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Was there life on earth before


Adam?

Presentation: Prof. Dr. Mr. Maqsood Hasn


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Contents

Humanization: On the Origin of Mankind

THE PRE–ADAMIC AGE, THE AGE OF ANGELS

Does Human Exist Before Current Thoughts or


Something Else?

Was there life on earth before Adam?

Was There Life Before Adam?

Early Man before Adam

They Lived Before Adam (Part 1)

Are There Human On Earth before Adam?

God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural


Part Two: Creation as a Divine Fact

Pre-Adamic man: were there human beings on Earth before


Adam?
EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF MAN

Humanization: On the Origin of


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Mankind
Valter Krajcar, Ph.D.

kraval@net.hr

Introduction to the novel Om

The problem of humanization is connected with the definition of what


man is. His Holiness the Pope John Paul II gave the answer that man is
different from all other life forms because man has an immortal soul
given by God. I found that there are three fundamental differences
between man (with a soul) and animals (without a soul):

1. Man has self-awareness.

2. Man has language.

3. Man has religion.

It is impossible to have religion without the possibility of


understanding sentences like:

"What is the sense of my life?

What will happen to me after my death?"

So, there must be language to have religion. Also, it is impossible to


have language without self-awareness because without self-awareness
it is impossible to understand the simple sentence like:

"I am."

Here is a word about language.

Many animals "communicate" using a collection of movements and


acoustic "words" (signals) to signify some situation, mainly some
danger. Does it mean that these animals have souls?

Of course not.

In Japan there are monkeys living near the sea coast that wash fruit in
sea water before eating. They made this (r) evolution in the last
hundred years. For one monkey the fruit accidentally fell in water and
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it found that the fruit without sand had better taste so it repeated this
with new fruits. It repeated and repeated. Other monkeys, as
monkeys, started to imitate that first monkey and soon all the
monkeys washed their fruits.

Does it mean that they have a soul?

Of course not.

It is not miraculous that before the last half million years there were
evolved intelligent animals, human ancestors, that "invented" and
used fire in glacial periods because this "invention" had evolutionary
advantage. As Japanese monkeys "invented" fruit washing, in a similar
way very intelligent animals (e.g. Sinanthropus pekinensis or "Peking
Man" Homo erectus pekinensis) invented and used fire as a source of
heat and for roasting meat. This is also an evolutionary advantage
because roasted meat is without dangerous parasites or bacterium and
those animals were able to eat (roasted) meat from frozen dead
animals without danger. They were some kind of scavengers too, and
in the glacial period, with insufficient food, they were probably
cannibals and probably ate dead members of their own species. About
1.5 to 2 million years ago this hominid Pithecanthropus erectus (or
later named Homo erectus) arose but that creature, although very
intelligent, was without a soul.

Finally we arrive at Homo Neanderthals (or Homo [sapiens]


neanderthalensis), which became real men with souls, and they
arrived about 200,000 to 500,000 years ago. Adam and Eve's
ancestors, the Neanderthals, were very intelligent, human-like
animals. They used fire, fur, stone weapons, and so on. All this is
continuous evolution. Their throat evolved and they were able to
produce a large number of "words." They had developed a large
collection of word-signals that they used in "communication" mainly in
hunting. They were like humans but they were not humans. They did
not have three very important things including, of course, a spiritual
soul:

1. Although they were intelligent and aware creatures (elephants,


whales, dolphins, monkeys have very developed awareness and
"intelligence"), they were not self-aware creatures. They thought
about fire they made, about stones they treated, about animals they
hunted but they never thought about "self."
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2. They did not have a language but large collections of very useful
words-signals describing different situations and objects like danger,
sun, moon, stone, lion, antelope etc. They used personal names. This
is also an evolutionary advantage because using word-signals and
names in hunting focus the response to only the creature with that
name. There probably existed two common nouns, child and girl.
Before hunting the boy first received his name from the dominant
male, and before copulation the girls first received their name from
their "husbands."

Those creatures were able to invent new "words" for proper nouns.
They also had many "rituals" to express some situations without
words-signals. Their "communications" were only the exchange of
signals, not really communication. Conversation did not exist.
Language did not exist either. Language is much more than a large set
of words. There are nouns, adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, verbs,
tenses. Very important are personal pronouns. "Language" without
pronouns isn't language. Real language, although primitive, must have
pronouns and, of course, the most important personal pronoun is the
first person singular. Pronouns are some kind of language inside
language, symbols of symbols. As words (nouns) are "symbols" of real
world objects, pronouns are "symbols" for other words. For example,
for me the pronouns "I" is a "symbol" for the word Valter. Using
pronouns is from an evolutionary point of view a setback because
using pronouns I, you, he, she, is not clear without the context what is
the meaning of "he" is it e.g. Adam, Cain, Abel, or Seth?

3. They did not have religion. Today, many people say that they are
atheists but atheism is a kind of religion too, this is anti-religion
because people for some reason BELIEVE that God does not exist, but
this is a believing "religion" too. A third group of people, for example,
many scientists, are agnostics. They are not interested if God exists or
not, but they also BELIEVE for example in science, indevelopment, in
humanity. They also ask to themselves "what is the sense of my life?"
and they try to find the answer without God. In every case, all the
people believe in this or that and they try to find the scope of their
lives and this is religion in one or another form. Animals don't have
religion. Animals are not able to understand the abstract concept of
SENSE, so they are not able to understand the question and try to find
the answer in religion.

Neanderthals appeared suddenly. They buried their dead starting


about 150,000 years ago, so it was easy to find their skeletons. Those
buried neanderthals were real humans with souls. Neanderthals before
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150,000 years existed too, but they were animals and probably they
were cannibals who ate their dead. So, there is a small possibility to
find skeletons of neanderthals (animals) older than 150,000 years.
There must exist a moment when the first funeral occurred. The first
deceased must be Abel and nobody else. It is impossible to have
evolution of funerals. There were two possibilities, to eat the dead or
to have a funeral. From an evolutionary point of view, the invention of
funerals is again a setback because without eating the dead there are
more chances of dying by hunger and not to have descendants. The
reason for this evolutionary setback can only be religion, or in other
words, buried Neanderthals were real humans with souls.

If I did not know the Holy Scriptures, the book of Genesis, my thinking
would be something like this. Going backward in time different
languages will become more similar and will fuse into one language.
There will also be extinct languages. Finally, there must be a moment
in the past where there existed only one, the first language. In this
first language, whether it evolved slowly or quickly, there must be a
moment when for the first time the word "why" is used. Somebody
must for the first time invent a word with the meaning WHY. This is a
very abstract word from the perspective of a word-signal set and there
is no simple way to explain what the word WHY means. Those who
were able to invent the word "why" were able to invent similar words
like where, who, when, how.

The most abstract word is of course the verb to be. But, if someone is
able to understand the verb to be, it must have self-awareness, it
must have not only awareness of surroundings but awareness of self
too. So, if someone is able to understand his own existence it is not
difficult to recognise that there must be a new word that will transform
his self-recognition into the question: X I am? "X" means, of course,
WHY, but there is the SENSE etc. In short, if someone is able to
understand his own existence, is self-aware, he is also able to invent a
first primitive but real language, not a set of words-signals. In order to
develop language there must be real communication, conversation,
but how? There must be other persons for conversation. They must
understand the meaning of new abstract words. There must also be
the need for conversation.

So the big discovery of someone's own existence gives a strong need


to explain this discovery to other neanderthals, but how? They know
the meaning of the word sun. How to explain that the sun exists?
Together with the word-signal sun, the first self-aware man with a soul
spoke that sun exists and added a newly invented short word "OM." He
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explains that sun om, moon om, stone om, tree om, and finally
realized that he only repeats known word-signals adding a useless,
and for neanderthals meaningless, short word OM. Nobody is able to
understand the meaning of the mysterious word "OM." Nobody
understood Adam. He went a long way searching for someone that
would understand his new word OM. After many useless trials he must
conclude that he is someone special, someone different from all
neanderthals he met. He knew the deep mystery of his own existence.

What is the sense of this? He developed his religion. He is unique, so


there must be a unique mighty and powerful "I am" that awakened
him.

Finally, the first man had to find a person that understood the meaning
of OM, but he is not sure if that person really understands. The second
person understands what the problem is and speaks "X is NOT" where
X is an invented new word without meaning. She invented a new very
abstract word. Without this word there is no real language, the word
NOT, one of the first abstract words that children learn and understand
very quickly and easily. For the fast development of the first language
there must be exactly two people. They can be male and male, male
and female or female and female. The first and last combination are
fruitless, a good lesson for homosexuals and lesbians. Today there
would not be mankind but only two people (man or woman) and their
scopeless talking and language invention. "Man" and "woman" can
have children and they learn from the first day together with words-
signals and other abstract words of the first language. There will be a
big problem when their children grow up. They can't marry among
themselves. In reality they can, but today humanity is, in a genetic
sense, so different that it is impossible that we are all descendants of
only one couple that lived prior to the last 150,000 years. There must
be, from a scientific point of view, a second mechanism of new genes
entering the human population.

In the Catechism of the Catholic Church it is not explained how new


humans arose after the first truly human couple (Adam and Eve). How
for example did Cain find his wife? I hope that it is not theological
heresy for the hypothesis of how new humans entered Adam and Eve's
family tree. It must be mentioned that all children of the second
generation and all other generations are really Adam and Eve's
descendants. The theological problem is what about newcomers? I
think that the explanation is simple. In the moment when some
neanderthal recognized and understood the name of God, the meaning
of the words "I am" with the help of another man, in that moment he
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received a soul from God and became a man. Some were perhaps not
able to fully understand the meaning of "I am" but they also received
a soul from God and became man because they entered Adam and
Eve's family tree. I hope that this is not heresy.

For example, there are two ways to become Israeli. The first way is if
someone's parents are Israeli, and the second is that someone decides
as an adult to accept Israeli culture, religion and belief in one God,
maybe because he finds a beautiful Israeli girl. A similar story is how
to enter the Catholic Church (by birth and infant baptism, or through
an adult conversion, faith and adult baptism). Maybe I exaggerate the
speed at which Adam and Eve developed language, but I do this to
shorten the story and to explain the problem involved in language
development.

To conclude: this is a speculation that there was a first couple (Adam


and Eve) that invented the first language, and that they were
neanderthals that lived about 150,000 years ago. If Adam and Eve
were a real man and woman, not "symbols for humanity," then Cain,
Abel and Seth are also real and historical persons. In my speculations
I found very interesting the conclusions using the equations:

answer = imagination + logic + knowledge (scientific, philosophic and


theological).

I tried to connect theological and scientific knowledge about human


history in one imaginative but logical short story that is (I hope)
consistent with scientific and theological points of view.

In Genesis 2:19 there are (I believe) two hidden items of information:

The first is that man is master of all living animals, and the second is
that Adam invented new words for animal names.

Adam must also have thought a lot about his (im)mortality. He


understood that the number of neanderthals stays the same although
neanderthals died because new children are born. Neanderthals are
immortal in their children. Their immortality is carried by their
children. Adam concluded that he could be immortal without children.
On the other hand, Eve wanted their son to have the name Cain and
Adam found in this name something horrible so he doesn't want to
have Cain. Cain was conceived after the first sin. At the moment of his
conception he received from God his immortal soul but also the first
sin from his parents (i.e. known in Catholic theology as "original sin").
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If Cain was conceived before the first sin, Cain would be like the
Blessed Virgin Mary, conceived without sin, but this is wrong.

In Genesis 1:28 God gives the command to man and woman:

"Be fertile and multiply."

If Adam and Eve were obedient then there would be a Cain conceived
without sin. Why were they disobedient?

Adam and Eve loved each other and they will have sexual relations in
Eden. The logical conclusion is that they were forbidden to have sexual
relations before, and the command to be fertile was after the first sin.
There is a similar teaching in the holy Catholic Church about marriage.
If sexual relations were forbidden before the first sin, then the first sin
is the breaking of God's "forbidden act." The first sin is not in sexual
relations between Adam and Eve but because in this relation Cain will
be conceived and one day will kill his brother Abel. And because they
listened to the Devil (in the guise of a "serpent"), they thought God is
a liar and that they wanted to be like gods (Genesis 3:5). Here also is
an explanation why Cain was so bad: because he did not have love
from his parents Adam and Eve. They saw in him the reason for their
mortality. He was guilty. After the first sin was committed, and the
later command was given to be fertile, Adam and Eve accepted other
children and they gave to them much love, especially to Abel.

Picture below-right: The hominid family tree (one of several possible


interpretations). The right-hand side of the figure shows the
documented (solid line) and postulated (broken line) emergence and
duration of key hominid characters, as well as the duration of three
major cultures as identified by characteristic stone tools. The
relationships between the individual species (if this is indeed what they
were), as shown by the thin connecting lines, is extremely hypothetical
and controversial. The vertical bars indicate the documented (solid) or
postulated (broken) life spans of the species, symbolized by depictions
of their skulls or skull fragments (from Bones, Stones, and Molecules
by Cameron / Groves [Elsevier Academic Press, 2004], page 256).
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After the record of descendants of Adam there is the story of Noah


and the great flood. The waters of the flood came upon the earth for
"forty days and forty nights." Noah, his three sons, and their wives,
survived the flood in an ark. "Higher and higher above the earth raised
the waters, until all the highest mountains everywhere were
submerged, the crest rising fifteen cubits higher than the submerged
mountains." (Gen 7:19-20).

How is it possible that waters were about 7 meters over all mountain
crests that are at different heights?

It is possible if the water is in the solid phase! As "six days" in Genesis


1 represents about 15 billion years of creation, so "forty days and
nights" could represent many thousands of years when water fell in
the form of snow, the last glacial "ice age" period when all the first
men (neanderthals) disappeared.

Only a small number of "new men" (Homo sapiens) survived in caves


and spread throughout the world in three families, black, yellow and
white races in many nations and languages. Noah's descendants
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domesticate the dog and other animals taking young animals, male
and female. This is all in the form of the great flood and tower of Babel
stories as explained in the first eleven chapters of Genesis. The
records of Adam and Noah's descendants shows more and more
shorter life spans. Here again are two pieces of information hidden in
that record. The first, shorter life shows that man was more and more
far from God; and the second is that the time period from one
"symbolic" story to the next story was shorter and shorter until the
(non-symbolic) story and history of Abraham begins (Genesis 12).

"Om" : a story of Adam, Eve, and the Fall

One young neanderthal man was looking at the midday sun for a very
long time. He had not been given a name. At one moment, temporarily
blind, he screamed full of happiness:
"Ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooommmm!" Again:
"Ooooooomm!" Finally: "Om!"

Something is missing! He invented a new mono-syllable and cried: "Ig


om! Ig om! Ig om!"

He ran to his horde and excitedly started to cry at everyone: "Ig om!
Ig om! Ig om! Ig om Adam! Adam om!"

All the neanderthals jumped confusedly with unknown words-signals.


What kind of danger is coming? "Adam" calmed down, and with his
hands explained to everyone to come close and to sit down. He
thought a few moments how to explain his big awakening and started:

"Sun om. Moon om. Stone om. Tree om. Hare om. Lion om...."

Adam continued to speak all known words-signals, he repeated:


"Adam om." Then he continued to list the names of all the present
neanderthals adding the mysterious word-signal "om." No one
understood why Adam repeated all known words-signals adding the
short word "om". What is "om" ? Adam was very disappointed. He
tried many times to repeat and explain his great awakening but this
was a wasted effort. The first man was very lonely (cf. Genesis 2:18).

After one week he abandons his horde in search of other hordes.


Maybe someone will understand? He visited a lot of hordes.
Sometimes a few neanderthals started to repeat after the words-
signals adding "om," but Adam understood that they did not
understand the meaning of "om." Adam searched for three years. He
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thought a lot about the moment of his great awakening and he


realised that together with his "ig om" there must be a mighty and
powerful Ig Om that awakened him. From the beginning he thought
that Ig Om is the sun but later he realised that mighty Ig Om created
both he and the sun. He thought a lot about the time before his great
wake-up.

He remembered scenes from this very long dream. The most painful
scenes were the feasts. Although often hungry, he was not able to eat
meat of dead neanderthals. Now he understands why. One day
someone will eat him! This is not possible! He tried to understand his
own death but was unable to do this. He remembered again his great
wake-up.

Adam visited many hordes and he did not find one who understood
him. He realised that he is very exceptional. Although outside he is the
same as other neanderthals, he knows the secret of "ig om" and his ig
om will continue, and continue without end. Nobody will ever eat him.
All this Adam thought in images.

Finally, in one horde he found a beautiful young girl that listened to


him very carefully. She was without a name. At one moment she
opened her eyes wide, smiled and shouted: "Ig om!" Then she starts
to list: "Ig om! Adam om! Sun om! Moon om..." Adam was shocked
and happy at the same time. That girl understood or maybe not?
Maybe she only repeated what she heard? The girl looked Adam in the
eyes and she understood what is the problem.

She thought for a long time how to explain to Adam that she is
"awake" too. The girl was in shock of this profound notion that she
discovered with the help of Adam. How to convince Adam she is
awake? Finally she found the solution: "Cain nug om!" Adam was
shocked again. Something was horrible in the word Cain that Adam
never heard. That must be the name, but whose? He that has that
name must be horrible too. Finally what is "nug" ? The girl on the
contrary found the invented word to be very pretty. This will be a good
name for her son when he grows up.

She started to select from her long dream the moments when other
neanderthal women of her horde brought forth young. She felt a desire
to give herself to Adam. Again came new images of copulations of the
same neanderthal women and the girl discovered something amazing.
She thought in images about that discovery and she was filled with
enthusiasm. She will ask the name of Adam but not before she
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explained her discovery to him. After Adam wakened her, the girl will
repay with her discovery. How can she explain this?

The girl made a neanderthal's ritual of the female ready for first
copulation. She looked for the name of Adam. That was what he
wanted more than anything. Finally, he awoke a beautiful girl. Now he
is not alone. He will never be alone. He cried: "Eve!" Eve stood up and
said: "Lobe!" Then she concluded: "Eve om!"

Now Adam was confused again. There was no doubt that Eve was
"awake" but Adam does not understand why Eve refused him after she
received the name and what means "lobe"? That word he had never
heard. Eve repeated again the ritual and again stopped Adam
pronouncing the same word. Adam finally understood what lobe
means. Eve was insufficient with just one word.

She said: "Day om hont sun om. Sun nug om hont night om." Adam
understood the meaning of words hont and nug. Now he understands
the sentence "Cain nug om." Thanks to mighty Ig Om for the horrible
Cain nug om. How to explain to Eve that he understood the meaning
of the word hont? He invented a new example: "Cloud om hont rain
om." Eve smiled and confirmed: "Sa!"

Adam understood that new short word. Eve was now able to say her
great discovery. Great, but many times less than her big wake-up with
Adam's help. She explained: "Adam lobe Eve hont child om hont Cain
om." Adam was shocked again. He liked to play with children and to
teach them words-signals. He wants to lobe Eve and he wants that Eve
has children. He thought in images and saw Eve and himself in lobe; in
the second image he saw Eve, the child and himself; and in the third
image he saw Eve, himself and Cain. Something horrible was in the
third image. He wanted never to see this third image but then
understood that he will never see the second and the first image.

While Adam was thinking, Eve too was thinking about her discovery
and she looked at images from her long dream. She played with her
fingers while she remembered nights with a full moon which fascinated
her to look. She remembered many other images. The images of the
last months were the most clear. She remembered that one month
ago Haga had a child. She remembered Haga's first copulation. She
went back in time and realised something new.

When she finished, all the fingers of her hands were stretched out. Eve
told Adam: "Adam lobe Eve hont (here she lifted his hand with
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extended fingers) moon hont child om." Adam does not understand.
Eve took one small stone, stretched out her thumb of right hand and
invented new word.

1. Then 2, 3, 4.... until 10. Here she stopped. Adam understood and
continued: 11, 12, 13, until 20. Eve repeated this time without help of
hands: "Adam lobe Eve hont 10 moon hont child om." Adam was
confused how Eve knew this although he found that some connection
existed, remembering images from the big dream, but this is not
important. Now he was able to say his great discovery:

"Adam om 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 sun."

Eve understood the meaning of these long sentences although she was
not able to understood long series of 20s. Adam concluded that the
same must hold for Eve because she is awake too and he said:

"Eve om 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 sun."

After that he invented a new long word: "Adam om jotupesodo. Eve


om jotupesodo." Eve repeated, exalted: "Adam om jotupesodo. Eve
om jotupesodo." They were very happy and overjoyed. Adam
embraced Eve. They went a long way toward the east.

They observed other neanderthals that looked confused with a lot of


unknown words-signals. After three months they found a beautiful
valley with a river. There were lots of fruitful trees and wildlife and
they do not see hordes nearby. Here they decided to om jotupesodo.

Eve then wished for lobe. Adam wished too, but on the way to the
"Eden" he realised that mighty Ig Om wants Cain om nug jotupesodo
although he does not understand why. He was convinced that Eve and
he nug om jotupesodo if Cain om. They will die if they do not obey the
mighty Ig Om.

On the way they talked and invented new words. They retold to each
other many times their long dreams. Every time the story was longer
and richer. The first language evolved.

Eve now pushed Adam for lobe. Adam does not want to tell what he
realised about the mighty Ig Om forbidding and what the consequence
will be if they disobey. He reminded Eve that they om jotupesodo and
they can wait 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 sun
before they lobe. Eve realised that Adam was right. They have the
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whole of eternity. They were overjoyed in Eden. However, after three


years Eve so wished for lobe that Adam finally said the truth. Mighty
Ig Om forbid they lobe. If they lobe, they will die.

Eve cried through tears: "Pejao?" Adam does not have the answer.
That night there was a full moon. Eve awoke and looked at the moon.
She found the solution and awakens Adam. She told him that
yesterday they lobe. Adam was confused. Eve confused him many
times. They never lobe. Why did Eve say this? Eve then said a new
word. Adam was very confused.

They talked and talked and until now that which they talked about was
the same as images from the past. Now Eve said one thing and the
images are different. Eve invented new examples and Adam finally
understood such strange words that spoiled the whole picture. From
now images and conversation are not the same! This does not have
any sense. That word they will never use. Their conversation will
always be the same as the images. But Eve was insistent. There was
another word. Eve again gave a few examples that were the same as
Adam's images from the past. Adam liked these examples. This new
word they will use but the second they will never use. Eve posed
against him and explained that if truth exists then the lie must exist
too just as day and night, sun and moon, Adam and Eve.

Finally she explained that just as mighty Ig Om exists and Adam


understood when he awoke looking at the sun, there is also a mighty
Gi Om that she realised tonight while looking at the moon. For Adam
this was horrible. There is only one mighty Ig Om! Eve then asked why
are there sun and moon, day and night, Adam and Eve? Adam was not
able to answer this question. Although, he again repeated that there is
only one powerful Ig Om. Eve told Adam that to him the mighty Ig Om
forbids lobe and if they disobey they will die, in some way mighty Gi
Om told to Eve that mighty Ig Om is lying. The truth is that they will
be like mighty Ig Om and mighty Gi Om because they will teach Cain
the language so Cain will be awakened too.

Adam was again confused. Maybe Eve tells the truth? Maybe Ig Om
told the lie and Gi Om the truth? They will be like gods! In the
morning, with the first of sun rays Eve found a strange light in Adams
hair. She looked more closely and discovered one silver hair. Adam
looked carefully at Eve and discovered small wrinkles near her eyes.
They start to cry. Gi Om told them the lies. Together with pairs day
and night, sun and moon, truth and lie, they realised and invented two
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new words, "good" and "evil" and one more word -- "sin." With this sin
they lost their immortality. Cain will be mortal too.

After ten months Cain was born. Adam realised that now that they are
mortal, powerful Ig Om desires that they have many children. After
two years Abel was born. After one more year Seth was born, and
then two daughters, and again a son, and a daughter, and another
son. The favorite child of Adam and Eve was Abel. He learned the
language faster and he invented a lot of very useful words. Cain slowly
learned language. Adam was convinced that Cain does not really
understand the deep meaning of the word om. He thought that Cain is
like a neanderthal, not human. Eve does not like Cain also. Cain was
the cause why she lost her immortality, but after that she enjoyed the
other children and especially Abel. Cain felt this.

Cain invented a new word that he never told but he thought about this
word all the time. He ord Adam, he ord Eve, but he strongly ord Abel
too. One day Adam realised what was so horrible in the name of Cain
when Eve said for the first time that name. Cain was gone. Adam
realised one consolation in the years after the first sin. His body may
become old but there is his ig om that will never disappear, even after
death. One day his ig om will be in mighty Ig Om and one day he will
receive again his immortal body.

Adam and Eve agree that they will not eat Abel. When they agree to
this, Adam found the solution of the problem he had been thinking
about for a long time. How to find the husbands and the wives for their
children? Neither Adam, nor Eve ate meat at feasts even though they
were in his long dream without ig om. He must find some horde and
wait for the first small or big feast. Then those who don't eat roasted
meat of a child or an adult neanderthal is not a neanderthal but a man
in a long dream that is waiting to be awakened. Adam comprehended
that a man who does not eat meat now will never eat the body of
another man. He explains this to Eve and repeats three times:

"Nug jotupesodo! Nug jotupesodo! Nug jotupesodo!"

