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International training workshop on “Key vulnerabilities in small island developing

states: scope for technology cooperation with India”


Session II: Water availability and quality
22nd August, 2005

Rainwater harvesting
Ms Kokil Gupta
Research Associate
TERI
Kokilg@teri.res.in
River water, lakes and ponds, water in wells and below the
ground, canal water, tap water, even bottled water
- the source of all water is RAIN
¾ The principle of collecting and
using precipitation from a
catchments surface is termed as
Rain water harvesting.
¾ In ancient Rome, residences were
built with individual cisterns and
paved courtyards to capture rain
water .
Underground Tankas
¾ As early as the third millennium
BC, farming communities in
Baluchistan and Kutch
impounded rain water and used it
for irrigation dams.

Naadis, Rajasthan, TERI 2001


Growing Need For Rain Water Harvesting
¾ WIth piped water supply, the
relevance of this decentralized
system has got lost.

¾ Inadequate surface water reserves as


well as inequitable water
distribution

¾ growing dependence on ground


water

¾ Reduction in nfiltration of rain water


into the sub-soil

¾ Increased surface runoff choking


drains and flooding in urban areas.
How can Rain Water Harvesting help??
¾ To utilize a large amount of high quality water, which otherwise runs off or
gets lost through evaporation.

¾ Can be used to provide water in times of distress/ supplement municipal


supply

¾ Recharge the ground water and Improve the quality of Ground water by
dilution.

¾ In addition, arrest sea water intrusion in coastal areas.


RWH – Design parameters
End use/ purpose
Ground water recharge/ augment available supply/ arrest runoff

Catchment size
In urban areas: paved areas, rooftops, open spaces and in countryside: at
water shed level

Climatic conditions
Rainfall pattern & rate of
evaporation
Surface/ Sub Surface Storage: Direct Method
In this type of rainwater harvesting method, the structures collect water directly from
the rain and use for domestic and irrigation purposes. In all rooftop rainwater-
harvesting systems, both small and large, the basic components are:
Runoff Available for Harvesting from Roof top
Rainfall(mm) 100 200 300 40 500 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Roof top area 0 Harvested water from Roof top (cum)
(sqm) 20 1.6 3.2 4.8 6.4 8 9.6 12.8 16 19.2 22.4 25.6 28.8 32
30 2.4 4.8 7.2 9.6 12 14.4 19.2 24 28.8 33.6 38.4 43.2 48
40 3.2 6.4 9.6 12. 16 19.2 25.6 32 38.4 44.8 51.2 57.6 64
50 4 8 12 168 20 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
60 4.8 9.6 14.4 19. 24 28.8 38.4 48 57.6 67.2 76.8 86.4 96
70 5.6 11.2 16.8 22.2 28 33.6 44.8 56 67.2 78.4 89.6 100.8 112
80 6.4 12.8 19.2 25.4 32 38.4 51.2 64 76.8 89.6 102.4 115.2 128
90 7.2 14.4 21.6 28.6 36 43.2 57.6 72 86.4 100.8 115.2 129.6 144
100 8 16 24 328 40 48 64 80 96 112 128 144 160
150 12 24 36 48 60 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240
200 16 32 48 64 80 96 128 160 192 224 256 288 320
250 20 40 60 80 100 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400
300 24 48 72 96 120 144 192 240 288 336 384 432 480
400 32 64 96 12 160 192 256 320 384 448 512 576 640
500 40 80 120 168 200 240 320 400 480 560 640 720 800
1000 80 160 240 320 400 480 640 800 960 1120 1280 1440 1600
2000 160 320 480 640 800 960 1280 1600 1920 2240 2560 2880 3200
3000 240 480 720 960 1200 1440 1920 2400 2880 3360 3840 4320 4800
0
Assuming coefficient of run off for roof top as 0.8
Recharge to ground water: Indirect method
While storage of rain water on surface is a traditional technique and structures
used were underground tanks, ponds, check dams, weirs, etc. Recharge to ground water
is relatively a new concept of rain water harvesting and the structures generally used
are:- 1. Recharge pits
2. Recharge trenches
3. Recharge shaft
4. Trench with recharge well
5. Shaft with recharge well
6. Recharge through abandoned hand pumps
7. Recharge through abandoned tube well
8. Recharge well
9. Injection well
10. Percolation tank
Recharge through abandoned 11. Check dam
bore well. Approximate cost: 12. Gabion bund
Rs.1500 – 2500/- 13. Sub-surface dyke
14. Recharge wells/ Tidal Regulators to arrest
Salinity Ingress in Coastal Aquifers
(CGWB)
TRENCH WITH RECHARGE WELL
-For recharging the shallow as
well as deeper aquifers.

- Construction of lateral trench


of 1.5 to 3 m wide & 10 to 30 m
.

- One or more bore wells.

- lateral trench is back filled with


boulders, gravels & coarse sand.

- Approximate cost :
Rs. 2000 –4000 per m. run of trench
Rs. 20000 – 35000 per recharge well
SHAFT WITH RECHARGE WELL

-If aquifer is available at greater


depth say 20 or more than 20 metre.

