, les objectifs d'exigence sont- possibilité d'obtenir sans discontinuité différentes vues
ils plus efficients ? S'ils ne le sont pas, pourquoi ? ». des modèles1 du domaine.

Un thème sous-jacent de cette approche est de mieux A ce stade certaines relations entre les objectifs
comprendre et de prendre en compte la complexité et le d’exigence sont identifiées. Par exemple les politiques
couplage croissants des solutions de sécurité dans les de sécurité de l’EPU, ses procédures et les directives •••
services à distance. La complexité se manifeste sous
de multiples formes dont le nombre, pour la plupart, 1- Dans la Brochure Technique on n’utilise pas les outils Magic’s Cameo.

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Figure 1 - Reference architecture

The reason for this innovative approach is found in best describe the SysML notation and how to use it. To
other CIGRE technical reports that addressed the facilitate the analysis used for this Technical Brochure
question “is there any evidence that implementing commercial tools are used because they provide the
security technical controls have had much impact on capability to seamlessly obtain various views of the
cybersecurity protection? If so, which requirement domain models1.
objectives are more effective? If not effective, why not?"
At this level, some relationships between requirement
An underlying theme of this approach is to better objectives are identified. For example, EPU security
understand and address the increasing complexity policies, procedures and organizational directives should
and coupling of remote service security solutions. trace to local laws and regulations. And the remote service
Complexity comes in many forms most of which are requirement objectives should satisfy both local laws
increasing in the advanced digital technology of remote and regulations and EPU security policies, procedures
services. and organizational directives. Another interesting
observation is the relationship between use control and
Remote service requirement access control. This is shown as a prerequisite; i.e., the
objectives requirements for “access control” must be satisfied for
“use control” to be effective.
The center point for the model shown in Figure 2 -
Relationship between foundational security objectives IEC 62351-8 [6] includes the use of signed access
for remote services is the remote service security tokens and digital certificates2. The objective is to
objective. (Id 1). Everything is built off this security satisfy the requirements specified by ID=1.1 and ID=1.2
objective. Most importantly, the approach is to use in Figure 2 - Relationship between foundational •••
language that can be applied to both technical controls
and non-technical controls; e.g., personal staffing.
1- For this Technical Brochure No Magic’s Cameo tools are used.
2 - In addition to digital certificates, signed access tokens provide multi-
This Technical Brochure uses the System Modeling factor identification of an approved user (ID=1.1, Figure 2 - Relationship
Language (SysML) notation developed by the between foundational security objectives for remote services). Such
tokens also satisfy the requirements and guidelines codified in local laws
Open Management Group (OMG). Delligatti[4] and and regulations (ID=5, Figure 2 - Relationship between foundational
Friedenthal[5] have published the reference books that security objectives for remote services).

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de son organisation doivent être en phase avec les lois Le contrôle de l’accès (ID=1.1, Figure 2 – Relations
et réglementations locales. Les objectifs d’exigences entre les objectifs fondamentaux de sécurité des
du service à distance doivent respecter les lois et les services à distance) appelle le besoin de garantir que
réglementations locales d’une part, et les politiques l’identification et l’authentification de toute entité ont été
de sécurité de l’EPU, ses procédures et ses directives vérifiées et approuvées. Cet objectif introduit le concept
d’organisation, d’autre part. La relation entre le contrôle d’attestation d’autorisation (BC). Dans ce contexte une
d’accès et le contrôle de l’utilisation est une observation BC est définie comme un mécanisme de toute nature
intéressante. Cela est affiché comme un prérequis, qui établit un lien entre un utilisateur et un dispositif,
c. à d. que les exigences pour la « commande de reposant sur l’identité de l’utilisateur. En outre les BC
l'accès » doivent être remplies pour rendre effectif le peuvent être utilisés en conjonction avec les possibilités
« commande de l'utilisation ». biométriques qui existent dans les équipements
personnels pour garantir la présence de l'utilisateur.
La CEI 62351-8 [6] inclut l'utilisation de coupons signés Une telle garantie de présence est donnée comme une
et de certificats2 numériques. L’objectif est de satisfaire preuve légale dans une chaîne de traçabilité (CoC)
les exigences spécifiées par ID=1.1 et ID=1.2 dans la [7, 8]. Un coupon signé est un exemple d'un BC. Le
Figure 2 – Relations entre les objectifs fondamentaux contrôle de l'accès est encore plus compliqué par
de sécurité des services à distance. Dans la l'utilisation d'une interface de ligne de commandement
Brochure Technique on résume les avantages et les (CL) et une interface-utilisateur graphique plus orientée
inconvénients des mécanismes du contrôle d’accès utilisateur (GUI).
basé sur le rôle (RBAC) et du contrôle d’accès basé sur
les attributs (ABAC). Leur combinaison est nécessaire Il est hors sujet de la Brochure Technique de construire les
pour apporter les possibilités de sécurité spécifiées modèles nécessaires pour la segmentation du réseau de
dans la CEI 62531-8. communication, la détection d'intrusion et la prévention,
les passerelles entre réseaux utilisables, etc. Ce travail
La réponse à un événement dans un délai donné est laissé à ceux qui sont en charge de la mise en œuvre.
(ID=1.7, Figure 2 – Relations entre les objectifs Il doit exister une organisation qui est responsable de
fondamentaux de sécurité des services à distance) la délivrance des coupons et des certificats approuvés.
implique de garantir que toutes les alarmes déclenchées Certaines EPU peuvent choisir de le faire en assignant
par un événement de cyber sécurité sont émises sur la responsabilité à une entité interne, d'autres peuvent
une interface approuvée. Il est important que le simple retenir de la confier à une tierce partie. Dans les deux cas
enregistrement d'un événement soit seulement un les EPU doivent vérifier la crédibilité de l'entité à laquelle
prérequis ; il faut que les événements enregistrés soient la responsabilité a été confiée.
publiés pour garantir une réponse dans les délais.
Réseaux sûrs, non sécurisés et
Comme le montre la Figure 2 plusieurs types inconnus
d'exigences sont utilisés pour apporter de la clarté dans
leur objet. SysML intègre des exigences élargies, des Au moment où l’équipe de direction du réseau d’une
exigences fonctionnelles, des exigences d'interface, des EPU définit une politique de sécurité pour le réseau,
exigences de performance, des exigences physiques, chacun des réseaux qui constituent la topologie doit
des contraintes de conception, des exigences être classé comme appartenant à un des trois types de
économiques et des exigences de praticabilité. réseau, sûr, non sécurisé et inconnu.

Les exigences de sécurité de la Figure 2 étant données, Dans la Brochure Technique on porte une attention
comment mesurer le mieux possible la robustesse de spéciale aux organisations des EPU qui sont
la solution mise en place par l'EPU pour sécuriser responsables d’installer, d’administrer et de maintenir
ses services à distance, ou comment une EPU doit leurs réseaux et leurs périmètres de sécurité.
comparer la robustesse d'un contrôle technique et L’attribution de ces responsabilités est une matière
d'un contrôle non technique ? Sont les questions qui locale.
se posent. Ceci étant, quels sont les indicateurs ?
Pour répondre à ces questions et pour appréhender la Les réseaux surs sont les réseaux qui sont à l’intérieur
qualité de la solution de sécurité, un modèle fonctionnel du périmètre de sécurité du réseau de l’EPU. Les
de conception du système est nécessaire. réseaux non sécurisés sont les réseaux dont on sait
qu’ils sont en dehors du périmètre de sécurité de l’EPU.
Les réseaux inconnus sont les réseaux qui ne sont ni
2- En plus des certificats numériques, des coupons d’accès signés
fournissent une identification multi-critère d’un utilisateur autorisé (ID=1.1, surs ni non sécurisés et ils se situent en dehors de
Figure 2 – Relations entre les objectifs fondamentaux de sécurité des leur périmètre de sécurité. Par défaut tous les réseaux
services à distance).De tels coupons satisfont aussi les exigences et les
directives des lois et des réglements locaux (ID=5, Figure 2 – Relations non sécurisés sont considérés comme des réseaux
entre les objectifs fondamentaux de sécurité des services à distance). inconnus. •••

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security objectives for remote services. This Technical third-party organization. In either case, the EPU must
Brochure summarizes the benefits and deficiencies vet the trustworthiness of the organization assigned this
role-based access control (RBAC) and attribute-based responsibilitydetection and prevention, interoperable
access control (ABAC) mechanisms. The combination network gateways, etc. This work is left to others
is needed to provide the security capabilities specified developing implementations.
in IEC 62351-8.
Trusted, untrusted and unknown
Timely response to an event (ID=1.7, Figure 2 - networks
Relationship between foundational security objectives
for remote services) identifies the need to ensure all As an EPU network management team creates a
alarms triggered by a cyber-induced remote service network security policy, each network that makes up
event is published to an approved interface. It is the topology must be classified as one of three types of
important to note that simply logging these events is networks: trusted, untrusted, unknown.
only a prerequisite. Publication of the logged events is
needed to ensure timely response. This Technical Brochure focuses attention on the EPU
organizations charged with the responsibility to install,
As shown in Figure 2 - Relationship between administer, and maintain their networks and security
foundational security objectives for remote services perimeters. The allocation of these responsibilities is a
several types of requirements are used to provide clarity local matter.
of their intent. SysML includes extended requirements,
functional requirements, interface requirements, Trusted networks are the networks inside the EPU’s
performance requirements, physical requirements, network security perimeter. Untrusted networks are
design constraints, business requirements, and the networks that are known to be outside the EPU’s
usability requirements.  security perimeter. Unknown networks are networks
that are neither trusted nor untrusted. Unknown
Given the security requirement objectives shown in networks exist outside their security perimeter. By
Figure 2 - Relationship between foundational security default, all nontrusted networks are considered
objectives for remote services, the question is how best unknown networks.
to measure the resilience of EPU’s deployed Solution
for secure remote services? Or, how should an EPU This Technical Brochure uses a BPMN model of
benchmark technical control and non-technical control the decision process that addresses three swim
resilience? That is, what are the metrics? To address lanes: 1) local processes requesting access, 2) EPU
these questions and assess the quality of the security authentication / coordination, and 3) EPU project
solution, a functional system engineering model is manager. This structure may be expanded to include
needed. other actors and processes. The model also identifies
the parameters (supporting data) needed to support the
Access control (ID=1.1, Figure 2 - Relationship between decision process within each swim lane and task.
foundational security objectives for remote services)
identifies the need to ensure all entity identification The decision process begins and ends within the local
and authentication has been verified and approved. organization requesting remote access. If denied or
This objective introduces the concept of binding deferred, the process ends and is escalated to a senior
credential (BC). In this context, a BC is defined as any manager for action. If the request is accepted, the
mechanism that provides a link between a user and a requestor executes the remote access task. This local
device, based on the user’s identity. In addition, BCs organization may be an EPU organization or it may be
can be used in conjunction with biometric capabilities a contracted organization.
in personal devices to ensure the presence of the user.
Such presence is offered as digital forensic evidence The EPU authenticator is either an independent
with a chain-of-custody (CoC) [7, 8]. A signed access organization or a separate organization within the EPU.
token is one example of a BC. Access control is further Most importantly, the EPU authenticator is a trusted
complicated by the use of a command line (CL) interface entity. After reviewing the data supporting the request
and a more user friendly graphical user interface (GUI). for remote access, the EPU authenticator sends the
request to the EPU organization who has primary
It is beyond the scope of this technical brochure to responsibility for the task to be performed.
build the necessary models for network segmentation,
intrusion responsible for to issuing approved tokens Upon receipt of the message requesting confirmation
and certificates. Some EPUs may choose to do this by from the EPU authenticator, the EPU project manager
assigning the responsibility to an internal organization, will determine if the request is legitimate and properly
and others may choose to assign the responsibility to a supported. If not, the confirmation request is denied. •••

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Figure 2 – Relations entre les objectifs fondamentaux de sécurité des services à distance

Dans la Brochure Technique on utilise un « Modèle de responsable senior pour action. Si la demande est
processus d'affaire et notation – BPMN » du processus acceptée, le requérant exécute la tâche d’accès à
de décision qui concerne trois lignes de décision : distance. L’organisation locale peut être une entité de
1) les processus locaux qui requièrent un accès, 2) l’EPU ou une entité prestataire.
l'authentification/coordination et 3) le chef de projet de
l'EPU. Cette structure peut être étendue pour inclure L’authentificateur de l’EPU est soit une organisation
d'autres acteurs et d'autres processus. Le modèle indépendante ou une organisation séparée au sein
détermine aussi les autres paramètres (données de l’EPU et, plus important, l’authentificateur de l’EPU
support) qui sont nécessaires pour faciliter le processus doit être une entité sure. Après avoir analysé les
de décision dans chacune des lignes de décision et des données fournies à l’appui de la demande d’accès à
tâches. distance, l’authentificateur de l’EPU envoie la demande
à l’organisation de l’EPU qui détient la responsabilité
Le processus de décision commence et se termine au première de la tâche à accomplir.
sein de l’organisation locale qui a demandé l’accès à
distance. Si la demande est refusée, ou repoussée A réception du message demandant la confirmation
dans le temps, le processus s’arrête et remonte à un de l’authentificateur EPU, le chef de projet EPU va •••

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Figure 2 - Relationship between foundational security objectives for remote services

If it is legitimate and properly supported, the confirmation change employment or organizational assignment.
response is accepted. Machine assignment is usually much more static.

