Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, Issue 1, 2015 www.ijaser.

com
© 2015 by the authors – Licensee IJASER- Under Creative Commons License 3.0 editorial@ijaser.com
Research article ISSN 2277 – 9442

Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM


for Titanium
Sivaraman B, Eswaramoorthy C, Shanmugham E.P
ME-Engineering Design, Paavai Engineering College,Anna University, India
DOI: 10.6088/ijaser.04011

Abstract: The objective of this project is to study the effect of machining parameters of wire electrical
discharge machining (WEDM) on TITANIUM, which are now widely used in many medical, aerospace
applications due to their high technical benefits. Conventional method of machining the material will
damages the work piece due to chipping, presence of burrs and cracking. Wire cut Electrical discharge
machining (WEDM) techniques have been already tried with other materials, which is difficult to cut to
prove the feasibility of machining the titanium. Hence as steps a head wire electrical discharge
machining process is to be used to machine the material (titanium) and the effect of various control
parameters on the response parameters were studied. As a part of the project, titanium is machined in wire
cut EDM machine and the optimal combination of control parameters were found to get higher metal
removal rate and surface finish using Taguchi method.

Keywords: Signal-to Noise ratio, response time, Orthogonal Arrays, Dielectric pressure, L9 Arrays.

1. Introduction

Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) is one of the greatest innovations in the tooling and
machining industry. This process has brought dramatic improvements in accuracy, quality, productivity and
earnings. Before wire EDM, costly processes were often used to produce finished parts. Now with the aid
of computer and wire EDM machines, extremely complicated shapes can be cut automatically, precisely
and economically even in materials as hard as carbide. As more design engineers incorporate new designs
into the drawings, therefore it becomes important for contract shops to understand wire EDM as today's
drawings are calling for tighter tolerances and shapes that can be efficiently machined only with wire EDM.
Hence WEDM plays a significant role in the industries to attain better surface finish of the components.

The selection of optimum machining parameters in WEDM is an important step. Improperly selected
parameters may result in serious problems like short-circuiting of wire, wire breakage and work surface
damage which is imposing certain limits on the production schedule and also reducing productivity. As
Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (Ra) are the most important responses in WEDM,
various investigations have been carried out by several researchers. However, the problem of selection of
machining parameters is not fully depending on machine controls rather material dependent.The main
objective of this study is to investigate the multi-response optimization of WEDM process for machining of
titanium using Taguchi method to achieve higher Material Removal Rate (MRR) and lower surface
roughness (Ra).

Electrical discharge machining is one of the non-conventional techniques. It is a controlled metal-removal


process that is used to remove metal by means of electric spark erosion between the tool and work. The
—————————————
*Corresponding author (e-mail: b.sivaraman01@gmail.com) 102
Received on November, 2014; Published on February, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

metal- removal process is performed by applying a pulsating (ON/OFF) electrical charge of high-frequency
current through the electrode to the work piece. This removes (erodes) very tiny pieces of metal from the
work piece at a controlled rate.Wire EDM machining (Electrical Discharge Machining) is an electro thermal
production process in which a thin single-strand metal wire in conjunction with de-ionized water (used to
conduct electricity) allows the wire to cut through metal by the use of heat from electrical sparks. Due to the
inherent properties of the process, wire EDM can easily machine complex parts and precision components
out of hard conductive materials.

2. Literature surveys

(Muthu Kumar et al., 2010) demonstrated the optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining process
parameters of Incoloy800 super alloy with multiple performance characteristics such as Material Removal
Rate (MRR), surface roughness and Kerf based on the Grey–Taguchi Method. The process parameters
considered in this research work are Gap Voltage, Pulse On-time, Pulse Off-time and Wire Feed. Taguchi’s
L9 Orthogonal Array was used to conduct experiments. Optimal levels of process parameters were
identified using Grey Relational Analysis and the relatively significant parameters were determined by
Analysis of Variance. The variation of output responses with process parameters were mathematically
modeled by using non-linear regression analysis method and the models were checked for their adequacy.
Result of confirmation experiments showed that the established mathematical models can predict the
output responses with reasonable accuracy.