-Shallow shaft of 2 to 5 m dia and 5


to 3 to 5 m deep depending upon
availability of runoff.

-Inside the shaft a recharge well of


100 to 300 mm dia is constructed
for recharging the available water to
the deeper aquifer.

-At the bottom, filter media is


provided to avoid choking of the
recharge well.

-Approximate cost: Rs. 50,000


RECHARGE THROUGH CHECKDAMS
-Constructed across small streams
having gentle slopes
-Feasible both in hard rocks as well as
in alluvial formations.
-The site selected should have
sufficient thickness of permeable bed
or weathered formation to facilitate
recharge of stored water within short
spell of time.
-The water stored in these structures is
mostly confined to stream course and
height is about 1 to 5 meters.

-Approximate cost:Rs. 50000 –


300000/-
Rain water harvesting : Selected examples
INDIA
Lakshadweep islands, a chain of 36 islands SCALE (km)
0 400 800

is located 220 to 440 Km from the coastal


city of Cochi in Kerala state, India.

Though fully surrounded by water, fresh


water availability both surface and ground
water sources is limited.
ARABIAN BAY OF BENGAL
SEA

There is growing dependence on ground


KERALA

LAKSHAD

water with increasing threat of sea water WEEP

intrusion.

Considering the growing threat, the Central Water Resources Development and
Management (CWRDM), uderGovt. of Kerala initiated the project “Management
of Fresh water sources in Lakshadweep”, funded by Indo Canada Environment
Facility (ICEF).
Salient features of the project
Aim:
•GW management through conservation of sub surface flows using sub surface
check dams;
• reducing over exploitation of ground water sources and
•protecting existing tanks and ponds.
•rainwater harvesting by the construction of structures of roofs top collection
and storage in underground ferro-cement tanks and line ponds.

Capacity building
through infrastructure
development , training
and awareness
generation etc form an
integral part of the
project.

Cost of ferrocement tank (10,000 lts) = 18,000 INR


Initiatives in Chennai, India
One of the largest metros in India, Chennai
receives about 1200 mm rainfall annually.
Water is brought from a distance of 235 km
(Veeranam lake) and now planning to go farther
300 Km (Veeranam extension project) at the cost
of Rs 300 Crore.
At the same time, 46 to 89 per cent of
population depends on groundwater 1,200 mm
depending on the income levels.

2000 1996 1990


1972
42 20 3.0
Distance from the sea coast in metres
Rejuvenation of temple tanks
• Rain water harvesting made mandatory through law:
1987: the groundwater regulation act restricted commercial exploitation
2003: RWH compulsory for all the buildings (existing and new) in all cities, towns
and municipalities.
¾ Direct storage structures constructed all over the city at individual and
community level.
¾One of the initiatives taken up by the Rotary club of Chennai is desilting and
rejuvenation of the traditional temple tanks. This has not only made the area water
secure but is also enabling revival of dug wells in surrounding areas.
¾ The cost of desilting tanks ranges between 5,00, 000 to 10,0000 INR.

Before After
Issues wrt to water in SIDS
Small island developing states continue to face water management and
water access challenges, caused in part by deficiencies in water availability
and partially by growing demands. The common issues include:

¾ Limited natural fresh water resources: Antigua& barbuda, Bahamas, Nauru,


Singapore
¾ Growing dependence on ground water resource: Maldives, Tongo
¾ Saline water intrusion: Maldives
¾ Pollution of water resources ( surface water; ground water and coastal
area):Belize, Cuba, Guyana, Jamaica coast, Samoa
¾ Heavy surface and sub surface runoff: Barbados
Rain Water Harvesting practices in SIDS
Rainwater harvesting is most critical for islands where there are limited inland
streams and rivers, ground water is limited or not potable or there is heavy
runoff.
In an number of low-lying islands where rainwater catchments constitute the
major part of the water supply , rain water system s are being extensively
used.

In St. Lucia,RW collection is done using used oil drums/ plastic tanks/
underground concrete tanks.
Rooftop and purpose-built catchments also are common place in the Bahamas.
One settlement (Whale Cay) has a piped distribution system based on
rooftop-collected water.

… Not sufficient wrt growing demands and over all potential


WAY AHEAD….
Defined strategic master plan catering to both long term and short term goals
Demand Side management
Conserving whatever water we have and harvest more water.
Decision support system

Technologically, economically and financially feasible sound planning is required


based on
- a reliable data base,
- modeling tools to describe the regional flow pattern,
- proper definition of goals and related criteria and
- monitoring network.

Enabling environment
- Adoption by Government bodies, institutions such as schools and hospitals to be
self –reliant.
- Community participation :in terms of involvement as well as financial contribution
to develop a sense of ownership.
- Appropriate legislative and regulatory tools to be developed and integrated.
Scope of experience sharing and technology adoption….

For further information:

Kokil Gupta

Water Resources Policy and Management


Policy Analysis Division
TERI
I HC Complex
Lodhi Road
New Delhi – 110003
Mail: Kokilg@ teri.res.in

Thanks…