Focus on Access control EPUs recognized a need for going beyond RBAC’s
group of users and permissions. RBAC system
Role-based access control (RBAC) groups permissions management needed to include attributes, such as
into roles and requires all access to occur through the time of day and user location, for distrusted dynamically
RBAC system. Group permissions can then be provided changing systems. Attribute-based access control
to users in a simple operation of assigning roles. An (ABAC) was identified as a replacement for or adjunct to
EPU’s roles must be engineered to support security and RBAC. ABAC uses labeled objects and user attributes
business roles within the context of each organization’s instead of permissions to provide access control.
mission and responsibility. Albeit the assignment is
simple, management of the RBAC system is difficult With RBAC, roles can be well understood by their
at best. The difficulties occur because entities (human names, and they determine the sets of permissions to
and machine) can change roles when the need arises. be granted to the users. In addition, it is easy to audit
Human assignment is very dynamic because personnel which users have access to a given permission and •••

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déterminer si la demande est légitime et correctement peut être gérée dans le cadre des décisions touchant le
documentée. Si elle ne l’est pas, la confirmation de contrôle des accès.
la demande est rejetée. Si elle l’est, la réponse de
confirmation est positive. La Brochure Technique explique comment on peut
combiner l’ABAC et le RBAC pour obtenir la souplesse
Le cas du contrôle d’accès et les avantages de l’ABAC, tout en gardant ceux du
RBAC pour l’analyse et le contrôle du risque, si les
Le contrôle d’accès basé sur le rôle (RBAC) regroupe rôles sont utilisés pour définir l’ensemble maximal de
les permissions par rôle, et impose que tous les accès permissions d’accès à distance que les utilisateurs
se fassent via le système RBAC. Les permissions de peuvent avoir, dans le sens du moindre privilège
groupe peuvent alors être transmises aux utilisateurs spécifié dans la CEI 62443-3-3.
dans une simple opération d’affectation des rôles.
Dans une EPU les rôles peuvent être conçus pour Conclusions
aller dans le sens de la sécurité et des activités,
dans le cadre de la mission et de la responsabilité 1. Bien que la combinaison du contrôle d’accès basé
de chaque organisation. Alors que l’affectation est sur les rôles et les contrôles d’accès basé sur
simple, la gestion du système RBAC est pour le moins les attributs renforce la sécurité, les problèmes
difficile. Les difficultés apparaissent parce que les de gestion liés à cette combinaison ne sont pas
entités, humains et machines, peuvent changer de traités correctement. Des travaux supplémentaires,
rôle en cas de besoin. L’affection du personnel est très probablement un nouveau Groupe de Travail du CE
dynamique parce que les emplois des personnes ou les D2 du CIGRE, sont requis pour définir le cadre d’un
organisations changent. L’affectation des machines est schéma de gestion orienté utilisateur et économique,
habituellement plus statique. 2. Il n’existe pas aujourd’hui de certificats de sécurité
de tierce partie qui méritent confiance, et sans prise
Les EPU ont constaté un besoin d’aller au-delà des de responsabilité il n’y en aura pas dans le futur,
groupes d’utilisateurs et des permissions du RBAC. La 3. Un dispositif électronique de confiance capable
gestion du système RBAC demande que l’on y inclue de collecter et de garder en sécurité des preuves
des attributs, tels que la période du jour et l’endroit où électroniques est nécessaire. Le dispositif doit
est l’utilisateur, pour des systèmes non sécurisés qui présenter les caractéristiques suivantes :
sont modifiés dynamiquement. Le contrôle d’accès par a) Etre capable de lier l’identité d’un utilisateur à
attribut (ABAC) est vu comme une solution remplaçant son dispositif personnel,
ou s’ajoutant au RBAC. L’ABAC utilise des objets b) Avoir un noyau dur de confiance qui peut
marqués et des attributs d’utilisateur au lieu des protéger l’intégrité d’un ou plusieurs éléments
permissions, pour contrôler l’accès. électroniques de preuve au sein d’un
environnement de fonctionnement sûr,
Avec le RABC, les rôles peuvent être bien compris à c) Etre capable de garantir que seules les entités
partir de leurs noms, et ce sont eux qui déterminent autorisées ont accès à la preuve,
les ensembles des permissions qui sont accordées d) Fournir une chaîne de démonstration de preuve
aux utilisateurs. En outre il est facile de procéder à un qui soit traçable,
audit pour savoir quels utilisateurs ont une permission e) Apporter les moyens de transmettre la preuve
donnée, et quelle permission a été accordée à un numérique à toute autre entité qui a autorité
utilisateur donné. Avec l’ABAC, il n’est pas nécessaire pour conserver en lieu sûr la preuve numérique.
de définir des rôles tant que les noms ne sont pas Une norme est nécessaire pour normaliser le
utilisés comme attributs. La modification dynamique processus de décision dans l’authentification de
des attributs, tels que l’heure de la journée et le lieu, l’accès à distance. 

Bibliographie
[1] GTC B5/D2.46, “Application and Management of Cybersecurity Measures for Protection and Control,” CIGRE, Rapport 603,
Décembre 2014.
[2] GT D2.31, “Security architecture principles for digital systems in Electric Power Utilities,” CIGRE, Rapport 615, Avril 2015.
[3] GT D2.38, “Framework for EPU operators to manage the response to a cyber-initiated threat to their critical infrastructure,” CIGRE,
Rapport #698, Septembre 2017.
[4] L. Delligatti, SysML distilled : A brief guide to the systems modeling language : Addison-Wesley, 2013.
[5] S. Friedenthal, A. Moore, et R. Steiner, “A practical guide to SysML : the systems modeling language” : Morgan Kaufmann, 2015.
[6] NIST, “Power Systems Management and Information Exchange - Data and Communications Security,” in Part 8 : Role-based access
control for power system management ed. Working Group TC57 WG15 Draft Ed.1, 2011.
[7] A. Kasper et E. Laurits, “Challenges in Collecting Digital Evidence : A Legal Perspective,” in The Future of Law and Technologies, ed
: Springer, 2016, pp. 195-233.
[8] A. Nieto. (2016), “Digital Witness : Digital Evidence Management Framework for the Internet of Things”, ERCIM. 9-11.

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what permissions have been granted to a given user. 2. There are no third-party security certificates that
With ABAC, there is no need to engineer roles as long can be trusted now, and without the assumption of
as role names aren’t used as attributes. Dynamically liability there won’t be any in the future.
changing attributes, such as time of day and location, 3. A trusted electronic device capable of obtaining
can be accommodated in access control decisions. and safeguarding electronic evidence is needed.
The device must have the following features:
This Technical Brochure describes how ABAC and a) The capability to bind the user’s identity to his/
RBAC can be combined to obtain the flexibility and her personal device,
advantages of ABAC while maintaining RBAC’s b) have a core of trust that can protect the integrity
advantages for analysis and risk control, if roles are of one or more electronic pieces of evidence
used to define the maximum set of remote access within a trusted execution environment,
permissions that users can have, supporting the c) be able to ensure that only authorized entities
principle of least privilege specified in IEC 62443-3-3. have access to the evidence,
d) provide a chain of evidence that is traceable,
Conclusions and
e) provide the means to send digital evidence to
1. Although combing role-based access control and any other entity with the authority to safeguard
attribute-based access control strengthens security, the electronic evidence.
the problems of managing this combination are not
adequately addressed. More work, probably a new 4. A standard is needed to normalize the decision
CIGRE D2 Working Group, is needed to develop process to authenticate remote access. 
the framework for a user-friendly and cost-effective
management scheme.

Bibliography
[1] JWG-B5/D2.46, “Application and Management of Cybersecurity Measures for Protection and Control,” CIGRE, Report 603, December
2014.
[2] WG-D2.31, “Security architecture principles for digital systems in Electric Power Utilities,” CIGRE, Report 615, April 2015.
[3] WG_D2.38, “Framework for EPU operators to manage the response to a cyber-initiated threat to their critical infrastructure,” CIGRE,
Report #698, September 2017.
[4] L. Delligatti, SysML distilled: A brief guide to the systems modeling language: Addison-Wesley, 2013.
[5] S. Friedenthal, A. Moore, and R. Steiner, A practical guide to SysML: the systems modeling language: Morgan Kaufmann, 2015.
[6] NIST, “Power Systems Management and Information Exchange - Data and Communications Security,” in Part 8: Role-based access
control for power system management ed. Working Group TC57WG15 Draft Ed. 1, 2011.
[7] A. Kasper and E. Laurits, “Challenges in Collecting Digital Evidence: A Legal Perspective,” in The Future of Law and eTechnologies,
ed: Springer, 2016, pp. 195-233.
[8] A. Nieto. (2016) Digital Witness: Digital Evidence Management Framework for the Internet of Things. ERCIM. 9-11.

BROCHURE N° 762

(en anglais seulement)


(in English only)

Disponible sur / Available on:

www.e-cigre.org
Prix non-Membres / Non-Member Price:

100 €

Purchase (non-members)
Free download (members)

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 77


763 GT B2.55
brochure thématique

Conducteurs pour l’augmentation


de la capacité nominale des lignes
aériennes existantes
MEMBRES
D. DOUGLASS, Chef de file (US), D. LOUDON, Secrétaire (NO), R. STEPHEN (ZA),
R. PUFFER (DE), S. UEDA (BR), K. BAKIC (SI), T. SEPPA (US), C. DO NASCIMENTO (BR),
J. IGLESIAS (ES), C. BORLOT (FR), S. STEEVENS (DE), G. WATT (CA), K. YONEZAWA (JP),
H. DEVE (US), J. JARDINI (BR), M. LANCASTER (US), W. CHISHOLM (CA),
P. RODRIGUEZ (SP), S. KUPKE (DE), L. NAZIMEK (PL), T. KUMATA (JP), P. FIERS (AT),
G. GHEORGHITA (RO), B. FIFE (US), J. DONG (US), N. HADINGER (AT), M. LEE (AU),
M. BINDZAR (SK), G. BIEDENBACH (DE), T. BJARNASON (IS)
RÉVISEURS
T. CONDON (IR), J. DOYLE (IR), P. PENSERINI (FR), P. VAN DYKE (CA), H. LUGSCHITZ (AT)

Introduction maximale de fonctionnement des conducteurs de


Dans l’ensemble du monde développé, la production phase d’origine de la ligne, ou le remplacement des
d’électricité renouvelable remplace la production conducteurs par des conducteurs à haute température
d’électricité de base conventionnelle, produite à et à faible flèche (HTLS).
partir du charbon et du nucléaire. Ceci provoque de
grands balancements des flux d’électricité, dans le Les améliorations de capacité des lignes examinées
fonctionnement des réseaux de transport, aussi bien en dans la brochure intéressent habituellement des lignes
régime normal d’exploitation qu’en régime d’urgence, aériennes CA de transport, relativement courtes (<
puisque les ouvrages de production éoliens et solaires 150 km), et fonctionnant à des tensions inférieures
sont par nature implantés à des endroits différents de à 400 kV, pour lesquelles les capacités de transport
ceux des centrales dont elles remplacent la production. sont limitées par des problèmes thermiques plutôt que
Le résultat est que les circuits de certaines lignes de par des problèmes de tension. Dans la plupart des
transport à haute tension existantes (habituellement applications l’augmentation de capacité de la ligne peut
des lignes plutôt courtes, à des tensions inférieures aussi être requise pour éviter des délestages lors de
à 400  kV), peuvent avoir à assurer des transits situations occasionnelles de surcharge d’urgence du
de puissance plus élevés que ceux permis par la réseau, plutôt qu’en régime de fonctionnement normal.
conception d’origine des lignes et variant rapidement,
ceci aussi bien en régime normal de fonctionnement, Les lignes CCHT sont habituellement longues et de
en régime d’urgence ou régime post-incident. capacité thermique limitée, mais les pertes font que le
fonctionnement permanent à haute température serait
Domaine étudié sans intérêt au plan économique. Si on doit élever
la tension de fonctionnement d’une ligne existante
Dans la Brochure Technique (BT) on s’intéresse (augmentation de tension nominale), d'autres
en premier lieu aux méthodes d’augmentation de documents CIGRE sont à consulter.
la capacité qui peuvent être mises en œuvre avec
un temps d’interruption minimal et à faible coût, en Description de la BT
évitant des remplacements ou des renforcements
importants des supports existants, comme augmenter De nombreuses méthodes d’augmentation de la
la température maximale des conducteurs d’origine, capacité thermique des lignes aériennes de transport
remplacer les conducteurs de la ligne par des existantes sont analysées, qui visent toutes à éviter
conducteurs de plus forte section ou des conducteurs des travaux importants de remplacement ou de
à haute température, ou par des conducteurs à renforcement des structures. Pour chacune des
faible flèche. Dans la plupart des cas la ligne et ses méthodes analysées on explique le concept, on le
structures doivent être en bon ou en excellent état démontre, et on donne des exemples de projets réels
pour permettre l’augmentation de la température de rénovation de ligne, partout dans le monde. •••

78 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


WG B2.55
technical brochure 763
Conductors for the uprating of
existing overhead lines

MEMBERS
D. DOUGLASS, Convenor (US), D. LOUDON, Secretary (NO), R. STEPHEN (ZA),
R. PUFFER (DE), S. UEDA (BR), K. BAKIC (SI), T. SEPPA (US), C. DO NASCIMENTO (BR),
J. IGLESIAS (ES), C. BORLOT (FR), S. STEEVENS (DE), G. WATT (CA), K. YONEZAWA (JP),
H. DEVE (US), J. JARDINI (BR), M. LANCASTER (US), W. CHISHOLM (CA),
P. RODRIGUEZ (SP), S. KUPKE (DE), L. NAZIMEK (PL), T. KUMATA (JP), P. FIERS (AT),
G. GHEORGHITA (RO), B. FIFE (US), J. DONG (US), N. HADINGER (AT), M. LEE (AU),
M. BINDZAR (SK), G. BIEDENBACH (DE), T. BJARNASON (IS)
REVIEWERS
T. CONDON (IR), J. DOYLE (IR), P. PENSERINI (FR), P. VAN DYKE (CA), H. LUGSCHITZ (AT)

Introduction by thermal rating rather than voltage concerns. Also,


in most applications, the increase in line rating may
Across the developed world, renewable power be required to avoid load shedding during occasional
generation is displacing conventional base load coal system emergency load events rather than during
and nuclear generation. This often causes large shifts normal system operation.
in power flow during both normal and emergency
operation of the transmission system since wind and HVDC lines are normally long and limited thermally
solar generation facilities are typically in different but electrical losses make continuous operation at
geographical locations from the plants they displace. high temperature unattractive economically and, if the
As a result, certain existing High Voltage AC overhead operating voltage of an existing line is to be increased
transmission line circuits (usually shorter length lines (Voltage Upgrading), other CIGRE brochures should be
below 400kV) may be required to handle much higher consulted.
and rapidly changing normal and emergency, post-
contingency power flows than allowed in the original Description of the TB
line design.
Many methods of increasing the thermal rating of
Scope existing overhead transmission lines are discussed all
of which seek to avoid extensive structure replacement
This brochure primarily concerns line uprating methods, or reinforcement. For each of the methods discussed,
such as raising the maximum temperature of the original the concept is explained, demonstrated, and examples
conductor or re-conductoring the line with larger or are given of actual line uprating projects around the
high-temperature, low-sag conductors, that can be world. Three methods of line uprating are not discussed
implemented with minimum outage time and cost, by in this brochure:
avoiding the replacement or extensive reinforcement of 1. Probabilistic ratings – Analysis of line corridor
existing transmission structures. In most applications, weather data and load profiles may allow an increase
the line and its structures must be in good or excellent in line thermal rating on a line-specific basis or on
condition to allow increases in the maximum operating a generic, system-wide basis producing higher line
temperature of the line’s original phase conductors ratings on a risk assessment basis. The use of such
or by conductor replacement with High-Temperature, methods, however, is dependent on regulations and
Low-Sag (HTLS) conductors. statutory requirements for electrical clearances and
accuracy of modeling.
The line thermal uprating methods discussed in this 2. “Ambient-adjusted” ratings – Static line ratings
brochure are typically useful in relatively short (< 150 can be adjusted for real-time air temperature rather
km) AC overhead transmission lines, operating at than for seasonal maximum values.
voltages below 400kV, where power flow is limited 3. “Dynamic” ratings – Line monitors and weather •••