(Pujari Srinivasa Rao 2010) predication of material removal rate for aluminum BIS-24345 Alloy in
wire-cut EDM. Wire cut electrical discharge machining of Aluminum BIS-24345 alloy has been considered
in the present set of research work. This material is rapidly growing its applications in the field where it
requires high strength and or hardness including at elevated temperature uses. A specific application
include aircraft, ordnance and general engineering apart from this truck structure’s fittings, fasteners and is
one of the strongest heat treatable alloys for screw machine application.

(C V S Parameswara Rao 2009) Evaluation of optimal parameters for machining brass with wire cut EDM.
Wire – cut electric discharge machine (WEDM) is used in the field of dies, moulds, precision
manufacturing and contour cutting etc. Any complex shape can be easily generated with high grade of
accuracy and surface finish using computer numerical control (CNC) WEDM. Customized software
development has further strengthened process technology in improving geometrical and technological data
of work piece. An analysis of effects of various process parameters for achieving improved machining
characteristics is required for successful utilization of process with high productivity. This study analyzes
effects of process parameters on machining characteristic of CNC WEDM on different criteria (cutting
speed, surface finish, spark gap, specific energy consumption) and evolves optimal parameters.

(Kanlayasiri et al 2007) investigated the effects of wire edm machining parameters on surface roughness of
newly developed DC53 die steel. DC 53 is a newly developed cold die steel from Daido steel, Japan. As it
was newly developed, only little information was available in literature for its machining characteristics.
Their work investigated the effects of machining parameters on surface roughness of wire edmed DC53 die
steel. The investigated machining parameters were analyzed with Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
technique to find out the parameters affecting surface roughness. Assumptions of ANOVA were discussed

Sivaraman B et al., 103


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

and then examined through residual analysis. Quantitative testing methods on residual analysis were
employed in place of the typical qualitative testing techniques. Results from ANOVA showed that pulse on
time and pulse peak current were significant variables to surface roughness of wire edmed DC53 die steel.
It was also found that the surface roughness of the test specimen became larger when these two parameters
were increased.

(BiingHwa Yan et al 2005) examined the Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Al2O3p/6061Al
Composites. In their experiments, machining parameters of pulse-on time were changed to explore their
effects on machining performance, including the cutting speed, the width of slit and surface roughness.
Moreover, the wire electrode is easily broken during the machining of Al2O3p/6061Al composite, so their
work comprehensively investigated into the location of the broken wire and the reason for wire breaking.

(El-Taweelet al 2005) investigated the effects of machining parameters of wire electric discharge machining
of inconel 601 using responsive surface methodology. Inconel is one of the recent materials that are
developed to be hard, strong and temperature resistant. Their work highlighted the development of
mathematical models for correlating the interrelationships of various WEDM parameters of inconel 601
material. The fact that volumetric material removal rate increases with increase of peak current and water
pressure was discovered. Thirty one experiments were conducted according to responsive surface
methodology, and the results were observed. It was found that the value of surface roughness gradually
increases with increase in wire tension. This was attributed to the increase of wire tension minimizing wire
bending which leads to a dynamic stability condition of the diameter and depth of crater and improved the
produced surface roughness.

3. Experimental set-up and working

3.1 Construction of WEDM

In wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), a thin single-strand metal wire, usually brass, is fed
through the work piece, submerged in a tank of dielectric fluid, typically deionized water. Wire-cut EDM is
typically used to cut plates as thick as 300mm and to make punches, tools, and dies from hard metals that are
difficult to machine with other methods.

The wire, which is constantly fed from a spool, is held between upper and lower diamond guides. The guides,
usually CNC-controlled, move in the x–y plane. On most machines, the upper guide can also move
independently in the z–u–v axis, giving rise to the ability to cut tapered and transitioning shapes (circle on
the bottom square at the top for example). This allows the wire-cut EDM to be programmed to cut very
intricate and delicate shapes.

