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Effects of rest interval on isokinetic strength


and functional performance after short-term
high intensity training.
D M Pincivero, S M Lephart and R G Karunakara

Br J Sports Med 1997 31: 229-234


doi: 10.1136/bjsm.31.3.229

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BrJ Sports Med 1997;31:229-234 229

Effects of rest interval on isokinetic strength and


functional performance after short term high
intensity training

Danny M Pincivero, Scott M Lephart, Raj G Karunakara

Abstract rehabilitation of orthopaedic and athletically


Objectives-The ability to maximally gen- induced musculoskeletal injuries. Optimally
erate active muscle tension during resist- designed strength training programmes are
ance training has been established to be a based on sound scientific principles that ensure
primary determinant for strength devel- a progressive overload of the appropriate mus-
opment. The influence of intrasession rest cle or muscle groups.' This is normally
intervals may have a profound effect on achieved by manipulating the volume and
strength gains subsequent to short term intensity of exercise on a consistent and
high intensity training. The purpose of systematic basis, which involves the athlete or
this study was to examine the effects of patient performing one or more sets of a
rest interval on strength and functional particular exercise interspersed with rest inter-
performance after four weeks ofisokinetic vals. At the present time, much information on
training. the optimal training load to be utilised during
Methods-Fifteen healthy college aged rehabilitation and strength training pro-
individuals were randomly assigned to grammes is available. However, intrasession
either a short rest interval group (group 1, rest intervals (period of time between sets of
n = 8) or a long rest interval group (group exercise) is a component that has not been
2, n = 7). Subjects were evaluated for extensively studied.'
quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic Adequate rest periods are necessary between
strength at 60 (five repetitions) and 180 (30 bouts of strength exercise in order to off-set the
repetitions) degrees/second and func- detrimental effects of fatigue and to facilitate
tional performance with the single leg hop muscle recovery."4 However, it has also been
for distance test. One leg of each subject proposed that the development of fatigue
was randomly assigned to a four week, through the reduction or elimination of rest
three days/week isokinetic strength train- intervals may actually enhance strength
ing programme for concentric knee exten- development.5 6 It is also well documented that
sion and flexion performed at 90 degrees/ intense exercise induces peripheral muscle
second. Subjects in group 1 received a 40 fatigue, which reduces the potential of skeletal
second rest interval in between exercise muscles to exert active tension.7 8 The ability to
sets, whereas subjects in group 2 received restore neuromuscular activation, active mus-
a 160 second rest period. cle tension, and metabolic homoeostasis is a
Results-A two factor analysis of variance time dependent process, suggesting the im-
for the pre-test-post-test gain scores (%) portance of a non-contractile period of rest
showed significantly greater improve- after exercise."'
ments for isokinetic hamstring total work Under conditions of high intensity fatiguing
and average power at 180 degreeslsecond exercise, a vast number of mechanisms have
Neuromuscular for the trained limb of subjects in group 2
Research Laboratory, been implicated as key factors contributing to
than their contralateral non-trained limb decrements in muscle performance. Such
127 Trees Hall, and the subjects in group 1. Significantly
University of mechanisms include the accumulation of H'
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, greater improvements for the single leg and monovalent inorganic phosphate
PA 15261, USA hop for distance were also found for the (HPO4-), decreases in phosphocreatine (PCr)
D M Pincivero trained limbs of subjects in both groups as as well as impairments in excitation-
S M Lephart compared with the non-trained limbs. contraction coupling.7 8 1116 The ability to
Preventive Cardiology,
Conclusions-The findings indicate that a restore these changes to pre-fatigue or resting
University of relatively longer intrasession rest period conditions after high intensity exercise has
Pittsburgh resulted in a greater improvement in been suggested to last from a few minutes17-19 to
R G Karunakara hamstring muscle strength during short over one hour." With respect to isokinetic
term high intensity training. torque, however, investigators have observed
Correspondence to: (Br J Sports Med 1997;31:229-234)
Dr D M Pincivero, that quadriceps muscle performance appears
Department of Physical to approach full recovery with two to three
Therapy, Eastern Keywords: fatigue; recovery; peak torque; quadriceps;
Washington University, hamstrings minutes of rest.'"22
Mail Stop 4, 526 5th Street, The influence of varying intrasession rest
Cheney, WA 99004-2431, intervals during the time course of strength
USA.
Strength training programmes are commonly training has been proposed to play a key role in
Accepted for publication used to enhance performance, reduce the inci- strength development,' although current evi-
8 May 1997 dence of overuse injuries, and assist in the dence is limited and appears conflicting.6 20 22
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230 Pincivero, Lephart, Karunakara