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 79


763 GT B2.55
brochure thématique

Figure 1 - Illustration du résultat de l’application des 4 méthodes examinées

Trois méthodes d’augmentation de la capacité ne sont météorologiques « convenablement conservatives »,


pas abordées dans la brochure : qui sont celles suggérées dans la BT 299 du CIGRE.
1. La détermination probabiliste des capacités
– L’analyse des données météorologiques dans Les variantes qui correspondent aux différentes
le couloir de ligne et des profils de charge peut courbes de capacité thermique et certaines de leurs
autoriser, sur la base d’une évaluation du risque, possibles limitations, présentées dans la brochure,
une augmentation de la capacité thermique sont les suivantes :
nominale spécifique d’une ligne, ou de manière 1. Augmenter la TCMAX pour le système de
générique à l’échelle d’un réseau, conduisant conducteurs – Les conducteurs doivent être en très
ainsi à des capacités supérieures des lignes. La bon état physique et l’adéquation des connexions
possibilité de pratiquer de telles méthodes est doivent être vérifiée. Si les distances de garde
conditionnée par les exigences réglementaires électrique de la ligne existantes sont suffisantes à
ou administratives s’appliquant aux distances de une TCMAX supérieure, ou peuvent être modifiées
garde, et par la précision de la modélisation. pour le devenir, il peut alors être possible d’accroître
2. L’ajustement des capacités aux conditions la capacité thermique de la ligne de 20% à 40% sans
ambiantes – Les capacités des lignes en régime remplacer le système de conducteurs existant. Il
permanent peuvent être ajustées en temps réel en faut noter que des facteurs autres que les distances
fonction de la température, au lieu de respecter des de garde, comme le point de goutte de la graisse
valeurs maximales saisonnières. des conducteurs, peuvent limiter la possibilité d’un
3. Les capacités dynamiques – Des dispositifs fonctionnement permanent à haute température.
de suivi des lignes et de mesure des conditions 2. Remplacer les conducteurs existants par des
météorologiques peuvent être utilisés pour conducteurs simples de plus forte section – Si
déterminer les capacités de la ligne en temps réel. le système de conducteurs n’est pas dans un bon
Ces capacités sont normalement plus fortes que les état physique du fait de la corrosion ou de la fatigue
capacités statiques des lignes, mais elles sont plus provoquée par les vibrations éoliennes, et si le cycle
compliquées à mettre en œuvre dans l’exploitation journalier de charge est significatif, le remplacement
du réseau. des conducteurs existants par des conducteurs de
plus forte section peut être intéressant d’un point
Dans la Figure 1 on résume dans un graphique les de vue économique. Si la section du conducteur de
quatre principales méthodes d’augmentation de remplacement est double de celle du conducteur
capacité qu’on examine dans la brochure. L’exemple existant, la capacité thermique de la ligne sera
de la figure est celui d’une ligne existante à un d’environ 40% supérieure, avec un coût des pertes
conducteur ACSR de 200 mm2 par phase, avec une électriques plus bas de 50%. Outre le coût des
capacité thermique de 500 ampères et une température nouveaux conducteurs, il faut prendre en compte les
maximale de conducteur de 75°C, pour des conditions remplacements ou les renforcements qui peuvent •••

80 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


WG B2.55
technical brochure 763

Figure 1 - Illustration of the result of the application of the 4 methods examined

4. measurement devices can be used to determine the replacement conductor has twice the area of the
the rating of the line in real-time. Such ratings are existing conductor, then the thermal rating of the line
typically higher than static line ratings but are more would be about 40% higher and the cost of electrical
complex to implement in system operations. losses would be 50% less. In addition to the cost
of the new conductors, structures (particularly dead-
The Figure 1 summarizes graphically the four main end and angle structures) may need to be replaced
line-uprating methods that are discussed in this or reinforced. The capital investment is likely to be
brochure. The figure applies to an existing line with a much higher than for Method 4.
single 200  mm2 ACSR conductor per phase, having 3. Add a second conductor to make a 2-conductor
a thermal rating of 500 amperes based on the existing bundle - If the existing conductor is in excellent
maximum conductor temperature of 75oC, and “suitably physical condition and the line structures have
conservative” default weather conditions as suggested large mechanical loading reserve capacity, then
in CIGRE Technical Brochure 299. adding a second conductor per phase to make
a 2-conductor bundle has several advantages.
The uprating alternatives which produce the thermal It doubles the thermal rating of the line without
rating curves shown in Figure 1 and some of their changing TCMAX or the sag corresponding to it, it
possible limitations, as discussed in this brochure, are: halves the cost of electrical losses, and it reduces
1. Increase TCMAX for the existing conductor system the line series reactance by 10% or more. In many
– The conductor must be in very good physical cases, the doubling of structure loading produced by
condition and the connections must be checked converting to a 2-conductor bundle, may make this
for adequacy. Then, if the existing overhead line uprating method expensive and prohibitive due to
either has, or can be modified to provide, sufficient the extended outage time required for stringing and
electrical clearances at a higher TCMAX, then it may structure reinforcement.
be possible to increase the line’s thermal rating by 4. Re-conductor with equal diameter HTLS - If
20% to 40% without replacing the existing conductor the existing conductors are not in good physical
system. Note that factors other than clearance, such condition, if TCMAX is already 95oC or higher, or if
as the drop-point of conductor grease, may limit the existing structures are difficult to reinforce, then
continuous operation at high temperature. the use of High-Temperature, Low-Sag (HTLS) or
2. Replace the existing conductors with larger High-Temperature (HT) conductors may be a good
single conductors – If the existing conductor solution to uprating the existing line.
system is not in good physical conditions due
to corrosion or wind vibration-induced fatigue, Of these four uprating methods, only Method 4 involves
and daily load cycle of the line is significant, the the use of High-Temperature, Low-Sag (HTLS)
replacement of existing conductors with a new larger conductors, having a stranded steel or composite core
area conductor may be economically attractive. If to limit thermal elongation at high temperature. •••

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 81


763 GT B2.55
brochure thématique

être nécessaires (en particulier pour les supports mesures d’inspection classiques ou d’un LIDAR, et
d’arrêt ou d’angle). L’investissement financier sera les distances de garde du système de conducteurs
probablement beaucoup plus élevé que pour la doivent être calculées pour la température
méthode 4. maximale de fonctionnement (TCMAX).
3. Ajouter un second conducteur pour réaliser un  L’état physique des conducteurs et des connexions
faisceau de 2 conducteurs – Si le conducteur en place doit être évalué au moyen d’inspections
existant est dans un excellent état physique et que physiques et éventuellement par des mesures
les structures de la ligne présentent une marge de électriques. Les manchons et les connexions, mal
tenue mécanique importante, ajouter un second réalisés ou particulièrement vieillis, doivent être
conducteur par phase pour réaliser un faisceau identifiés, remplacés ou renforcés (ou shuntés)
à 2 conducteurs apporte plusieurs avantages. La avant l’augmentation de la capacité de la ligne.
capacité thermique est doublée par rapport à la  Si la tension mécanique des conducteurs existants
situation initiale sans changer TCMAX ou la flèche doit être accrue il faut vérifier la ligne, pour s’assurer
correspondant à cette température, le coût des qu’il n’y a pas de signes d’une fatigue des câbles
pertes électriques est divisé par 2 et la réactance due aux vibrations éoliennes, et évaluer la tenue
série de la ligne est réduite de 10% ou plus. Dans des supports.
beaucoup de cas le doublement de la charge des  A chaque fois que les conducteurs sont à remplacer,
structures, induit par le passage aux faisceaux il faut évaluer la tenue mécanique des supports
à 2 conducteurs, peut rendre ce gain de capacité existants et ne l'effectuer que s'ils sont capables de
coûteux, et prohibitif du fait du temps de la mise tenir les charges correspondantes.
hors service que requièrent la mise en place des  L'utilisation de conducteurs de plus forte section,
conducteurs et le renforcement des structures. ou de faisceaux doubles, implique des charges
4. Remplacement des conducteurs par des accrues sur les supports existants et peut ainsi
conducteurs HTLS de même diamètre – Si les à réduire la fiabilité de la ligne, à moins que l'on
conducteurs existants ne sont pas en bon état renforce les supports.
physique, si la TCMAX est déjà de 95°C ou plus, ou  Quand il réexamine les conditions de charge
si les structures existantes sont difficiles à renforcer, d'une ligne dont la capacité doit être augmentée,
l’utilisation de conducteurs à Haute Température et et qu'il envisage une nouvelle conception des
Flèche Faible (HTLS), ou de conducteurs à Haute conducteurs, de nouveaux matériaux pour les
Température (HT) peut alors être une bonne solution conducteurs, ou des modifications des tensions
pour accroître la capacité d’une ligne existante. mécaniques maximales, le concepteur de la ligne
doit tenir compte à la fois des charges de « tous les
De ces quatre méthodes, seule la Méthode 4 implique jours » et des charges extrêmes.
l’utilisation de conducteurs à haute température à faible
flèche (HTLS), qui comportent une âme en acier torsadé Dans la BT on ne présente pas d’analyse économique
ou en matériau composite pour limiter la dilatation spécifique, puisque chaque exercice de changement
thermique aux hautes températures. Les conducteurs de conducteurs est dans un certain sens unique.
HTLS mettant en œuvre des brins conducteurs en Par contre des informations techniques et des
aluminium recuit ou en aluminium–zirconium sont tous comparaisons sont disponibles.
deux envisagés. Les développements, et le retour
d’expérience d’utilisation des conducteurs HTLS sur Conclusions
les 10 dernières années, rendent leur utilisation bien
moins problématique qu’au moment de la publication La brochure comporte deux grandes parties. Dans la
de la Brochure Technique 244 [2], en 2003. première on montre comment les limites de température
de fonctionnement des conducteurs sont liées aux
Néanmoins s’il est nécessaire d’accroître la capacité distances de garde électriques et à la perte de tenue
thermique de moins de 20%, et que la TCMAX des mécanique aux hautes températures. Sur cette base on
conducteurs existants est de 75°C ou moins, la expose dans la seconde partie les différentes solutions
Méthode 1 est presque tout le temps la méthode la d’augmentation de la capacité des lignes.
plus intéressante.
Il est espéré que la brochure présentera de l’intérêt
Avant de retenir une méthode d’accroissement pour l’industrie de l’électricité, et constituera une
de la capacité d’une ligne, il faut bien connaitre contribution très utile au développement de stratégies
certains aspects de la physique de la ligne et de son bien adaptées pour le renforcement de la capacité
environnement météorologique, qui conditionnent la thermique des lignes aériennes de transport existantes.
capacité thermique actuelle : Les techniques présentées peuvent également être
 La position physique des conducteurs de la ligne utiles pour les lignes de distribution des plus hautes
doit être déterminée avec soin, au moyen de tensions. 

82 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


WG B2.55
technical brochure 763
Both HTLS conductors with annealed or zirconium mechanical capability of the existing structures
aluminum wires are considered. The developments and should only be attempted if the structures can
and the experience with HTLS conductor over the last support the required loads.
10 years has made their use far less problematic than  The use of a larger conductor or the use of a two-
when CIGRE published Technical Brochure 244 [2] in conductor bundle, imposes greater loads on the
2003. existing structures and may reduce the reliability of
the line unless the structures are reinforced.
If the needed increase in thermal rating is less than  If reappraising the loading criteria for an uprated
20% and the TCMAX of the existing conductors is 75oC line, the line designer should consider changing
or less, then Method 1 is nearly always the most the replacement conductor design, component wire
attractive method. materials, and making changes in the tension limits
under both “every-day” and extreme conditions.
Before a line uprating method can be chosen, certain
physical and meteorological aspects of the present No specific economic analyses are described since
thermal rating must be defined: each re-conductoring application is in some sense
 The physical position of the line conductors must unique. Technical information and comparisons,
be carefully determined by conventional survey however, are made.
measurements or LiDAR and the clearance of the
existing conductor system calculated for the line Conclusions
maximum operating temperature (TCMAX). This brochure consists of two parts. The first
 The physical condition of the existing conductors part discusses how limits on conductor operating
and connectors must be determined by physical temperature are related to limits on electrical clearance
inspection and possibly by electrical measurements. and loss of strength at high temperature and, based
Poorly-made or badly-aged splices and connectors on this methodology, the second part describes the
must be identified and replaced or reinforced/ various choices that allow increased line capacity.
shunted prior to increasing line rating.
 If the tension of the existing conductors is to be We hope that the brochure will be of interest to the
increased, then the line must be checked for electric power industry and make a useful contribution
evidence of wind vibration-induced strand fatigue to development of appropriate strategies for increasing
and angle and dead-end structures assessed. the thermal rating of existing overhead transmission
 Whenever the existing conductors are to be lines. The techniques may also be useful in higher
replaced, an assessment must be made of the voltage distribution lines. 