The upper and lower diamond guides are usually accurate to 0.004mm, and can have a cutting path or kerf as
small as 0.12mm using Ø 0.1mm wire, though the average cutting kerf that achieves the best economic cost
and machining time is 0.335mm using Ø 0.25mm brass wire. The reason that the cutting width is greater than
the width of the wire is because sparking occurs from the sides of the wire to the work piece, causing
erosion. Spools of wire are long—an 8 kg spool of 0.25mm wire is just over 19 kilometers in length. Wire
diameter can be as small as 20µm and the geometry precision is not far from +/- 1µm. The schematic

Sivaraman B et al., 104


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

diagram of WEDM is shown in Figure 1

Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of WEDM


3.2 Components in WEDM

1. Dielectric Fluid
2. Electrode Material
3. Power Supply Unit

3.3 Working of WEDM

Wire EDM machining (also known as "spark EDM") works by creating an electrical discharge between the
wire or electrode and the workpiece. As the spark jumps across the gap, material is removed from both the
workpiece and the electrode. To stop the sparking process from shorting out, a non-conductive fluid or
dielectric is also applied. The waste material is removed by the dielectric, and the process continues.

The wire-cut process uses de-ionized water as its dielectric fluid, controlling its resistivity and other
electrical properties with filters and de-ionizerunits. The water flushes the cut debris away from the cutting
zone. Flushing is an important factor in determining the maximum feed rate for a given material thickness.
Wire-cutting EDM is commonly used when low residual stresses are desired, because it does not require high
cutting forces for removal of material. If the energy/power per pulse is relatively low (as in finishing

Sivaraman B et al., 105


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

operations), little change in the mechanical properties of a material is expected due to these low residual
stresses, although material that hasn't been stress-relieved can distort in the machining process.

3.4 Part programming

The geometry of the profile and the motion of wire electrode tool along the profile is fed to the part
programming system through key board, in terms of various definitions of points, lines and circles as the
tool path element, in a totally menu driven, conversational mode. The wire compensation and taper
gradient can be specified for each path element separately. After the profile is fed to the computer, all the
numerical information about the path is calculated automatically and its printout is generated. The entered
profile can be verified on the graphic display screen. After successful profile definition, it is recorded by
the computer which is then put in the generator for execution of the program.

3.5 The Step by Step WEDM Process

The following Figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 depict the step by step process of metal removal through WEDM.

Figure 2: Power supply generates voltage and amps

Figure 3: During on time controlled spark erodes material

Figure 2 shows the deionized water surrounding the wire electrode as the power supply generates volts and

Sivaraman B et al., 106


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

amps to produce the spark. Figure 3 shows the process during pulse on time where the spark erodes the
material by melting and vaporizing it.

Figure 4: Off time allows fluid to remove eroded particles

Figure 5: Filter removes chips while the cycle is repeated

Figure 4 shows the process during pulse off time where the pressurized fluid immediately cools the material
and flushes the erode particles. Figure 3.5 shows that eroded particles are removed and separated by a filter
system. The following Table 3.1 gives the technical specification of the MAXICUT WEDM which is used
in this project.
Table 1: Technical specification of MAXICUT WEDM

Max. table size 440 x 650 mm

Max.workpiece height 200 mm

Max. workpiece weight 300 kg

Sivaraman B et al., 107


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

Main table traverse (X, Y) 300, 400 mm

Auxiliary table traverse (u, v) 80, 80 mm

Max. taper cutting angle ±15°/100 mm

Max. wire spool capacity 6 kg

Resolution 0.001 mm

Wire diameter 0.25mm (standard)


0.15, 0.2, 0.3 mm (Optional)
Generator ELPULS 20e

Display Color CRT

Minimum input command 0.001mm

Simultaneously controlled X,Y, u, v


axes
Memory 1000 blocks with battery back up

Data input / output RS 232 C isolated serial interface


1.44 MB floppy disk
Input Power supply 3 phase, AC 415 V, 50 Hz

Connected load 7KVA

Average power consumption 3.5 to 5 kVA

Dielectric fluid De-ionized water

Tank capacity 250 Liters

Cooling System 1700 l.