Since the ability to generate high active tensile to three practice trials before the test. In order
forces in muscle is the primary stimulus for to determine the relative distance jumped, the
strength gains, the optimisation of rest periods absolute average distance of the three trials was
in order to enhance subsequent bouts of mus- divided by the subject's leg length measured
cular contractions seems prudent.2 It has been from the anterior superior iliac spine to the
proposed, however, that metabolite accumula- medial malleolus. This corrected relative value
tion during short term submaximal isometric was then used for further statistical analysis.
quadriceps training may provide a significant
stimulus for the development of strength.6 Isokinetic dynamometry
Although it has been established that neuro- Isokinetic strength was assessed with the
muscular adaptations, as well as localised mus- Biodex System 2 Isokinetic Dynamometer
cle fibre structural and enzymic changes, occur (Biodex Medical Inc, Shirley, NY, USA). Sub-
as early as two to four weeks after high intensity jects were placed in a comfortable upright
strength training," 4 the short term effects of seated position on the Biodex dynamometer
intrasession rest intervals remain to be ad- chair and secured using thigh, pelvic, and torso
equately clarified. straps to minimise extraneous body move-
Therefore the purpose of this study was to ments. The lateral femoral epicondyle was used
examine the influence of intrasession rest as the bony landmark for matching the axis of
interval on isokinetic strength of the quadri- rotation of the knee joint to the axis of rotation
ceps and hamstrings and a functional perform- of the dynamometer resistance adaptor. Once
ance task, the single leg hop for distance test, the subject was placed in a position that
after four weeks of isokinetic strength training. allowed comfortable and unrestricted motion
for knee extension and flexion from a position
Methods of 90 degrees of flexion to terminal extension,
SUBJECTS the following measurements were taken: seat
Subjects for this study consisted of 15 healthy height, seat inclination, dynamometer head
college aged volunteers (mean (SD) age 21.7 height, and resistance pad level. These meas-
(1.9) years, mean (SD) height 172.5 (8.5) cm, ures were recorded and stored in the Biodex
mean (SD) weight 68.7 (9.8) kg) with no pre- Advantage Software program, version 4.0
vious history of injury to the lower extremity (Biodex Medical Inc) to standardise the testing
and no resistance training within the past six position for each individual subject. Gravity
months. Before participation in this study, each correction was obtained by measuring the
subject provided written informed consent torque exerted on the dynamometer resistance
approved through the Biomedical Institutional adaptor with the knee in a relaxed state at ter-
Review Board at the University of Pittsburgh. minal extension. Values for the isokinetic vari-
Subjects were tested for functional lower ables measured were automatically adjusted for
extremity performance and isokinetic strength gravity by the Biodex Advantage Software pro-
before and immediately after the four week gram. Calibration of the Biodex dynamometer
training period. was performed according to the specifications
outlined by the manufacturer's service manual.
TESTING PROCEDURES During the testing procedure, the cushion set-
Before testing, each subject completed a ting on the control panel for the ends of the
dynamic warm up period that consisted of range of motion were set to their lowest (hard)
cycling on a Fitron (Lumex Corp, setting in order to reduce the effect of limb
Ronkonkoma, NY, USA) bicycle for five deceleration on the reciprocal motion.28
minutes at 60 rpm followed by quadriceps and Reciprocal concentric isokinetic knee exten-
hamstring stretching. In order to reduce the sion and flexion was assessed at two angular
possible effects of fatigue incurred during the velocities: 60 and 180 degrees/second. Testing
isokinetic testing evaluation, each subject at each velocity started with five submaximal
performed the single leg hop for distance test followed by two to three maximal repetitions
first. The order of limb testing for the hop and for warm up purposes. Five maximal repeti-
the isokinetic test was randomly selected. tions were then performed at 60 degrees/
second. Once both limbs had been tested, each
Functional performance assessment subject was given a brief period of volitional
Functional lower extremity performance was recovery (about five minutes) and then asked
assessed by a single leg hop for distance test.2527 to perform 30 maximal repetitions at 180
A tape measure marked in centimetres was degrees/second. Subjects performed 30 repeti-
placed across the floor in order to determine tions in an attempt to assess the muscular
the distance jumped. Subjects were instructed endurance capability of the quadriceps and
to stand on one leg with toes positioned to the hamstrings. Values for peak torque (N.m), total
zero mark on the tape, with their arms by their work (N.m), and average power (W) were
sides. They were then instructed to hop computed for the quadriceps and hamstrings at
forward as far as possible and to land on the 60 and 180 degrees/second in addition to the
same leg. In order to simulate a functional test, work performed during the last one third of the
subjects were allowed to swing their arms 180 degrees/second test. Each subject per-
forward as they jumped. In addition, they were formed the 60 degrees/second test before the
instructed to wear running shoes to which they 180 degrees/second test in an attempt to
felt accustomed. The distance from the zero remove the effect of fatigue that may have
mark to their heel was recorded for three trials occurred during the latter test velocity. During
and then averaged. Each subject was given two the testing procedure, subjects were required to
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Rest interval effects on isokinetic strength 231