BROCHURE N° 763

(en anglais seulement)


(in English only)

Disponible sur / Available on:

www.e-cigre.org
Prix non-Membres / Non-Member Price:

200 €

Purchase (non-members)
Free download (members)

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 83


764 GT B3.34
brochure thématique

Les réseaux du futur et leur impact


attendu sur la gestion des postes

MEMBRES
J.J. SMIT, Chef de file (NL), N. BARRERA, Secrétaire (CH), G. BALZER (DE),
J. BEDNAŘÍK (IE), N. FANTANA (DE), N. KAISER (DE), P. LEEMANS (BE), A. MACKRELL (GB),
R. MEHAIRJAN (NL), P. MYRDA (US), A. WILSON (GB),
MEMBRE CORRESPONDANT
T. KOBAYASHI (JP)

Introduction Groupe de Travail a analysé ces futurs défis dans une


perspective très large qui inclut :
Les évolutions à venir du paysage de l’énergie et les  Les problèmes de gestion et les changements dans
développements nouveaux de la technologie constituent les stratégies de gestion des postes ;
un challenge pour les concepteurs des postes et  Les impacts des changements des objectifs d’activité,
leur mode de pensée traditionnel, et impactent par et du paysage de l’énergie, sur les stratégies de
conséquent le processus de conception et la stratégie maintenance des postes ;
de gestion des actifs des postes du futur. Le Groupe de  Les impacts des contraintes de production et du mix de
Travail a surtout examiné l'impact sur les postes existants production sur les conditions de charge des postes ;
et leurs installations anciennes, et a analysé ensuite  Les objectifs de la gestion des actifs et des risques,
l'impact anticipé sur la gestion des postes futurs, sur les dans la gestion de la durée de vie des postes ;
conditions de charge et les paramètres de capacité des  La gestion des savoirs et de l’expertise ;
différents équipements, et sur les besoins de données  Les impacts sur les composants primaires et
d'information. L'analyse a commencé par un examen secondaires des postes ;
extensif des moteurs de l'évolution vers les réseaux du  Les technologies émergentes et les perspectives ;
futur. L'engagement international croissant en faveur de  Le passage des solutions matérielles aux applications
la décarbonation conduit à la transition vers des sources numériques ;
renouvelables d'énergie. Les accords et les législations  La surveillance d’état de plus en plus pratiquée et la
internationaux vont faire que les combustibles fossiles ne gestion des données pour optimiser le fonctionnement
seront plus la base historique de l'énergie consommée par des postes ;
les foyers, par l'industrie, pour produire la chaleur et pour  La cyber sécurité et la gestion des postes ;
le transport. Ceci conduit à un mouvement vers une part  Les accords environnementaux et les législations
de plus en plus forte d'électricité produite à partir d'autres actuels, et la disparition de la dépendance historique
sources complémentaires, accompagné de changements aux combustibles fossiles.
importants du système électrique et de ses constituants
avec, dans un environnement plus complexe, des Les postes dans les systèmes
conséquences sur leur exploitation et leur gestion. électriques du futur
Domaine couvert Les deux premiers chapitres expliquent comment le
service de fourniture de l’électricité va être impacté, dans
En prenant en compte les changements de les prochaines décennies, par plusieurs mouvements
l’environnement de travail, le Groupe de Travail a estimé sociétaux, qui auront une forte influence sur le
l’impact sur la gestion des postes et des installations développement et l’exploitation des systèmes électriques.
actuelles et futures, sur leur maintenance et sur leur Les principaux facteurs externes qui influencent le
utilisation, ainsi que sur les besoins en personnel. Le développement des systèmes électriques et des postes
développement, au cours des dernières décennies, de sont présentés ci-après :
la collecte des données, de leur transmission et de leur  La décarbonation – Il existe un consensus
exploitation, a été un important facteur facilitateur. Le international pour faire appel plus largement aux •••

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Expected impact on substation
management from future grids

MEMBERS
J.J. SMIT, Convenor (NL), N. BARRERA, Secretary (CH), G. BALZER (DE), J. BEDNAŘÍK (IE),
N. FANTANA (DE), N. KAISER (DE), P. LEEMANS (BE), A. MACKRELL (GB),
R. MEHAIRJAN (NL), P. MYRDA (US), A. WILSON (GB)
CORRESPONDENT
T. KOBAYASHI, (JP)

 Management issues and changes in substation


Introduction management strategies;
 Impact of changing business drivers and energy
Future changes in the energy landscape and new landscapes on substation maintenance strategies;
developments in technology challenge substation  Impact of generation constraints and generation
designers in their traditional way of thinking and mix on substation loading;
consequently affects the design process and asset  Asset and Risk Management drivers for life-time
management strategy of future substations. The management of substations;
working group mainly reviewed the impact on existing  Knowledge and skills management;
substations with aged assets and, subsequently,  Impact on substation primary and secondary
analysed the expected impact on future substation components;
management, including loading and rating criteria  Emerging technologies and trends;
for different equipment and data information  Moving from hardware to digital applications;
requirements. The analysis started with an extensive  Increasing condition monitoring and data
view on the drivers for change towards the future management to optimise substation performance;
grid. The growing international commitment to  Cyber security for substations management;
decarbonisation leads to a transition to sustainable  Current environmental agreement and legislations,
and renewable energy sources. Environmental moving away from the historic reliance on the
agreements and legislation will remove the historic fossil fuels.
reliance on fossil fuels as energy source for
households, industry, heating and transportation. Substations in future power
This leads to a shift towards increasing electrical systems
power generation from other additional resources,
accompanied by significant changes to the power The first two chapters describe how the electric
system and subsystems including their operation and energy supply will be influenced in the coming
management in the more complex environment. decades by several societal trends that will have a
significant impact on the development and operation
Scope of the electrical systems. The main external factors,
which influence the power system and substation
Considering the changing work environment the development, are described below.
Working Group has assessed the impact upon  Decarbonisation – The international consensus
substation management of existing and future assets, is to increase renewable energy sources (water,
their maintenance and utilisation as well as staffing wind, solar) for power generation. This will reduce
needs. An important facilitator has been the growth the climate change impact of conversion of finite
of data collection, transmittal and use in the last resources (coal, gas, oil) for generating electric
decades. The Working Group has examined these power.
future challenges from a broad perspective including:  Availability of electrical energy supply – •••

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sources renouvelables (eau, vent, soleil) pour la Stratégies de gestion des postes
production d’électricité. Cela réduira l’impact sur le
changement du climat de l’utilisation des ressources Le chapitre 3 décrit comment on peut répondre aux défis
limitées (charbon, gaz, pétrole) pour la production du réseau du futur et aux attentes réglementaires, qui
d’électricité. encouragent de nombreuses compagnies d’électricité
 La disponibilité de la fourniture de l’énergie à s’organiser selon un modèle d’activité de gestionnaire
électrique – Une fourniture sûre d'électricité est un d’actifs. Dans une compagnie d’électricité moderne
facteur essentiel du développement économique d'un chaque actif doit avoir son rôle propre et bien identifié dans
pays, dans la mesure où l'industrie manufacturière le réseau, et ceci requiert qu’il soit géré tout au long de sa
est tributaire de la bonne disponibilité de la fourniture vie pour satisfaire les valeurs de la compagnie en termes
pour la fabrication de produits de haute qualité dans le de performance du réseau, de coûts, de sécurité des
monde globalisé. personnes, et d’environnement. Le processus de prise de
 Une fourniture d’électricité économique et décision qui mène à des actions d’investissement telles
efficiente – Un service économique et efficient de que la maintenance, la rénovation ou le remplacement,
l’électricité est une des caractéristiques d’une société sera une partie d’une structure décisionnelle telle que
de demain qui participe au développement de demain. celle de la Figure 1.
Une plus forte efficience économique va réduire les
dépenses de capital (CAPEX) et d’exploitation (OPEX).
 L’acceptation publique – La construction et
l’exploitation des installations proposées, des réseaux
électriques de transport et de distribution, et de
production, sont souvent soumises à des procédures
d’approbation longues et consommatrices de temps,
impliquant toutes les parties prenantes.
 Le développement de l’énergie électrique – Dans
le scénario central du World Energy Outlook 2016, il
est anticipé une croissance de 30% de la demande
totale d’électricité à l’horizon 2040, ce qui implique une
augmentation de la consommation de tous les types
d’énergie primaire, mais ce montant global est en fait Figure 1 – L’approche de gestion des actifs et la planification des
investissements
le résultat de tendances multiples et diverses, et de
mouvements importants au niveau des ressources Le rôle présent et futur de chaque actif doit être pris
primaires. en compte par rapport à l’historique, à l’état actuel et
au risque d’un non fonctionnement correct. Le même
Certaines tendances peuvent être prévues dès plan d’investissement ne sera plus valable pour toutes
maintenant, et elles auront des impacts inévitables sur la les unités d’une même classe d’actifs. Il revient, par
fourniture de l’électricité. Les réseaux électriques devront conséquent, au responsable de définir les objectifs
donc se développer en conséquence, pour répondre aux pour chacun de ces aspects, et en particulier le niveau
exigences de la société. Ces tendances sont en rapport de risque accepté. Les actifs sont ici non seulement les
avec la réduction des émissions de CO2, la disponibilité équipements d’infrastructure, mais aussi tout ce qui a
et l’efficience de l’alimentation électrique, et l’acceptation une valeur pour la compagnie. La finance, la réputation,
par le public du fait que les équipements électriques les droits de propriété intellectuelle et le capital humain
doivent exister. La production sera déversée aussi bien font partie de ces actifs intangibles. Il revient donc au
dans les réseaux de transport que dans les réseaux de personnel, à tous les niveaux, de jouer son rôle pour
distribution, se regroupant dans le transformateur du gérer, maintenir et exploiter tous les actifs disponibles
poste. L’équilibre entre la production et la demande sera et contribuer à ces valeurs. Ainsi est définie la « ligne
de la responsabilité d’un nouveau type d’opérateur de d'horizon » tracée nettement à laquelle on fait référence
système, gérant entre les deux systèmes. Les effets sur dans les spécifications et les normes concernant les
la fourniture de l'électricité seront, par exemple, l'appel actifs, telles que la PAS 55 ou l’ISO 55000. Cette
à plus d'énergies intermittentes pour la production avec approche a été rendue possible, pour la plus grande
de grandes distances de transport pour une partie, des part, par l'intégration dans une fonction unique de •••
nouvelles technologies et méthodes d'exploitation. gestion des actifs, de l'ensemble des décisions à prendre
On verra en outre, du fait des transferts de puissance et des investissements à réaliser sur la durée de vie des
importants, des contraintes plus fortes et variant très actifs.
rapidement au niveau des équipements électriques, qui
appelleront des efforts supplémentaires en matière de La palette des expertises traditionnelles de l'équipe
surveillance d'état du réseau pour satisfaire les objectifs d'ingénierie des postes était largement centrée sur le
de disponibilité de fourniture. fonctionnement des actifs, et demandait une expérience

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A secure energy supply is an essential factor for process that leads to investment interventions such
the economic development of a country, as the as maintenance, refurbishment or replacement will be
manufacturing industry relies on high availability of part of a decision structure such as shown in Figure 1.
supply to produce products with high quality in a
globalized world.
 Economic and efficient energy supply – The
economic and efficient energy supply is one of
the essential characteristics of a future society to
participate in the future development. The increased
economic efficiency will reduce the capital (CAPEX)
and operational (OPEX) costs.
 Public acceptance – The construction and
operation of proposed installations for electrical
transmission and distribution systems, and
production are sometimes subjected to lengthy
approval processes involving participation of all
stakeholders. Figure 1 - The asset management approach to investment planning
 Development of the electrical energy – In the
main scenario of World Energy Outlook 2016, a 30 The present and future role of each asset needs to
% rise in global energy demand to 2040 means an be considered against past history, current condition
increase in consumption of all modern fuels, but and risk of non-performance. No longer will all in the
the global aggregates mask a multitude of diverse same asset class have the same investment plan. It is,
trends and significant switching between fuels. therefore, the role of the executive to set the business
direction in each of these aspects, including the levels
Some trends are already predictable today, which have of risk to be tolerated. Here “assets” include not only
their inevitable impact on the electrical energy supply. the infrastructure equipment, but anything of value to
As a consequence, the electrical networks will have a company. Some of these intangible assets include
to develop accordingly to meet societal requirements. finance, reputation, and intellectual property rights and
These trends include the intended reduction of CO2 people assets. It is then up to the staff at all levels to
emissions, the availability and efficiency of electricity play their role to manage, maintain and operate all of
supply, and with it a public acceptance that electrical the available assets to meet these values. This provides
equipment needs to exist. Generation will be fed the clear “line of sight” referred to in asset specifications
into both the transmission and distribution networks, and standards such as PAS 55 or ISO 55000. A key
meeting at the substation transformer. The balance enabler in this approach has been the integrating of all
between supply and demand will rest on a new type decision making and investment throughout the asset
of system operator managing between the networks. life in one asset management function.
The effects on the electrical energy supply are, for
example, the increased use of intermitting renewable The substation engineering team’s traditional skills
energies for power generation with partly long set was very focussed on how the assets worked,
transmission distances, new technologies and modes and required detailed experience in the assets and
of operation. In addition, due to large transmission their design. Today much of this can be outsourced
load flows, the electrical components are higher and to skilled service providers. The current demands
variably stressed, so that higher efforts in condition for an in-house technical engineer now requires
monitoring of the system must be made to meet the a wider technical skill set (e.g. data management or
availability of the supply. communication technology), as well as competences
in non-technical areas such as such as finance, risk
Substation management management, business planning and forecasting.
strategies
Substation equipment
Chapter 3 describes how to meet the future grid
challenges and regulatory expectations, which Chapter 4 discusses the impact of future grids on the
encourage many power utilities to structure management of loading and rating criteria for different
themselves into an asset management business equipment. There is a need today to review existing
model. In the modern utility each asset needs to have high voltage component technical specifications to be
its own identified role within the network, and this future grid compliant with regard to wider foreseen
requires management throughout its life in order to utilisations. After all, the equipment for the future is
meet the company values of network performance, being purchased today. •••
costs, safety, and environment. The decision making

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pointue des actifs et de leur conception, qui peut (par ex. CCHT, SVC et STATCOM). L'utilisation des
aujourd'hui, pour la plus grande part, être transférée à inductances shunt va se développer, du fait du plus grand
des prestataires qualifiés. D’un responsable technique nombre de câbles (par ex. raccordements des éoliennes
interne à la compagnie on attend aujourd’hui une palette offshore, acceptation par le public) et de la moindre
d’expertise technique plus large (par ex. gestion de disponibilité de centrales capables de produire de la
données et technologie de communication), ainsi que des puissance réactive pour réguler la tension du réseau.
compétences dans des domaines non techniques, tels Les postes offshores sont en train de devenir une partie
que la finance, la gestion des risques, la planification et la de l'exploitation de tous les jours, avec leurs logistiques
prévision des activités. très complexes de gestion des actifs, dans lesquelles les
robots, par exemple, peuvent avoir à jouer un rôle, (voir
Equipements des postes Figure3).

Dans le chapitre 4 on examine les impacts des réseaux


futurs sur la gestion des charges et sur la définition
des capacités nominales des différents équipements.
Il est nécessaire aujourd’hui de revoir les spécifications
techniques des matériels à haute tension pour les rendre
compatibles avec les utilisations plus étendues anticipées
dans les réseaux futurs. Il est vrai que les équipements du
futur sont achetés dès aujourd'hui.