3.6 Process parameters in WEDM

The process parameters are known as factors which influence the nature of response variables. The various
factors affecting the surface roughness of components machined by wire-cut EDM have been identified as:
1) Dielectric pressure
2) Pulse on time
3) Pulse off time
4) Wire tension
5) Wire feed rate
6) Gap voltage
7) Average gap current

Sivaraman B et al., 108


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

3.7 Dielectric pressure

Flushing is important in the process to achieve a stable machining condition. The pressure with which the
coolant strikes the inter-electrode gap is determined in two levels- high and low. The flushing pressure is
determined according to the material. For machining titanium, high flushing pressure is recommended.

3.8 Pulse on time

Pulse on time is the period for which the voltage is applied across the gap. It is denoted by TON. The range of
pulse on time is 1 to 10, in steps of 1. Higher the TON setting larger is the pulse on period. The single pulse
discharge energy increases with increasing TON period, resulting in higher cutting rate and poor surface
finish.

3.9 Pulse off time

Pulse off time is the period for which voltage across the gap is absent. It is denoted by TOFF. The range of
pulse off time is 1 to 10, in steps of 1. Higher the TOFF setting larger is the pulse off period. This results in
better surface finish.

3.10 Wire tension

Wire tension is a gram-equivalent load with which the continuously fed wire is kept under tension so that it
remains straight between the wire guides. Wire tension can be adjusted by the wheel provided on machine
column. While the wire is being fed continuously, appropriate wire tension prevents the undesirable wire
deflection from its straight path. The wire deflection is caused due to spark induced reaction forces and water
pressure.A brass wire of 0.25mm diameter can be applied with a maximum tension of 1600gm. Optimum
wire tension results in high MRR and low surface roughness.

3.11 Wire feed rate

Wire feed rate is the rate at which fresh wire is fed continuously for sparking. It has a range of 1 to 10 in steps
of 1. Wire feed rate has great influence on MRR. With a wire feed rate of 8m/min, brass wire spool of 5kg
will last for about 24 hours.

3.12 Gap voltage

Gap voltage is the potential difference across the workpiece and wire electrode. It is read directly on the
voltmeter. Gap voltage depends on the set values of gap potentiometer and sensitivity potentiometer. Ranges
between 40-60V results in better MRR and fine finish. High gap voltage gives poor finish.

3.13 Average gap current

Sivaraman B et al., 109


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

Gap current is the actual current consumed by the machining process. Its value is read on the ammeter
directly. The values of average machining current given in the guidelines charts are indicative and differ with
machines.Normally the wire can pass current of 8-10A in water. Since air bubbles are mixed in water only
75% of the above value may be achievable. High gap currents results in high MRR and vice versa for surface
roughness.

3.14 Performance measures

WEDM performance, regardless of the type of the electrode material and dielectric fluid, is measured usually
by the following criteria:

3.15 Material removal rate (MRR)

Maximum of MRR is an important indicator of the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the WEDM process,
however increasing MRR is not always desirable for all applications since this may scarify the surface
integrity of the workpiece. A rough surface finish is the outcome of fast removal rates.
The material removal rate (MRR) for WEDM can be obtained from the expression
MRR = vfh δ b (3.1)
Where,
vf→ feed rate of wire into the work piece in mm/min,
h → work piece thickness or height in mm,
δ → density of the material in g/mm3,
b → Kerf given by : b = dw + 2s
Where
dw→ wire diameter in mm,
s → gap between work piece & tool in mm.

3.16 Electrode wear (EW)

The electrode wear also depends on the dielectric flow in the machining zone. If the flow is too turbulent, it
results in an increase in electrode wear. Pulsed injection of the dielectric has enable reduction of wear due to
dielectric flow.

3.17 Surface roughness (Ra)

The surface produced by WEDM process consists of a large number of craters that are formed from the
discharge energy. The quality of surface mainly depends upon the energy per spark.

4. Work piece material

4.1 Titanium

Titanium is a high quality, high tensile, alloy steel with high tensile strength, shock resistance, good
ductility and resistance to wear. Titanium is renowned for its wear resistance properties and also were high

Sivaraman B et al., 110


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

strength properties are required. Table 4.1 illustrates the chemical composition of Titanium.

Table 2: Chemical composition of titanium


Elements Weight %
C 0.08
N 0.03
H 0.015
O 0.18
Pd 0.08-0.14
Fe 0.20
Ti 99.67

Table 3: Mechanical properties of titanium.