fold their arms across their chest, and were limb) analysis of variance was performed to
given verbal encouragement as well as visual detect significant main effects and interactions
feedback from the Biodex monitor in an at a pre-set alpha level of P<0.05.
attempt to achieve maximal effort.29 30 All test-
ing procedures were conducted by the same Results
investigator for all subjects. Improvements in Tables 2 and 3 summarise the percentage
isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring torque changes in the isokinetic strength variables and
after training beyond the percentages outlined the single leg hop for distance test. The results
in table 1 have been accepted as clinically show significant main effects between the two
meaningful as these values represent standard groups for quadriceps average power at 60
errors of measurement for these variables." degrees/second and quadriceps peak torque at
180 degrees/second, and the training group
TRAINING PERIOD
Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two
with the longer rest interval (group 2) showed
greater improvements than group 1 (table 4).
training groups. Subjects in group 1 received a Significant main effects were also found
short intrasession rest interval between exercise between the trained and non-trained limbs for
sets (40 seconds) corresponding to a 2:1 rest to quadriceps average power at 60 degrees/second
work ratio and subjects in group 2 received a and the single leg hop for distance test, and the
long intrasession rest interval between exercise trained limb in both groups displayed statisti-
sets (160 seconds) corresponding to an 8:1 rest cally higher values (table 5).
to work ratio. Each subject trained one Significant group x limb interactions were
randomly assigned leg three days per week for shown for the following: (1) hamstring peak
four weeks on the Biodex System 2 Isokinetic torque at 60 degrees/second (F,,,, = 7.38, P =
Dynamometer. All subjects performed the 0.018), (2) hamstring average power at 60
identical training programme, with the excep- degrees/second (F,,,, = 4.67, P = 0.05), (3)
tion of the intrasession rest interval. Subjects hamstring peak torque at 180 degrees/second
performed four sets of ten repetitions during (F ,,3 = 7.27, P = 0.018), (4) hamstring total
each training session in the first week and work at 180 degrees/second (F,,,3 = 12.77, P =
increased by one set per session each week for 0.0034), and (5) hamstring average power at
the duration of the study. Maximal reciprocal 180 degrees/second (F,,,3 = 12.48, P = 0.0037).
concentric isokinetic knee extension and flex- The results show that each limb in both groups
ion was performed at a pre-set angular velocity experienced decrements for hamstring peak
of 90 degrees/second. This training velocity torque at 60 degrees/second; however, the
was selected as an intermediary between the non-trained limb of subjects in group 2 (long
two testing velocities in an attempt to stimulate rest interval) showed greater decreases
strength adaptations at both velocities. Before (10.9%) than the trained contralateral limb
each training session, subjects completed a and the non-trained limb of subjects in group
dynamic warm up period and were positioned 1. Similar findings were also evident for
on the Biodex Isokinetic System in exactly the hamstring average power at 60 degrees/second,
same way as during the testing procedure. as the non-trained limb of subjects in group 2
During each training session, all subjects were experienced greater decreases (11.1 %) than
provided visual feedback from the Biodex the contralateral trained leg and the non-
monitor and given verbal encouragement by trained leg of subjects in group 1. The trained
the same investigator. limb of subjects in group 2 experienced a posi-
tive change in hamstring peak torque at 180
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
The pre-test-post-test difference for peak
degrees/second (6.0%) as compared with the
non-trained limb (-9.3%) and with the
torque, total work, average power, and the sin- subjects in group 1 who displayed reductions in
gle leg hop for distance was analysed as a gain strength that were greater than the correspond-
score (%). This method of unconditional infer- ing standard error of measurement values pre-
ence was used, as opposed to conditional infer- sented in table 1. Large improvements for
ence through the analysis of covariance, in hamstring total work (fig 1) and average power
order to quantify clinically meaningful strength (fig 2) at 180 degrees/second were shown by
gains beyond the inherent variability of the trained limb of subjects in group 2 (17.5
measurement associated with the Biodex iso- and 20.2% respectively) while the contralateral
kinetic dynamometer.31 A two factor (group x non-trained leg and both legs of subjects in
Table 1 Standard errors of measurement (%) for group 1 experienced minimal changes in
concentric isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and strength.
hamstrings using the Biodex System II isokinetic
dynamometer (data from Pincivero et af')
Discussion
60 degrees/second 180 degrees/second The major findings of the present study
Quadriceps Hamstrings Quadriceps Hamstrings indicate that strength gain subsequent to maxi-
mal isokinetic training is affected by the
Peak
4.8 4.9 5.6
manipulation of intrasession rest intervals. It
torque 6.1 appears that isokinetic hamstring muscle
Total work 8.9 7.4 9.6 7.4
Average strength responds to a greater extent to
power
Work last
2.0 7.1 9.5 7.6 isokinetic training and longer intrasession rest
third - - 10.8 9.9 intervals than the quadriceps muscles. More-
over, functional performance also appeared to
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232 Pincivero, Lephart, Karunakara