Les frontières existant aujourd'hui entre équipements


primaires et secondaires vont continuer à s'estomper.
La séparation traditionnelle entre différents dispositifs
de protection, et les différences entre protections et
contrôles, sont en train de changer, avec de nouveaux Figure 3 - Robot autonome en offshore (courtesy Anybotics)
dispositifs et protocoles observant l'ensemble du poste
d'une même manière. Les difficultés nouvelles que sont Les opérateurs de réseau devront avoir une meilleure
les charges différentes et les productions non synchrones appréciation de l'état des installations et de leur capacité
faibles vont exiger des systèmes de protection plus à supporter des charges plus importantes. Les capacités
intelligents, qui soient capables de fonctionner pour de dynamiques peuvent être une partie de la réponse,
tels scénarios. Ces scénarios vont aussi demander des mais avoir plus d'informations sur l'état et le risque d'un
systèmes nouveaux qui fonctionnent à l'échelle du réseau, fonctionnement incorrect est aussi important. Une solution
et non plus seulement à l'échelle d'un circuit particulier pourrait être l'accès aux conditions dynamiques d'état,
ou d'un poste. La numérisation (Figure 2) pénètre les circuit par circuit, comme montré sur la Figure 4.
équipements primaires et secondaires pour aller vers le
poste numérique, et vers des capacités de contrôle et de Exigences en matière de données
surveillance plus performantes.
Le chapitre 5 présente une analyse exhaustive du rôle
important que les données et le traitement d'information
va jouer dans les postes du futur et dans les réseaux
du futur. Ce rôle sera facilité par l'utilisation accrue des
capteurs et les nouvelles technologies de capteurs,
l'appel plus large aux technologies de l'information et des
communications et, aussi, par l'utilisation plus fréquente
des moyens mobiles, qui deviennent plus acceptables
financièrement et plus fiables.

La fonction d'Historique des données (Historian) va se


développer, et va rapidement ajouter quelques années aux
données disponibles pour permettre des comparaisons.
L'Historique peut ainsi prévoir un mécanisme permettant
un accès à des données de tierce partie, dont on ne
Figure 2 – Numérisation du poste parlait pas il y a quelques années, qui facilitera le
stockage de données qui permettront à des systèmes
Le contrôle de la charge peut aussi être aidé par l'utilisation experts centralisés de réaliser une analyse rapide des
accrue des capacités dynamiques, des transformateurs modifications de données qui auront été identifiées par
déphaseurs et des systèmes à électronique de puissance les systèmes. •••

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The existing boundaries between primary and connection, public acceptance) and lower availability
secondary systems will continue to fade. The of power plants to deliver reactive power for network
traditional division between different protection voltage control. Offshore substations are becoming
devices and differentiation on control or protection part of daily grid operation with challenging asset
is changing, with new devices and protocols looking management logistics, in which e.g. robotics could
at the whole substation in a uniform manner. play a role, see Fig. 3.
New challenges such as different loads and non-
synchronous weak generation will require more The network operators will need to have a better
intelligent protection systems that can work in such appreciation on asset condition and the capability to
scenarios. Such scenarios will require new systems increase load levels. Dynamic ratings may be part of the
to operate on network level not only within a particular solution but equally important is to have more information
bay or substation. Digitalisation (Fig. 2) integrates into about condition and risk to performance. One solution
primary and secondary equipment towards the digital will be access to dynamic condition indications on a
substation with enhanced control and monitoring circuit by circuit basis, as shown in Fig 4.
capabilities.
Data information requirements
Chapter 5 provides an extensive analysis of the
important role that data and information management
will play in future substations and in future grids. This
will be facilitated by increased use of sensors and
new sensor technology, higher use of information
technology and communication and also by increased
utilisation of mobile devices which are becoming more
cost affordable and reliable.

The function of the Data Historian will increase,


quickly adding more years to the data available for
comparison. For example, the data historian may
provide a mechanism for increased third-party data
Figure 2 - Substation digitalisation access, unheard of just a few years ago and will
facilitate data entry to allow centralised expert systems
to provide a quick analysis of any data changes
Load control can also be assisted with greater use identified by the systems.
of dynamic ratings, phase shifting transformers and
power electronic systems (e.g. HVDC, SVC, and The down-side of all the extra information being
STATCOM). The use of shunt reactors will increase available unfortunately increases the risk of cyber
due to the larger number of cables (e.g. off-shore wind security. With ever more sophisticated technology •••

Figure 3 - Autonomous Offshore Robot (courtesy Anybotics)

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Figure 4 – Un exemple de présentation centralisée d’une cellule avec les données de surveillance

Le côté moins favorable de l'augmentation des intégrées à l’avenir. Elles peuvent contribuer à
volumes de données est l'accroissement des risques répondre aux problèmes de fonctionnement des
de cyber sécurité. Avec l'introduction de technologies postes et des réseaux, mais elles impliquent des
de plus en plus sophistiquées dans l'environnement expertises supplémentaires nouvelles du personnel
des postes, la cyber sécurité est un domaine auquel et de nouvelles approches de leur gestion.
on doit attacher une grande priorité.  Les spécifications techniques d’achat des
équipements à haute tension doivent être revues
Conclusions pour répondre aux besoins liés aux réseaux futurs.
Si ceci n’est pas pris en compte correctement, et à
L’analyse, par le GT, des évolutions conduisant au temps, on court un risque de voir des équipements
réseau du futur qui impactent la gestion des postes achetés qui ne pourront pas assurer leur fonction
permet de dégager les points suivants : dans un réseau futur qui aura changé, et ceci
 Les systèmes doivent être gérés dans leur entière conduira à des coûts échoués.
complexité, qui dépasse souvent les limites du  L’expertise en matière de gestion des données,
poste et qui constitue un système plus étendu et et la prise de conscience des risques tels que
plus intelligent. Les frontières entre les disciplines la cyber sécurité, sont devenues de plus en
et les technologies différentes disparaissent dans plus importantes dans la recherche d’une réelle
une approche plus intégrée. sécurité de la fourniture d’électricité.
 La priorité sera encore plus donnée à une gestion  Une utilisation des données plus performante, et
qui réduit les incidents de coupure d’alimentation, plus large, va changer la manière d’exploiter et
avec une attention particulière portée à leurs de gérer les actifs de réseau. Dans les postes,
impacts sur la continuité des activités, sur la et dans le réseau également, elle permettra de
sécurité et sur l’environnement. Ceci conduira prendre des décisions plus appropriées, basées
à plus de travaux hors coupure. Les décisions sur une meilleure connaissance de l'état et des
d’intervention seront de plus en plus basées sur risques.
l’état des installations. La gestion optimale des  Les postes du futur vont être exploités dans des
actifs suivra les principes de l’ISO 55000. environnements gérés par les données, mûrs pour
 De nouvelles technologies continueront à être la mise en œuvre de l'intelligence artificielle. 

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Figure 4 - An example of a centrally displayed bay with monitoring data

being introduced into the substation environment, this such as cyber-security have become increasingly
is an area that must be given high priority. important in order to provide an effective security of
power delivery.
Conclusions  Better and increased use of data will change the
way operation and asset management will be
The WG review of changes towards the future grid carried out, allowing better and more situation
impacting substation management indicate: and risk aware decisions in the substations and
 The systems must be managed in its entire networks as well.
complexity often exceeding the substation  Future substations will migrate into data driven
boundaries and forming bigger and more intelligent environments ripe for the implementation of artificial
systems. The boundaries between different intelligence. 
disciplines and technologies are disappearing into
a more integrated approach.
 Management to prevent loss of supply incidents BROCHURE N° 764
will increase but so will the broader focus on their
business disruption, safety and environmental
impact. This will lead to more work without outages. (en anglais seulement)
There will also be increased use of condition based
(in English only)
decision making. Asset optimisation will follow
alignment to ISO 55000.
Disponible sur / Available on:
 New emerging technologies will continue to be
introduced in the future. They may solve the
challenges in the substation and grid performance www.e-cigre.org
however they will require additional new personnel
skills and management approaches to handle them.
Prix non-Membres / Non-Member Price:
 The technical specifications to purchase high
voltage equipment today should be revised to
comply with the requirements in the future grid. If 220 €
not handled properly and in time, there is risk that
the newly purchased equipment will not be able Purchase (non-members)
to perform in the changed future grid leading to
Free download (members)
stranded costs.
 Data management skills and awareness of risks

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Comprendre et maîtriser la corrosion

MEMBRES
J. TUSEK, Chef de file (AU), S. SUTTON, Secrétaire (GB), B. BACHOUR (CA),
J. BAUDACH (DE), V. CHATEL (FR), S. CHERUKUPALLI (CA), B. CHUDNOVSKY (US),
H. DING (GB), A. MICHALIK (PL)

Introduction qui impactent le comportement des installations, leur


durée de vie utile et leur coût pour le propriétaire.
La corrosion est un processus naturel, qui est
continuellement actif et qui touche la plupart de ce La brochure constitue une source d’informations
que nous produisons et utilisons dans la communauté relatives à la corrosion ; ce faisant il faut reconnaitre
de l’électrotechnique. Du fait de la distribution que la corrosion est une discipline en soi, avec sa
géographique des équipements et de leur criticité, propre communauté technique et sa terminologie.
l’impact de la corrosion peut être coûteux et peut La brochure donne un point de vue exhaustif sur les
mettre en péril la fiabilité de la fourniture d’électricité. aspects de base de la corrosion et constitue un bon
La technologie électrique met en œuvre une variété document de référence. Tout au long de la brochure
de plus en plus large de matériaux et les place sont mis en avant des exemples de différents processus
dans des environnements nouveaux, et quelquefois de corrosion actifs (figure 1), venant de la communauté
agressifs ; Il existe aussi des techniques et des de l’électrotechnique, ou de situations courantes avec
processus de fabrication nouveaux, qui créent des lesquelles le lecteur est probablement familier.
circonstances qui conduisent parfois à des problèmes
de corrosion inattendus. Ainsi l’industrie doit faire face Il faut souligner que l’Association Australienne pour la
à des menaces anciennes et nouvelles de corrosion, Corrosion (ACA) a aimablement autorisé CIGRE •••

Figure 1 - Exemples de corrosion : processus galvanique entre une mise à la terre en cuivre et un câble en
cuivre jointés par une plaque galvanisée (gauche), et piqûres sur une surface en acier (droite)

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Understanding and mitigating
corrosion

MEMBERS
J. TUSEK, Convenor (AU), S. SUTTON, Secretary (UK), B. BACHOUR (CA),
J. BAUDACH (DE), V. CHATEL (FR), S. CHERUKUPALLI (CA), B. CHUDNOVSKY (US),
H. DING (UK), A. MICHALIK (PL)

Introduction
This brochure provides a resource in matters relating
Corrosion is a natural process that is continuously to corrosion; in doing so it must be acknowledged that
active and impacts much of what we produce and corrosion is its own discipline and has its own technical
use in the electrotechnical community. Due to the community and terminology. The brochure provides a
distributed nature of equipment and its criticality, the comprehensive overview of the basics of corrosion
impact of corrosion can be costly and threaten the and offers a good reference document. Throughout
reliability of power delivery. Electrotechnology is using the brochure examples are highlighted of different
an ever greater variety of materials and placing them corrosion processes in action (Figure 1), either from
in novel and sometimes aggressive environments. the electrotechnical community or common situations
There are also new manufacturing techniques and with which the reader is likely to be familiar.
processes that create unique circumstances which at
times result in unexpected corrosion problems. Thus, It is acknowledged that Australian Corrosion
the industry faces old and new threats from corrosion Association (ACA) has kindly provided CIGRE
that impact asset performance, service life and cost of permission to use some of its training materials for the
ownership. content of this brochure. •••

Figure 1 – Examples of corrosion, galvanic processes between a copper earth strap and copper cable joined
by a galvanized plate (left), and pitting on a steel surface (right)

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à utiliser certains de ces outils de formation dans cette La brochure comporte aussi quatre annexes,
brochure. une d’elles présentant de nombreuses normes
intéressantes, nationales et internationales.
Structure de la Brochure
Les effets coûteux de la corrosion
La Brochure Technique comporte onze chapitres :
 Le chapitre 1 donne des informations de base sur La corrosion est un processus destructeur de valeur
la corrosion et son impact économique. et les coûts pour l’industrie de l’électricité, et plus
 Le chapitre 2 explique les processus de corrosion, largement pour la société, sont énormes. Ils peuvent
ce qui se passe à l’anode et à la cathode, ainsi que être classés en coûts directs et coûts indirects.
dans l’électrolyte, et présente la Série Galvanique.
 Le chapitre 3 explique les processus d’oxydation Parmi les exemples de coûts directs on peut citer :
et de réduction, et fournit des détails sur les Séries  Les coûts de réparation ou de remplacement
Electrochimique et Galvanique, et sur la science des composants ou des équipements corrodés
d’estimation de la vitesse de corrosion. (Figure 2).
 Le chapitre 4 présente les différentes formes  La nécessité d’utiliser des matériaux plus chers,
de corrosion, la façon dont elles se produisent, comme par exemple de l’acier inoxydable en lieu et
et certaines des actions qu’on peut réaliser pour place d’acier au carbone.
limiter les dommages.
 Le chapitre 5 traite des facteurs environnementaux, Comme exemples de coûts indirects, on peut donner :
tels que la nature des sols, le pH, les microbes, etc.  La perte de produit d’un container qui a été corrodé
 Le chapitre 6 donne des informations techniques (par ex. fuite d’huile d’un réservoir), et le coût du
sur la façon de modifier la conception pour contrôler nettoyage
la corrosion.  La perte de production due à une défaillance
 Le chapitre 7 présente dans le détail la susceptibilité de composant consécutive à la corrosion, ou la
à la corrosion constatée pour différents métaux. perte de rendement imputable à une réduction du
 Le chapitre 8 donne un aperçu sur la manière dont transfert de chaleur ou une résistance accrue.
la modification de l’environnement dans lequel un  L’effet sur la sécurité, par ex. une défaillance
métal est utilisé peut inhiber ou limiter la corrosion. causant une destruction, un incendie, une explosion
 Le chapitre 9 débat des systèmes de protection ou une émission d’un produit dangereux. En plus
anodiques et cathodiques. l’impact sur les mises à la terre peut provoquer
 Les chapitres 10 et 11 traitent de l’utilisation des des élévations de potentiel qui peuvent être
revêtements de protection. dangereuses. •••