Properties

Density (×1000 kg/m3) 4.51

Poisson's Ratio 0.27-0.30

Elastic Modulus (GPa) 72-120

Tensile Strength (MPa) 240

Yield Strength (MPa) 170

Elongation (%) 24

Hardness (HB) 80

4.2 Application of titanium

The typical applications of Titanium are

1. Aerospace - jet engines ,air frames


2. Marine
3. Industrial applications - power generation ,chemical processing
4. Medical
5. Computer industry
6. Automobile industry-engine valves, exhaust pipes and mufflers
7. Jewellery
8. Emerging markets

4.3 Methodologies

4.3.1 Taguchi method

Sivaraman B et al., 111


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

Genichi Taguchi, an international consultant in the field of total quality control and assurance formulated
both a philosophy and a methodology for the process of quality improvement that depends on statistical
concepts, especially statistically designed experiments. Taguchi defined quality as the loss imparted to the
society from the time a product is shipped to the market. The primary goals of the taguchi methodology
can be described as:

1. A reduction in the variation of a product design to improve quality and lower the loss
imparted to society.
2. A proper product or process implementation strategy which can further reduce the level of
variation.

4.4 Signal -to -noise ratio

Traditionally a designed experiment can be used to estimate or test the significance of certain factors on the
basis of a measurable response over a set of experimental conditions. Taguchi emphasized that in addition
to this, the variation of the experimental data needs to be studied. In order to facilitate this study he used
the concept of a signal-to-noise ratio. The simplest form of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is the ratio of the
mean (signal) to the standard deviation (noise).

Type 1 : S/NLB = -10 log10[∑Yij2 ⁄ n] (5.1)


Type 2 : S/NHB = -10 log10[(1/n) (∑ 1/ Yij2)] (5.2)
Where
Yij is the value of the response ‘j’ in the ith experiment condition, with i=1, 2, 3,…n; j = 1,2…k.

4.5 Orthogonal arrays

Orthogonal arrays are highly fractional orthogonal designs proposed by Dr. Genichi Taguchi, a Japanese
industrialist. These designs can be used to not only applicable to two level factorial experiments, but also
can investigate main effects when factors have more than two levels. Designs are also available to
investigate main effects for certain mixed level experiments where the factors included do not have the
same number of levels.

4.6 Design of experiments

The experiments to be conducted are based on varying the process parameters which affect the machining
process to obtain the required quality characteristics. Quality characteristics are the response values or
output values expected out of the experiments. There is 64 such quality characteristics.The most commonly
used are:
1. Larger the better
2. Smaller the better
3. Nominal the best
4. Classified attribute
5. Signed target

Sivaraman B et al., 112


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

As the objective is to obtain the best surface finish and high material removal rate (MRR), it is concerned
with obtaining the least value of surface roughness and large value for MRR. Hence, the required quality
characteristic is smaller the better, which states that the output must be as low as possible, tending to zero
for surface roughness and larger the better, which states that the output must be as large as possible for
high MRR. The process parameters are known as factors which influence the nature of these response
variables. The factors and levels can be tabulated as shown in Table 5.1

Table 4: Factors and levels

Symbol Control factors Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Dielectric
A Low High ……
pressure
Wire feed rate
B 8 7 9
(m/min)

C Wire tension (g) 900 1000 800

D Pulse on time (µs) 4 5 3


E Pulse off time (µs) 6 5 7
F Table feed 6 5 7
G Gap voltage (V) 6 7 5

The values over which these process parameters vary are known as levels. Dielectric pressure can be made
high or low, which means it has two levels ie. Dielectric pressure is a two level factor. The other factors
namely pulse on time, pulse off time, wire tension, wire feed rate, and gap voltage and average gap current
vary in three range of value.