Something told him that this is not true. After many generations "new
Adam" will come and a very large number of humans will be at His
feast. The story now will be reversed. Those who will eat His body will
become a new man. This new Adam will be very alive even though a
large number will eat His body. Adam wanted to be like Ig Om but he
made the first sin. The "New Adam" will really be mighty Ig Om and he
17

will destroy all sins. There will exist a "new Eve" also. The "New Eve"
will come before new Adam and will not be his wife but His Mother.

Adam knew that all these words come from mighty Ig Om but without
images. He speaks all these years and he learns to think with the help
of images and with the help of words, but all of these words he was
not able to understand. He thought a lot about this and he told the
story of the new Adam and the new Eve to Eve his wife, but Eve also
was not able to understand the story. Eve only concluded that their
story, and the story of the new Adam and the new Eve is like the
relation of night and day, moon and sun.

They covered Abel with flowers at the place where Cain killed him.
Tomorrow scavengers started to come around Abel. Adam chased
them away. He does not know what to do with Abel's body without his
ig om. He does not want scavengers to eat the body and he finally
decides to cover it with earth. This was the first funeral in the history
of mankind.

After a very long conversation Adam and Eve decided to tell Seth and
the other children of the story from the beginning, from the moment
when Adam woke-up to the moment when Cain killed Abel. All the
children were fascinated with the story. Seth concluded that they
would not be if their parents don't first disobey the mighty Ig Om
command, so they decide to obey his command to multiply. They were
unhappy that they aren't immortal as their parents had been, but they
were consoled with the existence of their ig om after their death.

Adam explained to his children one more fact. They are the only men
on the earth and they must obey the mighty Ig Om's command to
multiply too, but they cannot marry their brothers and sisters.
Somewhere there must be men and women in the big dream waiting
to be awakened and to receive ig om, to realise that they exist, and
that they are capable of learning the first language.

Adam and Seth went a long way in searching for men in a big dream,
the future wives and husbands of Adam and Eve's children. They
returned after a few years. Awakened men and women passed a long
way in learning language but now it was easier than for Adam and Eve
because one side knew the language. Adam and Eve's grandsons and
granddaughters married. The number of humans grew fast and Adam
and Eve's descendants divided into tribes and moved in four directions.
18

Humans multiplied among them but occasionally they renewed the


blood with new genes of newly awakened humans. New species, real
humans, Homo neanderthals (with ig om) spread fast and they soon
covered Europe, Africa and Asia. Thousands of years passed.

The number of humans increased but food became scarce. The story of
"Adam and Eve" passed from generation to generation. Together with
humans there were neanderthals without ig om. More and more sparse
hunting-ground was divided among them. Someone found the solution
inspired by the story of Cain. Neanderthals that do not talk must be
killed and then there would be more food.

Later someone concluded that they must kill neanderthals that talk
with incomprehensible dialects of the first language. Finally, Cain's
inheritance spread to the principle of everybody against everybody.
The first pre-flood "world war" continued for thousands of years. There
was no time for burying of the dead. A small group of Adam and Eve's
children where Europe, Africa and Asia meet were upset by this
brother-killing madness. They hid themselves in caves. These were the
first new humans, Homo sapiens.

One day a young new human looked confusedly at the sky. Strange
small white cold leaves fell down and transformed to small water drops
on his hand. These strange white leaves he had never seen in his life.

That was the beginning of the great flood....

The short first (hypothetical) language "dictionary"

Statement from Bones, Stones, and Molecules on the


Neanderthals:

By 500,000 years ago, two distinct lineages were evolving in the west.
The first was endemic to Europe, which we call the "Steinheim group"
(basal Neanderthals), though it is not restricted to Europe alone
because we believe that the Narmada cranium from central India and
Maba from China also represent part of this lineage. The second
lineage of H. heidelbergensis is endemic to Africa, later moving into
Europe and even China (Dali and Jinniushan). Later, African demes of
H. heidelbergensis gave rise to early H. sapiens, the initial split
occurring around 300,000 years ago.

The current fossil, molecular, and archeological evidence strongly


supports the specific distinction of the Neanderthals from early and
19

modern H. sapiens. The Neanderthal lineage first appeared some


500,000 years ago, according to the molecular clock, and the fossil
record suggests that the "Steinheim group" reflects a basal
Neanderthal anatomical condition. This group exploited the colder
conditions of an Ice Age Europe, their survival in this region enabled
by the increasing development of their "cold exaptations." This initial
split between these two groups was not based on a greater ability to
withstand Ice Age conditions (though ultimately this must have pushed
them farther apart over time), but occurred for some other reason,
perhaps cultural.

The molecular evidence shows that Neanderthal mtDNA is significantly


different not only from modern humans, but also from homo sapiens
dating back to 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals had a distinct pattern
of resource exploitation, which includes scavenging and the hunting of
large mammal herds and less likely the stalking of individual animals.
They also appear to have relied on scavenging to a greater degree
than do modern humans; indeed, a number of occurrences appear to
be scavenging process sites, while others are associated with large
mammal carcass processing. But like homo sapiens, they buried their
dead, and there is some slight evidence for the production of "art."

To a large degree, early modern H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis


had managed to avoid each other. Early modern humans depended on
African fauna for food resources and followed its dispersals into the
Levant and southern Europe, while Neanderthals were dependent on a
European arctic fauna, whose migration pattern and territorial range
expanded and shrank according to the fluctuations of Ice Age Europe.
Eventually, early modern people moved into Europe, beginning
sometime around 40,000 years ago. And when glacial conditions
returned, this time, for whatever reason, they did not disperse south
but remained in the region -- perhaps coming into contact with the
Neanderthals for the first time.

It is with the arrival of the people from the south that we see for the
first time the full-blown expression of symbolism -- mobile and fixed
artistic expression, and a more refined template-based tool
technology. They appear to have been more mobile, hunting and
gathering over a broad area, while the Neanderthals tended to remain
in their well-known and long-occupied valley systems. By 30,000 years
ago, increased competition, increased mortality rates, and a declining
birthrate sent the Neanderthals in a downward spiral to extinction.
There is no need to appeal to an argument of "prehistoric genocide" to
20

explain their final disappearance from the earth some 27,000 years
ago.

(from Bones, Stones, and Molecules by Cameron / Groves [Elsevier


Academic Press, 2004], page 283-284)

Recommended Books on the scientific evidence for human evolution,


and philosophical / theological issues

Catholic, Christian or religious perspectives:

Perspectives on an Evolving Creation edited by Keith Miller (Eerdmans,


2003)
Origin of the Human Species by Dennis Bonnette (Sapientia Press,
2003, 2nd edition)
Adam, Apes, and Anthropology by Glenn R. Morton (DMD Publications,
1997)
Bones of Contention: A Creationist Assessment of Human Fossils by
Marvin L. Lubenow (Baker Books, 1992, 2004 2nd edition)

Secular or non-religious perspectives:

Bones, Stones, and Molecules: "Out of Africa" and Human Origins by


David W. Cameron and Colin P. Groves (Elsevier, 2004)
Where Do We Come From? The Molecular Evidence for Human Descent
by Jan Klein and Naoyuki Takahata (Springer, 2002)
The Human Fossil Record (volume 1, forthcoming in 4 volumes) by
Schwartz / Tattersall (John Wiley and Sons, 2002)
Extinct Humans by Ian Tattersall and Jeffrey H. Schwartz (Westview
Press / Perseus Books, 2000)
The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution edited by Steve
Jones, Robert Martin, David Pilbeam (Cambridge Univ Press, 1992)
The Search for Eve by Michael H. Brown (Harper and Row, 1990)
Guide to Fossil Man by Michael H. Day (Univ of Chicago Press, 1986,
4th edition)
Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind by Donald C. Johanson and
Maitland A. Edey (Simon and Schuster, 1981)
21

THE PRE–ADAMIC AGE, THE AGE OF


ANGELS

The Pre-Adamic Age is the First Age, beginning from the creation of
the heavens (universe) with the earth, and ending at the time of the
creation of Adam. It is the age when angels were the key focus of
God’s dealings.

The First Age is an important age in God’s Plan of the Ages because it
helps us to understand the following six key points.

1. God created angels before He created the universe with


the earth.

2. God created the universe with the earth instantaneously in


the beginning, which marked the beginning of time and the
beginning of the ages. God created the earth in such a beautiful
and perfect condition, as a garden teeming with plant and
animal life that the angels responded with singing and shouts of
joy. God put angels in charge of His beautifully created earth
with Lucifer as the leading angel.

3. At some point in the Pre-Adamic Age, Lucifer, who became


Satan, convinced a third of the angels to join him in a rebellion
against God to try to usurp the throne of God in heaven. These
rebellious angels were severely punished by God for their sins
and He violently cast them back down to earth. The
judgement of God against the fallen angels resulted in total
global cataclysmic destruction of the earth’s surface and sudden
extinction of all Pre-Adamic plant and animal life.

4. The abundant existence of fossils and vast deposits of fossil


fuels throughout the world bear witness to the sudden extinction
of Pre-Adamic plant and animal life. Also, in addition to its long
age, earth’s geology bears clear witness to massively
cataclysmic upheavals of the earth’s surface in its past, such that
even the seabeds were raised to form sedimentary mountains
like the Himalayas. All these resulted from God’s global
judgement against the sinful fallen angels.

5. Star distances and many other modern scientific methods all


show that the earth is many millions of years old; hence the Pre-
22

Adamic Age lasted for many millions of years as the Adamic Age
only began approximately six to ten thousand years ago.

6. God has chained Satan and his fallen angels in spiritual


darkness and confined them to earth and its heaven (earth’s
atmosphere) awaiting their final judgement in the Lake of Fire.

In this Chapter, we will give further details on each of the points given
above. Let us now begin our study of this important First Age in God’s
Plan of the Ages in order to appreciate and understand the scriptural,
scientific and geological aspects of the truth of the Pre-Adamic Age.

The very first verse of the Bible says that God created the heavens
and the earth in the beginning.

Genesis 1:1
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

The heavens and the earth mean the whole, complete universe
consisting of billions of galaxies with billions of stars and planets. Our
minds cannot even begin to grasp the wonders and limitless power of
God, which the creation of the universe displays.

God singles out the earth as the most important planet in the entire
universe. This is because God has a tremendous purpose to use the
earth as the centre of the universe. It is on earth that God will
establish His Eternal Kingdom of the New Heaven (the sky, the
earth’s atmosphere) and the New Earth, after He has refined and
renewed the earth in a future age.

So how did God create the universe and the earth in the beginning?
The Bible says that God simply commanded and they were
created.

Psalm 148:2-5
2 Praise Him, all His angels; Praise Him, all His hosts! 3 Praise Him,
sun and moon; Praise Him, all you stars of light! 4 Praise Him, you
heavens of heavens, And you waters above the heavens! 5 Let them
praise the name of the LORD, for He commanded and they were
created.

The creation of the universe and the earth must be understood as an


instantaneous creation at the command of God. When God created
the universe in the beginning, He also designed and created the Law
23

of Gravity. God introduced the Law of Gravity for the stability and for
the continual existence of the universe. All bodies in the universe are
held together and maintain their orbits because of gravitation. Smaller
bodies are held in their orbits by bigger bodies. Moons orbit planets,
planets orbit stars, stars orbit galactic centres, and galaxies orbit other
galaxies in clusters.

The important point to understand is that it is impossible for the moon


to exist without the earth, and it is impossible for the earth to
exist without the sun, and for the sun to exist without our galaxy,
the Milky Way, and for the Milky Way to exist without other galaxies.
So, the whole universe must have been created instantaneously for it
to exist, and this is exactly what God did in the beginning, as Psalm
148:5 above confirms, ‘He commanded and they were created’.

Time began when God created the sun, the earth and the moon with
the rest of the universe, in the beginning. This is when God's Plan of
the Ages began. How long ago was the beginning when God
commanded and instantaneously created the universe with the earth?
The Bible does not say. However, star distances and many other
modern scientific methods, all show us that the beginning was many
millions of years ago. It can not be around six thousand years ago as
believed by Young Earth Creationists. Even a leading Young Earth
Creationist site, 'ChristianAnswers.net', admits that star distances
have long been a problem when defending their belief in a young
earth. Most probably, scientists have overestimated the age of our
earth as being about 4.5 billion years old, but we can be absolutely
sure that the earth is much older than six thousand years.

Young Earth Creationists claim to interpret the Genesis account of


creation literally to justify their belief in a young earth of about six
thousand years. They say that anything other than about six thousand
years is playing around with the literal translation of the creation
account. In actuality, it is the Young Earth Creationists themselves
who flirt with the literal meaning of the Genesis account of creation.
Let us now see what the Bible says and what Young Earth Creationism
(YEC) says.

The Bible says that God created the earth in the beginning; YEC says
that God created the earth in the first day.

The Bible says that God created the sun and the moon in the
beginning; YEC says that God created the sun and moon in the
fourth day.
24

The Bible says that God created the heavens and the earth in the
beginning; YEC says that God created the heavens and the earth in
six days.

Young Earth Creationism misunderstands the Genesis account of


God's creation when it misinterprets the very first verse of the Bible
(Genesis 1:1) as a summary statement of the six day creation
account. This misunderstanding of the first verse of the Bible has led
Young Earth Creationism to believe that God created the earth on the
first day without the sun, and that it wasn't until the fourth day
that God created the sun, the moon and the stars. This is not only
biblically untrue but also scientifically nonsensical. It is impossible for
a 24-hour day comprising of both light and darkness, day and night
with morning and evening to occur, without both the earth and the
sun existing together. This is elementary physics and common
sense. The Bible is extremely logical and it does not contradict true
science, after all God Himself is the greatest scientist. God does not
want us to believe in something that is illogical and scientifically
stupid.

We shall show you later why Young Earth Creationism confuses the
beginning of the heavens and the earth many millions of years ago,
as stated in Genesis 1:1, with the beginning of the Adamic Age,
approximately six to ten thousand years ago, as described in Genesis
1:3-31.

Let us now go on to understand the literal interpretation of the


Genesis creation account as the Bible actually teaches.

What was the state of the earth when God created it along with the
rest of the universe in the beginning (Genesis 1:1)? Let us see what
the Bible says.

Job 38:4-7 (NIV)


4 "Where were you when I laid the earth's foundation? Tell me, if
you understand. 5 Who marked off its dimensions? Surely you know!
Who stretched a measuring line across it? 6 On what were its footings
set, or who laid its cornerstone- 7 while the morning stars sang
together and all the angels shouted for joy?

Job Chapters 38 and 39 show God humbling Job, who thought that he
had a great fount of knowledge. In the verses above, God challenges
Job about his knowledge of the creation of the earth. God did this to
25

make Job acknowledge God's greatness and to show Job that he knew
absolutely nothing about how and when God had created the earth.

Notice that all the angels sang and shouted for joy when God laid
the foundations of the earth. ‘Morning stars’ here also refers to angels.

The verses above reveal two important truths:

1. God created angels before He created the earth and the


universe.

2. When God created the earth in the beginning, He created it


in such a beautiful and perfect condition that the angels
responded with joyful singing and shouting.

However, shockingly, in the second verse of the Bible, Genesis 1:2, we


read that the earth had changed from its beautiful and perfect state
when it was first created in the beginning to a totally different ruined
state. It had become formless, empty, in darkness and submerged
under water.

Genesis 1:2 (NIV)


Now the earth was (hayah) formless, and empty, darkness was over
the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the
waters.

Since God did not create the earth in a formless, empty, dark and
flooded state in the beginning, then it must have become that way at
a later date. This is exactly what happened to the earth, because an
accurate translation of the Hebrew word hayah in Genesis 1:2 is
became, as given in Strong's number H1961, and as confirmed by the
NIV in their footnote.

Young Earth Creationism argues that Genesis 1:2 is the description of


a stage in the construction of the earth. It is a misunderstanding and
misinterpretation of this verse to believe that God firstly had to create
the earth in a formless, empty, dark state and totally submerged
under water in order to proceed and complete the rest of His
beautiful creation on earth.

The truth of the Bible is that Genesis 1:2 is the description of the earth
resulting from God's global judgement because of the sins of
angels. It is not speaking about a stage in the construction of the
earth, as mistakenly believed by Young Earth Creationists. Let us now
26

have a closer look at Genesis 1:2 to understand that it is indeed a


description of God’s global judgement.

God's Pre-Adamic Global Judgement of Sinful Fallen Angels

Genesis 1:2 (NIV)


Now the earth was (hayah-became) formless (tohuw), and empty
(bohuw), darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of
God was hovering over the waters.

The Bible is abundantly clear that the inspired Hebrew words tohuw
and bohuw in Genesis 1:2 above, when used together, are the
descriptive words for God's global judgement.

The Hebrew word tohuw occurs 20 times in the Old Testament with
meanings of chaotic, nothing, confusion, waste, wilderness,
emptiness, formless and vain. The best meaning of tohuw in
Genesis 1:2 is chaotic. Something that is in a confused, wasted,
empty, flooded and dark state is obviously in a chaotic state.

The Hebrew word bohuw occurs 3 times in the Old Testament with
meanings of void and waste. We believe that God inspired the use of
the Hebrew word bohuw in Genesis 1:2 to reinforce the meaning of
tohuw, which we have just shown means chaotic. So an accurate
translation of Genesis 1:2 is:

Genesis 1:2
The earth became chaotic and wasted and darkness was on the
face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of
the waters.

Please understand that God did not create the earth in the beginning
(Genesis 1:1) in a chaotic, wasted, dark state and submerged under
water. The earth became like that. A massive cataclysmic change
took place in the earth between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2. The
Bible specifically confirms this in Isaiah 45:18 below, where it says
that the earth was not created in the chaotic state seen in Genesis
1:2.

Isaiah 45:18
For thus says the LORD, Who created the heavens, Who is God, Who
formed the earth and made it, Who has established it, Who did not
create it in vain (tohuw, meaning chaotic state), Who formed it to
be inhabited: 'I am the LORD, and there is no other'.
27

Let us believe what the Bible says that God did not create the earth in
an uninhabitable vain, chaotic (tohuw) state. As we have shown from
Scripture, the earth was created in such a beautiful state that the
angels sang and shouted for joy. Most certainly, the angels would not
have sung and shouted for joy over the creation of a chaotic earth.

It is abundantly clear from Scripture that there was a gap of time


between the creation of the beautiful earth of Genesis 1:1 and the
totally ruined chaotic earth of Genesis 1:2. This gap of time is the Pre-
Adamic Age, which lasted for many millions of years. So the key
question is: ‘Why did the earth become chaotic and ruined as
described in Genesis 1:2?’ Let us now go on to understand that
Genesis 1:2 is the description of God's global judgement because
of the sins of angels.

The Sins of Angels

2 Peter 2:4-6 is an account of three important historical judgements


of God, which helps us to understand the consequences of sin.

2 Peter 2:4-6
4 For if God did not spare the angels who sinned, but cast them
down to hell (tartaroo) and delivered them into chains of darkness,
to be reserved for judgment;

5 and did not spare the ancient world, but saved Noah, one of
eight people, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood on the
world of the ungodly;

6 and turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into ashes,


condemned them to destruction, making them an example to those
who afterward would live ungodly.

Sin has consequences and it brings judgement from God in the form of
death and destruction. Please note that God did not spare the angels
who sinned, and He did not spare the sinful world of Noah or the
sinful cities of Sodom and Gomorrah.

In verse 4 above, the Greek word tartaroo is mistranslated as hell.


Tartaroo is used only once in the Bible and the context, in which it
appears, reveals the meaning of the word as a prison of spiritual
darkness. God has chained Satan and his fallen angels in spiritual
darkness and confined them to earth and its heaven (earth’s
28

atmosphere) awaiting their final judgement in the Lake of Fire as


confirmed by the following scriptures.

Jude 1:6
And the angels who did not keep their proper domain, but left their
own abode, He has reserved in everlasting chains under darkness for
the judgment of the great day.

Matthew 25:41
Then He will also say to those on the left hand, 'Depart from Me, you
cursed, into the everlasting (age-to-come) fire prepared for the devil
and his angels:

Who sinned first, angels or man?

The fact that angels sinned before man cannot be disputed, because
Satan was already a sinner and present in the Garden of Eden before
Adam and Eve sinned. Young Earth Creationists deny this obvious and
basic truth that sin first entered the world through angels. This obvious
truth is confirmed by the historical sequence of the three judgments
listed in the verses above, where the Bible places the sins of angels
before the sins of man.

Young Earth Creationism misunderstands Romans 5:12 when it


argues that sin and death first entered the world through man, and not
through angels. Let us examine Romans 5:12 in detail, as it is one of
three key 'proof texts' used by Young Earth Creationists to support
their belief. The other two key 'proof texts' are Exodus 20:11 and
Genesis 1:31, which we shall also fully cover and answer later in this
chapter.

Romans 5:12
Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death
through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned.

This verse specifically speaks about the sin of one man affecting the
whole of the human race. Yes, sin entered the human world through
one man, Adam, thus death spread to all men because of Adam’s
sin. However, please note that Romans 5:12 speaks only about the sin
and death which entered the Adamic world through the sin of Adam,
but this scripture does not address the sin which entered the Pre-
Adamic world through the sin of angels. Young Earth Creationists
misunderstand Romans 5:12 to teach that man sinned before angels
29

sinned. Remember that Satan was already a sinful fallen angel in the
Garden of Eden before Adam sinned.

Some universalists strongly believe that Satan is not a fallen angel


because they argue that God created him as an evil being from the
beginning. We reject this view as completely unbiblical. The whole
foundation of their belief is based on John 8:44, so let us examine this
scripture in detail.

John 8:44
You are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father you
want to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not
stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a
lie, he speaks from his own resources, for he is a liar and the father of
it.

These words were spoken by Jesus Christ as a rebuke to the


unbelieving Pharisees who claimed that God was their Father. In fact it
was the devil who was the true spiritual father of these unbelieving
Pharisees.

Notice that Jesus Christ does not say that the devil was created as an
evil being, but that he was evil from the beginning. It is absolutely
true to say that the devil, Satan, was a sinner from the beginning.
However, which beginning was Jesus talking about? The Word of God
refers to several beginnings. The beginning of the Adamic Age is not
the same as the beginning of the Pre-Adamic Age when God created
the heavens and the earth.

When Jesus said to the Pharisees that the devil was a murderer from
the beginning, Jesus was referring to the beginning of the Adamic Age.
When man first appeared on this earth at the beginning of the Adamic
Age, Satan was already a sinner, and so from man’s perspective and
experience, Satan has been sinning from the beginning. As far as man
is concerned, Satan spoke the first lie to Eve, ‘you will not surely die’.

The Bible is clear that Satan is a fallen angel and he has the following
of other fallen angels. Jesus Christ said that He beheld Satan fall like
lighting from heaven.

Luke 10:18
And He said to them, "I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven.
30

When did Jesus Christ see Satan fall like lighting from heaven? It can
only have been during the Pre-Adamic Age because Satan was already
present as a sinful fallen angel on earth when God first created Adam
and Eve. There is absolutely nothing in the Bible to suggest that Satan
was cast down to earth from heaven after God had created Adam and
Eve, during the Adamic Age. We will now examine relevant scriptures
in some detail to see how sin first entered the Pre-Adamic world
through Satan and his fallen angels.

Isaiah 14:12-15
12 How you are fallen from heaven, O Lucifer (heylel), son of the
morning! How you are cut down to the ground, You who weakened the
nations! 13 For you have said in your heart: 'I will ascend into
heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will also
sit on the mount of the congregation On the farthest sides of the
north; 14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will be like
the Most High.' 15 Yet you shall be brought down to Sheol, To the
lowest depths of the Pit.

This scripture confirms Jesus’ statement in Luke 10:18 that He saw


Satan fall from heaven. It was indeed Satan, who in his unfallen state
was called Lucifer, whom Jesus saw fall from heaven.

Please note that the Hebrew word heylel is translated as Lucifer in the
NKJV translation above. Lucifer is a Latin word meaning ‘Light Bearer’,
which first appeared in the Latin Vulgate circa 400 A.D. This Latin word
Lucifer has been retained by both the KJV and the NKJV, thus the
Christian world has been familiar with the name Lucifer for over a
thousand years. Modern versions of the Bible translate heylel to mean
Morning Star, Bright Star, Shining One and Day Star, all of which are
similar to the Latin word Lucifer, meaning Light Bearer. Therefore,
Lucifer is as good a name to use as any of the other modern
translations.

Isaiah Chapter 14 refers to both the king of Babylon and Lucifer.