Figure 2 – Corrosion d’un acier doux sur des structures de poste peintes (gauche)
et corrosion d’un conducteur de mise à la terre (droite)

94 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


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Brochure Organisation Costly effects of corrosion
The Technical Brochure is organized into eleven Corrosion is a wasteful process and the costs to the
Chapters: energy supply industry, and more broadly to society,
 Chapter 1 present the basics of corrosion and the are enormous: they can be divided into direct and
economic impact. indirect costs. Examples of direct losses due to
 Chapter 2 discusses the corrosion process; the corrosion include:
phenomenon occurring at the anode, cathode as  Costs of repair or replacement of corroded
well as the electrolyte and introduces the galvanic components or equipment (Figure 2).
series.  The requirement to use more expensive materials,
 Chapter 3 discusses the oxidation and for example stainless steel rather than carbon steel.
reduction processes, and provides details of the
electrochemical and galvanic series, and the Examples of indirect costs include:
science of estimating corrosion rates.  Loss of a product from a container that has
 Chapter 4 introduces the various forms of corrosion, corroded (e.g. oil leaking from tanks) and clean-up
how they occur and some of the steps that can be costs.
taken to limit damage.  Loss of production because of a corrosion related
 Chapter 5 discusses environment factors such as component failure or loss of efficiency due to
type of soil, pH, microbes etc. reduced heat transfer or increased resistance.
 Chapter 6 provides engineering information on  Effect on safety, e.g. failure may cause collapse,
how designs may be affected to mitigate corrosion fire, explosion or release of a dangerous product.
processes. Additionally, impacts on earthing systems may
 Chapter 7 details of the extent of corrosion cause potentially dangerous potentials.
experienced by different metals.
 Chapter 8 provides insights on how modifying the In most developed countries the cost of corrosion
environment in which a metal is used can inhibit or has been estimated at around 3.4% of global Gross
limit corrosion. National Product. It is also estimated that one quarter
 Chapter 9 discusses cathodic and anodic protection of the cost could be saved if the best corrosion
schemes. practices were applied.
 Chapter 10 and 11 discuss the use of protective
coatings. As well as having technical and economic
The brochure also has four appendices one of consequences, corrosion has environmental
which lists many relevant national and international ramifications. Destruction of a material is a waste
standards. of valuable natural resources. Manufacture of •••

Figure 2 – Mild steel corrosion on painted substation structures (left),


and copper earth conductor corrosion (right)

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Pour la plupart des pays développés le coût de la Les diagrammes de Pourbaix combinent les
corrosion a été estimé à 3,4% de Produit National informations de la série Electrochimique et l’effet
Brut global. Il a été également estimé qu'un quart du du pH, des oxydes et des hydroxydes de métal qui
coût pouvait être économisé si de meilleures pratiques peuvent se former. Un diagramme de Pourbaix
contre la corrosion étaient appliquées. indique les composés qui sont stables à différentes
valeurs de pH et à différents potentiels. La Figure 3
De même qu'elle a des conséquences techniques montre un diagramme de Pourbaix simplifié, pour le
et économiques, la corrosion a des impacts fer dans l'eau.
environnementaux. La destruction des matériaux est  Dans des conditions fortement réductrices (pour
une disparition de ressources naturelles qui ont une toutes les valeurs de pH) le fer est stable et ne se
valeur. La fabrication des métaux à partir de leur minerai corrodera pas : c’est ce que l’on appelle la région
consomme de grandes quantités d'énergie et d'eau. En immune.
produisant des matériaux qui durent plus longtemps,  Dans des conditions acides oxydantes, le fer est
on économise des ressources d'énergie et on réduit la assez facilement oxydé pour donner des ions
pollution et les émissions de gaz à effet de serre. ferreux ou, pour des conditions plus fortement
oxydantes, des ions ferriques : ces régions sont
Diagrammes de Pourbaix désignées par le terme « domaine de corrosion ».
 Le fer se corrodera également dans des conditions
La série Electrochimique (Tableau 1) est très utile fortement alcalines, pour lesquelles l'ion HFeO2 se
en électrochimie pour prévoir les réactions, mais elle formera
présente un certain nombre de limitations : des produits  Dans des conditions alcalines les hydroxydes
de corrosion peuvent par exemple s’accumuler sur la Fe(OH)2 ou Fe(OH)3 sont les produits stables.
surface du métal et ralentir la réaction. En pratique Dans ces régions le fer n'est pas immune à la
l’aluminium et le titane sont tous deux beaucoup plus corrosion, mais les films protecteurs font qu'en
résistants à la corrosion que le suggère la série, parce pratique la corrosion ne se produit pas : ces régions
qu’un film protecteur d’oxyde se forme. sont appelées les domaines passif. •••

Tableau 1 – la Série Electrochimique

Ion Metallique Réaction à Electrode Potentiel normal de réduction Eo (V)


Cathode ou Extrémité Noble
Or Au+ + e- = Au + 1.70
Chlore Cl2 + 2e = 2Cl
- - + 1.36
Ions Oxygène/Hydrogène ½O2 + 2H+ + 2e- = H2O + 1.23
Platine Pt2+ + 2e- = Pt + 1.12
Mercure Hg + 2e = Hg
2+ - + 0.85
Argent Ag + e = Ag
+ - + 0.80
Ions Ferriques Fe + e = Fe
3+ - 2+ + 0.77
Oxygène/eau ½O2 + H2O + 2e = 2OH - - + 0.40
Cuivre Cu + 2e = Cu
2+ - + 0.34
Ions hydrogène (par définition) 2H + 2e = H2
+ - 0.00
Plomb Pb2+ + 2e- = Pb – 0.13
Nickel Ni2+ + 2e- = Ni – 0.26
Cadmium Cd + 2e = Cd
2+ - – 0.40
Fer (Ferreux) Fe + 2e = Fe
2+ - – 0.44
Chrome Cr + 2e = Cr
3+ - – 0.74
Zinc Zn + 2e = Zn
2+ - – 0.76
Titane Ti + 2e = Ti
2+ - – 1.63
Aluminium Al + 3e = Al
3+ - – 1.66
Magnésium Mg + 2e = Mg
2+ - – 2.37
Sodium Na+ + e- = Na – 2.71
Extrémité active ou anodique

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metals from their ores consumes vast amounts of  Under acidic oxidising conditions, iron is relatively
energy and water. By making products last longer, easily oxidised to ferrous ions, or with a stronger
energy resources are conserved and, pollution and oxidant, to ferric ions: these regions are termed the
greenhouse gases are reduced. corrosion domain.
 Iron will also corrode under very alkaline conditions
Pourbaix diagrams where the HFeO2- ion will form.
 Under alkaline conditions, Fe(OH)2 or Fe(OH)3
The Electrochemical Series (Table 1) is very useful to hydroxides are the stable species. In these regions,
electrochemists in predicting reactions but there are a iron is not immune from corrosion but protective
number of limitations, for example, corrosion products films mean that in practice corrosion does not
may build up on the metal surface and stifle the occur: these are called the passive domains.
reaction. In practice, aluminium and titanium are both
far more corrosion resistant than the series suggests This Pourbaix diagram helps predict whether or not
due to the formation of a protective oxide film. corrosion will occur, which corrosion products will form,
and also enable us to predict which environmental
Pourbaix diagrams combine the information in the changes will prevent or reduce corrosion attack, e.g.
Electrochemical Series with the effect of pH and, the changing the local pH.
oxides and hydroxides of the metal which may form. A
Pourbaix diagram indicates the compounds which are Polarisation
stable at various pH values and various potentials.
Figure 3, shows a simplified Pourbaix diagram for iron During corrosion, current flows from the anode to
in water. the cathode. Higher currents will result in a greater
corrosion rate. In practice it is not possible to
Under highly reducing conditions (for all pH values) measure this current because the metal surfaces are
iron is stable and will not corrode: this is called the not homogeneous and the corrosion current flows
immune region. from a large number of small anodes on the metal •••

Table 1 – The Electrochemical series

Metal Ion Electrode Reaction Standard Reduction Potential Eo (V)


Cathodic or Noble End
Gold Au+ + e- = Au + 1.70
Chlorine Cl2 + 2e- = 2Cl- + 1.36
Oxygen/Hydrogen ions ½O2 + 2H+ + 2e- = H2O + 1.23
Platinum Pt + 2e = Pt
2+ -
+ 1.12
Mercury Hg + 2e = Hg
2+ -
+ 0.85
Silver Ag + e = Ag
+ -
+ 0.80
Ferric ions Fe3+ + e- = Fe2+ + 0.77
Oxygen/Water ½O2 + H2O + 2e- = 2OH- + 0.40
Copper Cu + 2e = Cu
2+ -
+ 0.34
Hydrogen ions (by Definition) 2H + 2e = H2
+ -
0.00
Lead Pb + 2e = Pb
2+ -
– 0.13
Nickel Ni + 2e = Ni
2+ -
– 0.26
Cadmium Cd2+ + 2e- = Cd – 0.40
Iron (Ferrous) Fe2+ + 2e- = Fe – 0.44
Chromium Cr + 2e = Cr
3+ -
– 0.74
Zinc Zn + 2e = Zn
2+ -
– 0.76
Titanium Ti + 2e = Ti
2+ -
– 1.63
Aluminium Al + 3e = Al
3+ -
– 1.66
Magnesium Mg2+ + 2e- = Mg – 2.37
Sodium Na+ + e- = Na – 2.71
Active or Anodic End

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Figure 3 – Diagramme de Pourbaix pour le système Fe-H2O à 25°C (version simplifiée)

 Ce diagramme de Pourbaix aide à comprendre si Diagrammes d’Evans


la corrosion va se produire ou non, quels produits
de corrosion se formeront, et il aide aussi à La polarisation présente une grande importance parce
prédire quelles modifications de l’environnement qu’elle détermine la vitesse de corrosion effective de
préviendront ou ralentiront l’attaque de la corrosion, nombreux métaux et alliages. Sur la Figure 4 on montre
par ex. une modification du pH local. ce comportement pour une cellule de corrosion, avec
du fer se corrodant à l’anode et une réduction par
Polarisation oxygène à la cathode. Avec une résistance infinie entre
l’anode et la cathode, le potentiel de chaque électrode
Pendant la corrosion un courant circule de l’anode est égal à son potentiel réversible ; à mesure que la
vers la cathode. Plus le courant est élevé plus la résistance entre anode et cathode diminue et que le
vitesse de corrosion est élevée. Il n’est pas possible, courant circule, les potentiels se déplacent l’un vers
pratiquement, de mesurer le courant parce que les l’autre. Si la résistance de la cellule est négligeable,
surfaces des métaux ne sont pas homogènes, et que les potentiels de l’anode et de la cathode seront égaux
les courants de corrosion circulent entre un grand et à la valeur Ecorr, potentiel de corrosion. Le courant
nombre de petites anodes à la surface du métal et un correspondant de la cellule, à ce point, est appelé le
grand nombre de petites cathodes. Il est cependant courant de corrosion (icorr). Si la forme des courbes
possible de mesurer en laboratoire, de façon indirecte, de polarisation de l’anode et de la cathode est connue,
le courant circulant entre les anodes et les cathodes, il est possible de prédire la densité de courant de
au moyen d’un équipement spécial. corrosion, et donc la vitesse de corrosion pour une
situation donnée. Les diagrammes de polarisation de
Les potentiels des métaux purs mesurés quand ce type sont connus comme diagrammes d’Evans.
le courant qui circule est négligeable sont connus
comme étant les potentiels réversibles, et ils peuvent Inhibition de la corrosion
être mesurés dans une cellule de corrosion au moyen
d'une électrode de référence. Le potentiel négatif Dans la Brochure Technique on passe en revue une
de l'anode est plus négatif que celui de la cathode. variété de méthodes de protection des métaux contre
Quand le courant circule les potentiels des électrodes la corrosion, du simple changement de la conception
se modifient en se rapprochant l'un de l'autre. aux revêtements. Les revêtements métalliques
On dit alors que les réactions de l'anode et de la peuvent être classés en deux groupes, ceux qui
cathode deviennent polarisées. La polarisation est le constituent une barrière de protection et sont plus
changement des tensions qui résulte de la circulation nobles que le substrat, et ceux qui sont constitués
du courant entre l'anode et la cathode. d’un revêtement sacrificiel déposé sur les métaux •••

98 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


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Figure 3 – Pourbaix Diagram for the Fe-H2O system at 25°C (Simplified version)

surface to a large number of small cathodes. It is corrosion current (icorr). If the shape of the anode and
however possible to indirectly measure current flowing cathode polarisation curves are known, it is possible
between anodes and cathodes in the laboratory using to predict the corrosion current density and hence
special equipment. the rate of corrosion in a given situation. Polarisation
diagrams of this type are known as Evans diagrams.
The potentials of pure metals measured when
negligible current flows are known as the reversible Corrosion inhibition
potentials and can be measured in a corrosion cell
using a reference electrode. The anode has a more The Technical Brochure reviews a variety of methods
negative potential than the cathode. When current to protect metals from corrosion such as simple
flows, the system is no longer in equilibrium, and the design changes or coatings. Metallic coatings can
anodic and cathodic reaction potentials will differ from be divided into those which provide barrier protection
their reversible potentials; the electrode potentials and are nobler than the substrate, and those that
are displaced towards one another. The anodic and offer a sacrificial coating on the base metals and thus
cathodic reactions are said to become polarised. provide protection by galvanic action. Methods of
Polarisation is the change in voltage that results from metal coating include:
the flow of current between the anode and cathode.
1. Hot dipping the item to be protected in a
Evans diagrams bath of molten zinc. This is perhaps the most
common technique for providing a protective
Polarisation is of great importance because it coating to steel, e.g. lattice support structures
determines the practical corrosion rate of many in substations or overhead line towers.
metals and alloys. Figure 4 shows this behaviour 2. Metal or thermal spraying basically involves
for a corrosion cell with iron corroding at the anode the projection of molten or heated particles
and oxygen reduction at the cathode. With infinite from a suitably designed torch onto a prepared
resistance between the anode and cathode, each surface.
electrode has a potential equal to the reversible 3. Electroplating is achieved by immersing
potential. As the resistance between the anode and articles in a solution (electrolyte) and making
cathode is decreased and current flows, the potentials them the cathode in a low voltage DC circuit.
move toward one another. If the resistance of the cell 4. When dealing with metals such as aluminium,
is negligible, the anode and cathode will be at the anodising or anodic oxidation, is a widely used
same potential Ecorr: the corrosion potential. The process that provides corrosion-resistant and
corresponding cell current at this point is known as the decorative finishes. •••