4.7 Selection of orthogonal array

Orthogonal array is the tabulation which considers various factors involved in any experiment and it
estimates the effect of those factors independently over the others. There are many such standard
orthogonal arrays from which required one can be selected based on various conditions.
An orthogonal array is represented in the skeletal form
LRVF (5.3)

Where L – Latin square


R – Number of rows (number of experiments to be conducted)
V – The level of chosen factors
F – Number of factors under study
Such an orthogonal array is used if all the factors possess the same number of levels. In some cases
where factors may have different levels, mixed orthogonal arrays are used, of the form
LR (V1F1*V2F2) (5.4)

Sivaraman B et al., 113


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

Where V1 factors vary with F1 levels,


V2 factors vary with F2 levels

4.8 Degree of freedom

Degree of freedom is the number of fair comparisons that can be made with the available data. This forms
the basis in selecting the required orthogonal array.

If the levels are denoted by V,


Degree of freedom associated with levels = V-1
Total d.o.f of factors and levels = No. of factors * (V-1)
According to this experiment,
No. of two level factors = 1
Degree of freedom of two level factor = 1*(2-1) = 1
No. of three level factors = 7
Degree of freedom of three level factor = 7*(3-1) = 14
Total degree of freedom of factors and levels = 1+14 = 15
In general if there are 'n' experiments from an orthogonal array,
Degree of freedom of orthogonal array = n-1
As per the rule,
Degree of freedom of orthogonal array >= Degree of freedom of factors & levels

Here the degree of freedom of factors and levels is 15. So a suitable orthogonal array must be selected
whose degree of freedom is greater than or equal to 15. Also by satisfying the levels of available factors,
the following mixed orthogonal array is chosen. L18 (21*37)

Table 5: L18 (21*37) Orthogonal array


CONTROL FACTORS

EXPERIMENT NO
A B C D E F G H
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 3

5 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 1

6 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2

7 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 3

8 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 1

9 2 3 3 1 3 2 1 2

10 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1

Sivaraman B et al., 114


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

11 2 1 2 1 1 3 3 2

12 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 3

13 2 2 1 2 3 1 3 2

14 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 3

15 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 1

16 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 2

17 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 3

18 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 1

It indicates that the orthogonal array has 18 experiments as shown in Table 5.2. So degree of freedom of
this orthogonal array is 18-1=17, which is greater than 15.Since there are 7 control factors at 3 levels and 1
control factor at 2 levels,L18(21*37)orthogonal array has been selected for conducting experiments as
shown in Table 2.

5. Results and discussions

Experiments were conducted as per the L18 (21*37) orthogonal array, assigning various values of the levels
to the process parameters. After individual experiments for a set of values were conducted on Titanium for
a size of 150×100×2 mm3, square profiles were cut and their surface roughness values were measured in
surface roughness tester to determine the surface finish and MRR was calculated using the standard
formula. The responses are given in the Table 6.

5.1 Sample Calculation of MRR for experiment No.1

vf= 3.7 mm/min


h = 2 mm
b = 0.271 mm
MRR = vfh b
=3.7 x 0.271 x 2
= 1.9512 mm3 /min.

Table 6: L18 (21*37) orthogonal array with responses

CONTROL FACTORS RESPONSES

EXPERIMENT NO MRR Ra
A B C D E F G (g/min) (µm)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.499 2.453

2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0.729 2.201

3 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 0.580 2.433

Sivaraman B et al., 115


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

4 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 0.702 2.861

5 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 0.823 2.770

6 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 0.526 1.851

7 1 3 1 2 1 3 3 0.526 2.111

8 1 3 2 3 2 1 1 0.742 2.845

9 2 3 3 1 3 2 2 0.715 2.366

10 2 1 1 3 3 2 1 0.499 2.313

11 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 0.540 3.337

12 2 1 3 2 2 1 3 0.729 3.622

13 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 0.850 2.975

14 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 0.513 1.687

15 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 0.688 2.416

16 2 3 1 3 2 3 2 0.702 2.761

17 2 3 2 1 3 1 3 0.715 2.817

18 2 3 3 2 1 2 1 0.769 3.011

5.2 Optimization steps using Taguchi method

Step 1.
In this step, the original response values are transformed into S/N ratio values. Further analysis iscarried out
based on these S/N ratio values. The material removal rate is a higher-the-better performance characteristic,
since the maximization of the quality characteristic of interest is sought and can be expressed as
S/NHB = -10 log10[(1/n) (∑ 1/ Yij2)] (6.1)