Table 2 Percentage change in isokinetic strength at 60 degrees/second afterfour weeks of 30


training. Values are mean (SEM) -|- Group 1
25 -A- Group 2
Group I (n=8) Group 2 (n=7) 20
Trained Non-trained Trained Non-trained -
15
PT Quadriceps 0.7 (2.2) -0.1 (3.5) 5.9 (3.5)* 2.5 (3.1)
0Xo
(D> 1 0
TW Quadriceps 10.0 (9.4)* 11.8 (6.5)* 4.5 (4.3) 2.3 (4.3) 01
AP Quadriceps 0.7 (2.9) -2.6 (3.6)* 8.1 (3.0)* 2.3 (3.4)*
PT Hamstrings -9.5 (2.7) -2.3 (4.5) -2.4 (3.2) -10.9 (3.4)*
TW Hamstrings -1.9 (9.5) 10.1 (8.5)* -3.7 (2.3) -11.1 (3.7)*
AP Hamstrings -6.1 (4.4) -2.2 (4.6) 2.9 (3.8) -11.1 (3.9)* -5
-10
* Percentage change greater than standard error of measurement.
PT, peak torque; TW, total work; AP, average power. -15
Trained Non-trained
Table 3 Percentage change in isokinetic strength at 180 degrees/second and the single leg Limb
hop for distance after four weeks of training. Values are mean (SEM)
Figure 1 Significant group x limb interaction for
Group 1 (n=8) Group 2 (n=7) percentage changes in hamstring total work at 180
degrees/second.
Trained Non-trained Trained Non-trained
30
PTQuadriceps 0.5 (2.5) 4.0 (2.7) 8.0 (4.4)* 8.7 (1.9)* --| Group 1
TW Quadriceps 7.2 (4.7) 12.5 (4.8)* 9.2 (4.1) 6.3 (2.8) 25 A
- Group 2
AP Quadriceps 7.1 (3.8) 8.9 (4.2) 11.1 (3.4)* 5.4 (3.0) 20
WLTQuadriceps 11.1 (6.1)* 11.1 (6.4)* 9.3 (4.2) 3.7 (3.4)
PTHamstrings -8.3 (5.9)* -7.4 (5.0)* 6.0 (5.4) -9.3 (5.7) 15
TWHamstrings -0.2 (6.2) -1.0 (6.4) 17.5 (7.1)* -7.0 (3.8)
AP Hamstrings 0.02 (6.8) -4.2 (5.6) 20.2 (6.7)* -7.2 (3.1)
WLT Hamstrings 6.6 (7.1) -4.8 (5.7) 20.8 (9.5)* -3.9 (4.5) -C
5
HOP 4.5 (2.1) 0.02 (1.7) 1.3 (1.5) -0.1 (1.3)
Cu 0
*
Percentage change greater than standard error of measurement.
PT, peak torque; TW, total work; AP, average power; WLT, work last third; HOP, single leg hop -5
for distance. -10
Table 4 Significant main effects between the two training groups for quadriceps average -15
Trained Non-trained
power at 60 degrees/decond (AP60Q) and quadriceps peak torque at 180 degrees/second
(PT180Q). Means and standard errors (SE) represent percent changes between pre-test Limb
and post-test evaluations
Figure 2 Significant group x limb interaction for
SE
percentage changes in hamstring average power at 180
Group n Mean F value P value degrees/second.
AP60Q 1 8 -0.96 2.3 10.33 0.007
2 7 5.2 2.3
PT180Q 1 8 2.3 1.83 6.75 0.02 work performed by the hamstring muscles over
2 7 8.4 2.3 time (30 s) as well as per unit of time is
positively affected by incorporating intrasess-
Table 5 Significant main effects between the trained and non-trained limbs for quadriceps ion rest intervals of 160 seconds during a short