However, it is important to note that Isaiah 14:12-15 above is
specifically speaking about Lucifer who became Satan. This scripture is
not referring to the king of Babylon. It is referring to a fallen angelic
being and not a man, as no man is capable of ascending above the
heights of the clouds. Notice that Lucifer coveted the throne of God
and he wanted to become like the Most High. However, God judged
him for his sin of rebellion by casting him down to the lowest depths of
the pit of this earth. As a result the earth became chaotic and dark
31

because of God’s tohuw and bohuw judgement, as previously


described.

‘You who weakened the nations’ in verse 12 above should be more


accurately translated as ‘O weakener of nations’, as given in Young’s
Literal Translation. Satan (fallen Lucifer) who deceives the whole world
is indeed the one who weakens the nations. Let us now read a parallel
scripture about the fall of Lucifer given in Ezekiel 28.

Ezekiel 28:12-15
12 Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say to
him, 'Thus says the Lord GOD: "You were the seal of perfection, Full of
wisdom and perfect in beauty. 13 You were in Eden, the garden of
God; Every precious stone was your covering: The sardius, topaz, and
diamond, Beryl, onyx, and jasper, Sapphire, turquoise, and emerald
with gold. The workmanship of your timbrels and pipes Was prepared
for you on the day you were created.” 14 You were the anointed
cherub who covers; I established you; You were on the holy mountain
of God; You walked back and forth in the midst of fiery stones. 15 You
were perfect in your ways from the day you were created, Till iniquity
was found in you.

Ezekiel Chapter 28 begins by describing the king of Tyre whose heart


was lifted up and who thought that he was god. The power and
deceiver behind the king of Tyre was Satan himself. The
scripture Ezekiel 28:12-15 above takes us on from speaking about the
king of Tyre to speaking about Lucifer who became Satan, as these
verses can only fit the description of a fallen angelic being, and not a
man. Lucifer was created perfect in his ways. He was the seal of
perfection, full of wisdom, the anointed cherub and perfect in beauty
before iniquity was found in him when he rebelled against God. In
contrast, the king of Tyre was born imperfect with a fallen, sinful
Adamic nature, and he was not the anointed cherub. Therefore, these
verses can only apply to God speaking to Satan, ‘the weakener of
nations’, who was the real influencing power behind the king of Tyre.

It was Lucifer and not the king of Tyre who was placed in Eden, the
Garden of God, where he walked amongst beautiful, fiery precious
stones. Lucifer was the leading angel in God's Garden of Eden on the
beautifully created earth, which God created in the beginning with the
rest of the universe. This Garden of Eden was not the same Garden of
Eden of the Adamic Age, where Satan was present as a fallen angel
who lied to and deceived Eve.
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It is important to understand that the Bible actually speaks of three


Gardens of Eden in three different ages. There was the first
Garden of Eden in the Pre-Adamic Age, as given in Ezekiel 28:13
above. There was the second Garden of Eden during the Adamic Age,
as given in Genesis 2:15. There will be yet another, the third, Garden
of Eden in the coming Millennial Age of Jesus Christ, as given in Ezekiel
36:35.

A garden has both plant and animal life, thus God created the Pre-
Adamic world with both plants and animals. The enormous deposits
and reservoirs under the earth's surface of the fossil fuels; coal, oil
and gas, and the abundant existence of fossils throughout the world,
bear witness to the fact that the Pre-Adamic earth was absolutely
teeming with luxuriant plant and animal life. The Pre-Adamic world
was destroyed after a war broke out in heaven between the holy
angels led by Michael and the fallen angels led by Satan.

Revelation 12:7-9
7 And war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels fought with
the dragon; and the dragon and his angels fought, 8 but they did not
prevail, nor was a place found for them in heaven any longer. 9
So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the
Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was cast to the
earth, and his angels were cast out with him.

These verses describe a war between armies of angels. We are


speaking about an angelic war with massive destructive power at the
angels' command. This angelic war started in heaven but was finished
on earth when God cast Satan and his angels out of heaven back
down to earth. As a result, the whole earth suffered cataclysmic
violence of unimaginable proportions, and death, destruction, darkness
and sin entered the Pre-Adamic earth.

How many angels followed Satan in his rebellion against God?

Revelation 12:3-4a
3 And another sign appeared in heaven: behold, a great, fiery red
dragon having seven heads and ten horns, and seven diadems on his
heads. 4 His tail drew a third of the stars of heaven and threw
them to the earth.

In this scripture, ‘stars of heaven’ refers to angelic beings. This


scripture confirms that a third of the angels followed Satan in his
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rebellion against God, and they were violently cast to earth with
Satan.

We can now confidently conclude that when the Bible says in Genesis
1:2: 'The earth became chaotic and wasted and darkness was on the
face of the deep...’ that the Bible is speaking about God's cataclysmic
tohuw and bohuw global judgement when He cast Satan and his
angels back down to earth because of their sin of rebellion. This all
happened at some time, millions of years ago, in the Pre-Adamic Age.
The beautiful Garden of Eden earth of Genesis 1:1, which God created
in the beginning, was transformed into a totally ruined dark earth
submerged under deep frozen water (ice) by the time we come to
Genesis 1:2.

The Bible further reaffirms that Genesis 1:2 is indeed speaking about
the state of the earth, which resulted from God’s judgement, and it is
not a description of a stage in the construction of the earth as
mistakenly believed by Young Earth Creationism. The Hebrew words
tohuw and bohuw occur together in the same verse only twice in the
whole of the Bible. The first time is in Genesis 1:2 and the second time
is in Jeremiah 4:23, which also describes God’s global judgement.
However, the Jeremiah 4:23 global judgement of God is yet to be
carried out against this present sinful world at the Second Coming of
Jesus Christ.

Let us now clearly further demonstrate that the words tohuw and
bohuw used in Genesis 1:2 are in fact describing God’s global
judgement in the Pre-Adamic Age. We demonstrate this by comparing
Genesis 1:2 with Jeremiah 4:23 to appreciate that both these verses
speak about God’s tohuw and bohuw judgements.

Genesis 1:2 (NIV)


Now the earth was (hayah-became) formless (tohuw), and empty,
(bohuw) darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of
God was hovering over the waters.

Jeremiah 4:23 (NIV)


I looked at the earth, and it was formless (tohuw), and empty
(bohuw); and at the heavens, and their light was gone.

Genesis 1:2 is a description of God’s global tohuw and bohuw


judgement against sinful fallen angels carried out at some point in the
Pre-Adamic Age millions of years ago, as previously discussed.
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We know from the Bible that there was another global judgement
when God flooded and destroyed the whole of Noah’s world
approximately 4300 years ago, because of the wickedness of men who
were deceived and inspired by Satan and his fallen angels. This global
judgement of God against Noah’s world was not of the intensity of a
tohuw and bohuw judgement. However, there will be yet another
global judgement referred to in Jeremiah 4:23 above, which will be a
tohuw and bohuw judgement carried out against this present sinful
world of man, which is still deceived and inspired by Satan and his
fallen angels. This global judgement will occur at the Second Coming
of Jesus Christ.

Jeremiah was inspired to write about future events that will come to
pass in this present age, during the final period of the Great
Tribulation at the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Jeremiah 4:5-28 is a
prophecy of God's horrific judgement against Israel and against the
whole world. Our readers are advised to refer to Jeremiah 4:5-28 in
their own Bibles to note the following points.

Verses 6 and 7 say that God will bring disaster and destruction
from the north upon Israel. Israel will become desolate, and its
cities will be laid waste. Verse 8 says that the fierce anger of the
Lord will not be turned back. Verse 12 says that God will speak
judgement against the people of Jerusalem. Verse 13 speaks about
the return of Jesus Christ on the clouds. Verses 14 to 18 speak about
people's wickedness. Verse 20 says that God will bring destruction
upon destruction. We now come to the key verse Jeremiah 4:23.

Jeremiah 4:23 (NIV)


I looked at the earth, and it was formless (tohuw), and empty
(bohuw); and at the heavens, and their light was gone.

Notice that Jeremiah saw the whole earth in a state of tohuw and
bohuw, which means a chaotic and wasted state. Also, he saw that the
heavens had no light, meaning that the earth was plunged into total
darkness. The state of the earth, which Jeremiah saw, resembles the
description of the earth as given in Genesis 1:2, except that there was
no global flooding. This is because God promised never to flood the
earth again following Noah's flood. Let us continue to read the next
five verses, Jeremiah 24-28, in order to clearly understand what the
future tohuw and bohuw judgement will involve.

Jeremiah 4:24-28
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24 I beheld the mountains, and indeed they trembled, And all the
hills moved back and forth. 25 I beheld, and indeed there was no
man, And all the birds of the heavens had fled. 26 I beheld, and
indeed the fruitful land was a wilderness, And all its cities were
broken down At the presence of the LORD, by His fierce anger.

27 For thus says the LORD "The whole land shall be desolate; Yet I
will not make a full end. 28 For this shall the earth mourn, And the
heavens above be black, Because I have spoken. I have purposed
and will not relent, Nor will I turn back from it”.

Please bear in mind that in these verses, Jeremiah is speaking about


the future judgement against this present world, at the return of Jesus
Christ. Notice the future tohuw and bohuw judgement will not only
involve the sun being darkened but also the mountains will shake
and the hills will be moved out of their place, and the earth will be
reduced to a wilderness.

This tohuw and bohuw judgement against the whole earth at the
Second Coming of Jesus Christ as prophesied by Prophet Jeremiah is
also described and prophesied by Apostle John in Revelation 6:12-17,
and by Jesus Christ Himself in Matthew 24:29-30. You will note that
there are close similarities between these three prophecies, which
means that they are speaking of the same global tohuw and bohuw
judgement.

By putting together the scriptures Jeremiah 4:24-28, Revelation 6:12-


17 and Matthew 24:29-30, we can clearly see that the future global
tohuw and bohuw judgement at the end of this present age will be
absolutely cataclysmic involving the powers of the heavens being
shaken, the stars (meteorites) falling onto earth, the sun and the
moon being darkened, great earthquakes and upheavals causing every
mountain and every island to shake and move out of its place, great
global devastation of the earth's surface causing chaos and waste,
massive destruction of all types of life, and surviving unbelievers so
terrified that they hide away from the face of the returning Jesus
Christ and His wrath.

As mentioned, it is significant that the Hebrew words tohuw and


bohuw occur together in the same verse only twice in the Bible, the
first time in Genesis 1:2 and the second time in Jeremiah 4:23. We
have highlighted and described in detail the future judgement against
this present sinful world of man referred to in Jeremiah 4:23, to
prove the point that Genesis 1:2 also speaks about a global
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judgement, and it is not a description of a stage in the construction of


the earth as mistakenly believed by Young Earth Creationism.

There should now be no doubt in the minds of our readers that


Genesis 1:2 is indeed a description of a horrific and cataclysmic
tohuw and bohuw judgement, which God carried out during the Pre-
Adamic Age, because of the sins of angels, and there is indeed an
age-gap of many millions of years between Genesis 1:1 and
Genesis 1:2.

The Pre-Adamic world was destroyed by God because of the sins of


angels. However, God understood right from the beginning, before He
created the universe and the earth, that this would happen because
God is all knowing and He knows the end from the beginning. It
had always been God’s Plan to start the next Age, the Adamic Age, in
God’s Plan of the Ages, as man is the most important focus of all of
God’s creation.

Young Earth Creationists confuse the beginning of the Pre-Adamic


Age, which happened many millions of years ago with the beginning
of the Adamic Age, which happened only approximately six thousand
years ago.

There are Seven Ages in God’s Plan of the Ages for Universal
Reconciliation through Jesus Christ, and every Age has a beginning
and an end except the Seventh Eternal Age, which will begin, but it will
have no end.

Genesis 1:1 refers to the beginning of time, many millions of years


ago, when God first created the heavens and the earth. This also
marked the beginning of the First Age, the Pre-Adamic Age in
God's Plan of the Ages.

Genesis 1:3-5 refers to the first 24-hour day in the beginning of


the Adamic Age, the Second Age after God destroyed the Pre-Adamic
world through God's global tohuw and bohuw judgement because of
the sins of angels. The Adamic Age started approximately six thousand
years ago.

The Beginning of the Adamic Age

As we have shown the original beautiful Garden of Eden earth of


Genesis 1:1 was thrown into chaos and darkness (Genesis 1:2) when
Satan and his fallen angels were cast down to earth following their
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rebellion in heaven. In Genesis 1:3-5, we find that God reintroduced


the light of the sun to shine onto the earth's surface.

Genesis 1:3-5
3 Then God said, "Let there be light"; and there was light. 4 And God
saw the light that it was good; and God divided the light from the
darkness. 5 God called the light Day, and the darkness He called
Night. So the evening and the morning were the first day.

It is clear and logically follows that when God said, ‘Let there be light’
in verse 3 above, it was the light of the sun, which God had
previously withheld, or caused by some other means to block, from
reaching the earth’s surface in His global tohuw and bohuw
judgement. We know for certain that the sun had already been created
in the beginning, and this was many millions of years ago.

Please understand that there can not be the first 24 hour day,
evening and morning without the light of the sun, and it is
impossible for the earth to hang and rotate by itself in the universe
without the gravitational pull of the sun. Since, Young Earth
Creationism believes that it was not until the fourth day that God
created the sun, it becomes a huge problem for YEC to explain how
there can be the first 24 hours of day and night without the sun. In
order to get over this dilemma, YEC teaches that it was the light of the
Holy Spirit which shone on the earth for the first three 24 hour days
of creation. Of course, anything is possible with God, but we find this
unscriptural, illogical, and a ridiculous explanation, which invites
derision and unbelief in the Word of God from educational
establishments and scientists of this world.

The rest of the Genesis account of creation Genesis 1:3-31 makes


complete sense, once we have understood that God darkened the
sun and withdrew its light in His tohuw and bohuw Pre-Adamic
judgement against the sinful angels. When God began the Second Age,
the Adamic Age, He reintroduced the light of the sun, and renewed
the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Then God recreated plant and
animal life, and finally He created mankind for the first time, as
described in the six-day creation account of Genesis 1:3-31. This
happened approximately six thousand years ago.

God’s Creation in the First Six 24-hour Days of the Adamic Age

Let us go on to understand that there is absolutely no contradiction


whatsoever between Genesis 1:1, where it is says that God created
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the heavens and the earth in the beginning, and Genesis 1:14-19
where it says that God made the sun, the moon and the stars on the
fourth day. Once we see and understand that the whole of the six day
creation account is written from man’s earthly perspective rather
than from a cosmic perspective, then the scriptures become clear and
everything make sense.

Day One (Genesis 1:3-5) - God reintroduces the light of the sun to
reach and shine onto the surface of the deep frozen waters of the
flooded and ruined earth. The effect of this heat and sudden change
in temperature resulted in the start of massive global melting of the
ice.

The ice must have been so thick that the Spirit of God first needed to
shake, break and soften the ice to prepare for and assist the
melting process. This is exactly what God did because a correct
meaning of the Hebrew word rachaph where it says in Genesis 1:2
'And the Spirit of God was hovering (rachaph) over the face of the
waters (ice)' is to shake, break and soften. This meaning of rachaph is
confirmed by Strong’s number H7363 and by its use in Jeremiah 23:9,
where it says 'All my bones shake (rachaph). I am like a drunken
man'. So, the 'hovering' of the Spirit of God over the face of the
waters (ice) was not a gentle hovering movement of the Spirit of God,
but an active shaking and breaking of the surface of the deep ice.
This was in preparation for the great melt which took place once the
light of the sun was reintroduced onto the earth's surface on Day One.

Day Two (Genesis 1:5-8) - God forms the firmament by lifting the
'waters from the waters'. The firmament refers to the space or
expanse within the earth’s atmosphere between the earth’s surface
and the cloud strata, which God formed using the process of
evaporation, when the heat of the sunlight caused vast volumes of
water vapour to rise up from the surface of the melt-waters to form
dense dark clouds in the sky.

Day Three (Genesis 1:9-12) - God forms the dry land by causing the
melt-waters to recede from the flooded earth. He also causes plant life
on land to start germinating in this warm, humid, cloud-darkened and
cocooned environment.

Day Four (Genesis 1:14-19)

Genesis 1:14-19
39

14 Then God said, "Let there be lights in the firmament (the space
between the earth’s surface and the clouds) of the heavens (the
earth’s atmosphere) to divide the day from the night; and let them be
for signs and seasons, and for days and years; 15 and let them be for
lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth"; and
it was so.

16 Then God made (asah) two great lights: the greater light to rule
the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He made the stars also.
17 God set them in the firmament of the heavens to give light on
the earth, 18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to
divide the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19
So the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

At the beginning of Day Four, God said, ‘Let there be lights in the
firmament of the heaven’. Therefore, we can certainly conclude that by
the end of Day Three the firmament of the heaven (the space
between the earth’s surface and the clouds) had become completely
darkened again but this time by the dense clouds of water vapour
formed on Day Two. These clouds blocked out all light - sunlight,
moonlight and starlight - from reaching the firmament and thus the
earth's surface. Therefore, on Day Four God thinned and dispersed
these dense dark clouds so that sunlight, moonlight and starlight could
shine through the firmament onto the earth’s surface.

Therefore, from an earthly perspective, the sun, the moon and the
stars were made (asah) on Day Four 'for signs and seasons, and
for days and years' for the benefit of mankind. Notice that verse 17
above, does not say that God created these lights on Day Four, but
that He set these lights in the firmament, meaning that He made
them appear in the firmament from man’s earthly perspective. We
know from the very first verse of the Bible, Genesis 1:1, that these
lights were created in the beginning and not on Day Four.

Day Five (Genesis 1:20-23) - God creates sea life and bird life.

Day Six (Genesis 1:24-31) - God creates animal life and human life
on land. The pinnacle of God's creation was the creation of man in
God's own image.

The Important Difference in the Hebrew Words Bara and Asah

Genesis 1:1
In the beginning God created (bara) the heavens and the earth.
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The inspired Hebrew word for create in Genesis 1:1 is bara, when
God created the heavens and the earth in the beginning. However,
the inspired Hebrew word for make in Genesis 1:16 is asah, when
God made the sun, the moon and the stars to be set in the
firmament, on Day Four of the six-day creation week of the Adamic
Age.

These two accounts are not contradictory as they refer to two


different situations. The first account of creation in Genesis 1:1
relates to the beginning of time, many millions of years ago at the
start of the Pre-Adamic Age, when God instantaneously created the
heavens and the earth at His command. The second account of
making the sun, the moon and the stars in Genesis 1:16 relates to
the appearance of the sun, the moon and the stars in the firmament
(sky) from an earthly perspective on Day Four, approximately six
thousand years ago at the start of the Adamic Age.

The single most important 'proof text' used by Young Earth


Creationists is Exodus 20:11. Let us examine this verse in detail, and
show you that it is also misunderstood and mistranslated by Young
Earth Creationists.

Exodus 20:11
For in six days the LORD made (asah) the heavens and the earth,
the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore
the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.

The Bible is consistent. In this verse, we see that the inspired Hebrew
word asah is used and not bara to refer to the making of and not
the creation of the heavens and the earth in six days.

The Hebrew word bara occurs 54 times in the Old Testament.


However, despite what Young Earth Creationists say, bara and asah
are not used interchangeably in the Bible with respect to the
heavens and the earth. The creation (bara) of the heavens and
the earth always means the instantaneous creation of them, which
God carried out at His command in the beginning, before time began,
many millions of years ago. The making (asah) of the heavens and
the earth always means the renewal, which God carried out over a
period of six 24-hour days, approximately six thousand years ago at
the start of the Adamic Age.

Please note that we are not saying that the words bara and asah are
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not used interchangeably with regard to the creation of life in the six
day creation account. The Bible is clear that God is both our Creator
and our Maker. However, the Bible makes a clear distinction when
using the Hebrew words bara and asah with respect to the creation
of and the renewal of the heavens and the earth. The account of
God creating (bara) the heavens and the earth in the beginning
should not be confused with the account of God making (asah) the
heavens and the earth in six days. We shall now prove this point by
using relevant scriptures.

There are only five places in the Bible where the context clearly shows
that bara is specifically used to denote the instantaneous creation of
the heavens and the earth in the beginning. These five places are
Genesis 1:1, Genesis 2:3-4, Psalm 148:5, Isaiah 42:5 and Isaiah
45:18. We have already looked at Genesis 1:1, Psalm 148:5, and
Isaiah 45:18. You may wish to check Isaiah 42:5 to satisfy yourself
that it also refers to the creation of the universe in the beginning. Let
us now take a detailed look at Genesis 2:3-4.

Genesis 2:3-4 (KJV)


3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in
it he had rested from all his work which God created (bara) and
made (asah). 4 These [are] the generations of the heavens and of
the earth when they were created (bara), in the day that the LORD
God made (asah) the earth and the heavens.

These two verses clearly demonstrate the distinction in the use of the
inspired Hebrew words (bara) and (asah), and show that they are not
interchangeable when relating to the heavens and the earth. Please
note, in verse 3, that God rested from all His work, which He had
created and made. The Holy Spirit would not have used (bara) and
(asah) in the same sentence, one following the other, if they had both
meant the same thing and were interchangeable. It is clear that there
is a distinction between these two words.

This distinction is reinforced in Genesis 2:4 above, when relating


these two words to the heavens and the earth. Please note, that
the generations of the heavens and the earth include both their
creation and their making (renewal). The fact that the word
generations is plural further confirms that God is speaking about two
separate situations in the history of the heavens and the earth. This
verse (Genesis 2:4) demonstrates that the instantaneous creation
(bara) of the heavens and the earth in the beginning was followed
by the making (asah) of the heavens and the earth in six days,
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which is referred to as 'the day'. This verse agrees with both Genesis
1:1 and Exodus 20:11.

The Hebrew word asah occurs 2633 times in the Old Testament.
However, there are approximately only twenty places in the Bible
where asah is used to refer to the making of the heavens and the
earth, when God renewed them in six days. We have already
considered three out of the twenty places: Genesis 1:16, Exodus
20:11 and Genesis 2:3-4. Let us consider one more example,
Nehemiah 9:6.

Nehemiah 9:6
You alone are the LORD; You have made (asah) heaven (the earth’s
atmosphere), The heaven of heavens (the universe), with all their
host, The earth and everything on it, The seas and all that is in them,
And You preserve them all. The host of heaven worships You.

This verse refers specifically to the earth and its heaven (the earth’s
atmosphere) which were made (renewed) in six-days as described in
Genesis 1:3-31. Please note that the inspired Hebrew word asah and
not bara is used, referring to the making rather than the creating of
the heaven and the earth. Nehemiah could only be praising God for
the renewed earth and its heaven, which he saw from man's earthly
perspective and which God made (asah) approximately six thousand
years ago.

So, we can see from Scripture that God makes a clear distinction
between the Hebrew words bara and asah when referring to the
heavens and the earth. This is to reveal the truth of the Pre-Adamic
Age, and God’s global tohuw and bohuw judgement against Satan and
his fallen angels.

It was Very Good

Let us now examine the third key scripture used by Young Earth
Creationists as a 'proof text' in support of their belief.

Genesis 1:31
Then God saw everything that He had made, and indeed it was very
good. So the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

Young Earth Creationism argues that God could not have pronounced
that everything was very good in the Garden of Eden if there had
been evidence of death and destruction in the form of millions of
43

animal fossils from a Pre-Adamic world, underneath the earth's


surface. This is an erroneous argument, which is easily refuted by
referring to Jeremiah 31:40.

Jeremiah 31:40
And the whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and
all the fields as far as the Brook Kidron, to the corner of the Horse
Gate toward the east, shall be holy to the LORD. It shall not be
plucked up or thrown down anymore forever.

Jeremiah 31 is a prophecy about the coming Millennial Kingdom of God


to earth, following the death and destruction of God’s future global
tohuw and bohuw judgement against this sinful world at the Second
Coming of Jesus Christ, as previously explained. The first thing God
will do is to rebuild the city of Jerusalem. Please note that the whole
valley of dead bodies will be holy to the Lord, and holy obviously
means that it is also very good in the Lord's eyes.

Would Young Earth Creationists argue with God that He does not have
the right to make the valley of dead bodies holy? In fact, God will turn
all of the desolate, wasted and ruined places including the valley of
dead bodies into a very good Garden of Eden during His Millennial
Kingdom on this earth.

Ezekiel 36:35
So they will say, 'This land that was desolate has become like the
garden of Eden; and the wasted, desolate, and ruined cities are now
fortified and inhabited.'

As we have seen, Young Earth Creationists have misunderstood and


misinterpreted all of their three key proof texts, Romans 5:12, Exodus
20:11 and Genesis 1:31, which they use to support their false
understanding. Young Earth Creationists reject God's Pre-Adamic
tohuw and bohuw judgement against Satan and the fallen angels.
Let us now go on to see that earth's geology abundantly supports this
Pre-Adamic global judgement.

Earth's Geology supports God's Global Judgements

The Bible speaks of two past global catastrophes and two past
mass extinctions of life in the history of the earth, first in Lucifer's
World during the Pre-Adamic Age, and then in Noah's World during the
Adamic Age. Therefore, we should expect earth's geology to have
44

sufficient evidence to prove that both these global judgements of God


occurred.