Where
n = number of replications and yij = observed response value
Where
i=1, 2... ....n; j = 1, 2...k.
The surface roughness is the lower-the-better performance characteristic and the loss function for
the same can be expressed as

S/NLB = -10 log10[∑Yij2 ⁄ n] (6.2)

The S/N ratio values for the experimental results were calculated and presented in the Table 7

Sivaraman B et al., 116


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

Table 7: S/N Ratios


CONTROL FACTORS S/N RATIO
EXPERIMENT MRR Ra
NO A B C D E F G (db) (db)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6.044 -7.793
2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 9.327 -6.852
3 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 7.349 -7.722
4 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 9.000 -9.130
5 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 10.38 -8.849
6 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 6.501 -5.348
7 1 3 1 2 1 3 3 6.501 -6.489
8 1 3 2 3 2 1 1 9.487 -9.081
9 2 3 3 1 3 2 2 9.165 -7.480
10 2 1 1 3 3 2 1 6.044 -7.283
11 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 6.721 -10.467
12 2 1 3 2 2 1 3 9.327 -11.178
13 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 10.66 -9.478
14 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 6.275 -4.542
15 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 8.831 -7.661
16 2 3 1 3 2 3 2 9.000 -8.821
17 2 3 2 1 3 1 3 9.165 -8.995
18 2 3 3 2 1 2 1 9.797 -9.574

5.3 Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

The results obtained from the experiments were analyzed using Analysis of Variance
to find the significance of each input factor on the measures of process performances, Material
Removal Rate and surface roughness. ANOVA is formulated for identifying the significant factors. The
influences of various parameters on MRRand surface roughness are presented in Table 7 and 8

Table 8: The Influence of various parameters on MRR

SUM of F test CONTRIBUTION


PARAMETERS VARIANCE DOF
SQUARES values %

DIELECTRIC
PRESSURE 4.268 4.268 1 0.553 0.593

WIRE FEED 118.08 59.04 2 7.662 16.42

Sivaraman B et al., 117


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

WIRE TENSION
30.821 15.41 2 2 4.285

PULSE ON TIME
197.1 98.55 2 12.79 27.41

PULSE OFF
TIME 262.2 131.13 2 17.018 36.46

TABLE FEED 4.47


8.947 2 0.580 1.244

GAP VOLTAGE
66.849 33.42 2 4.337 9.295

ERROR 30.821 7.70 4 4.285

TOTAL 719.158

The results of the ANOVA are represented in graphical form and from the graphical representation it is
clear that average pulse off time is the major influencing factor contributing 36.46% to MRR, followed by
pulse-on time contributing 27.41%, Wire tension contributing 4.285% and Wire Feed contributing 16.42%,
Dielectric pressure contributing 0.593%, table feed contributing 1.244% and gap voltage contributing
9.295%. The Figure 6.1 shows the percentage of contribution of control machining parameters on
Material Removal Rate (MRR).

Error
Gap Voltage
Table Feed
Pulse Off Time
Pulse on Time
Wire Tension
Wire Feed
Dielectric Pressure

0 10 20 30 40

Figure 6: Percentage of contribution of Control Parameters on MRR

Sivaraman B et al., 118


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

Table 9: The influence of various parameters on RA

SUM of F test CONTRIBUTION


PARAMETERS VARIANCE DOF
SQUARES values %
DIELECTRIC
PRESSURE 85.63 85.63 1 4506.7 11

WIRE FEED 69.78 34.89 2 1836.4 8.9

WIRE TENSION
0.074 0.038 2 2 0.009

PULSE ON TIME
169.6 84.8 2 4463.1 21.859

PULSE OFF TIME


112.2 56.10 2 2952.6 14.46

TABLE FEED
91.52 45.762 2 2408.5 11.746

GAP VOLTAGE
246.95 123.47 2 6498.6 31.829

ERROR 0.0761 0.019 4 0.009

TOTAL 775.85

The results of the ANOVA are represented in graphical form and from the graphical representation it is
clear that average gap voltage is the major influencing factor contributing 31.829% to Ra, followed by
pulse-on time contributing 21.859%, pulse-off time contributing 14.46% and Wire Feed contributing 8.9%,
Dielectric pressure contributing 11%, Wire tension contributing 0.009% and gap voltage contributing
31.829 %. The Figure 7 shows the Percentage of contribution of control machining parameters on surface
roughness.