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 99


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Figure 4 – Courbes de polarisation de la cathode et de l’anode


pour une cellule de corrosion (Diagramme d’Evans)

de base et qui les protègent par une action Les peintures sont les revêtements anticorrosifs les
galvanique. Parmi les méthodes de revêtement des plus largement utilisés pour les métaux ; elles sont
métaux on peut citer : faciles à appliquer, d’un bon rapport coût-qualité,
1. L’immersion à chaud de l’élément à protéger présentent un large éventail de caractéristiques de
dans un bain de zinc. Il s'agit probablement de protection et offrent un vaste choix d’effets décoratifs.
la technique la plus courante d'obtention d'un Les revêtements organiques sont souvent utilisés
revêtement protecteur de l'acier, par ex. pour pour les pipelines et peuvent s'appliquer sous forme
les structures treillis, des supports dans les de revêtements en poudre ou de films.
postes et des pylônes des lignes aériennes.
2. La pulvérisation de métal, qui consiste Conclusion
pour l'essentiel à projeter sur la surface
correctement préparée des particules, fondues La Brochure Technique constitue une introduction
ou chauffées, au moyen d'un chalumeau à la corrosion et à sa prévention, et elle définit en
conçu spécialement. particulier la terminologie et les concepts, qui peuvent
3. L'électro-placage est réalisé en immergeant être employés dans une communication efficace sur
les objets dans une solution (électrolyte), les problèmes de corrosion. Elle n’ambitionne pas
et leur faisant jouer le rôle de cathode dans de faire du lecteur un expert de la corrosion, mais de
circuit CC de faible tension. lui permettre d’être bien informé sur les questions de
4. Quand on a à faire à des métaux comme corrosion, et de comprendre à quel moment un problème
l'aluminium, l'anodisation ou l'oxydation appelle l'intervention d'un expert. On a toujours un
anodique sont des procédés largement besoin de spécialistes de la corrosion et l'appel aux
utilisés, qui donnent des produits résistants à « corrosionnistes » est toujours recommandé quand le
la corrosion et présentant un fini décoratif. risque ou l'impactent le justifient. 

100 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


WG D1.71
technical brochure 765

Figure 4 – Cathode and anode polarization curves for a corrosion cell (Evans diagram)

Paints are the most widely used anti-corrosive


coatings on metals; these are easy to apply, give BROCHURE N° 765
good value for money, have a wide range of protective
properties and provide a wide choice of decorative
effects. Organic coatings are often used on pipelines
(en anglais seulement)
and can be applied as powder coatings or wraps.
(in English only)
Conclusion
Disponible sur / Available on:
The Technical Brochure provides an introduction to
corrosion and its mitigation, it defines the terminology
and concepts that can be used for effective
www.e-cigre.org
communication of corrosion issues. The brochure
is not endeavouring to make the reader a corrosion Prix non-Membres / Non-Member Price:
expert, but to enable the reader to be well informed
in relation to corrosion and to understand when a
problem requires expert input. The need for corrosion 300 €
specialists is continuing and the use of corrosionists
is always recommended when the risk or impact Purchase (non-members)
warrants it. 
Free download (members)

No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA 101


766 GTC C4/B4.38
brochure thématique

Modélisation des réseaux pour


les études d’harmoniques
MEMBRES
M. VAL ESCUDERO, Chef de file (IE), G. LIETZ (DE), Z. EMIN (GB), C.F. JENSEN (DK),
L. SHUAI (DK), K. LORENZO (FR), F. CEJA-GOMEZ (CA), L. KOCEWIAK (DK),
N. SHORE (GB), K.L. KOO (GB), T. MARTINICH (CA), D.O.C. BRASIL (BR), D. ARLT (DE),
F. BARAKOU (NL), C. BUCHHAGEN (DE), A. SCHWOB (FR), D. VUJATOVIC (GB),
L. SOTO CANO (ES), B. KHODABAKHCHIAN (CA), A. CASTRO LOBATO (ES),
O. LENNERHAG (SE), Y. SUN (NL), M. NGUYEN TUAN (FR),
I. VALADE (IT), X. WU (CN), D. TING (GB), J. GING (IE), M. HALPIN (US),
R.A. WALLING (US), M. BOLLEN (SE), J.A.R. MONTEIRO (GB), R. BERES (DK),
I. IYODA (JP), P. WANG (CA), C. L. BAK (DK)

Introduction dans le processus de planification de la connexion


d'un nouveau client au réseau de transport ou de
Tous les systèmes électriques connaissent une distribution, ou dans le cas où une modification est
transition vers une décarbonation de la production apportée au réseau, à la suite du remplacement d'un
de l’électricité, par le biais d’un déploiement à grande ouvrage ou d'une extension du réseau. A ce titre
échelle de sources renouvelables d’énergie (RES), ces instructions concernent la modélisation dans
qui sont en train de remplacer progressivement les le domaine de la fréquence pour des analyses des
centrales thermiques classiques. Cet environnement harmoniques dans les réseaux électriques CA, en
de transition voit une prolifération de convertisseurs régime permanent, typiquement dans la plage qui va
à électronique de puissance qui connectent, à tous de la fréquence de service au 50ème harmonique,
les niveaux de tension des réseaux électriques, des cohérente avec les analyses de qualité habituelles. Ces
RES, des dispositifs FACTS, des systèmes CCHT, directives seront d'un grand intérêt dans la définition
des charges domestiques, etc. Ces dispositifs sont des comportements harmoniques des nouveaux
fortement non linéaires et émettent des harmoniques convertisseurs CCHT, des dispositifs FACTS et
au point de connexion, mais modifient aussi les des autres installations non linéaires. Elles aideront
harmoniques préexistants dans le réseau. En plus aussi les tiers connectés quand ils modéliseront leur
l’installation plus fréquente de câbles HTCA provoque installation pour évaluer ou démontrer sa conformité
des résonances du réseau à des fréquences proches avec les limites d'émissions définies par l'Opérateur
des émissions caractéristiques de ces dispositifs non du Système, ou pour étudier et spécifier des mesures
linéaires. En conséquence, de nombreux réseaux de réduction telles des filtres d'harmoniques. En outre
connaissent déjà une augmentation des distorsions la Brochure peut aussi être utilisée après la mise
harmoniques. Les problèmes de qualité liés aux en service, pour étudier un incident ou pour aider à
harmoniques présents dans les réseaux électriques répondre à des réclamations de clients, au moyen
deviennent plus aigus, et conduisent à porter un intérêt d'une modélisation et d'une analyse.
nouveau au besoin d’entreprendre des analyses
détaillées dès les phases de planification, pour Structure et contenu de la
s’assurer de la conformité aux limites réglementaires. Brochure Technique
Objectifs de la Brochure Outre le chapitre consacré à l’introduction, la Brochure
Technique comporte cinq chapitres supplémentaires et plusieurs
annexes. Un réseau de benchmark et d’autres
La Brochure Technique a pour objectif de fournir analyses détaillées, qui complètent les instructions
des instructions très complètes aux ingénieurs des et les recommandations présentées dans chacun des
réseaux électriques opérationnels, qui doivent réaliser chapitres, font l’objet de ces annexes.
des évaluations de distorsion harmonique. Elles
portent essentiellement sur les aspects pratiques Chapitre 2 – Domaine couvert dans l’étude et
de la modélisation, pour une application directe approches de modélisation – Il donne une vue •••

102 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


JWG C4/B4.38
technical brochure 766
Network modelling
for harmonic studies
MEMBERS
M. VAL ESCUDERO, Convenor (IE), G. LIETZ (DE), Z. EMIN (UK), C.F. JENSEN (DK),
L. SHUAI (DK), K. LORENZO (FR), F. CEJA-GOMEZ (CA), L. KOCEWIAK (DK),
N. SHORE (UK), K.L. KOO (UK), T. MARTINICH (CA), D.O.C. BRASIL (BR), D. ARLT (DE),
F. BARAKOU (NL), C. BUCHHAGEN (DE), A. SCHWOB (FR), D. VUJATOVIC (UK),
L. SOTO CANO (ES), B. KHODABAKHCHIAN (CA), A. CASTRO LOBATO (ES),
O. LENNERHAG (SE), Y. SUN (NL), M. NGUYEN TUAN (FR),
I. VALADE (IT), X. WU (CN), D. TING (UK), J. GING (IE), M. HALPIN (US),
R.A. WALLING (US), M. BOLLEN (SE), J.A.R. MONTEIRO (UK), R. BERES (DK),
I. IYODA (JP), P. WANG (CA), C. L. BAK (DK)

Introduction analysis in power systems, typically in the range from


power frequency up to the 50th harmonic, consistent
Power systems globally are experiencing a transition with typical power quality assessments. These
towards decarbonisation of electricity production guidelines will be valuable in the definition of harmonic
through large-scale deployment of renewable energy performance specifications for new HVDC converters,
sources (RES), which are gradually displacing FACTS devices or other non-linear installations. They
conventional thermal plant. This changing environment will also assist connectees when modelling their
is seeing a proliferation of power electronic converters installation to assess or demonstrate compliance with
connecting at all voltage levels in power systems, the emission limits provided by the System Operator
namely RES, FACTS devices, HVDC systems, and to investigate and specify mitigation measures
domestic load, etc. These devices are highly non- such as harmonic filters. Furthermore, this document
linear and emit harmonics at the point of connection, can also be used post-commissioning for any incident
but also modify pre-existing harmonics in the network. investigation or to assist resolution of customer
In addition, increased installation of HVAC cables is complaints via modelling and analysis.
creating system resonances at frequencies close to
the characteristic emissions from these non-linear Structure and content of the
devices. As a result, many power systems are already Technical Brochure
experiencing an increase in harmonic distortion.
Power quality issues associated with harmonics in In addition to the Introduction chapter, this Technical
power systems are becoming more pronounced and Brochure contains a further five chapters and several
are driving a new focus towards the need to undertake appendices. The appendices include a benchmark
detailed analysis at the planning stages in order to system and further detailed analyses and examples
ensure adherence to statutory limits. to complement the guidelines and recommendations
provided in each of the chapters.
Objectives of this Technical
Brochure Chapter 2 – Study domain and modelling
approaches – provides an overview of analysis
This Technical Brochure aims to provide comprehensive techniques and solution methods for the study of
guidelines for practising power system engineers when harmonic distortion in power systems. This chapter
they need to perform harmonic distortion assessments. examines the strengths and limitations of each
The focus is on practical aspects of modelling for direct technique, including balanced and unbalanced
application in the planning process of connecting solution methods, and provides recommendations
a new customer to the transmission or distribution on applicability based on the purpose of the analysis.
system, or when introducing a change to the system A case study highlights the importance of selecting
as part of asset replacement or system expansion. As the most appropriate study domain for analysis, as
such, the guidelines are concentrated on frequency- illustrated in Figure 1 - Phase and Sequence Voltage
domain modelling for steady-state AC harmonic in Inter-sequence Coupled Cable Radial Model •••

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Figure 1 – Tensions des phases et leurs composantes pour un modèle de câble transposé (extrémité réceptrice)

d’ensemble des techniques d’analyse et des méthodes sont disponibles les modèles sont validés par rapport à
de solution utilisées pour l’étude de la distorsion des mesures, et des recommandations sont émises. Un
harmonique dans les réseaux. On y examine les exemple d'analyse comparative de modèles courants de
forces et les limites de chaque technique et on avance transformateur fait l'objet de la Figure 2.
des recommandations sur leur applicabilité en regard
de l’objet de l’analyse. Une étude de cas met en Chapter 4 – Modèles des éléments de réseau
lumière l’importance du choix du domaine d’étude à base d’électronique de puissance – Dans le
le plus pertinent pour l’analyse, comme le montre la chapitre on examine, et on discute, la représentation
Figure 1. L’état de l’art et les tendances en matière des dispositifs non linéaires raccordés aux systèmes
de techniques de solution sont également présentés électriques, et agissant comme sources de distorsion
et discutés. harmonique. Les moyens de production utilisant
des convertisseurs, les convertisseurs CCHT, les
Chapitre 3 – Modèles des éléments classiques du dispositifs FACTS, les systèmes de traction, les fours
réseau – Dans ce chapitre on passe en revue et on à arcs électriques et les moteurs à vitesse variable,
discute les options et les approches de modélisation sont couverts dans le chapitre. On y examine, pour
pour une représentation précise des composants chaque dispositif, les mécanismes de génération
passifs les plus importants, dans les études des de la distorsion harmonique, et on donne des
harmoniques. Il s’agit des lignes aériennes, des recommandations sur la structure de la modélisation et
câbles isolés, des transformateurs, des charges, sur les besoins en données d’entrée. Le comportement
des générateurs synchrones et des dispositifs de harmonique de ces éléments est généralement
compensation shunt/série. L’importance de bien complexe et dépend de nombreux facteurs, tels que
représenter la dépendance à la fréquence des pertes la topologie du convertisseur, la stratégie de contrôle,
résistives est soulignée et illustrée par des exemples. le point de fonctionnement, etc. Dans ces conditions,
des modèles spécifiques des constructeurs doivent
Les données d’entrée pertinentes et le niveau de détail être adoptés. Des recommandations, sur la structure
requis pour la représentation de chaque composant des modèles et les caractéristiques qui doivent être
sont présentés et discutés. Différentes options de prises en compte, sont fournies. On insiste surtout sur
modélisation sont évaluées avec un modèle de la nécessité de bien rendre compte non seulement
benchmark simple ainsi qu’avec des modèles plus des émissions des courants/tensions harmoniques,
étendus de réseaux réels, pour illustrer les effets et les mais aussi de l’impédance harmonique des éléments.
conséquences de chaque type de modèle dans le cadre
d’études à l’échelle d’un réseau. Quand ces mesures Chapitre 5 – Considérations générales sur les •••

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Figure 1 - Phase and Sequence Voltage in Inter-sequence Coupled Cable Radial Model (Receiving End)