Many scientists worldwide, in increasing numbers, now believe in a


theory proposed in 1980 by physicist Luis Alvarez and his son Walter
Alvarez, a geologist, that a mass extinction of plant and animal
species occurred as a result of a huge asteroid impacting the earth's
surface, at the end of the Cretaceous period sixty-five million years
ago. This is known as the K-T extinction event. The following quote
summaries the general scientific belief about this K-T extinction event.

'The Alvarezes' primary evidence is a superabundance of iridium in the


Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (KT boundary), a thin rock stratum
dividing Cretaceous rocks from those of the later Tertiary period. In
the Alvarezes' scenario, an asteroid 10 kilometers in diameter struck
the earth at high velocity, forming a crater 150 kilometers wide. In
addition to the immediate devastation of tidal waves, global fires, and
giant storms, impact debris hurled into the atmosphere at high
altitude spread around the Earth, preventing sunlight from
reaching the ground. With photosynthesis blocked, herbivorous and
carnivorous species died as the food chain was snapped at its base.'

It is interesting yet not surprising that this scientific theory supports


the Bible's account of God's global tohuw and bohuw judgement in the
Pre-Adamic World. We know from Scripture that God's global tohuw
and bohuw judgement involves the powers of the heavens being
shaken, stars (meteorites and asteroids) falling on earth and sunlight
being withheld or blocked from reaching the earth’s surface. Do you
know that the Bible is amazingly clear that the earth will be struck
once again by a huge asteroid in the future tohuw and bohuw
judgement during the Great Tribulation, prior to the Second Coming of
Jesus Christ?

Revelation 9:1-2
1 Then the fifth angel sounded: And I saw a star (an asteroid)
fallen from heaven to the earth. To him (the angel) was given the
key to the bottomless pit. 2 And he opened the bottomless pit, and
smoke arose out of the pit like the smoke of a great furnace. So
the sun and the air were darkened because of the smoke of the
pit.

Please note the close similarities between Revelation 9:1-2 and the
Alvarezes' theory, which supports God's first tohuw and bohuw
judgement in Genesis 1:2. In particular, note the similarity of an
45

asteroid impacting the earth's surface and causing the sun and the air
to be darkened as a result of debris and smoke being hurled into the
atmosphere.

We are not geologists. However, as Bible believers in the Pre-Adamic


Age, we can see that earth's geology overwhelmingly supports God's
global judgement against Lucifer's world. It was massively cataclysmic
with such upheavals that even the seabeds were raised to form
sedimentary mountains like the Himalayas. Also, these upheavals
caused the formation of other impressive geological features such as
the huge and deep Grand Canyon. In addition, earth's strata folded,
trapping dense forests, which resulted in vast deposits and reservoirs
of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas. Earth's rocks contain millions of
fossils of sea and land animals. These include some amazingly huge
animal fossils, like woolly mammoths and dinosaurs, which must have
roamed the Pre-Adamic world. Many scientists believe that these
animals suffered a sudden and abrupt extinction, many millions of
years ago. It is highly significant that no human fossils have been
found alongside dinosaurs, woolly mammoths or other animal fossils.
This does not surprise us, as it upholds the biblical truth that God did
not create human beings in the Pre-Adamic Age.

It is clear from Genesis 1:2 that God's global judgement against


Lucifer's world resulted in a global Ice Age, which is supported by
earth's geology. ‘Snowball Earth’ is a scientific hypothesis that the
earth's surface became entirely frozen over at least once in its history.
It is worth noting that the geological community generally accepts this
hypothesis because it best explains glacial geological features
surprisingly found in the tropics. During the 1970's, in the Namibian
desert, geologist Joseph Kirschvink found sedimentary deposits
containing drop stones, which are of glacial origin. This scientific
evidence, showing that even the tropics were once completely under
water and frozen, supports the biblical account of God’s judgement
against Lucifer’s world resulting in a global Ice Age.

Although Noah’s world suffered God’s judgement of a global flood,


very little geological evidence of it survives today. This is because
Noah's world did not suffer a global tohuw and bohuw judgement, as
experienced by Lucifer’s world. In God’s judgement of Noah’s world,
the powers of the heavens were not shaken, and there were no
cataclysmic upheavals of the earth's surface such that mountains were
formed. Also, there was no withdrawal or darkening of the sun to
cause global freezing. In order to form fossils, living organisms need
to be buried quickly between two layers of rocks and/or quickly frozen
46

before the natural process of decay can take place. Geologists have
failed to discover fossils in any vast number, which they consider to be
only a few thousand years old. The fact that no human fossils have
been found in any number anywhere on earth proves that Noah's
world did not suffer a global tohuw and bohuw judgement.

It is therefore clear that it was not the judgement against Noah's


world, but the judgement against Lucifer's world in the Pre-Adamic
Age that caused massive cataclysmic upheavals of the earth's surface,
which have greatly impacted earth's geology to bear witness for us all
to see today.

Young Earth Creationism uses Noah's Flood as a catchall solution to


explain earth's geology. In order to fit with Noah's Flood, Young
Earth Creationism must massage, manipulate and assume scientific
data to explain many of earth's geological features such as
sedimentary and volcanic mountains, fossil fuels, dinosaurs, the Ice
Age and millions of animal fossils like woolly mammoths found in ice.
Also, it has no valid explanation for the lack of human fossils in the
geological record.

High hills and mountains already existed before Noah's Flood, as the
Bible clearly tells us. Noah must have used tons of pitch to cover and
seal the incredibly huge Ark and, as pitch is derived from coal and oil,
this proves that fossil fuels preceded Noah's Flood and that they are
the products of God's judgement in the Pre-Adamic Age. Young Earth
Creationism tries to explain the Ice Age unconvincingly as a post
Noah's Flood event, yet the Bible clearly speaks about an Ice Age in
the second verse of the Bible.

Where Young Earth Creationism really comes unstuck is when we


consider star distances. It is forced to admit that it has no answer
to the fact that star distances undoubtedly prove that the earth is
many millions of years old.

Creation versus Evolution

God of the Bible is the Creator of all. He commands and things


happen. There is not a hint anywhere in the Bible that God used
evolution to create life. As we reject Young Earth Creationism, we also
reject Evolution.

The Big Bang theory, which teaches that the universe began with an
explosion of a primeval atom, is unbiblical and nonsensical. How
47

can the vast universe with billions of galaxies and stars and our
beautiful earth with its amazingly complex and intricate design and
life, come from an explosion of one tiny atom? Where would this
primeval atom have originated in the first place? The truth of the Bible
that God created the universe and the earth in the beginning
instantaneously, many millions of years ago, makes a lot more sense
than the Big Bang theory. Scientists worldwide are increasingly
beginning to realise that they must rethink and include catastrophic
events in their philosophy of uniformitarianism. This is a scientific
theory that geological processes operating at present are the same
processes that operated in the past, and that there have been no
catastrophic events in earth's history. Uniformitarianism is commonly
described as 'The present is the key to the past'. Scientists are now
beginning to accept that geological evidence shows that catastrophic
events did take place in earth's history and that 'the present is not
always the key to the past'.

Uniformitarianism obviously has played a part in the shaping of earth's


geology, as the earth is many millions of years old. However, it is clear
that earth's geology has also been greatly impacted as a result of
God's global cataclysmic tohuw and bohuw judgement described in
Genesis 1:2. We believe that Christians who are knowledgeable
geological scientists, and who understand and accept the truth of the
Pre-Adamic world lasting many millions of years, are in the best
position to correctly understand earth's geology.

The correct biblical understanding of the Genesis account of creation


and acknowledgement of the Pre-Adamic World is the best and the
only way to fight the false theory of evolution, taught in our schools
and universities. We believe that the case for evolution will be
immensely weakened once Christians worldwide accept and preach
the biblical truth, that God created the universe and the earth in the
beginning many millions of years ago.

We appreciate that Young Earth Creationists are passionate in their


belief that the Bible is the infallible word of God, God is a Creator and
that evolution is a false theory. However, the sad irony is that Young
Earth Creationism, with its false interpretation of creation, itself
supplies evolutionists and atheists with all the ammunition they need
to ridicule the Bible as being contradictory, illogical and scientifically
nonsensical.

In May 2007, Young Earth Creationists opened the $27 million


'Creation Museum' in Cincinnati, Northern Kentucky. We are in no
48

doubt that this museum will unleash further ridicule and opposition
from educational establishments worldwide against the Bible as the
Word of God. It is a sad and tragic irony that a group of Christians, in
their misdirected zeal, are the very cause of hindering belief in the
Word of God.

Young Earth Creationism has yet to discover the literal biblically


correct 'Answers in Genesis' and in the Bible; the answers, which are
not only very logical but also scientifically and geologically defensible;
the answers, which not only protect but also enhance the credibility
of the Bible as the Word of God.
49

Does Human Existed Before Current


Thoughts or Something Else?
By bruceleeeowe
December 19, 2009

Temporal anomalies are scattered throughout the world — things that


could not possibly belong to the time period in which they were found.
Evidence exists of human civilization, artifacts and technology out of
time that are abundant, well researched and well documented.

This forbidden knowledge is being protected and hidden from all of us.
Today’s popular view of modern human presence in the distant past is
a false front. The real truth is out there showing proof of advanced
technology and people millions of years before humanity is stated to
have evolved on the planet.

Why has the scientific establishment and government suppressed and


ignored these remarkable finds? Where did they come from? How did
they get there? Why are we suppressing this suggestive proof of
modern time travelers visiting our past?
50

The chart above presents the accepted scientific view of evolution on


this planet… It shows human beings appearing on the earth about 1.6
million years ago, and human civilization just 10,000 years ago.

However, using accepted scientific methods numerous finds show


conclusive proof of modern humans and advanced civilizations present
or visiting the earth’s past long before this timeline represents as
possible. The proof is shocking! Scientific proof of visitors, possibly
time travelers, long before civilized man evolved on the planet.

From where, or perhaps “when,” were advanced civilizations visiting


our past thousands or millions of years before man appeared on the
earth? As we move further back in time through the different eras,
you will see evidence continue to grow… evidence showing proof of
modern humans and technology in the distant past.

Cenozoic Era Proof

The Cenozoic Era is last of the five major eras of geologic time,
beginning about 65 million years ago and extending through the
present. It follows the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic era and is
subdivided into the Tertiary period and the Quaternary period.
Features of Tertiary times are considered in articles under the names
of the various shorter time periods (epochs) making up the Tertiary
period; in order, from earliest to latest, these are the Paleocene,
Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene.

The accepted scientific view of evolution in the Cenozoic Era shows


human beings appearing on the earth about 1.6 million years ago, and
human civilization just 10,000 years ago. Yet the scientific finds
presented below present a very shocking and different story.

Pleistocene Epoch Finds

Copper Coin from Illinois, over 200,000 to 400,000 years old

This rendition of a coin-like object, from a well


boring near Lawn Ridge, Illinois, was found at
a depth of about 114 feet below the surface.
According to the information supplied by the
Illinois State Geological Survey, the deposits
containing the coin are between 200,000 and
51

400,000 years old… who left this coin hundreds of thousands of years
before civilized man evolved?

Modern Human Skeleton from Tanzania, over 800,000 years old

In 1913 Professor Hans Reck, of Berlin


University, conducted investigations at
Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, then
German East Africa. During his stay at
Olduvai Gorge, Reck found a modern
human skeleton that remains a source
of mystery and controversy to this
day. This modern skull is from a fully
human skeleton found that year. The
human skeletal remains, including this
complete skull, were cemented in the rock and had to be chipped with
hammers and chisels. It was found in the upper end of a rock
bed dated at more than 1,000,000 years old. How did this modern
human find his way 1,000,000 years into the past?

Willendorf Venus Statue, over 30,000 years old

The Willendorf Venus, from Europe, dated at 30,000


years old. Who created or left this artifact nearly 20,000
years before human civilization appeared?

Modern Human Skull in Buenos Aires, over 1,000,000 years old


52

In 1896, workers excavating a dry


dock in Buenos Aires found a
modern human skull. The Pre-
Ensenadan stratum in which the
Buenos Aires skull was found is a
least 1.0 – 1.5 million years old.
Even at 1 million years the
presence of a fully modern human
skull anywhere in the world is
highly anomalous. Why and how
did a modern human arrive in
Buenos Aires over 1,000,000 years
ahead of its time?

Pliocene Epoch Finds Figurines from Nampa, Idaho, about 2


million Years old

A small human image,


skillfully formed in clay, was
found in 1889 at Nampa,
Idaho. The figurine came
from the the 300-foot level
of a well boring and dated
to be of the Plio-Pleistocene
age, about 2 million years
old. G. F. Wright noted,
“The image is about an inch
and a half long; and
remarkable for the
perfection with which it
represents the human
form… It was a female
figure, and had the lifelike
lineaments in the parts
which were finished that
would do credit to the
classic centers of art.
Upon showing the object to
Professor F. W. Putnam,” wrote Wright, “he at once directed attention
to the character of the incrustations of iron upon the surface as
indicative of a relic of considerable antiquity. There were patches of
anhydrous red oxide of iron in protected places upon it, such as could
not have been formed upon any fraudulent object.” Humans had not
53

even evolved on this planet two million years ago. So who created or
left this artifact in earth’s distant past?

Modern Human Skull found in Italy, over 3 – 4 million years


old.

Late in the summer of 1860,


Professor Giuseppe Ragazzoni, a
geologist and teacher at the Technical
Institute of Brescia, traveled to the
nearby locale of Castenedolo, about
10 kilometers southeast of Brescia, to
gather fossil shells in the Pliocene
strata exposed in a pit at the base of
a low hill, the Colle de Vento. Here
he discovered this remarkable and
anatomically modern human skull.
The stratum from which it was taken
is assigned to the Astian stage of the Pliocene. According to modern
authorities, the Astian belongs to the Middle Pliocene, which would
give the skull an age of 3 – 4 million years. Why and how this modern
human visit Italy did nearly two million years before human beings
walked the planet?

Carved Shell from the Red Crag, England, between 2.0 and 2.5
million years old.

In a report delivered to the


British Association for the
Advancement of Science in 1881,
H. Stopes, F.G.S. (Fellow of the
Geological Society), described a
shell, the surface of which bore a
carving of a crude but
unmistakably human face. The
carved shell was found in the
stratified deposits of the Red
Crag. The Red Crag, part of
which is called the Walton Crag,
is dated to be of Late Pliocene
age between 2.0 and 2.5 million
years old. This find would place
54

intelligent beings in England as far back as 2.0 million and maybe as


much as 2.5 million years ago. One should keep in mind that in terms
of conventional paleoanthropoligical opinion, one does not encounter
such works of art until the time of fully modern Cro-Magnon man in
the Late Pleistocene, about 30,000 years ago. What visitor to Earth’s
distant past carved and left this shell?

Eocene Epoch Finds

Chalk Ball near Laon, France, 45 – 55 million years old.

The April 1862 edition of The


Geologist included an English
translation of an intriguing report by
Maximilien Melleville, the vice
president of the Societe Academique
of Laon , France. This chalk ball was
discovered in an Early Eocene lignite
bed. On the basis of its stratigraphic
position, is has been assigned a date
of 45 – 55 million years ago.
According to Melleville, there was no
possibility that the chalk ball was a
forgery: “It really is penetrated over
four-fifths of its height by a black
bituminous colour that merges toward the top into a yellow circle, and
which is evidently due to the contact of the lignite in which it had been
for so long a time plunged. The upper part, which was in contact with
the shell bed, on the contrary has preserved its natural colour — the
dull white of the chalk…. As to the rock in which it was found, I can
affirm that it is perfectly virgin, and presents no trace whatever of any
ancient exploitation. As extraordinary as it might seem to those
attached to standard evolutionary views, the evidence associated in
this find suggest that if humans made the ball, they must have been in
France 45 – 55 million years ago. Who made and left this man made
artifact in our past long before human evolution… even before grazing
and carnivorous mammals walked the planet?

Mortar and Pestle in California, up to 55 million years old.

In 1877 Mr. J. H. Neale was superintendent of the


Montezuma Tunnel Company, and ran the
Montezuma tunnel into the gravel underlying the
lava of Table Mountain, Tuolumne County…. At a
55

distance of between 1400 and 1500 feet from the mouth of the tunnel,
or of between 200 and 300 feet beyond the edge of the solid lava, Mr.
Neale saw several spear-heads of some dark rock and nearly one foot
in length. On exploring further, he himself found a small mortar three
or four inches in diameter and of irregular shape. This was discovered
within a foot or two of the spear-heads. He then found a large well-
formed pestle and near by a large and very regular mortar. All of
these relics were found the same afternoon, and were all within a few
feet of one another and close to the bed-rock, perhaps within a foot of
it. Mr. Neale declares that it is utterly impossible that these relics can
have reached the position in which they were found excepting at the
time the gravel was deposited, and before the lava cap formed. The
position of the artifacts in gravel close to the bed-rock at Tuolumne
Table Mountain indicates they were 33-55 million years old. Grazing
and carnivorous mammals had not even evolved on the planet at this
time. So who brought and left behind these artifacts in California
nearly 50 million years ago?

Sling Stone from Bramford, England, 5 – 50 million years old.

This sling stone is from the detritus


bed beneath the Red Crag at
Bramford, England. At least
Pliocene in age, the stone is at
least 5 million and possibly up to
50 million years old. Upon
examination it was obvious that
the stone had been shaped by the
hand of man…. The whole surface…
has been scraped with a flint, in
such a way that it is covered with a series of facets running fairly
regularly from end to end…. The scraping described above covers the
whole surface of the object, and penetrates into its irregularities. As it
stands the object is entirely artificial… yet left in a time millions of
years before humans had had even evolved on the Earth.

The Cenozoic Era is last of the five major eras of geologic time,
beginning about 65 million years ago and extending through the
present. It follows the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic era and is
subdivided into the Tertiary period and the Quaternary period.
Features of Tertiary times are considered in articles under the names
of the various shorter time periods (epochs) making up the Tertiary
period; in order, from earliest to latest, these are the Paleocene,
Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene.
56

The accepted scientific view of evolution in the Cenozoic Era shows


human beings appearing on the earth about 1.6 million years ago, and
human civilization just 10,000 years ago. Yet the scientific finds
presented below present a very shocking and different story.

A time millions of years before humans had had even evolved on the
Earth.

Paleozoic Era Proof

The Paleozoic Era is a major division of geological time, preceded by


Precambrian time and followed by the Mesozoic era, and including the
Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian
periods. The Paleozoic Era began about 570 million years ago and
ended about 240 million years ago.

As we move back even further in time we enter this period of the


Paleozoic Era where life was evolving from primitive, multicultural,
free-floating forms in the sea to advanced groups on land. The most
advanced life forms at the end of this period where amphibians,
insects, fern forests, and small reptiles. Humans would not evolve for
nearly another 300 million years. Yet the scientific finds below again
suggest even more strongly that modern humans with advanced
technology were visiting Earth’s past and walking at a time when the
first life forms were just beginning to emerge on our planet.

Carboniferous Period

Gold Thread in England, between 320 – 360 million years old.

On June 22, 1844, this curious report appeared in the London Times:
“A few days ago, as some workmen were employed in quarrying a rock
close to the Tweed about a quarter of a mile below Rutherford-mill, a
gold thread was discovered embedded in the stone at a depth of eight
feet.” Dr. A. W. Medd of the British Geological Survey wrote in 1985
that this stone is of Early Carboniferous age between 320 and 360
million years old. Who dropped this gold thread in the ancient fern
forests in a distant time when the most advanced life forms on the
planet where amphibians and insects?
57

Gold Chain from Morrisonville, Illinois, 260 – 320 million years


old.

On June 11, 1891, The Morrisonville Times reported: “A curious find


was brought to light by Mrs. S. W. Culp last Tuesday morning. As she
was breaking a lump of coal preparatory to putting it in the scuttle,
she discovered, as the lump fell apart, embedded in a circular shape a
small gold chain about ten inches in length of antique and quaint
workmanship. At first Mrs. Culp thought the chain had been dropped
accidentally in the coal, but as she undertook to lift the chain up, the
idea of its having been recently dropped was at once made fallacious,
for as the lump of coal broke it separated almost in the middle, and
the circular position of the chain placed the two ends near to each
other, and as the lump separated, the middle of the chain became
loosened while each end remained fastened to the coal. The lump of
coal from which this chain was taken is supposed to come from the
Taylorville or Pana mines (southern Illinois) and almost hushes one’s
breath with mystery when it is thought for how many long ages the
earth has been forming strata after strata which hid the golden links
from view. The chain was an eight-carat gold and weighed eight
penny-weights.” The Illinois State Geological Survey has said the coal
in which the gold chain was found is 260 – 320 million years old. This
raises the possibility that culturally advanced human beings were
present or visiting in North America during that time. How did this
gold chain find itself left behind in Earth’s distant past more than a
quarter of a billion years before humans had evolved?

Carved Stone near Webster, Iowa, 260 – 320 million years old.

The April 2,1897 edition of the Daily News of Omaha, Nebraska,


carried an article titled “Carved Stone Buried in a Mine,” which
described an object from a mine near Webster City, Iowa. The article
stated: “While mining coal today in the Lehigh coal mine, at a depth of
130 feet, one of the miners came upon a piece of rock which puzzles
him and he was unable to account for its presence at the bottom of the
coal mine. The stone is of a dark grey color and about two feet long,
one foot wide and four inches in thickness. Over the surface of the
stone, which is very hard, lines are drawn at angles forming perfect
diamonds. The center of each diamond is a fairly good face of an old
man having a peculiar indentation in the forehead that appears in each
of the pictures, all of them being remarkably alike. Of the faces, all
but two are looking to the right. Was this stone carved and left behind
by a traveler from earth’s future?
58

Iron Cup from Oklahoma Coal Mine, 312 million years old.

On November 27, 1948 the following statement was made by Frank J.


Kenwood in Sulphur Springs, Arkansas. “While I was working in the
Municipal Electric Plant in Thomas, Oklahoma in 1912, I came upon a
solid chunk of coal which was too large to use. I broke it with a
sledge hammer. This iron pot fell from the center leaving the
impression mould of the pot in the piece of coal. Jim Stall (an
employee of the company) witnessed the breaking of the coal, and
saw the pot fall out. I traced the source of the coal, and found that it
came from the Wilburton, Oklahoma, Mines. According to Robert O.
Fay of the Oklahoma Geological Survey, the Wilburton mine coal is
about 312 million years old. What advanced civilization or visitor was
creating or using iron pots in our past more than 300 million years
ago?

Block Wall in an Oklahoma Mine, at least 286 million years old.

W. W. McCormick of Abilene, Texas, reported his grandfather’s account


of a stone block wall that was found deep within a coal mine: “In the
year 1928, I, Atlas Almon Mathis, was working in coal mine No. 5.,
located two miles north of Heavener, Oklahoma. This was a shaft
mine, and they told us it was two miles deep. The mine was so deep
that they let us down into it on an elevator…. They pumped air down
to us, it was so deep.” One evening, Mathis was blasting coal loose by
explosives in “room 24″ of this mine. “The next morning,” said Mathis,
“there were several concrete blocks laying in the room. These blocks
were 12-inch cubes and were so smooth and polished on the outside
that all six sides could serve as mirrors. Yet they were full of gravel,
because I chipped one of them open with my pick, and it was plain
concrete inside.” Mathis added: “As I started to timber the room up, it
caved in; and I barely escaped. When I came back after the cave-in, a
solid wall of these polished blocks was left exposed. About 100 to 150
yards farther down our air core, another miner struck this same wall,
or one very similar.” The coal in the mine was Carboniferous, which
would mean the wall was at least 286 million years old. According to
Mathis, the mining company officers immediately pulled the men out of
the mine and forbade them to speak about what they had seen.
Mathis said the Wilburton miners also told of finding “a solid block of
silver in the shape of a barrel… with the prints of the staves on it,” in
an area of coal dating between 280 and 320 million years ago. What
advance civilization built this wall? Why was the truth, as is so many of
these cases protected and hidden? What is the real truth about time
travels, modern humans, and modern technology in our past?
59

Hieroglyphics in Ohio Coal Mine, 260 million year old.

It is reported that James Parsons, and his two sons, exhumed a slate
wall in a coal mine at Hammondville, Ohio, in 1868. It was a large
smooth wall, disclosed when a great mass of coal fell away from it,
and on its surface, carved in bold relief, were several lines of
hieroglyphics. Who carved these hieroglyphics more than 250 years
before humans walked the earth?

Devonian Period

Nail in Devonian Sandstone, between 360 and 408 million years


old.