average power at 60 degreeslsecond (AP60Q), hamstring work performed in the last one term strength training period.
third at 180 degrees/second (WLTH) and the single leg hop for distance (HOP). Mean and Adequate recovery of muscle force within a
standard errors (SE) represent percentage changes between pre-test and post-test
evaluations training session is a necessary prerequisite for
the generation of tension in subsequent con-
Limb n Mean SE F value P value tractions. Such benefits of utilising a relatively
AP60Q Trained 15 4.66 2.3 6.02 0.03 longer intrasession rest interval during strength
Non-trained 15 -0.03 2.5 training is that sufficient time is allowed for the
WLTH Trained 15 14.2 6.13 10.31 0.007 involved muscle to replenish intramuscular
Non-trained 15 -4.4 3.5 stores of ATP and PCr.'7'9 To examine the
HOP Trained 15 2.81 1.3 5.70 0.03 effects of rest interval on muscle tension devel-
Non-trained 15 -0.06 0.99 opment, Edman and Loul' applied a one
second fused tetanic electrical stimulus to the
be improved after training, although it was not anterior tibialis of the frog, Rana temporarium,
affected by intrasession rest interval manipu- in which a greater reduction in force was
lation. observed when the rest intervals were progres-
sively reduced from 300 to 15 to 1 second. The
INTRASESSION REST INTERVAL 15 second rest interval resulted in a 20-30%
The results indicate that the manipulation of reduction in tetanic force, whereas the one sec-
intrasession rest intervals had a significant ond rest interval produced a 50-60% decrease
effect on isokinetic strength with respect to compared with the control value.'0
hamstring peak torque and average power at 60 Bilcheck et aPl° found that a 2.5 minute rest
degrees/second and hamstring peak torque, interval was sufficient to allow the recovery of
total work, and average power at 180 degrees/ isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength after
second. However, hamstring total work and three sets of 30 repetitions performed at 120
average power at 180 degrees/second for the degrees/second. Similarly, Touey et al" ob-
trained limb of subjects in group 2 were the served that an intrasession rest interval of one
only variables that showed increases beyond minute allowed adequate recovery of the quad-
their respective standard error of measurement riceps muscles after multiple sets of isokinetic
values (17.5 and 20.2% respectively). This exercise performed at 180 degrees/second.
finding suggests that sustained mechanical However, it was also shown that a rest interval
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Rest interval effects on isokinetic strength 233