Gap Voltage

Pulse Off Time

Wire Tension

Dielectric Pressure

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Figure 7: Percentage of contribution of control parameters on surface roughness

Sivaraman B et al., 119


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

5.4 Confirmation experiment

The confirmation test for the optimal parameter setting with its selected levels was conducted to evaluate
the quality characteristics for WEDM of Titanium. Table 10 shows the experimental results using the initial
(A2B2C1D2E3F1G2) WEDM parameters on Titanium. The response values obtained from the
confirmation experiment are MRR = 0.850 g/min and Ra = 1.687 µm. The Material Removal Rate shows a
value of 0.823 g/min and the Surface Roughness shows a value of 1.687 µm respectively.

Table 10: Optimization results of OA L18 (21*37)

Process parameters Orthogonal Array

Level A2B2C1D2E3F1G2

MRR(g/min) 0.823

Ra (µm) 1.687

5. Conclusion

In this project, an application of combined Taguchi Method is to improve the multi-response characteristics
of MRR (Material Removal Rate) and Surface roughness in the Wire-Cut EDM of Titanium has been
reported. As a result, this method greatly simplifies the optimization of complicated multiple performance
characteristics and since it does not involve complicated mathematical computations, this can be easily
utilized by the stakeholders of the Manufacturing world. While applying the Taguchi method, The Material
Removal Rate shows an increased value of 0.513g/min to 0.823 g/min and the Surface Roughness shows a
reduced value of 3.789µm to1.687 µm respectively, which are positive indicators of efficiency in the
machining process. Thus, it can be concluded that the Taguchi Method, is most ideal and suitable for the
parametric optimization of the Wire-Cut EDM process, when using the multiple performance
characteristics such as MRR (Material Removal Rate) and Surface Roughness for machining the
Titanium.

6. References

1. Bert Lauwers, Weidong Liu, 2006. Wesley Eerasrts ‘Influence of the composition of wc-based
cermets on manufacturability by Wire-EDM’, journal of manufacturing processes, 8(2),
1707-1720.
2. BiingHwa Yan, Hsien Chung Tsai, Fuang Yuan Huang, Long Chorng Lee, 2005. Examination Of
Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Of Al2O3p/6061Al Composites’, International Journal of
Machine Tools & Manufacture, 45, 251–259.
3. El-Taweel.T.A, Hewidy.M.S, El-Safty.M.F, 2005. Modeling the machining parameters of wire
electric discharge machining of inconel 601 using rsm, Journal of material processing technology,

Sivaraman B et al., 120


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015
Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium

169, 328-336.
4. Juhr.H, Schulze.H.P, Wollenburg.G, Kunanz.K, 2004. Improved cemented carbide properties after
wire EDM by pulse shaping, Journal of material processing technology,149, 178-183.
5. Kanlayasiri.S, Boonmung.S, 2007. An investigation on effects of wire EDM machining
parameters on surface roughness of newly developed DC53 die steel, Journal of materials
processing technology 187, 26-29.
6. Ko-Ta Chiang, Fu-Ping Chang, De-Chang Tsai, 2006. Modeling and analysis of rapidly
resolidified layer of SG cast iron in the EDM process through responsive surface methodology,
Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 182, 525-533.
7. Liao.Y.S, Huang.J.T, Chen.Y.H.A, 2003. Study to achieve a fine surface finish in Wire EDM-
Journal of material processing technology, 149, 165-171.
8. Muthu Kumar V, Suresh Babu A, Venkatasamy R and Raajenthiren M, 2010. Optimization of the
WEDM Parameters on Machining Incoloy800 Super alloy with Multiple Quality Characteristics,
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 2(6), 1538-1547.
9. Mu-Tian Yan, Pin-Hsum Huang, 2004. Accuracy improvement of wire edm by real time wire
tension control, Journal of Machine tools and Manufacture, 44, 807-814.

Sivaraman B et al., 121


Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015

Centres d'intérêt liés