In 1844, Sir David Brewster reported that a nail had been discovered
firmly embedded in a block of sandstone from the Kin goodie
(Mylnfield) Quarry in North Britain. Dr. A. W. Medd of the British
Geological Survey recently indicated that this sandstone is of “Lower
Old Red Sandstone age” (Devonian, between 360 and 408 million
years old). In his report to the British Association for the
Advancement of Science, Brewster stated: “The particular block in
which the nail was found, was nine inches thick, and in proceeding to
clear the rough rock for dressing, the point of the nail was found
projecting about half an inch (quite eaten with rust) into the ’till,’ the
rest of the nail lying along the surface of the stone to within an inch of
the head, which went right down into the body of the stone.” The fact
that the head of the nail was buried in the sandstone block would
seem to rule out the possibility the nail had been pounded into the
block after it was quarried. This was a time where amphibians and
insects were the only dominant life form on our planet. So who
dropped this nail to have it eventually preserved in rock at a time
more than 350 million years before humans appeared?

Cambrian Period

Shoe Print in Utah Shale, 505 to 590 Million Years Old.

In 1968, William J. Meister, a


draftsman and amateur
trilobite collector, reported
finding a shoe print in the
Wheeler Shale near Antelope
Spring, Utah. This shoe-like
indentation and its cast were
60

revealed when Meister split open a block of shale. Clearly visible


within the imprint were the remains of trilobites, extinct marine
arthropods. The shale holding the print and the trilobite fossils is from
the Cambrian, and would thus be 505 to 590 million years old. Meister
described the ancient shoe-like impression in an article that appeared
in the Creation Research Society Quarterly: “The heel print was
indented in the rock about an eighth of an inch more than the sole.
The footprint was clearly that of the right foot because the sandal was
well worn on the right side of the heel in the characteristic fashion.”
At this time in our planet’s history there was no plant or animal life on
the land, even the most early types of fish swimming in the seas had
not yet evolved. It must have been a very barren landscape that this
visitor to Earth’s past saw as he walked the land. How did he arrive
so far into our past?

Pre-Cambrian Period

Metallic Vase from Pre-Cambrian Rock, over 600 Million Years


Old.

The following report, titled “A Relic of a Bygone Age,” appeared in the


magazine Scientific American (June 5, 1852): “A few days ago a
powerful blast was made in the rock at Meeting House Hill, in
Dorchester, a few rods south of Rev. Mr. Hall’s meeting house. The
blast threw out an immense mass of rock, some of the pieces weighing
several tons, and scattered fragments in all directions. Among them
was picked a metallic vessel in two parts, rent asunder by the
explosion. On putting the parts together it formed a bell-shaped
vessel, 4-1/2 inches high, 6-1/2 inches at the base, 2-1/2 inches at
the top, and about an eighth of an inch in thickness. The body of this
vessel resembles zinc in color, or a composition metal, in which there
is a considerable portion of silver. On the side there are six figures of
a flower, or bouquet, beautifully inlaid with pure silver, and around the
lower part of the vessel a vine, or wreath, also inlaid with silver. The
chasing, carving, and inlaying are exquisitely done by the art of some
cunning workman. This curious and unknown vessel was blown out of
the solid pudding stone, fifteen feet below the surface.” According to
a recent U.S. Geological Survey map of the Boston-Dorchester area,
the pudding stone, now called the Roxbury conglomerate, is of
Precambrian age, over 600 million years old. By standard accounts,
life was just beginning to form on this planet during the Precambrian.
But in the Dorchester vessel we have evidence indicating the presence
of artistic metal workers in North America over 600 million years
before Leif Erikson. At this time in our planets history the was no life
61

on land, plant or animal. The most advance life-form at this barren


time in our planets history was simple algae floating in the seas. Yet
somehow through time this beautiful work or art was brought and left
behind and eventually buried and preserved in ancient rock. Did a
time traveler from the earths future leave this behind in the hopes of
later discovery… in an attempt to help ensure that the truth about time
travel would one day be revealed?

Grooved Sphere from South Africa, 2.8 Billion Years Old.

Over the past several decades, South


African miners have found hundreds of
metallic spheres, at least one of which
has three parallel grooves running
around its equator. The spheres are
of two types — “one of solid bluish
metal with white flecks, and another
which is a hollow ball filled with a
white spongy center.” Roelf Marx,
curator of the museum of Klerksdorp,
South Africa, where some of the
spheres are housed, said: “The
spheres are a complete mystery.
They look man-made, yet at the time in Earth’s history when they
came to rest in this rock no intelligent life existed. The globes are
found in pyrophyllite, which is mined near the little town of Ottosdal in
the Western Transvaal. This pyrophyllite is a quite soft secondary
mineral with a count of only 3 on the Mohs’ scale and was formed by
sedimentation about 2.8 billion years ago. On the other hand the
globes are very hard and cannot be scratched, even by steel.” The
sphere with the three parallel grooves around it are too perfect to be
anything but man made. The Precambrian mineral deposit where the
globes are found is dated to be at least 2.8 billion years old. At this
time simple microscopic cells were all that was alive on the earth. But
this is obviously not true. Who created or left behind these
magnificent spheres. Obviously man made, and stronger than steel,
what was their purpose for the people who visited and left them
behind in time?

Men Over Ten Feet Tall?


62

I mention all of the above because I wish to discuss some of Carl


Baugh's "tall tales" which are being spread by "creation evangelists"
like Kent Hovind, and others. Below is a picture of some sort, perhaps
an artist's creation (Baugh calls it a "Photograph") as shown in Baugh's
book, Dinosaur (Promise Publishing, 1987).

Both Baugh and Hovind proudly display a slide reproduction of this


picture in their "creation science" presentations. Unfortunately, Baugh,
in his book, does not say where the picture came from, or give any
further details concerning it, except for the caption which appears
beneath it in his book: "A miner fell through a hole in a mine in Italy
and found this 11' 6" skeleton." Kent Hovind, during his presentations,
even adds a date ("1856," if I recall correctly) for this "discovery,"
though there is no mention of a specific date in Baugh's book.

Naturally, the thoughts that ran through my mind when I first saw this
"photo" were...

1) If this is a "Photo" of a genuine discovery, then the skeleton in that


photo is of the tallest man on record! According to the Guinness Book
of World Records, the world's tallest known human being was Robert
Wadlow, the 'Alton giant," who was only 8' 11" tall, and who died of a
septic buster caused by the way his ankle brace rubbed against his
right ankle. Wadlow was so tall; he had to wear ankle braces to
support him! Baugh's "photo" is of a human being over two and a half
feet taller than the tallest man on record! Why hasn't anyone else, like
the folks who publish the record books, heard about this remarkable
discovery?

2) Where did this "photo" originate? In what book, journal, or


newspaper did it first appear? Which mine was that skeleton found in?
Near what town in Italy, and in what year? And by whom? (None of
these questions were ever answered by Baugh, not in his book, nor in
two later telephone had conversations I with him.)
In response to the photograph above, I recently received the following
letter, which I thought the readers might find interesting:
Mr. Babinski: 63
Although I am a creationist, I loathe the unsubstantiated claims many
so called creation scientists make, without bothering to check all
available evidence. I would like to add another piece of evidence
which shows that the "photograph" is a fake. The man kneeling over
the skeleton is lit up on the right side of his face (his perspective) and
shadowed on his left. The man second from the left on the picture is
lit up just the opposite of the kneeling man. Obviously a artists
mistake.
Thank you.
Gene Rhea Tucker

3) How can anyone be sure this is a .photograph" and not an artist's


print or creation, perhaps created for some fictional novel or short
story written by one of Jules Verne's early imitators, or based, perhaps
on tall tales of "Atlantis" or other tales that may have been popular
back then? It is known that during the 1800s, giant fossilized
creatures, like dinosaurs, held the public eye, since they were being
dug up for the first time and pictures of these were presented to the
public in newspapers all over Europe, and people must have
speculated whether human beings may not have been larger in the
past. So this may be an artist's print or creation, inspired by nothing
more than the imaginative speculation of people in the 1800s
concerning giant animal species.

This idea that the picture was the creation of "Imaginative speculation"
drawn for a newspaper or a novel or short story of that day, is an
interpretation that Baugh must face up to, especially since he has
nothing to corroborate his story but a picture whose origin is just as
indistinct as the picture itself, and hence, which is dubious to cite as a
"Photograph" of a genuine discovery at all.

Other questions also leap to mind:

4) Who determined that the skeleton was exactly 11' 6"? From the
picture alone, you can't tell the exact size of the skeleton, certainly not
to the "inch." 5) Where did the story about the miner "falling down a
hole" come from? 6) What is the nature of the rectangular "sign" with
the indistinct "letters" beside the skeleton? 7) Obviously if it was a
"photo" it could not have been taken deep in a mine, because even
with a dozen eighteenth-century miner's lamps, there would not have
been much light, and it is unlikely that anyone would start a campfire
deep down in a mine to take such a photo there, as there probably
would not be enough air to support a campfire down in a mine for very
long. If it was a "photo" taken inside a mine it shows remarkably all
the bones of the skeleton from head to toe fully exhumed, cleaned
64

white, fully connected to one another, and well lit, along with large
portions of the foreground and background appearing bright. Nor does
it seem probable that men would have descended into a mine dressed
in full evening jackets with white pants and large top hats. 8) But if
this war., say, a "Photo" taken above ground and outdoors, why not
wait for fulfill daylight and get a good shot with fine line clarity instead
of this indistinct shot? Even the earliest photographs on record
displayed more clarity and were more distinct than this alleged
"photo." I include some examples in a separate section below. 9) If
such a skeleton had indeed been found in the rock then after the
bones )were excavated they would have become disconnected and
taken on the form of a random heap of bones, unlike the picture,
which shows even the fingers, toes and jawbone connected together.
And if the excavators boxed the bones up and dragged them up out of
the mine, cleaned them thoroughly to make them appear as bright and
clear as they do in the 'Photo, " and then put them together with wire
and glue to look like the perfectly placed bones of a human skeleton,
then why go through all that trouble, and not take a better "photo?" or
at least, if you're going to go through all that trouble, leave more
evidence of such an extraordinary discovery than one indistinct photo?
10) And what must the odds be of finding a whole skeleton like that,
even with finger and toe bones, every rib, even the jaw, altogether in
the same deposit? The chances of finding such a perfectly complete
skeleton are slim, unless it was a later intrusive burial of a whole
individual by his friends. Ah, but then this skeleton wasn't "buried by
the Flood!"

Having struck my curiosity with his indistinct "photo" (originally


published in God-knows-what newspaper or book), I phoned Carl
Baugh, the author of the book in which the picture appeared. He said
that he obtained the picture from another creationist, Clifford Burdick.
Baugh was visiting Burdick's home one day and Burdick told Baugh,
"You want this?" (meaning, the picture in question) and added the
little story that it was of a skeleton found in a mine in Italy in the
"19th century," i.e., in the 1800s. No more verification was apparently
asked for or added by Burdick, who died soon after turning over the
picture to Baugh. So, the story begins and ends with Burdick and with
what Baugh says Burdick said, which is precious little in the way of
corroboration.

Clifford Burdick, of course, once argued for "The Discovery of Human


Skeletons in Cretaceous Formation" (Creation Research Society
Quarterly, Vol. 10, Sept. 1973) or, as the skeletons were nicknamed,
"Moab Man." Human skeletons found in rock from the Cretaceous era?
65

According to the geologic time scale, not even humanity's earliest


human-like ancestors appeared until well after the Cretaceous.
However, this case turned into yet another instance in which
creationists had to recant due to the evidence pointed out by
mainstream scientists. For instance, a professor of anthropology
examined the "Moab Man" skeletons as soon as they were first
uncovered (when some ground was being bulldozed). The professor
agreed that these were indeed human skeletons, but that they were
just Indian skeletons that had been buried in a rock crevice, the
surrounding rocks dating back to the Cretaceous, but not the buried
skeletons, which were merely slid in between the rocks, and which
were later covered by sand, etc.

In two letters that I possess, dated, Nov. 13, 1973, and, June 1976,
John P. Marwitt (the anthropologist on the scene when the skeletons
were originally uncovered by bulldozing), wrote: "I took some pains to
point out to all concerned, including the 'Creation Research Society,'
that in no sense could the human remains be seen as contemporary
with the [Cretaceous] sandstone deposits [surrounding them]. There
was consolidated [Cretaceous] sandstone in the area of the burials, at
the same elevation. But the buried [human skeletons] were
surrounded and covered with loose blowsand and rotted sandstone
spalls, not consolidated or semiconsolidated [Cretaceous] rock. I
explained to everyone present that the burials had apparently been
placed in a crack/crevice in the rock and were covered by blowsand
and spalling of the sandstone caused by weathering. Placement of
burials in crevices and niches was frequently practiced in the
Southwest, both prehistorically and historically. [In short,] the [human
skeletons] were not a part of or included in the [Cretaceous]
sandstone formation, they were not found in a rock matrix as implied
by Burdick. The bones themselves were not fossilized and there had
been no replacement of bone calcium by mineralization. They were
soft, friable and partly decayed -- in short, of rather recent vintage,
probably historic Paiute or Ute, or possibly of Euro-American origin,
since no associated artifacts were found." Later, a femur from one of
the skeletons was carbon dated to around 210 years ago +/- 70 years.
A few other such skeletons have also been found -- the same story
applies, as outlined above.

So Burdick, being wrong about "Moab Man" as a "disproof of modern


geology," isn't exactly a fountain of truth. Still, after my phone call
with Baugh, I checked every article Clifford Burdick had published in
the Creation Research Society Quarterly, trying to dig up some precise
information on the origin of the picture of the 11' 6" human skeleton
66

"found in the mine in Italy." And I found nothing. Not a peep from
Clifford Burdick concerning this record breaking giant human skeleton!

Suffice it to say that although Clifford Burdick was noted for publicizing
phony claims of "fossil men that contradicted evolutionary theory," I
could not find any mention of the record breaking 11' 6" skeleton in
any of Burdick's books that I consulted at Bob Jones, nor in any of
Burdick's articles in the Creation Research Society Quarterly, all of
which I checked scrupulously, issue by issue. So, Burdick himself did
not think highly enough of the picture of this record breaking skeleton
to publicize it in the least (perhaps it was just sent to Burdick in the
mail by another creationist who photographed the original print or
artist's creation, thinking it odd, but without really noticing Its source,
or what it represented). So, even Burdick felt it was not worth
publicizing such an indistinct picture of unknown origin. Burdick
handed it to Baugh as a trifle, saying, "You want this?" But Baugh and
Hovind have declared this picture to represent a true and scientifically
verified discovery! They tote out this picture in their debates with
mainstream scientists, and say, "Explain that!" But Baugh and Hovind
have to explain it first! Doesn't it seem strange to either Baugh or
Hovind that they are both acting more rashly than Burdick, who didn't
even discuss the picture (below) in his creationist publications?

I hasten to add that the arms on the man shown pointing at the
skeleton (in Baugh's alleged "photograph") seem abnormally long.

Compare the photos below, taken in Italy during the same period.
Note the fine line clarity of such photos in the mid-1800s even when
photographing objects in shadowy light! Surely anyone who took the
time and effort to excavate, clean, have the bones reattached (and
have gentlemen dressed in fine clothes pose beside) such a
gargantuan discovery - would have taken more care in having a
decent "photograph" taken of it, seeing how clear and distinct photos
were, even at that time period. Even the "earliest known photo" that I
found published in a book of early photos, preserved more fine line
details than Baugh's alleged 'photo!"
67

The "photograph" of the giant human skeleton thus raises more


questions than it answers.

But this "tall tale" doesn't end here! Compare the tale behind the
"Freiberg skull," the "human skull" of coal, the coal dating back to the
Carboniferous Age, long before human beings ever appeared on earth.
This find was touted by Henry Morris in The Genesis Flood as tolling
the death knell for modern (old-earth) geology. The "Freiberg Skull"
was discovered around the SAME time as Baugh's "giant human
skeleton" was supposedly "photographed," but this " skull" was later
shown to be a fabrication molded out of bits of soft brown coal to
superficially resemble a human skull with no true skeletal features, the
hoax being carried out to promote belief in the Biblical Flood. Young-
earth creationists eventually gave up the ghost of arguing for the
authenticity of the "Freiberg skull." Two articles in the Creation
Research Society Quarterly admitted the truth of the original reports,
namely, that the skull was nothing but a fake (see, Dr. Wayne Frair,
"The Human Skull Composed of Coal," CRSQ, v. 5, March 1969; and,
Dr. Wayne Frair, 'Additional Information on the Freiberg Human Skull
Composed of Coal," CRSQ, v. 20, June 1993). Yet Baugh clings to his
indistinct picture he calls a "photo," a photo that dates back to the
same time period as the "Freiberg skull" hoax!

But back to Baugh's picture of the giant human skeleton. The story
gets curio user and carouser. Not content with Baugh's ignorance
concerning the origin of the picture, I set about to search for its origin
myself, something that Baugh apparently doesn't have the genuinely
scientific inclination to do. I wrote four of the largest museums of
natural history in Italy and received a reply from one of the largest, a
copy of which appears below:
68

My search for the truth did not end there. I wrote a researcher who
owns hundreds of books by creationists, books that were published
both in this century and the previous one and I asked him if this
"discovery" was mentioned in any of them. The closest thing he could
come up with was a book written in 1926, The Biblical Story of
Creation by Giorgio Bartolli, a famous Italian creationist. Bartolli did
not mention a number of "fossils of giant creatures," but no giant men,
nor any mention of the picture of the record breaking giant human
skeleton found in Baugh's book. This Italian creationist was also a
professor of geology and a former director of a mine in Sardinia, Italy.
So, again, I drew a blank. A copy of this researcher's letter appears
below:

Dear Ed:

I didn't find anything about the 11-foot human skeleton. Giorgio


Bartoli is the Italian mine director (a Sardinian mine); his 1926 book
doesn't mention it. This makes me suspect no evidence exists outside
the picture Baugh has in his book (I have Baugh's book too).

Best Wishes,
Tom McIver
69

So I contacted William
Corliss, the fellow who
specializes in
cataloging scientific
anomalies, including
keeping track of
accounts of human
"giants." And Corliss
told me he had never
heard of any evidence
of a human being as
tall as 11' 6", and
added that there were
"a lot of hoaxes" in
that field, like the
Cardiff Giant (a 10'
4.5" tall statue of a
human being carved
out of gypsum, and The "Cardiff Giant":
displayed as if it were One of the "many hoaxes" that Corliss was
a fossilized giant alluding to
human being, all done
to make money!). A
copy of Corliss' reply appears below, along with pictures of the Cardiff
giant:

Dear Ed:

I just returned from a short vacation and found your letter waiting.

Although I have collected a number of reports of large skeletons, none


of them even approaches the 11'6" skeleton you mention. You should
ask for some sort of reference from the scientific literature. Lots of
hoaxes in this field.

Sincerely,
William R. Corliss

P.S. As for my compilation UNKNOWN EARTH, I can't see how it


supports creationism. Anyway, it is simply a collection of reports from
the literature--primarily the scientific literature. Some of these reports
70

may question dating methods and/or the claimed ages of certain


formations.

I phoned Carl Baugh a


second time, but he could
tell me nothing more about
the picture of the 11' 6"
skeleton. Then he added
that the picture was
"beside the point, since
some fellow" had told
Baugh "about a front page
full color story in the
Denver Post around 1991,
that told of a 10' tall
woman in Mozambique
who just showed up one
day at the local village
since that village was
giving out free
vaccinations." Baugh
added that this ten foot tall
woman was not suffering
from a pituitary deficiency
The Cardiff Giant on display at the (which causes gigantism
Farmer's Museum, Cooperstown, New along with weakness and
York lack of coordination)
because she could bench
press 300 pounds!

Wow! What a lead! A recent front page news story! And such detail!
Maybe there is evidence of human beings ten foot tall or taller! I told
Baugh "Thank you very much," and I set about trying to track down
this new evidence. I phoned the Denver Post and spoke to the lady in
charge of the front page for the past five or ten years. And she didn't
recall any such story. Indeed, wouldn't Guinness have picked up on
such a report if it had been front page news in a major American
newspaper? I checked the 1995 edition of the Guinness Book of World
Records, and found that Robert Wadlow, the "Alton giant" (8' 11" tall)
was still listed as the world's tallest human being on record. The lady
at the Denver Post then gave me the number of a company that
specializes in subject-title-word searches in major American
newspapers (not including the tabloids which mix fact and totally
fabricated articles together). But after an exhausting computerized
71

search, using all the key words at our disposal, like Africa,
Mozambique, giant, large, tall, woman, lady, immunization,
vaccination, etc., we came up a complete blank!

I also phoned Colorado State Univ., which had the Denver Post Index,
and checked key words, and again drew a blank. And I conducted a
search via the Furman University Library's computerized magazine and
newspaper search facilities. All to no avail. The closest I came was an
article about an African nation in The Economist (v.328, no.7825, Aug.
21, 1993, p.Nl(2)), titled, 'Anybody Seen a Giant?' I read that article.
It did not mention "giant , human beings." It dealt solely with
economic growth. The lady
at the Denver Post with
whom I had spoken
earlier, told me that the
"giant woman" story
sounded more like
something published in a
supermarket tabloid than
in a newspaper. By this
time I had to agree with
her.

Baugh had wished me well


in my search for this info,
and said he wanted to
hear what I'd found, but GIANT FRAUD being laid to rest at the
he didn't express any Farmer's Museum in Cooperstown, New
interest in researching York in 1948. Thousands had paid to
things himself. Apparently see the fake "petrified man" that had
he already knew that supposedly been plowed up on a Cardiff
humans over ten feet tall farm
were a fact. I suppose he
bases this "fact" on the carved "footprints" in his possession. After my
exhaustive search I let Baugh know how fruitless it had been. I await
the day when less astute creationists like Baugh begin doing their own
research of each specific "tall tale" before piling gossip upon gossip
and calling it all "scientific evidence." These people spread the most
gullible "tall tales" and display the most spurious "evidence" to
hundreds of church audiences each year, and they always claim they
are "more right" than the evolutionists they misquote and
misinterpret!
72

To recap my conclusion: During the 1800s, giant fossilized creatures,


like dinosaurs, held the public eye, since they were being dug up for
the first time and pictures of these creatures flooded newspapers all
over Europe. People must have speculated whether human beings may
not have been larger in the past. So Baugh's "photo" is most likely an
artist's print or creation, inspired by nothing more than the
imaginative speculation of people in the 1800s concerning giant animal
species.

That the picture was originally created to accompany a fictitious


newspaper article, or for a novel or short story of that day, is an
interpretation that Baugh must face up to. It's up to Baugh or other
creationists to tell us exactly where this "discovery" was first
publicized, and show that the picture he's displaying is indeed a
"photograph." An indistinct picture Of unknown origin with no other
records to back it up, coming from that time period, proves nothing.

Baugh's enthusiasm for spreading creationist tall tales has made him a
sort of creationist folk hero, as he goes about prying up limestone
slabs in Texas, leaving large numbers of scientifically significant
dinosaur tracks to decay away uncaptioned as he chips his way
through them, vainly searching for any markings even vaguely human,
around which he can then build another tall tale interpretation.

Baugh's tall tale reminds me of Kent Hovind's, that I heard Kent repeat
at one of his lectures: "Someone in the audience at one of my creation
seminars came up to me and told how they (or someone they knew)
was working in a mine (in West Virginia or Kentucky) and they found a
'giant human skeleton' in the mine, but no one was interested enough
to excavate the bones or investigate further, and the whole area was
then covered beneath water because they built a damn in that region."
If Kent believes that story to be true then why don't some "creation
scientists" take the names of the people telling the tale, and try to
trace this news back to its source(s)? Why not visit that town or
surrounding area and interview lots of people till you find the ones
with matching stories, or put an ad in the local paper or on the local
radio, asking about the story? If that checks out, get a map of the
mine, and, if it's not too filled with silt, dredge an opening to the shaft,
and send down one of those swimming robots with a light and a
camera on one end and with mechanical claws to bring something
back, just a piece of bone to check out the story. Why? Because this
could provide the first, corroborated evidence of giant human beings
"buried by the Flood." If such a story were true, "creation scientists"
would have hard skeletal evidence. Instead, creationists like Baugh
73

and Hovind do not adequately pursue the origins of the "tallest tales"
they hear, even when they supposedly have "dates, places, and
human contactees" to begin their search. They merely take delight in
spreading such tales ... in the name of the "Lord of Truth."

Kent Hovind's gossip about the discovery of "giant human skeletons"


in a mine in West Virginia reminds me of a similar claim that was
made by a creationist over a hundred years ago, namely, that they
had found a fossilized human skull and part of the backbone of
someone who had drowned in the Biblical Flood and in whose eyeless
sockets could still be seen the terror of that all-destructive Deluge. The
creationist who found the fossil named it, Homo diluvii testis ['Homo"
means "man," and "diluvii" means "Deluge."] Cuvier, the French
scientist, took a closer look at the Homo diluvii testis fossil, cleaned
the excess rock and dirt off the fossil, and lo and behold, it turned out
not to be human at all, but was the skull and part of the backbone of a
large salamander from an Oligocene lake bed. (See picture below.)