of 120 s was necessary for optimal muscle hamstring strength may be a mediating factor
recovery.22 for the enhancement of functional perform-
It has been suggested by Rooney et al that ance.
processes associated with muscle fatigue con-
tribute to the strength training stimulus, as it CROSS LIMB TRANSFER
was shown that the elimination of rest periods It has been well established that strength
produced greater strength gains after six weeks improvements after short term training are
of isotonic biceps brachii training than sessions mediated largely by neurological factors.'23 It
utilising rest periods. However, the design of therefore has been proposed that an increased
this study was such that one set of either six or outflow of impulses from the motor cortex of
ten repetitions was performed during each the brain has similar effects with respect to
training session. A possible explanation for improvements in motor unit recruitment in
these results may be that an insufficient volume both the trained and non-trained limbs.'5
of mechanical work was demanded of the Previous studies have presented conflicting
working muscle to produce any significant evidence with respect to the cross limb transfer
strength gains. Similar conclusions were de- effect after unilateral strength training. Krotk-
rived by Schott et al,6 who trained seven iewski et aP6 and Komi et al" showed that sin-
subjects three days per week for 14 weeks with gle leg isokinetic and isometric training for the
a quadriceps isometric protocol equivalent to quadriceps respectively resulted in a strength
70% of their maximum vital capacity. Subjects improvement of the non-trained limb that
who performed sustained contractions for 30 ranged from 4 to 11%. However, Tesch and
seconds with a two minute intrasession rest Karlsson,'8 Young et al,'9 and Jones and
interval, as compared with subjects performing Rutherford40 did not find any strength improve-
intermittent three second contractions with a ments of the untrained quadriceps muscles
one minute rest period, produced greater after short term (5-12 weeks) unilateral
strength gains (median 54.7% v 31.5%). strength training. Kannus et aP" found that
Schott et al6 suggested that metabolic changes after 7 weeks of combined unilateral isometric
in the muscle, as characterised by greater and isokinetic training of the quadriceps and
reductions in pH and PCr, are involved in the hamstring muscles, isokinetic strength im-
adaptational response to strength training. provements in the non-trained leg ranged from
Contrary to these findings, Robinson et al'2 5 to 11%. The results obtained by Kannus et
found a significantly greater increase in one al" appear to be similar to those of the present
repetition maximum squat strength after five study as strength increases in the non-trained
weeks of training in subjects utilising a three limb ranged from 2.3 to 11.8% at 60
minute rest interval as compared with subjects degrees/second and 8.7 to 12.5% at 180
using a 30 second rest period. The results from degrees/second. Kannus et al"5 suggested that
the present investigation appear to concur with previous studies lacked documentation on sta-
the results obtained by Robinson et al,'2 as iso- tistical power calculations to estimate the
kinetic hamstring strength improved signifi- probability of accepting a null hypothesis-that
cantly more when an intrasession rest interval is, no cross limb transfer effect. However, the
of 160 seconds rather than 40 seconds was uti- results from the present investigation suggest
lised. that the reliability of the strength testing
instrument may play a critical role in the
interpretation of the results. The precision of
FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE measurement has been estimated for the
The results from the present study indicate that Biodex dynamometer," as indicated by the
functional performance is not affected by rest standard error of measurement values in table
interval manipulation. Although a significantly 1, whereas instrumentation error did not
greater improvement in the single leg hop for appear to be adequately addressed in previous
distance test was found for the trained limbs in studies. As a result of this presumption,
both groups, concentric isokinetic torque and clinically meaningful strength changes after
functional performance have yielded some training can be more appropriately interpreted
interesting findings within the literature. Rob- if measurement variability is known. Other-
ertson and Fleming" showed that the muscles wise, true strength improvements that range
surrounding the knee joint contributed only from 5 to 11% may be difficult to distinguish
3.9% to the generation of energy during a from test-retest error. In addition, the most
standing long jump. Furthermore, extensor significant limitation of the present investiga-
moments observed at the knee, ankle, and hip tion is the use of the non-trained limb as an
showed that the knee joint primarily acts as an internal control. Neurological adaptations have
energy absorber, whereas the hip and ankle been documented as the primary mechanism
provide most of the mechanical energy for pro- for strength gains during the early time course
pulsion. It has recently been established that of training which may manifest cross limb
the relation between isokinetic hamstring total transfer effects. However, it is suggested that
work and average power at 180 degrees/second instrumentation reliability and precision is a
correlates statistically more highly with the sin- critical factor for monitoring training induced
gle leg hop for distance than the same variables strength changes beyond the inherent variabil-
for the quadriceps.'4 The greater improvements ity of the strength testing device. In addition, it
for these two isokinetic variables after training, should be noted that the training velocity of 90
as detected by the statistically significant inter- degrees/second was chosen as an intermediate
actions, may suggest that the improvement in between the testing velocities of 60 and 180
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234 Pincivero, Lephart, Karunakara

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