(Receiving End). State-of-the-art and future trends in speed drives. The chapter reviews the mechanisms
solution techniques are also discussed. of harmonic distortion generation for each device
and provides recommendations on the modelling
Chapter 3 – Classical network element models structure and input data requirements. The harmonic
– reviews and discusses modelling options and performance of these devices is generally complex
approaches for the accurate representation of most and dependent on many factors such as converter
relevant passive network components in harmonics topology, control strategy, operating point, etc. As
studies. These include overhead lines, insulated cables, such, manufacturer-specific models need to be
transformers, loads, synchronous generators and adopted. Recommendations on the structure of the
shunt/series compensation devices. The importance models and the features that need to be captured are
of representing the frequency dependency of resistive provided. Emphasis is placed on the need to capture
losses is stressed and illustrated with examples. not only the harmonic current/voltage emissions but
also the harmonic impedance of the devices.
The relevant input data and level of detail required
to represent each component are presented and Chapter 5 – General considerations for harmonic
discussed. Different modelling options are assessed in studies – discusses practical aspects, other than
a simple benchmark model as well as in large real system the modelling of each component, that need to
models to illustrate the effects and consequences be considered when performing harmonic studies
of each type of model in the context of system-wide related to the connection of non-linear devices to the
studies. When available, models are validated against power grid. The chapter presents the most common
measurements and recommendations are provided. An types of harmonic studies, considerations for the
example comparative analysis of common transformer representation of the power system including the
models is shown in Figure 2 - Comparative analysis of extent of the model and the scenarios/contingencies
transformer models (skin effect). to analyse, guidelines and considerations in the
production of harmonic impedance loci and envelopes
Chapter 4 – Power electronics based network (see Figure 3 - Example of harmonic impedance
element models – reviews and discusses the envelopes), limitations of power frequency short-
representation of non-linear devices connected circuit equivalents, practical aspects to consider
to power systems acting as sources of harmonic in the representation of customers installations,
distortion. This chapter covers converter-based aggregation of harmonic sources and issues related to
generation, HVDC converters, FACTS devices, measurement and estimation of background distortion.
traction systems, electric arc furnaces and variable The discussions in this chapter aim to address •••

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Figure 2 – Analyse comparative de modèles de transformateur (effet de peau)

études d’harmoniques – Dans ce chapitre sont scénarios et incidents à analyser, des directives et
abordés des aspects pratiques, autres que la considérations pour la détermination des lieux et des
modélisation de chacun des composants, qu’il faut enveloppes des impédances harmoniques (voir Figure
prendre en compte quand on réalise des études 3), les limites des équivalents de courts-circuits à la
d’harmoniques pour les raccordements au réseau de fréquence du réseau, les aspects pratiques à prendre
dispositifs non linéaires. Les études d’harmoniques en compte dans la représentation des installations
les plus courantes, des aspects de la représentation des clients, l'agrégation des sources harmoniques et
du réseau électrique comme la taille du modèle et les les problèmes relatifs à la mesure et à l'estimation •••

X [ohm] X [ohm]
300 250

200
200
X [ohm]

100 120

150 100
R [ohm]
0 80
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
100 60

-100
40

50 20
-200 R [ohm]
0
0 50 100
R [ohm]
-300 0
0 50 100 150 200 250
(b) Harmonic impedance envelopes: Basic Polygon
(a) Harmonic impedance envelopes: Circle,
(continuous line), Enhanced Polygon (dashed line),
Sector, Basic Polygon, Convex-Hull Polygon
Convex-Hull Polygon

Figure 3 - Exemple d’enveloppes de l’impédance harmonique

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Figure 2 - Comparative analysis of transformer models (Skin effect)

perspectives as seen from (i) the system owner/ aid the engineer in making informed decisions.
operator; and (ii) the new connectee, with the overall
objective of minimising risk of equipment failure due Chapter 6 – Conclusions - summarises the
to excessive harmonic distortion as well as avoiding guidelines and recommendations of this work. Finally,
unnecessary investment in mitigation. While finding areas identified as requiring further research are
the right balance is never an easy task, it is hoped highlighted. A list of technical references is included in
that the considerations presented in this chapter will the bibliography. •••

X [ohm] X [ohm]
300 250

200
200
X [ohm]

100 120

150 100
R [ohm]
0 80
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
100 60

-100
40

50 20
-200 R [ohm]
0
0 50 100
R [ohm]
-300 0
0 50 100 150 200 250
(b) Harmonic impedance envelopes: Basic Polygon
(a) Harmonic impedance envelopes: Circle,
(continuous line), Enhanced Polygon (dashed line),
Sector, Basic Polygon, Convex-Hull Polygon
Convex-Hull Polygon

Figure 3 - Example of harmonic impedance envelopes

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à la distorsion de fond préexistante, sont parmi les pour chaque composant de réseau, et en complétant
points abordés et discutés. Les développements de ceci par une analyse en profondeur et l’expertise
ce chapitre visent à couvrir les points de vue, (i) du des membres du Groupe de Travail, la Brochure
propriétaire/opérateur du réseau, et (ii) du nouveau Technique donne une image de l’état de l’art et des
tiers connecté, avec pour objectif commun de meilleures pratiques en matière de modélisation de
minimiser le risque d'une défaillance d'équipement réseau destinée aux études d’harmoniques.
due à une distorsion harmonique excessive, et
également, d'éviter des investissements inutiles pour La lecture de la Brochure Technique permet d’acquérir
réduire la distorsion. Il est certes difficile de trouver le une compréhension exhaustive :
bon équilibre, mais on espère que les considérations  Des méthodes de solution qui existent pour
développées dans ce chapitre aideront les ingénieurs l’analyse des harmoniques dans les réseaux, des
à prendre des décisions fondées sur une information méthodes du domaine fréquence, du domaine
adaptée. temps, du domaine harmonique et des méthodes
hybrides, et de la méthode la meilleure à appliquer
Chaptire 6 – Conclusions – Il résume les directives et dans les cas spécifiques ;
recommandations issues de ces travaux. Les domaines  Des modèles qui sont couramment disponibles, et
demandant des recherches complémentaires sont mis qu'on peut utiliser pour représenter les composants
en lumière. Une liste de références techniques figure passifs les plus courants des réseaux, dans les
dans la bibliographie. études d'harmoniques ;
 De la manière dont on représente avec précision
Conclusions les équipements générateurs d'harmoniques dans
le domaine des fréquences, avec une connaissance
Cette Brochure Technique a été produite grâce à des limites et des situations pour lesquelles il faut
l’expertise d’une large base de membres, de par le utiliser des méthodes d'analyse plus sophistiquées  ;
monde, et elle fournit des instructions très complètes  Des considérations pratiques relatives à la
aux ingénieurs des réseaux électriques opérationnels, connexion au réseau électrique des dispositifs
qui doivent réaliser des évaluations de distorsion non linéaires, et en particulier des types d'études
harmonique. Le document traite de la modélisation d'harmoniques les plus courants qu'il faut
des composants de réseau les plus courants et entreprendre ;
examine les aspects importants qu’il faut prendre en  Des différents aspects de la modélisation des
compte dans les évaluations. harmoniques dans le domaine fréquence, pour
aider l'ingénieur à prendre des décisions fondées
En passant en revue la littérature existante traitant sur la meilleure information. 
des techniques et des approches de modélisation

BROCHURE N° 766

(en anglais seulement)

(in English only)

Disponible sur / Available on:

www.e-cigre.org
Prix non-Membres / Non-Member Price:

300 €

Purchase (non-members)

Free download (members)

108 No. 304 - June 2019 ELECTRA


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Conclusions  Available solution methods for analysis of
harmonics in power systems, including frequency-
This Technical Brochure has been compiled drawing domain, time-domain, harmonic-domain and hybrid
expertise from a worldwide membership base and methods, and which method may be best to apply
provides comprehensive guidelines for practising in specific cases;
power system engineers when they need to perform  Commonly-available models that may be used
harmonic distortion assessments. The document to represent the most common passive network
covers the modelling of the most common network components in harmonics studies;
components and discusses key features that need to  How to accurately represent harmonic generating
be considered in the assessments. equipment in the frequency domain, including an
awareness of limitations and when to utilise more
By reviewing existing literature on modelling techniques sophisticated methods of analysis;
and approaches for each network component,  Practical considerations related to the connection
complemented with comprehensive analysis and of non-linear devices to the power grid, including
expertise from the members, this Technical Brochure the most common types of harmonic studies that
reflects the current state-of-the-art and best practice in need to be undertaken;
network modelling for harmonic studies.  The various aspects of frequency-domain harmonic
modelling in order to aid the engineer in making
Readers of this Technical Brochure will gain a informed decisions. 
comprehensive understanding of:
SC A1 Meeting - Tutorials & Colloquium
CIGRE India
Rotating electrical machines
New Delhi, India - September 25-27, 2019

Attraction for CIGRE India is honored to host the meeting of CIGRE Study Committee A1
on Rotating Electrical Machines and its Working Groups in India from 22nd
participants to 27th September 2019. To take advantage of the presence of CIGRE
Study Committee, and its Working Group Members besides other
◼ Opportunity to interact with renowned International experts in India, CIGRE India and Central Board of Irrigation
experts of Turbo Generators, Hydro and Power jointly with CIGRE Study Committee A1 on Rotating Electrical
Generators, Large Motors and machine Machines are organizing an International Tutorial and Colloquium on
diagnostics including Advisers and Rotating Electrical Machines.
Chairman of CIGRE Study Committee
A1 on Rotating Electrical Machines This Colloquium is in conjunction with the meeting of CIGRE Study
during the event. Committee A1 and its working groups in India from 22nd to 28th September
◼ One to one interaction with authors of 2019 at Hotel VIVANTA by Taj, Dwarka, Sector 21, New Delhi (India).
CIGRE papers during Poster session
and presentations. Two days International Colloquium on “Rotating Electrical Machines”
◼ Views by International experts as is scheduled on 26-27 September 2019. The Colloquium is the biennial
Chairman of various sessions. Technical Discussion Forum of the Study Committee for Members,
◼ Tutorials by Senior Experts of CIGRE. associates and experts of the discipline from the host country (i.e., India
in this case).

Preferential subjects
PS 1: High Renewable Penetrated Networks challenges.
• Solid waste and Biomass power plants: Design,
• Methods and experiences for the evaluation of existing
specification, efficiency, operation and maintenance
base load plant to handle cyclic load.
• Generators as Synchronous Condensers to solve Power
Quality issues due to large scale renewable integration & PS 2: Operational Experience and New
comparison with other FACTs devices. Developments
• Utility of Hydro generating units in stabilizing the grid • Operational experience on state of the art technologies
operations against fluctuating loads by Pump storage used for large turbo generators, hydro generators,
and Synchronous Condenser Operation. wind turbine generators, high voltage motors and high
• Design improvements and technological advancement in efficiency motors.
Hydro generators for prolonged and efficient operation • Latest designs and maintenance practices to improve
as Synchronous condensers and Pump-motors to take reliability, availability and reduce maintenance costs
care of operation of grid due to fluctuating feed of • Performance comparison between different designs of
renewable energy and variable load demand. large motors
• Innovative trends in the field of Hydro generators. • Advanced and optimized condition monitoring making
• Suitability of motors in renewable energy mix use of latest technologies.
environment from a harmonics point of view. • Experience with Renovation, Modernization and Up-
• Latest designs implemented or proposed to withstand rating of aged plants.
severe load cycling. • Novel techniques to overcome known operational and
• Wind Turbine generator experience: Failures, design design problems of HPP’s especially for operation in Silt
challenges, maintenance philosophies and maintenance prone water.

Registration and information


Registration form available here
Event Secretariat CIGRE India
Email : cbip@cbip.org - vishandutt@cbip.org
Phone: 011-26115984/ 26116567 - Fax: 91-11-26116347
International Tutorials & Colloquium
CIGRE India
▪ Power transformers and reactors (SC A2)
▪ Overhead lines (SC B2)
▪ Materials and emerging test techniques (SC D1)
New Delhi, India - November 20-22, 2019

Attraction for CIGRE India is honored to host the meeting of CIGRE Study Committee A2,
B2 & D1 on Transformers, Overhead lines and Materials and its respective
participants Working Groups in India from 18th to 23rd November 2019. To take
advantage of the presence of CIGRE Study Committees, and its Working
◼ Opportunity to interact with renowned Group Members besides other International experts in India, CIGRE
experts including Chairman of CIGRE India and Central Board of Irrigation and Power jointly with CIGRE Study
Study Committees during the event. Committees A2; B2 & D1 are organizing an International Tutorial and Joint
◼ One to one interaction with authors Colloquium on Latest Trends & Innovations in
during presentations.
◼ Views by International & National 1. Power Transformers & Reactors;
experts as Chairman of various 2. Overhead Lines; and
sessions. 3. Materials and Emerging Test Techniques
◼ Tutorials by Senior Experts at National
& International Level. The Tutorials & Colloquium is in conjunction with the meetings of CIGRE
Study Committees and its Working Groups in India from 18th to 23rd
November 2019 at Hotel Le Meridien, Windsor Place, Janpath, New Delhi,
Colloquium India.

Preferential subjects Two days International Colloquium on the subjects is scheduled on 21-
22 November 2019. The Colloquium is the biennial Technical Discussion
Forum of the Study Committee for Members, associates and experts of
◼ Transformers - A2 the discipline from the host country (i.e., India in this case).
> PS1: Advances in Transformer Design
Including New Materials
> PS2: Quality Assurance & Short Who should attend?
Circuit Withstand Capability of
Transformers Study Committee & Working Groups:
> PS3: Operational Experience in the • Participation in the Study Committee/Working Groups Meetings is
Field of Transformers restricted to its members only. Invitees in the form of observers can
◼ Overhead lines - B2 also be allowed on specific invitation from Secretary, CIGRE-India
> PS1: Design Optimization and New with the permission of Chairman of CIGRE Study Committee.
Lines
> PS2: Reliability and Economics,
Tutorials & Colloquium:
Maintenance • Participation in the Tutorials and Colloquium is open on payment of
> PS3: New Materials and Products for prescribed registration fee.
Use on OHLs, Diagnostics • The colloquium is meant for transmission and substation engineers,
generation engineers, system operators, designers, manufacturers,
◼ Materials
& emerging test techniques - D1 erection agencies, regulators, research institutions, testing
> PS 1: Long Term Performance of laboratories and universities.
Insulation Systems (AC and DC) • The colloquium participants will include top international experts
> PS 2: Test techniques for UHV in the field. The colloquium will be informative and beneficial
including HVDC for generation, transmission & Distribution companies, system
> PS 3: Advanced Diagnostic Techniques planners, designers, operators, asset owners and managers,
equipment developers and manufacturers, research institutions and
universities and policy makers and regulators.

Registration and information


Registration form available here
Event Secretariat CIGRE India
Email : cbip@cbip.org - vishandutt@cbip.org
Phone: 011-26115984/ 26116567 - Fax: 91-11-26116347
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Session 47