Speaking of the way that a


misidentified fossil can generate a
"tall tale," some historians have
suggested that the tale of the one-
eyed giant, the .Cyclops" of ancient
Greek storytellers, may have
originated from someone who ran
across the skull of an extinct
mammoth. The large hole in the
middle of the "forehead" of the
gigantic mammoth skull would have
seemed like an "eyesocket of a one-
Homo diluvii testis. eyed human of gigantic proportions"
Skull and part of the backbone (especially since mammoths became
of a large salamander from extinct thousands of years, prior to
the Oligocene lake beds at the rise of Greek civilization). But in
Oeningen, Switzerland, reality the hole was where the trunk
mistaken by Scheuchzer for was attached, i.e., the mammoth's
the remains of a human nasal passageway.
drowned during the Biblical
Flood. I'd be remiss if I did not mention
some other "tall tales" spread by Carl
Baugh. For instance, when the skeleton of a buried Indian was
uncovered near Glen Rose, Texas, Baugh said that this skeleton was
"gigantic." It turns out that ft was not. Baugh also claimed to have
discovered an incredibly enormous footprint, which he called "Max."
74

What Baugh actually had found was merely * some vague marking in
unconsolidated earth (i.e., in 'marl," a mixture of sand, clay and
limestone fragments) that he kept carving picking and poking at, until
he'd "unearthed" a grotesquely large "footprint" formed more by his
own hand and imagination than anything else. The limestone layer
that preserves genuine dinosaur tracks lay beneath the loose marl in
which Baugh had carved the "Max footprint." So, Baugh hadn't even
reached the track layer of the limestone rock! He was just carving and
playing in the marl above the limestone layer. See my hand drawn pen
sketch of what Baugh "found" (my . sketch is based on a color slide of
the "Max print" that I have in my personal collection -- the slide says it
all, far better than my hand drawn pen sketch):

Baugh's most prized possession, apparently, is a metal hammer with a


wooden handle, the head of which is partially "encased in stone.,,
Baugh purchased the "hammer in stone" from someone who found it
lying near the top of the ground in a little crevice. All indications have
led experts to conclude that it is merely a nineteenth-century miner's
hammer with a bit of stone concretion that consolidated around the
hammer's head as it lay in a crevice in the earth (a phenomenon that
can happen in a short period of time). It was also found near some old
mine! So far as I know, Baugh has not yet had the hammer" wooden
handle (which was not fossilized) carbon-dated, though a lab has
offered to do so for free.

Exactly what the hammer was doing so near the surface of the earth is
anyone's guess. Heavy and sleek objects, like an iron-headed slender-
handled hammer, would descend faster than most other objects in
75

water. So if this hammer was "buried during Noah's Flood" it should


have sunk quicker than a stone to the bottom-most sediments,
hundreds to thousands of feet bellow the level at which it was found
(unless it was first-cousin to that miraculous "floating iron axe-head"
mentioned in the Bible in 2 Kings 6:5-6)! What's really interesting
about this is that the hammer is not made for the hand of a "giant,"
but fits nicely in the hand of an ordinary-sized human being. Perhaps
Baugh misses the irony of that fact.

If I recall correctly, Baugh's "fossilized human tooth" (the fish tooth,


mentioned above), also does not appear to have belonged to a "giant"
creature.

Even more ironic is the fact of all the jokes about "things being bigger
in Texas." The American Journalism Review (15:4, May 1993, p. 11(l))
published, "A Long, Tall Texas Tale," that told about the hoax
published in the Laredo Morning Times about a giant earthworm! No
wonder Baugh is able to raise support for his museum which attempts
to demonstrate the existence of "giant human beings" that once lived
in Texas! Things are always "bigger" in Texas!

Perhaps I shouldn't be so hard on Baugh's search for "human giants"


in Glen Rose, Texas. He's merely picked up where earlier, less astute,
creationists left off. It was those earlier creationists in Texas who
imagined that some of the dinosaur trails were made by giant human
beings. According to Cecil Dougherty, author of Valley of the Giants
(Valley of the Giants Publishers, first edition, 1971), Adam (the first
man) was 16 feet tall! King Og (whose bed according to the Bible was
14 ft. by 6 ft.) was 14 feet tall! Noah was 12 feet tall, Goliath was over
9 feet tall, and modern man is 6 feet tall.

Please note that the mere mention in the Bible that "King Og's bed"
was "14 ft. long and 6 feet wide," even if the story is true, is not the
same as saying that King Og was exactly that tall and that wide! It
only says that his bed was. (Maybe he had a lot of wives, like
Solomon!?)

As for Noah's height of "12 ft. tall, and Adam's height of "16 ft. tall," I
know of no references to either Noah's or Adam's "height" in the Bible.

Perhaps Dougherty, like many Bible believing creationists before him,


obtained the idea of "giants in those days" from Genesis 6:4, which
reads: "The Nephilim (which many Bibles translate as 'giants' or cite in
76

a footnote at the bottom of the page as 'giants') were on the earth in


those days ...

The trouble is that the Bible does not depict Adam as one of the
"Nephilim" (or giants). It just depicts Adam as an average-sized
human for his day and age. So if Adam and his descendants were "on
average" "16 foot tall" as Dougherty believes, then how tall was a
"Nephilim/giant" back then? Whew! "Giant " must have been
unbelievably tall if the first average-sized human was created 16 feet
tall!

Of course, the 'Book of Enoch, verses, 7:1-4 (in a section of the Book
of Enoch dated to about 250 B.C.B.) explains that the "giants"
mentioned in Genesis 6:4 were 300 cubits (or about 450 feet) tall! So
I guess the ancient authors of the Book of Enoch answered my
question regarding how tall a giant" must have been back then!

Of course, Bible believers have believed in the existence of "giants" for


a long time, since the Bible tells them so.

In 1663 a French Academy paper by, a noted scholar of the Ancient


Near East argued that Adam was 140 feet tall, Noah was 50 feet tall,
Abraham was 40 feet tall, and Moses was 25 feet tall! (from The Best
Worst & Most Unusual by Felton & Fowler, Gallahad Books, 1994)

And, Cotton Mather (1663-1728), an early American clergyman and


writer, seems to have been enamoured of the idea. See the article,
"Giants in the Earth: Science and the Occult in Cotton Mather's Letters
to the Royal Society" by David Levin (William and Mary Quarterly, Vol.
45, Oct. 1988, p. 751-770).

I end with a "tall tale" by a master of the genre, Mark Twain. In his
book, The Innocents Abroad, Twain tells the true story of his trip to
Europe and the Holy Land, a trip he took with a group of pious
Christian sightseers. Together, they visited numerous holy sites in the
Near East, including, "an Arab village ... where Noah's tomb lies under
lock and key." As Dave Barry says, "I'm not making this up."
According to Twain's description, "Noah's tomb is built of stone and is
covered with a long stone building. The building had to be long
because the grave of the honored old navigator is two hundred and ten
feet long! It is only about four feet high, though. He must have cast a
shadow like a lightning rod. The proof that this is the genuine spot
where Noah was buried can only be doubted by uncommonly
incredulous people. The evidence is pretty straight. Shem, the son of
77

Noah, was present at the burial, and showed the place to his
descendants, who transmitted the knowledge to their descendants,
and the lineal descendants of these introduced themselves to us today.
It was pleasant to make the acquaintance of members of so
respectable a family. It was a thing to be proud of. It was the next
best thing to being acquainted with Noah himself." (E.T. BABINSKI)
78

Was there life on earth before Adam?


Posted November 15th, 2007
By Bill Littleboy
Bible notes, General Christianity

I believe the answer is yes and I will attempt to explain why I think
that way. I am not a Bible scholar and do not claim to have any special
knowledge. These are just my understandings of what I read in the
Bible and from various expository texts.

Let’s start with reading Ezekiel 28:11-19 where we read about the fall
of Satan.

11 Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,


12 Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say
unto him, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Thou sealest up the sum, full of
wisdom, and perfect in beauty.
13 Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone
was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the
onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle,
and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was
prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created.
14 Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee
so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up
and down in the midst of the stones of fire.
15 Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created,
till iniquity was found in thee.
16 By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of
thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as
profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O
covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.
17 Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast
corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will cast thee to
the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee.
18 Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine
iniquities, by the iniquity of thy traffick; therefore will I bring forth a
fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour thee, and I will bring thee to
ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee.
19 All they that know thee among the people shall be astonished at
thee: thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt thou be any more.
79

In this passage we are told that Satan was perfect from the very first
day he was created by God until sin and iniquity were found in him as
a result of pride (see Isaiah 14:12-17). We also see in the passage
above that Satan was cast out of the kingdom (mountain) of God and
banished from the stars of Heaven. Verse 18 states that Satan and his
kingdom subjects worshipped God in earthly sanctuaries or
tabernacles which gave Satan the opportunity to slander God through
traffick (trading). This led to his iniquity and later to to the iniquity of
his earthly subjects and a third part of heavenly angels. It is also true
that verses 18 and 19 refer to the future of Anti-Christ. One teacher I
heard said that he thought that during the time from after the Rapture
when Satan and his angels will be cast down to Earth, until the the
Battle of Armageddon, Satan and AntiChrist will somehow share the
same human body. I’m not sure about that, but it’s an interesting
thought.

Back to this topic… the Bible does seem to indicate that a “pre-
Adamite” society existed sometime in the distant past, although it
does not say how long ago this was. If this is true, as I believe it is, it
explains away many of the conflicts between creationists and
evolutionist regarding the geological age of the earth. I know there are
some “creationist” scientists who say that Noah’s flood was enough to
create all the fossil records that we are finding. I think this is a much
more plausible explanation.

Genesis 1:1 reads “In the beginning God created the heavens and the
earth.”

The word ‘created’ comes from the Hebrew word bara which means “to
bring into existence” or to create from nothing.

Genesis 1:2 reads “And the earth was without form, and void….”

Some scholars believe a better translation would be “And the earth


became without form, and void”. This is because the word
translated “was” in the KJV is the Hebrew word “hayah” which means
“to become”. The translators of the NIV version of the Bible recognized
this and made the appropriate notes in the margin! The phrase
“without form and void” is the Hebrew “tohu va bohu” (meaning
formless and empty).

Isaiah 45:18 reads “thus says the Lord that created the heavens; God
Himself that formed the earth and made it; He has established it, He
did not create it in vain [Hebrew: tohu], He formed it to be inhabited”
80

The phrase “in vain” in Isaiah 45 is the Hebrew word “tohu” that was
translated “formless” in Genesis 1:2. We can see clearly in Isaiah
45:18 that God didn’t create the earth “tohu” but it became “tohu” in
Genesis 1:2. In addition, we can see that in Gen 1:2 the earth became
not only “tohu” but it also became empty. For something to become
empty, it must first be “not empty”.

For some reason (another study) God chose to destroy what was and
make the earth formless and empty. Then God had to again put things
in order which He did in the six days of creation.

There are a lot of people who say that the discovery of dinosaur fossils
which they date as a million years old proves the Bible is wrong. Not
true. The Bible tells us that in the beginning, maybe a billion years ago
even, God created the heavens and the earth. This earth was not
empty or formless as tradition has taught. God doesn’t tell us what
animals were in the earth during that period. But it is quite possible
that is when the dinosaurs roamed.

The verses quoted above from Ezekiel show that there was a period of
time when Satan (Lucifer) was perfect and sinless. It is during this
time that I believe that angels ruled on the earth and possibly on other
planets. This appears to be a probationary time for the angels to test
them before trusting them in an eternal state.

In Genesis 1:28, Adam is told to “replenish the earth”. If the earth had
not been “plenished” prior to that, why would he be told to re-plenish
it?

The beginning of Jeremiah 4:23 reads, “I beheld the earth, and lo, it
was without form, and void”.

This only occurred at the time of Genesis 1:2. Reading a little further
in Jeremiah 4 we see that God was angry and that the cities had been
broken down. It seems apparent that if there were cities to be broken
down before Genesis 1:2, that there must have been life in those
cities.

What do you think?

Mick said,
In June 12th, 2008 at 11:27 am
If the earth became formless there would not be any fossils
81

Sag said,
In June 19th, 2008 at 8:00 pm

I read where the word replenished, should have been to fill. As I read,
I see where God gave a step by step account of His creation. On the
6th day the last recorded creation was that of man (human). He saw
that everything was good. Somewhere after God rested (completed His
creation), Sin started with the heavenly creature and was thrown were
man had dominion (here on earth). I also find that the cities that are
mentioned are references to Revelation when satan is judged.

lgayle said,
in June 26th, 2008 at 5:40 pm

I agree. Also see Isaiah 24:1...between Gen.1:1 and Gen.1:2 God did
what it says in this verse, i.e. He emptied the earth and turned it
upside down. The flood did not do that, although the flood can explain
many scientific phenomena.

Mike Lamping said,


in July 8th, 2008 at 4:47 pm

Hello,
You are right in your belief that angelic beings ruled the preAdamic
world. That world was hammered into nonexistance and only a dust
and vapor covered ball was left. It was therefore formless, and in an
act of recreation, God once more brought forth light. Those who
rebelled were condemned to live as formless spirits until the coming of
man. Through man Satan sought dominion, but with Christ’s death on
the cross Satan’s rule over man was broken. Still, there is one conflict
left and the fallen angels are behind the rulers and the men of power
who will one day try to bring about a one world order. The fallen
angels have taken form (see grey men) and exist under the mountains
of Europe. When the time has come, all hell will break loose. Have a
nice day. Mike Lamping

Dr. Ken Daniels said,


in August 12th, 2008 at 11:31 pm

Dear blogger I’m glad to know you love the Lord enough to study His word. But you
must study harder. You said that the passage in Ezk. Chp.28 that God was talking about
Satan. He was not speaking of Satan but of a man the King of Tyrus (vs.12). The same
for Is. 14 it was that God compared these two wicked Kings to the prince of the air. The
82

devil was so deep in these men hearts that God used a lamentation to describe them.
Whom ever you serve that’s your father. And it’s quite obvious that the devil was their
dad.
83

Your teacher is correct in what he says about adam and eve


not being first, it goes pretty deep and i won't get into it,---
ankh on 7/15/07

Very probable there were pre-Adamites. Most doctrinals


believe in a total world flood which would start everything
over again from scratch. Don't even know what they seek by
arguing the point. Except to build a stronger sand castle.
It is far easier to see scripturally that flood was not "global"
(erets/hebrew term examples by the thousand.)
Essentially,pointing to a Genesis answer.
It's said, that its much harder to unlearn than to learn. I
found this true in myself and true in the fields. YAHSHUA can
open to those that ask/seek/knock.
---Trav on 7/16/09

KJV-Genesis 1:28 God told Adam and Eve to 'be fruitful and
multiply and replenish the earth.' 'Replenish' a translation of
Hewbew 'male' which means 'fill', not 'refill'.

This KJV error ......---Warwick on 3/31/09


Now you say there is error in translation.

Either way...fill or refill....has no answer supporting warwick


above.
Fill the land....could apply easily to Adamkind. Actually
interesting point, "filling" in the midst of Cains in-laws.

You work hard to tie all your doctrinal ends but you are
consistantly having to change scripture,that you protest
needs none.
It is interesting to note you do use Hebrew when it's useful to
ur doctrine of men.
Avoiding it with my scriptural witnesses.
---Trav on 7/16/09

Moderator answered "...prove it." I would ask how then do


you prove God???
---Lane on 7/14/09

Ankh demonstrates how vital correct translation is. In the


84

Did God create people before Adam


and Eve?
Posted by Gen 1:26-28 (NAB)

26
Then God said: "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. Let
them have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, and
the cattle, and over all the wild animals and all the creatures that
crawl on the ground."
27
God created man in his image; in the divine image he created him;
male and female he created them.
28
God blessed them, saying: "Be fertile and multiply; fill the earth and
subdue it. Have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air,
and all the living things that move on the earth."

Originally Posted by Gen 2:7 (NAB)

The Lord God formed man out of the clay of the ground and blew into
his nostrils the breath of life, and so man became a living being.

Genesis 1 and Genesis 2 are the same story, told from different view
points. In other words, the man and woman in Genesis 1 are Adam
and Eve.
85

Basically, the two chapters show two sides of the same God.

Genesis 1 shows God the All-Powerful Creator of the Universe - And


God said,
'Let there be light', and there was light".

And then in Genesis 2, we see God the Loving Father. You can see this
in the image of God carefully molding man out of the clay, walking
with man through the Garden, and allowing man to name all the
animals in the world.
No_ there were no folks before the first two. Two different stories from
two different sources?

Or

Does the second story just flesh out the details of the first? You
decide. I prefer what they call the Documentary Hypothesis- which
believes there were several different sources for the text, which like
threads, can be woven into a complete story. Some folks don't believe
in it. Majority of Bible scholars believe in some form of the DH. The
names "Adam" and "Eve" not real names but symbolic of their role as
the first people. adamah- means dirt ,dust ,earth. He is linked to the
Earth because it is the substance "Adam" was made of. Eve (Hebrew
Chavez) "mother of all living things (only mankind but not mother of
all living things)" whose name literally means "life" or "live".again
symbolic. Names in Genesis have a lot of symbolism just as the
numbers, 7,12,40.Numbers of all kinds are full of symbolism
throughout the Bible. Some people fixate about of really unimportant
thins in Genesis. Main thing to remember is that God created us out of
love- that he” so loved the world that He gave His only Son”. That
path of salvation through Christ starts here in Genesis. God bless.
Well, Moses wrote Genesis, according to Jewish Tradition. The story of
Genesis would be 1000's of years old by the time of Moses. He could
have combined the stories from two different legends.

I don't buy it. I still feel its God's way of saying:

"Yeah, I created all things with simply a Word, but I still care for each
and every one of you, My children".

One story shows God's unlimited power. The other shows God's
unlimited Love!
The Toledoths of Genesis
86

IDvolution - God "breathed" the super language of DNA into the


"kinds" in the creative act. Buffalo
"A man of conscience, is one who never acquires tolerance,well- being,
success, public standing, and approval on the part of prevailing
opinion, at the expense of truth."
Pope Benedict XVI
"We are not some casual and meaningless product of evolution. Each
of us is a thought of God."
Pope Benedict XVI

“Science presupposes the trustworthy, intelligent structure of matter,


the ‘design’ of creation.”
Pope Benedict XVI

By Jewish tradition-Moses wrote it. Technically it looks like more then


a few hands
wrote the Torah.You can buy the Documentary Hypothesis or not.-It's
not as
important as the messages in

If God did make people before Adam and Eve, He made them without
an immortal soul, such as the kind of souls that animals have that die
when the body dies. We have souls that are immortal, that live after
the body dies, and it goes to Heaven or Hades or Purgatory
immediately after our bodies die.

Is that a possible theory, that God created soulless humans before


Adam and Eve?
Do you have any links you could share where it has been discussed or
written about?

HUMAN BEFORE ADAM AND EVA?

Another notion that comes up from time to time (suggested by people


who assume evolution is true and want to figure out new ways to s-t-
r-e-t-c-h the Bible so that it agrees) is that humans were around long
before Adam and Eve. The first verse that seems to “open the door”
for this notion is in Genesis 4:16-17 and the question is “Did Cain
go to the Land of Nod and find an already existing group of people (not
descended from Adam) and build a “city” for them?
87

Let’s take a closer look at this.


Then Cain went out from the presence of the Lord, and settled in the
land of Nod, east of Eden. Cain had relations with his wife and she
conceived, and gave birth to Enoch; and he built a city, and called the
name of the city Enoch, after the name of his son.
(Genesis 4:16-17)
Cain moved east of Eden, to the land of "Nod" (the land of Misery -
away, far from God).
For those who don’t grasp that Adam named his wife “eve” because
she would the mother of all humans (Genesis 3:20) and feel the need
to postulate another group of pre-/non-Adamic people, it is safe to
assume and Jewish tradition did so, that Cain took along a sister for
his wife (Josephus’ Antiquities I:i:59).[1]
Whereas those with a liking for evolutionary time and mechanics will
balk at such incest and not take serious the idea of originally "pure
genes" and the viability of such a possibility, the Egyptian Pharaohs
did this regularly for centuries (after all, deity cannot interbreed with
commoners) without always having deformities and genetic problems
in the offspring.
Somewhere the idea arose that Cain’s "building a city" (Genesis 4:17)
implies a sizeable population of people already living where Cain
wound up. It is also suggested that such a major project as “building
a city” would seem pointless if only Cain's little family is in view (cf.
Youngblood, p. 65). Thus, Cain supposedly hired himself out as a
"building contractor" and built a city for an assumed group of humans
already living elsewhere and not descended from Adam. Those trying
to appease evolutionary beliefs find such an imaginative and
speculative explanation appealing, but the notion seems to strain not
88

only the text and context, but fails to explain why those who hired him
would let him name it after his own son!!!
Cain "built" (banah - more literally, "he was building") and named
what he built after his son, suggesting that he is not building a city for
others, as a contractor, but is the leading figure doing it for himself
and his own family. The magnificence of the project does not need to
be exaggerated because this "building" is rooted in a word used for
smaller projects (Genesis 2:22; 8:20; Proverbs 14:1) as well as major
cities and fortifications. The word for "city" (ir/ayar)" is a very
common word for city, town, abode of men, or just a fortified high
place of any size.[2] See the Theological Wordbook of the Old
Testament (II:664) article on the word and its confirmation that the
word means "permanent settlement" without reference to size or
claims.
The main distinction between Cain’s project and a "village" (chatser) is
that an ir/ayar generally had a wall around it. Since "walls" were the
major distinctive for a "city," Cain may have simply been "fortifying"
his own home against the revenge he expected.[3]
Many western prairie towns began with a family or two settling
somewhere, naming the place after them, and more people later
accumulated there. In Europe, there were times when single family
dwellings or a few dwellings would be surrounded by a wall, for
protection against wolves, enemies, etc. that might come in small
numbers. The “building contractor” and “non-Adamic population”
notions are little more than imaginative speculation “overly anxious" to
accommodate the evolutionary orthodoxy of our age.
Charles E. McCoy / 11/09/2005
Notes:
[1]
Hamilton, Gen. 1-17, p. 237; Davis, Paradise to Prison, pp. 101-2
89

[2]
On the meaning of the Hebrew word for "city, see: Kidner, p. 77;
Davis, p., 102.
[3]
On Cain's "city" as a means of personal protection, see: Hamilton,
Genesis 1-17,
p. 238; Sailhamer, Pentateuch as Narrative, p. 115

Was There Life BEFORE Adam?


Edited By: John D. Keyser.

Many Christians today believe as an article of faith that the


Bible teaches the earth was created 6,000 years ago. They
dispute all the evidence of geology, paleontology and
radiometric dating techniques. They argue that such evidence
is invalid, grossly misunderstood, and misinterpreted. Some
Neo-Creationists claim that all the earth's strata was due to the
Noachian deluge, or the original process of Creation. They claim
all Creation took place during a six day period approximately
6,000 years ago. What is the truth? The Bible is a reliable
historical witness. However, the Bible nowhere says Creation
occurred 6,000 years ago. Nor does it teach that the earth is
flat, although Medieval theologians often assumed so and
threatened anyone who would teach otherwise with
excommunication and torture. The Middle Ages were a sad time
in theological history. The supposedly enlightened Church
pressured scientists such as Bruno and Galileo with the threat
of bodily harm if they chose to believe the earth revolved
around the sun.

Biologist George Simpson was right when he observed:

"As a matter of fact, most of the dogmatic religions have exhibited

a perverse talent for taking the WRONG SIDE on the most important

concepts of the material universe"


90

(George Gaylord Simpson, This View of Life, p. 214).

Irrational Theology

Catholic theologians made a great mistake in the Middle Ages. They


assumed the Scriptures taught things about the material universe
which were, in fact, false interpretations or assumptions. Perhaps for
the masses, it was enough to listen to and believe dogmas with the
stamped sanction of "Church authority." But for THINKING men,
"Renaissance Man," for scientists who wished us to "prove all things,"
as the Scriptures themselves tell us to do (I Thessalonians 5:21), mere
recitation of Church authority or tradition was not enough.

One author characterizes the problem this way:

"The emotionally precious view of earth's centrality in a fixed,


unchanging universe was crystallized by Ptolemy in the second century
A.D., and then taken over by the Christian (i.e., Catholic) Church.
What had been ancient pagan punishments for contradicting pagan
theology became orthodox Christian punishments for questioning
orthodox Christian dogma. Despite man's continued secret probing,
fourteen centuries brought no serious challenger"

(Robert Gorney, The Human Agenda, p. 27).

In 1543 Copernicus published his theory of a heliocentric solar system.


Although he was a Catholic priest, his theory met with strong
opposition from the established Church. In 1600 Giordano Bruno, who
endorsed Copernicus' theory, was burned alive at the stake in Rome
for his stubborn heretical beliefs, among which was the heliocentric
solar system!

Galileo Galilei observed in 1604 that Copernicus had been right.


Through the telescope, he observed that the earth and other planets
DO revolve around the sun.

But the clerics of that day did not agree. Martin Luther lambasted the
heliocentric or sun-centered solar system. He reasoned that since
Joshua had commanded the sun to stand still, it must have been the
sun which was moving around the earth. One archbishop of the
Catholic Church lampooned the followers of Galileo with a Scriptural
pun:
91

"Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into the heavens?" he


asked, quoting Acts 1:11 in the New Testament.

During the Inquisition, the Catholic Church resisted the pressures of


rational thinking men with the pronouncement: "If earth is a planet,
and only one among several planets, it cannot be that any such great
things have been done specially for it as Christian doctrine teaches. If
there are other planets, since God makes nothing in vain, they must
be inhabited; but how can their inhabitants be descended from Adam?
How can they trace their origin to Noah's ark? How can they have been
redeemed by the Savior?" (Ibid., p. 28).

Galileo's theory was branded by the Church as "of all heresies the
most abominable, the most pernicious, the most scandalous."

During the Middle Ages when ecclesiastical authority reigned supreme,


the science of geology was attacked as "a dark art," as "infernal
artillery," and as "calculated to tear up in the public mind every
remaining attachment to Christianity" (P. 53). When scientists
accumulated data to show the earth is far older than Archbishop
Ussher's date of 4004 B.C., they were vigorously assailed as "infidels,"
as "atheists," and "heretics."

Archbishop Ussher had concluded from his studies of the Bible that
Creation must have been October 23, 4004 B.C. When fossil evidence
was unearthed to indicate the earth was far older than that, the fossils
were dismissed by some Church leaders as deliberate deceptions of
the devil!

Unfortunately, some of this medieval thinking still exists, today.


Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton -- these men were willing to
challenge the dogmas of their day. They were called buffoons, they
were labeled heretics, they were held up to shame and contempt by
ecclesiastical authorities. But they advanced the cause of TRUTH.

Today, too, we must at times take up shield and sword of the mind
and spirit and CHALLENGE the Goliaths of modern dogma and
conventional orthodoxy.

We must remember the impassioned words of Oliver Cromwell, ruler


of England centuries ago, when he said:

"I beseech you, in the bowels of Christ; think it possible you may be
mistaken."
92

Blinders On Their Eyes

Why is it that people sometimes insist upon wearing blinders upon


their eyes? Why won't they READ, STUDY, LEARN, COMPARE,
CHALLENGE, and "PROVE ALL THINGS," holding in abeyance things
which they cannot prove one way or another? Why do people insist
upon dogmas? The attitudes of many people is like the nervous
captain of a ship lowering the anchor down to twenty feet, and then
assuming that it must have reached bottom, because that's all the line
left on the anchor!

In 1832 citizens of Lancaster, Pennsylvania refused to allow their


schoolhouse to be used for a discussion about railroads. They said:

"Railroads are impossible and a great infidelity. If God had intended


that his intelligent creatures should travel at the frightful speed of 17
miles an hour by steam he would have foretold it in the Holy Prophets.
Such things as railroads are devices of Satan to lead immortal souls
down to hell."

Some religious people, today, still ascribe the entire geologic record to
the Flood of Noah's time. Theologians used to turn to the Flood to
explain the effects of erosion, mountain building, volcanism, and fossil
remains. In the infancy of geological science, such a tendency could be
well understood, and even pardoned. But, today, after TONS of
geologic evidence, it seems strange that some religious folk still cling
to the out-dated, antiquarian notions of the pre-scientific age. In order
to rigorously cling to their notions of the Flood and a shortened
chronology of the earth, they reject almost all the evidence of 150
years of geological investigation!

But we should not condemn them too strongly, because on the other
side of the fence we have the Neo-Darwinian evolutionists and the
school of anti-catastrophism -- those MUDDLE-HEADED GEOLOGISTS
and PALEONTOLOGISTS who have been BRAINWASHED to the exact
opposite conclusion. That is, they stand on "uniformitarian" geology,
and will not admit to any earthshaking, global catastrophes in the
past. They discount ALL human testimony, all traditions, all legends
from around the world; they IGNORE or attempt to explain away all
evidence of a geological nature which supports any kind of
catastrophism. Uniformitarian theory has, for all practical purposes,
become to them ANOTHER RELIGION.
93

What we see, then, is dogmatic individuals with BLINDERS on clinging


to two opposing viewpoints, neither of which is right, neither of which
is supported by the facts. Both unwilling to compromise, adamant in
their authority, staunch in their belief. BOTH interpreting the evidence
to fit their own theory.

I take issue with both the neo-Creationists who REFUSE to accept the
evidence of an earth which has existed for millions of years, and also
with the neo-Darwinists who REFUSE to admit the striking geological
evidence for Creation.

Why does it seem so difficult for people to obtain a balance? Why do


we humans become so emotionally involved with a particular belief,
afraid, nervous, fearful and glandular? Emotional attachment to a false
world concept, or fable, is a DANGEROUS thing. It is a little like falling
in love with the wrong person -- it hurts.

Infatuation with a false belief or theory can hurt just as bad as


romantic infatuation. After the honeymoon, the young couple have to
deal with reality. If they were hasty, and rushed into marriage with the
wrong person, the trauma and life long pain and regret can be
considerable. Even so, if you have clung to out-moded beliefs, or
concepts which are not really in the Scriptures, unlearning that false
"knowledge" can be difficult and painful at times. It is much more
difficult to unlearn false beliefs than to learn something right the first
time!

So it is with geology and the existence of the world before Adam's


time.

Overwhelming Evidence

All the geological and paleontological evidence PROVES beyond the


slightest scintilla of a doubt that THERE WAS A WORLD BEFORE ADAM.
Most of the dating techniques of scientists -- uranium-argon,
potassium-thorium, racemization and thermaluminescence -- as well
as observation and logic conclusively show that the rocks under our
feet, the bones of ancient animals, and even the charcoal campfires of
Paleo-Indians, Neanderthal man, and other ancient hominid remains,
are MUCH OLDER than 6,000 years. There was a world before Adam.
In fact, there were MANY ages before Adam, and these ages can be
carefully distinguished through the study of paleontology, paleo-
ecology, and related scientific disciplines.
94

The evidence is INDISPUTABLE. Many independent dating techniques


demonstrate that various hominid creatures lived about 500,000 years
ago. More primitive types lived as long ago as 1-2,000,000 years.
Those creatures, in some cases, were FAMILIAR with fire, used crude
chipped stone tools such as hand axes, notched and saw-toothed
implements, scrapers, engravers. They were PRE-ADAMIC CREATURES
living in a PRE-ADAMIC WORLD. A world which ended in a great
catastrophe.

And before their time, OTHER worlds existed. The world of the
dinosaurs ended about 70,000,000 years ago. That world, too, ended
in a cosmic catastrophe.

The pre-Adamic world was a world of growth, change, and progress. It


was a world where new life forms were introduced from time to time.

The fact that this world has been in existence for many millions of
years is no longer a matter for debate. It is academic. Any serious
author, today, must face squarely the many indications of time found
in the geological record.

Neo-Creationists believe we must choose either the Bible or science,


particularly scientific dating methods. One typical Neo-Creationist
argues:

"The Bible-believing scientist must face squarely the question, In the


area of natural science which shall supersede, the clear assertions of
God's inspired Book, or modern man's interpretation of what he thinks
he sees in nature?"

This particular author continues: "According to Bible chronology only a


few thousand years have passed since the creation of the ancestors of
our modern plants and animals...Contrariwise, if one accepts the
assumption that the inorganic radioisotope clocks were reset wherever
they became associated with fossil-bearing material, then apparently
at least 600 million years have passed since plants and animals first
appeared successively from that time over a duration of some 600
million years" (Frank Lewis Marsh, Life, Man and Time, pp. 67-68).

The truth is, there is NO CONTRADICTION between the Biblical record


and scientific knowledge of the earth's past. Those who wish to uphold
the Bible in the face of new evidence regarding early hominids, homo
erectus, homo habilis, or other discoveries of Primitive Man-like
creatures, need not worry. There is NO EVIDENCE that such creatures
95

evolved into Modern man. Rather, they lived long ago in a world
BEFORE ADAM WAS CREATED -- another world -- another age --
another time.

Such discoveries tell us much about the ancient history of the earth.
They tell us nothing, one way or the other, about the Scriptures.

Creation and Recreation

In the pages of Genesis, as it relates to the original creation of the


universe, we read the simple, matter-of-fact statement: "In the
beginning, God created the heaven and the earth" (Genesis 1:1, King
James Version). The Amplified Bible renders this verse: "In the
beginning God (prepared, formed, fashioned,) and created the
heavens and the earth." The Good News Bible states: "In the
beginning, when God created the universe..." The Moffatt Translation:
"When God began to form the universe..." The Goodspeed Translation:
"When God began to create the heavens and the earth..."

What exactly does the book of Genesis tell us? That YEHOVAH God
created the universe -- the heavens and the earth -- in a period of
time called, simply, "the beginning." How long ago that primeval
creation occurred we are not told anywhere in the Scripture. To
determine that, YEHOVAH God has given us brains and intellect!

That time of beginning could well have been six to ten billion years
ago. Astronomers calculate that a "Big Bang" took place at that time,
out of which the entire cosmos was created.

Verse two of Genesis, chapter one, continues:

"And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon
the face of the deep" (King James Version).

Is this verse describing the ORIGINAL creation as being formless and


void? If so, it would seem a contradiction. Verse one tells us YEHOVAH
created the heavens and the earth. When YEHOVAH creates
something, it is beautiful, grand, and majestic. In the 38th chapter of
the book of Job, we read:

"Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if
thou hast understanding. Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou
knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it? Whereupon are the
foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof?
96

When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God
shouted for joy?" (vs. 4-7).

If the original earth had been created a chaotic ruin, formless and
void, the angels would not have "sang together" or have "shouted for
joy."

Isaiah 45:18 adds more light on this enigmatic passage. The prophet
declares: "For thus saith the Lord that created the heavens; God
himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he
created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the Lord; and
there is none else" (King James Version).

The Hebrew word translated "vain" here is tohu and means "to lie
waste," "a desolation," "a desert." It can also be translated
"confusion," "empty place," "without form," "nothing," "wilderness." It
is the very same word used in Genesis 1:2, where we read the earth
"was without form."

One place says YEHOVAH God created the earth and it "was without
form"; in another place we read YEHOVAH did not create the earth
"without form." Is this a contradiction? Not at all!

The KEY to understanding this apparently complex problem lies in the


little word "was." It can also be translated "BECAME." In fact, in
Genesis 19:16 it is translated "became." We read: "And Lot's wife
became a pillar of salt."

What happened, then, is this: When YEHOVAH God originally created


the earth, it was indeed a lovely place. He created it with no waste, no
wilderness, no desolation. It was inhabited. The angels leaped for joy,
and shouted with admiration and enthusiasm when they beheld the
primeval earth.

But then something happened. It became "tohu" -- that is, waste, a


ruin, a desolation. The original earth suffered a great cataclysm -- a
cosmic catastrophe. The Hebrew words translated "without form and
void" in Genesis 1:2 literally mean a desolation, a wilderness, an
empty, uninhabited ruin. These words, tohu and bohu are very strong
words and denote CATASTROPHE. They strongly suggest that some
sort of primeval cataclysm, or several such cataclysms, occurred.

Destruction!
97

Paroxysm!

Chaos!

Scripture gives no data for determining HOW LONG AGO the universe
was created. And in the first chapter of Genesis, it only records THREE
creative acts: 1) the heavens and the earth (verse 1); 2) new animal
life (verses 20-21); and 3) human life, Adam and Eve (verses 26-27).
The first creative act referred to the DATELESS PAST. The creation of
NEW forms of animal life, and Adam and Eve, occurred approximately
6,000 YEARS AGO. Obviously, then, the first chapter of Genesis is not
describing the original creation of the heavens and earth as occurring
in seven consecutive days.

After the chaos and destruction which occurred, in verse two of


Genesis one, YEHOVAH God began a process of re-creation,
reconstruction, if you please, which lasted for seven days. Verse 16 of
Genesis one does NOT describe the sun and moon and stars being
created on the fourth day. How could light have been created on the
first day, but the sun and stars which IMPART LIGHT not till the fourth
day? The original Hebrew for "made" in verse 16 actually means
"made to appear, made visible." The sun and moon were created "in
the beginning." The light came from the sun, of course, but the VAPOR
in the earth's atmosphere diffused the light. After the great cataclysm,
the earth was cut off from the light of the sun, moon and stars.
Darkness prevailed everywhere. As verse two says: "And the earth
was (BECAME) without form and void (TOHU and BOHU); and
DARKNESS was upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of God
moved upon the face of the waters."

What do we see then? An earth destroyed, in pitch darkness, covered


by water, the continents submerged, due to some great cataclysm.

During the process of RECONSTRUCTION or RE-CREATION, YEHOVAH


God first caused the light from the sun to penetrate the atmosphere
once again, in a DIFFUSED manner (Genesis 1:3-5), allowing day and
night to become discernible. He created order in the atmosphere
(verses 6-8). He caused the dry land to appear once again (verse 10).
He caused the earth to once again bring forth life, plants, vegetation,
of all kinds. As the turgid clouds and atmospheric disturbances cleared
away, He caused the sun, moon and stars to once again become
visible from the earth's surface (verses 14-18).
98

Then, having REFASHIONED the surface of the earth, and having


prepared it, YEHOVAH created NEW living creatures -- NEW animal life
of all kinds, from great whales to small fish, from elephants to rodents,
from flying birds to flying fish and insects -- to REPOPULATE the earth,
and to REPLENISH it (verses 20-25).

Something had happened to the Pre-Adamic earth. It had been


overwhelmed in a MIGHTY CATASTROPHE, or a long series of
catastrophes, which is briefly described in verse 2 of Genesis chapter
1.

But what happened?

The world before Adam came to an ABRUPT, screeching end. It was


cut short by flooding and upheaval, stroke upon stroke of catastrophe.
This one short enigmatic, much misunderstood verse of the Bible,
contains within its cryptic message a story that will amaze you. This
one little verse may hold a CLUE as to what happened to the earth,
after the original time when it was created, beautiful, and to be
"inhabited," and before the time of Adam and Eve, when it had to be
refashioned, reshaped, refurbished, and rebuilt.

This one verse, in essence, may cover a time span of MILLIONS of


years. If YEHOVAH God originally created the earth six to ten billion
years ago, and over millions of years created VARIOUS and sundry life
forms, causing them to become buried in massive burials to form
deposits of coal, peat, and oil and natural gas; if He spent millions of
years preparing the world for the eventual time when He would create
Man IN HIS OWN IMAGE [not some amorphous BLOB]; who are we to
complain?

Vast Periods of Time?

Vast periods of time, and many successive ecological niches, had to


exist in the earth, for algal reefs of hundreds of feet to grow in place.
Much time was required for vast quantities of vegetation to live, grow,
and die, and to become entombed, to create vast deposits of coal in
Kansas, Oklahoma, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia and
Pennsylvania.

This vast period of time YEHOVAH put to good use.

As Robert Macdonald shows, in a paper entitled Geology:


99

"The fossil record contains hundreds of zones, each with its own
particular faunal assemblage. What is the chance that such an
invariant worldwide sequence of life forms could be built up if they all
lived CONTEMPORANEOUSLY, and the sequence in which they are
found were only a burial order? How could a burial order based not on
water sorting, but on environments do the job?...

"Suppose that in a worldwide catastrophe, one group of organisms


were brought in from one area and deposited, then another
assemblage from another area were deposited on top of that, and so
on. A local sequence of life forms would be built up. But the chances
would be against the deposition of fossils in the same order in a local
sequence in another area. Consider the chance that the same order
would occur in all sequences worldwide. It would be NIL!

"There is NO WAY to account for the sequence in faunal succession by


ONE catastrophe. Nor is there any way to account for this sequence by
a SERIES of catastrophes, or by a LONG DRAWN-OUT catastrophe. If
all these Paleozoic and Mesozoic organisms were contemporaneous,
there would inevitably have been some mixing of early and late forms.

"The ONLY explanation is that each geologic horizon does indeed


represent a DIFFERENT time in the past during which a unique
assemblage of life forms was living and being deposited in many parts
of the world. Slow or incremental deposition is therefore essential to
give time for worldwide changes in populations of fauna whose
remains preserved as fossils vary from one stratum to another."

During the geologic ages of the earth's past, life went on in a normal
fashion for millions of years. Fossil reefs obviously grew in the place in
which they are found. Standing trees, with their roots in place, tracks
and trails both on land and on the sea bottoms, layer upon layer
containing burrows and borings made by animals just as they do in the
sea-bottoms today, all show that most of the geologic column was
created OVER MILLIONS OF YEARS, not in the Flood of Noah's time, or
some other isolated catastrophe.

Although the record in the earth's strata clearly shows that great
catastrophes did take place, in the earth's past, the record also shows
that there were periods of millions of years in which no violent
cataclysms occurred. During these calm, relatively nonviolent periods,
great CREATIVE PROCESSES were going on. Cyclothems of coal were
formed. As Macdonald points out, coal is commonly found in a
sequence of beds called a cyclothem -- a cycle of beds repeated over
100

and over again, perhaps dozens of times. Much time would be needed
for such deposits to be made, one on top of another.

The Pre-Adamic World

How, then, are we to understand the "Pre-Adamic world"?

What was it like?

Robert Macdonald gives a good answer:

"The fossil record shows that new organisms appeared in the record
from time to time, and at other times groups of organisms have
become extinct. This shows that at times God created new organisms,
and at other times, species were destroyed or allowed to die out.
There is continuity to this pre-Adamic world. It would appear that
there is no record of the COMPLETE destruction of all life during that
period before Adam."

Macdonald continues: "I therefore do not consider the pre-Adamic


world as a series of creations, but one creation, even though the acts
of new life forms were not all simultaneous.

"Why the sequence of life we find in faunal succession?

What possible reason could there be for God creating the organisms of
the pre-Adamic world 'by stages' instead of all at one time?

Perhaps a better question would be

'Why a pre-Adamic world at all?'

Human answers to these questions are bound to be somewhat


speculative since God has not revealed this knowledge, but a few ideas
have been proposed.

"It has been suggested that there was pre-Adamic life so that the
angels could have something to rule over and work with. This seems a
likely possibility, but there must be more to it."

Robert Macdonald goes on:

"The first life forms created apparently were bacteria, algae and
possibly worms, 'simple' organisms that could survive in a barren and
101

sterile environment. The points in the sequence which mark the first
appearance of new life forms indicate where God created new species,
and added them to an already viable ecological system. These new
organisms were added from time to time as the environment became
prepared for them by the former ecological system.

"The succession of life forms added by creation was one of generally


increasing complexity and size. Thus the sequence observed in faunal
succession was not a result of evolution, but one necessitated by
practicality. It took a few 'simple' small varieties of organisms in the
beginning to prepare the way for more numerous varieties of larger
and more complex organisms, and so on."

Macdonald asserts:

"Understanding the reasons for this sequence imparts an


understanding of at least one possible purpose of the pre-Adamic
creation -- to prepare the earth for man. This preparation was not only
of the environment, but also of the fossil fuels and our mineral
resources which made possible the industrial revolution."

The world before Adam can only be understood by studying the


evidence of that world contained within the earth's strata. The
Scriptures allude to such a world in the very briefest of terms. But
there is not a word in the Bible that would lead one to understand that
physical life on earth existed before Adam. The Bible is largely silent
about that ancient world. It remains, therefore, for the study of
geology and paleontology to guide us and to provide information about
that by-gone world.

The fact that geology shows us that various forms of animal and plant
life became extinct, at different periods of the earth's geologic past,
would indicate that YEHOVAH God allowed these extinctions for a
purpose. At times, to accomplish His purpose, the extinctions were
widespread and general, and involved catastrophe.

At the end of the Cretaceous period, the dinosaurs were exterminated.


However, frogs, turtles, lizards, snakes and crocodiles CONTINUED ON
THROUGH the boundary, into a new world. The destruction, although
vast and global in nature, was NOT universal.

Fundamentalists, who attempt to account for all life remains and


fossils within the past 6,000 years, simply dismiss the 100 miles of
evidence in the geologic column!
102

As Bertrand Russell, the famous philosopher once wrote: "The world


was created in 4004 B.C., complete with fossils, which were inserted
to try our faith. The world was created suddenly, but was made such
as it would have been if it had evolved. There is no logical impossibility
about this view. And similarly, there is no logical impossibility in the
view that the world was created five minutes ago, complete with
memories and records" (An Outline of Philosophy, p. 27).

Theodosius Dobzhansky, professor of genetics at the University of


California, at Davis, and professor emeritus at the Rockefeller
University, points out it is foolish to try to make the Bible into a primer
on natural science. If all the radiometric evidence is wrong, if the
duration of the geological and paleontological record is grossly
distorted, he adds, then the Creator must have seen fit to play
deceitful tricks on geologists and biologists. If fossils were placed by
the Creator where we find them now, so as to deliberately give the
appearance of great age and antiquity, then YEHOVAH God must be
absurdly deceitful. Dobzhansky added: "This is as revolting as it is
uncalled for."

Sir Albert Einstein once said, "I shall never believe that God plays dice
with the world." The God revealed in the pages of the Bible is a loving
Creator. He is not malicious, spiteful, capricious, or a "Practical Joker."
Nor is He a cosmic Magician pulling rabbits out of a hat.

The God of the Bible is a Creator -- a Builder -- a Designer and


Architect, Engineer, Supreme Draftsman, and Originator. Everything
He does it with plan and purpose. NOTHING is haphazard. His original
creation was PERFECT. And every addition He has made was PERFECT,
for the purpose for which He designed it.

Creation is an ongoing process. It is still continuing, today. Each new


life which is born is, in effect, a "new creation."

Embarrassed Creationists?

In the book of Genesis we read the account of the creation of man.


The chronicler relates: "Then God said, 'Let us make man IN OUR
IMAGE, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of
the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all
the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.'
103

"So God created man IN HIS OWN IMAGE, IN THE IMAGE OF GOD he
created him; male and female he created them" (Genesis 1:26-27,
RSV).

More information is given in chapter 2, verse 7: "Then the Lord God


formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the
breath of life; and man became a living being."

Is this creation account mere legend? ancient mythology? Or is it


factual -- literal -- historical?

How does the evidence of paleontology relate to this question?

A person searching for TRUTH must recognize that he must not


prejudge an issue before he gets all the facts -- before all the available
evidence is in. And he must be willing to change his views if at any
future time new evidence comes along which controverts his previous
conclusions.

So it is with the field of anthropology and early man and dating


techniques as they have been applied to fossil man. In past years,
most if not all creationists have argued that radiometric dating
methods, particularly RADIOCARBON dating, must be in absolute error
because they would indicate that the earth is much older than 6,000
years. Also, POTASSIUM-ARGON dating, and radiocarbon dating, using
this reasoning, must a priori be in error because they show that early
man lived on the earth for anywhere FROM 40,000 YEARS TO THREE
OR FOUR MILLION YEARS.

Potassium-argon dating methods have been used to date geologic


material associated with remains of HOMO ERECTUS and
NEANDERTHAL MAN. If these creatures are true men, and if the dates
are essentially accurate, then man has indeed been on the earth for
many scores of thousands of years, as anthropologists insist on telling
us. And they don't have any ax to grind; they are merely reporting
what they find in the fossil fields of the earth. They are not striving to
prove evolution. They DID NOT invent these dating methods merely to
embarrass creationists.

Even more embarrassing to creationists of the old school, however, is


the realization that more than one dating method APPEAR to reveal the
same essential TRUTH of the antiquity of fossil man.
104

Creationists continually assert that radiocarbon dating is a fraud; is


unreliable because of the Noachian deluge; is based on false
assumptions related to the influx of cosmic rays into the earth's
atmosphere; and is therefore untrustworthy and must be categorically
rejected.

As if that were not enough to disturb the quiescent theories dates for
the last 8,000 years have been carefully examined and tested by
comparison with tree-ring dating methods, or DENDROCHRONOLOGY.
And to the consternation of most creationists, the two methods
APPEAR to be IN GENERAL AGREEMENT as far back as they have been
compared!

As if that were not enough to disturb the quiescent theories of


creationists, and give them nightmares in their sleep, now a new
dating method has entered the field -- RACEMIZATION, or the
comparison of the proportion of D amino acids in fossil remains with L
amino acids. This new, totally INDEPENDENT dating method,
unfortunately, APPEARS to agree with dendrochronology and
radiocarbon 14 dating and potassium-argon dating, and APPEARS to
provides an independent check on the other systems.

What does all this mean?

Pity the poor creationist who believes that the earth was just created
by divine fiat 6,000 years ago because that is what he thinks,
sincerely, the Bible says.

Such discoveries have rocked the faith of many erstwhile believers in


the Bible and the inspiration of Scripture. But do such discoveries
really CONFLICT with revelation? Is there really a CONTRADICTION in
the Biblical revelation and the apparently well attested, authenticated
discoveries of paleontology?

It is time we re-examine some of the basic theological premises we


have taken for granted and assumed to be true without adequately
testing them by the Bible record itself. It is also time to re-examine
some of the pet theories of the evolutionists and the dating methods
they use to determine the age of the fossils they uncover!

Radiocarbon Dating

In 1963 two British scientists, Don Brothwell of the British Museum


and Eric Higgs of Cambridge, took stock of the many methods
105

developed up to that time to answer archaeological questions,


including dating methods. Only twenty years before that time, nobody
would have dreamed of such scientific discoveries relating to the
dating of artifacts.

Of all the dating methods, C-14 or radiocarbon dating has created the
greatest interest to date. Developed by Willard F. Libby of the
University of Chicago -- between 1941 and 1945 Libby participated in
the development of the atomic bomb -- this method of dating has
become the touchstone of all fossil dating up to 40,000 years.

Libby postulated that cosmic ray-produced radiocarbon might be a key


to age determination. Supposing that C-14 atoms produced by cosmic
rays would be readily oxidized to carbon dioxide and would mix freely
with the atmospheric carbon dioxide, and because of the rapid
turnover of the earth's atmosphere, Libby assumed the radiocarbon
portion of carbon dioxide would achieve uniform global distribution,
and would logically be taken up in the same proportion by all plant life
during photosynthesis. All animal life, which indirectly or directly lives
off of plants and vegetation could also be expected to contain the
same UNIVERSAL proportion of C-14. Similarly, even sea life would be
thus affected, because carbon dioxide of the atmosphere is in
exchange equilibrium with the oceans.

Adds E.H. Willis, "Upon the death of an organism, further uptake or


exchange of radiocarbon would cease, leaving the trapped radiocarbon
to decay exponentially with time" (Brothwell, Don, and Higgs, Eric,
Science in Archaeology: A Comprehensive Survey of Progress
and Research).

Simply explained, cosmic rays continually bombard our planet earth.


Upon striking our atmosphere, neutrons are produced that react with
atoms of nitrogen in our atmosphere, creating tiny quantities of C-14.
This newly formed C-14 forms a chemical bond with oxygen as the
polymer carbon dioxide. Plants cannot distinguish between carbon
dioxide containing radiocarbon and the normal kind and absorb both
into their tissues and convert them into food by photosynthesis.
Animals and men eat the plants. Thus C-14 passes into the body of
every living thing.

Since C-14 is radioactive, and radioactive substances decay at FIXED


rates, it is possible to determine that after a specified amount of time
the amount of radioactivity in a substance will be reduced exactly one
106

half, or one fourth, and so on. This is called the "half life" of the
radioisotope.

The half life of C-14 was at first thought to be 5,567 years. Thus a tree
cut down 5,568 years ago theoretically ought to produce only half as
many Geiger counter ticks as one chopped down today, because it
would have exactly half as much radiocarbon remaining in its tissues.

In January 9, 1948, the first conference took place to study the


usefulness of Libby's method for archaeology. After that time, a flood
of materials from the world over poured into Dr. Libby's lab to be
analyzed. Bits of Egyptian mummies, charcoal from an ancient
caveman's fire, the tooth of a mammoth, a piece of a beam of a Hittite
temple, and hundreds of other objects, were tested.

Libby's theory was quickly thought to be confirmed. Comparisons of


radiocarbon dates of material with dates derived archaeologically often
turned out to be strikingly similar. Although Libby always estimated an
uncertainty factor of about ten percent in his datings -- thus a piece of
wood 4,000 years old would be said to be 4,000 plus or minus about
400 years -- Libby's method helped archaeologists pin down dates
which could not otherwise be determined.

It is not possible, however, to give PRECISE radiocarbon dates in


practice because of UNCERTAINTIES involved in the measurement of
samples. As a result, C-14 dates are always quoted with what is called
a "Standard Deviation" which represents their degree of accuracy. "For
example, a date of 1,000 BP (Before Present) with a Standard
Deviation of fifty years has a 68.3 per cent chance (one Standard
Deviation) of lying between 950 and 1,050 BP, a 95.3 per cent chance
(two Standard Deviations) of lying between 900 and 1,100 BP, and a
99.8 per cent (three Standard Deviations) of lying between 850 and
1150 BP" (Peter James, Centuries of Darkness. New Jersey: Rutgers
University Press, 1991. Appendix I, p. 322).

Unfortunately, a large number of problems have been encountered in


applying C-14 dating to ARCHAEOLOGY. First, the vast majority of
results have a Standard Deviation greater than 50 years in practice, so
that single dates for excavations are of LITTLE VALUE where a century
or two is often the scale of the debate. Therefore, the accepted
practice today, where C-14 samples are actually taken, is to produce a
SERIES of dates for each site.
107

Second, in certain circumstances OLD CARBON can be absorbed by


living organisms and produce radiocarbon dates that are TOO OLD.
Notes author Peter James: "For example, VOLCANOES often release
OLD CARBON before their eruption, something which may well be a
contributory source of CONFUSION in the debate over dating the
explosion of Thera [in the Aegean ]" (Ibid., p. 323). The dating of
both shellfish and reeds create further problems because they are
affected by the presence of OLD CARBON in seawater and freshwater
respectively. Ironically, archaeologists tried to apply C-14 dating
methods to reeds in Egypt because of their use as a bonding material
in the brick walls of temples and tombs.

Several difficulties are encountered when assessing the CLOSENESS of


the association between dated samples and the event for which a date
is required. Because of its presence in large quantities on most
archaeological excavations, CHARCOAL is commonly used to produce
the vast majority of radiocarbon dates. This is primarily due to the fact
that in acid soils charcoal is usually about the only organic material to
survive.

As Peter James explains, "there are TWO distinct problems related to


the use of CHARCOAL. One is that large WOODEN BEAMS used for
construction may well be fashioned from trees which had grown for
several hundred years. If the building is then burnt down, the OUTER
PART of the timbers will be destroyed, leaving behind pieces from the
CENTRE of the beams. If these remaining sections of the original
timbers are then sampled for radiocarbon dating they will give a
FALSELY OLD READING...Of course, if the timbers were REUSED from
older buildings the discrepancy would be even greater" (Ibid.).
Dendrochronologist Peter Kuniholm produced a good example of this
when he dated a house in the Phrygian capital on the city mound at
Gordion. While one group of timbers had been felled in the 7th century
B.C., "three other pieces were cut about FOUR CENTURIES EARLIER. If
only the latter had been collected the result would have been an
entirely ERRONEOUS notion about the date of [the building]"
(Dendrochronology and Radiocarbon Dates for Gordion and
Other Phrygian Sites, 1988).

R. B. Warner, writing in the Ulster Journal of Archaeology,


explained that the other problem with CHARCOAL SAMPLES is that
many C-14 dates have been produced by collecting together large
amounts of FRAGMENTARY charcoal. The problem with this is that
fragmentary charcoal can easily be moved around sites by continuing
activity and differs from bones in that the CONDITION of the sample
108

cannot indicate how QUICKLY it was buried. "The consequence of


these two drawbacks is that it has been argued that the estimate of
the potential AGE-LAPSE between a sample and the stratum in which it
was found should be around 200 years in the case of charcoal from
long-lived species of trees" (Peter James, Century of Darkness, p.
324).

In the more recent historic period -- the last 2,000 years or so --


radiocarbon dates generally agree with historical dates. So with the
seeming success of radiocarbon dating in this period, Libby cautiously
stated that "in terms of physical principles of course, a method which
works for three thousand years might extend all the way to fifty
thousand...."

He went on to admit, "However, this is MERE CONJECTURE" (Willard F.


Libby, History of Radiocarbon Dating, Symposium on Radioactive
Dating and Methods of Low Level Counting, March 1967, p. 24).

He was in for a shock!

Writing in the January 1956 issue of the American Scientist, Dr.


Libby briefly related the history of C-14 dating: "The first SHOCK Dr.
Arnold and I had was that our advisors informed us that history
extended back only 5,000 years.

"We had thought initially that we would be able to get samples all
along the curve back to 30,000 years, put the points in, and then our
work would be finished.

"You read in the books and find statements that such and such a
society or archaeological site is 20,000 years old.

"We learned rather abruptly that these numbers, these ancient ages,
are not known; in fact, it is at about the time of the first dynasty of
Egypt that the earliest historical date of any real certainty has been
established. So we had, in the initial stages, the opportunity to check
against knowns, principally EGYPTIAN ARTIFACTS, and in the second
stage we had to go into the great wilderness of prehistory to see
whether there were elements of internal consistency which would lead
one to believe that the method was sound" (Willard F. Libby,
"Radiocarbon Dating," American Scientist, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan. 1956,
p. 107).
109

But what about the "historical" dates? According to the most liberal
estimates Egyptian history begins approximately 5,000 years ago.
Some historians, with good reason, believe that Egyptian history does
not extend that far into the past. The idea that the various Egyptian
dynasties (as recorded by the Egyptian priest Manetho) existed
consecutively in time has been seriously questioned by many scholars
and is, in fact, totally in ERROR.

This very fact alone has a tremendous bearing on the radiocarbon


method of dating. If the dates propagated by the history books are in
error, what is there for Libby to hang the accuracy of his dating
method on? Without KNOWN historical dates to check an object to be
dated against, how can we know for certain that the indicated
radiocarbon years are the same as actual calendar years?

And what about dating artifacts OLDER than 5,000 years?

"There was only one way to check the reliability of radiocarbon dating
over a longer span," noted archaeologist Edward S. Deevey, Jr., "and
that was to test it on the materials of GEOLOGY and PREHISTORIC
ARCHAEOLOGY. The age of such materials is not 'known' in the same
sense as that of mummy cases or trees [and these are suspect]"
(Edward S. Deevey, Jr., "Radiocarbon Dating," Scientific American,
Vol. 186, No. 2, Feb. 1959, p. 25).

The bottom line is that there are no ACCURATE historical dates over
3,000 years with which to check Libby's dating method. Radiocarbon
was entirely alone.

Dr. Libby was forced to make this point clear by heavily QUALIFYING
his statements. But most books on evolution -- and also history and
archaeology -- simply gloss over such points as if they didn't matter.
Laymen are led to believe that the radiocarbon dating method is
infallible -- just like the Pope!

If this was not enough, there is a HUGE ROADBLOCK to the accurate


determination of dates using this dating method -- C-14
EQUILIBRIUM!

When cosmic-ray particles collide with the earth's atmosphere, free


neutrons are produced that react with nitrogen atoms. A neutron,
when it enters the nitrogen nucleus, knocks out a proton -- which
changes the nitrogen atom to a C-14 atom.
110

Dr. Libby calculated the PRESENT PRODUCTION RATE of these C-14


atoms, and postulated that if this rate has been going on for
thousands upon thousands of years at its PRESENT rate, then the
following evidence MUST be found:

"If this production has proceeded at a constant rate for many


thousands of years, then the amount of C-14 present on the surface of
the earth should reach a CONSTANT value" ("Radiocarbon Dating,"
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 1966
edition, Vol. 11, p. 291).

Libby himself commented on this "constant" value or amount: "...We


can see that IF the cosmic rays have been bombarding the earth in
essentially THEIR PRESENT INTENSITY for 10 or 20 thousand years,
we can expect that a STEADY-STATE CONDITION had been
established, in which the rate of formation of carbon-14 is EQUAL to
the rate at which it disappears" (Willard F. Libby, "Radiocarbon
Dating," American Scientist, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan. 1956, p. 99).

If this ASSUMPTION is correct, the C-14 ratio of any ancient specimen


or artifact could be related to the PRESENT ratio of C-14 in modern
specimens. Dating then becomes very simple. IF NO OTHER
UNKNOWN FACTORS had disrupted the method, a radiocarbon year
would equal a calendar year.

This EQUILIBRIUM is vital to the theory! The production of C-14 MUST


equal the amount leaving the system in disintegration if this method of
dating is to be valid. However, it takes a LONG TIME to bring the C-14
level into equilibrium.

If the system is not yet in equilibrium, it simply means that not


enough carbon-14 has been produced to match the decay of this atom.
It also means that old dates determined by this method would
therefore be MUCH MORE RECENT!

Is C-14 equilibrium a fact? Is this dating method viable?

Dr. Libby, and those working with him, estimated that there were 18.8
atoms of radiocarbon being produced every MINUTE, per gram of
carbon.

Now, logically, if there were an equilibrium between the rate of


production and disintegration, LIVING samples should show a
disintegration rate of 18.8 C-14 atoms per minute per gram of carbon.
111

Can this be verified?

When 18 samples taken from various latitudes were analyzed, they did
NOT show an equilibrium! The disintegration rate of the sample only
averaged 15.3 disintegrations per minute per gram; therefore the
production rate was almost 19 % greater than the rate of
disintegration!

Libby himself preferred a value of 16.1 (the value for sea shells) for
the disintegration rate -- even though the average for organic
specimens was 15.3. This still represents a sizable discrepancy --
almost 15% between the production rate and the disintegration rate.

Why is it so IMPORTANT to have this equilibrium? Again, Dr. Libby


puts his finger on the crucial point:

"If one were to imagine that the cosmic radiation had been turned off
until a short while ago, the enormous amount of radiocarbon
necessary to the equilibrium state WOULD NOT have been
manufactured and the specific radioactivity of living matter would be
MUCH LESS than the rate of production calculated from the neutron
intensity" (Willard F. Libby, Radiocarbon Dating, Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1955, p. 8).

Yet, the 18 samples from the various latitudes indicated that


equilibrium has NOT YET BEEN REACHED. If this is so, the cosmic
system may have been turned on just A SHORT TIME AGO! This, of
course, has other implications

The fact is, there simply may not have been enough elapsed time to
produce the amount of radiocarbon necessary to bring the system into
steady-state equilibrium.

If this is true, how would it affect the radiocarbon dating method?

Now how did Libby overcome this problem in his mind? He answers
this very question in his book Radiocarbon Dating: "The agreement
seems to be sufficiently within the EXPERIMENTAL ERRORS involved,
so that we have reason for confidence in the theoretical picture set
forth above" (p. 7).

Is this true -- was it just an "experimental error"?


112

In 1963, a significant report in the journal Reviews of Geophysics


was published by geophysicist Richard E. Lingenfelter. With his
calculations and conclusions he seemed to put to rest the possibility
that the lack of equilibrium was only "experimental error."

Lingenfelter came to the conclusion that "there is strong indication,


despite the large errors, that the present natural production rate
EXCEEDS the natural decay rate by as much as 25 percent...it appears
that equilibrium in the production and decay of carbon-14 MAY NOT BE
MAINTAINED in detail" (Richard E. Lingenfelter, "Production of Carbon-
14 by Cosmic Ray Neutrons," Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 1, No. 1,
Feb. 1963, p. 51).

Some years later, Hans E. Suess commented on Lingenfelter's


experiments by saying: "it seems probable that the present-day
inventory of natural C-14 DOES NOT CORRESPOND to the equilibrium
value, but is INCREASING" (Journal of Geophysical Research,
"Secular Varieties of the Cosmic-ray Produced Carbon-14 in the
Atmosphere and Their Interpretations," Vol. 70, No. 23, Dec. 1, 1965,
p. 5947).

Naturally, the evolutionists felt that any discrepancy could be


explained without jeopardizing the method. But nonetheless all
explanations are still UNPROVED hypotheses.

The production rate seemed to be 20 to 30 percent GREATER than the


disintegration rate -- depending on what base figures were used.

Many different "explanations" were concocted to rectify this


discrepancy but, once again, there was simply NO WAY to be sure! A
lack of equilibrium could be a FACT! This could mean there was some
DRASTIC CHANGE in the radiocarbon inventory in prehistoric times --
such as the period of time mentioned in Genesis 1:2. Was the C-14
system nonfunctional in terms of its effect on the earth until just a
short time ago? Have other factors disturbed or changed the crucial C-
14-to-ordinary-carbon ratio? Should all the great stretches of time
scientists claim for tested fossils be TELESCOPED into a few thousand
years? Could it just be possible?

Laboratories around the world continued pouring out thousands of


dates. Meanwhile, the layman was convinced that science had proved
that relatively recent animal and human fossils were anywhere from
8,000 to 53,000 B.P. (Before the Present). One date of 65,000 B.P.
was measured!
113

However, if the discrepancies are indeed a fact, these dates may have
only been 6,000 years old -- or younger.

In the meantime, Dr. Lingenfelter pressed forward in his studies of


cosmic radiation and its relationship to C-14 production. Despite his
positive findings published in 1963, he felt it necessary to
RECONSIDER them and, in 1969, made the following admission: "The
uncertainties in...the production rate and the inventory are LARGE
ENOUGH to accommodate a wide range of Ro [ratio between
production and decay of carbon-14] including PERFECT EQUILIBRIUM"
(personal communication).

So what it boils down to is that after 50 years scientists still cannot be


sure that a BASIC ASSUMPTION of the C-14 dating method is true!
They are not even sure of the production rate of radiocarbon!

So why, pray tell me, have thousands of C-14 dates been published as
if they are fact? How can newspapers, magazines and school text
books be written as though C-14 dating is certain?

Another source of error is inherent in the material. Some aquatic


animals have flesh that shows fewer traces of C-14 than their shell.
Some plants do not take in as much C-14 as other plants in different
environments. Only as enough evidence of these anomalies is
accumulated can the errors be corrected.

Another problem is exhaust gases from automobiles. As vast quantities


of carbon compounds are belched into the air, diluting the carbon
compounds naturally found in the atmosphere, diminishing the
percentage of C-14 found there, this makes certain plants and animals
in such areas appear to have decayed MUCH MORE than they have.

There are many more sources of MINOR ERROR. Even the "half life" of
C-14 has had to undergo revision, and it is now assumed to be 5,730
years. All the measurements taken before 1961, therefore, have had
to be recalibrated. Nevertheless, radiocarbon dating has become a KEY
tool in the hands of archaeologists. But another highly touted tool,
providing a cross check of C-14 dates, is the use of
DENDROCHRONOLOGY, or TREE RINGS.

Tree Rings from the Past

Scientists have tried to solve their dating problems by submitting C-14


to the TREE RING dating method for verification. This, in itself, was a
114

tacit admission that all the attempts to verify their BASIC assumptions
of the C-14 method were inconclusive at best!

Many geophysicists, like Richard Lingenfelter, were now falling back on


tree ring dating methods to TEST the viability of radiocarbon dating. In
Lingenfelter's own words, "Because of the UNCERTAINTIES in the
calculation of both the production rate and decay rate of C-14 we find
that the BEST DETERMINATION of the ratio of these two rates is
obtained from the C-14 variations determined from dendrochronology
[tree ring dating]" (Richard E. Lingenfelter and R. Ramaty,
Astrophysical and Geophysical Variations in C-14 Production,
Maryland: Goddard Space Flight Center Publication, July 1969, p. 29).

With the development of tree-ring dating sequences, one way, it was


thought, in which the validity of radiocarbon dates could be tested was
against the separately developed tree-ring chronologies of oaks from
Germany and Ireland -- and the bristlecone pines from California. The
outcome was that these comparisons revealed that before about 500
B.C. C-14 dates are TOO YOUNG. Peter James notes that "the
'calibration' required to convert Carbon-14 results into calendar years
rises to OVER A MILLENNIUM for the Neolithic of Europe" (Centuries
of Darkness, p. 325).

The trouble is, calibration is not a simple matter -- the amount of C-14
in the atmosphere FLUCTUATED tremendously in the past, falling at
times and then rising again significantly within a SINGLE CENTURY.
According to Peter James "the calibration curve produced by
comparing radiocarbon dates to the tree-ring chronology, rather than
being a smooth progression, is full of SHORT-TERM WIGGLES. At
certain points a radiocarbon result can be calibrated to several
alternative calendar dates, without any way of being sure which is the
correct choice."

There is a complex period of time known to the chronologists as the


"1st-millennium B.C. radiocarbon DISASTER"! It appears that between
400 and 800 B.C. the calibration curve is essentially FLAT, with ALL
the calendar dates within that range equating to a C-14 date of around
500 B.C.! Michael Baille, who developed the Irish oak
dendrochronology, came to the conclusion "that it is IMPOSSIBLE to
sensibly resolve the radiocarbon dates of ANY samples whose true
ages lie between 400 and 800 B.C. This is a CATASTROPHE for Late
Bronze Age/Iron Age archaeology although one which has been
predicted for some time" ("Some Observations on the High-Precision
Calibration of Routine Dates," Archaeology, Dendrochronology and
115

the Radiocarbon Calibration Curve. University of Edinburgh Dept.


of Arch. Occas. Paper 9, 51-63).

But, my friends, how ACCURATE is tree ring dating?

Tree ring analysis was proposed in 1837 by Charles Babbage, although


the beginnings go all the way back to Leonardo da Vinci. Evidently da
Vinci was the first to note that the yearly growth of trees in spring-
time produces an apparent sequence of annual tree-rings in the wood.

The real investigator of tree-ring dating, however, is Dr. Andrew


Ellicott Douglass, physicist and astronomer, formerly director of the
University of Arizona's Steward Observatory. In 1929 he wrote that by
reading the story told by tree rings, the horizons of history in the
United States had been pushed back nearly eight centuries before
Columbus, establishing an accurate chronology for the south-western
United States.

Dr. Douglass died some time ago. Through his intensive investigations
of tree rings he claimed that trees add a new ring EACH YEAR, and
counting the rings can tell you the age of the tree. But he discovered
that all rings are not of equal thickness -- some are narrow, some
wide, and often a series of narrow rings or broad rings would occur.
Douglass reflected that the fat rings represented "fat years" and the
lean rings "lean years" -- or moist and dry years, respectively.

Most people believe that trees produce ONE ring each year. Is this
true? Does one tree ring ALWAYS represent one year? Not necessarily
so! It is common knowledge in botanical circles that some trees
produce "false rings."

In the book Botany, the authors make the following assertion: "The
occurrence of FALSE growth rings may cause the age of the tree to be
OVERESTIMATED. Such rings are produced by a temporary slowing of
growth during the growing season" (Carl L. Wilson, et al. New York:
Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1966, p. 130).

In another book entitled Botany, author Wilfred W. Robbins states


that other phenomena causing false rings could be defoliation by
insects, drought, and variation in rainfall (New York: John Wiley, 2nd
edition, 1959, pp. 110-111).

Amazingly, Libby challenged the ring-per-year theory himself.


"Recently, it has been reported that some trees add MORE THAN ONE
116

ring per year, and thus a question has been raised about the accuracy
of tree ring dates.

"This finding indicates that rings sometimes have been INCORRECTLY


correlated with years, TOO GREAT AN AGE having been assigned from
tree rings" (Willard F. Libby, "Accuracy of Radiocarbon Dates,"
Science, Vol. 140, No. 3564, April 19, 1963, p. 270).

Libby's statement was not based on thin air! He was familiar with the
work done in the state of Texas by W.S. Glock -- which revealed that
SPECIAL conditions are required for trees to put on only one ring per
year consistently.

W.S. Glock and S.R. Agerter put their findings in writing in the journal
Endeavor:

"It has long been supported that tree rings are formed annually and so
can be used to date trees. The studies of tree ring formation...have
shown that this is NOT always so, as MORE than one ring may be
formed in one year.

"Two growth layers, one THICK, the other THIN and lenticular, proved
to be more common than one growth layer in this particular increment
[that was studied]. THREE growth layers, in fact, were NOT unusual. A
maximum of FIVE growth layers was discovered in the trunks and
branches of two trees.

"It must be pointed out that these intraannuals were as distinctly and
as sharply defined on the outer margin as any SINGLE annual
increment" ("Anomalous Patterns in Tree Rings." Jan. 1963, Vol. 22,
pp. 9, 13).

The researchers concluded that it would have been IMPOSSIBLE to


know which rings were put on in what year -- except for effects of
frosts in various years visible in the trees.

Douglass tried to push his research back further and further into the
past, collecting cores and samples of wood from ancient trees used in
old pueblos and Indian villages. He believed that he could "cross-date"
or "overlap" the tree rings of different trees of different ages, and
gradually push the new chronometer back to before the birth of the
Messiah.
117

Since that time, new advances have been made, using the redwoods
and giant sequoias of California, and the bristlecone pines, which are
up to 4,500 years old -- the oldest living organisms in the world.

By cross checking bristlecone pine dates with radiocarbon dates, the


reliability of the method was thought to be verified. Using dead wood,
C.W. Ferguson of the University of Arizona has obtained an
"unquestionably accurate back-dating to the year 5,200 B.C." (C.W.
Ceram, The First American, New York: Harcourt Bace, Inc., 1971, p.
134).

Tree ring experts (Dendrochronologists) claim that the BRISTLECONE


PINE puts on only ONE ring per year. In their researches, so they say,
they found no false or additional rings per year.

They said: "These results are in contrast to the findings...where


branches from a wide variety of Texas-grown trees reveal multiple
growth layers attributed to varying temperatures and soil moisture"
(Harold C. Fritts, Bristlecone Pine in the White Mountains of
California, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1969, p. 32).

According to the author, the above results were on young branches of


LOW-ELEVATION trees. These, the dendrochronologists admitted,
might grow rings SEVERAL times a year during a long frost-free
season.

But, according to Harold C. Fritts, this multiplicity of tree rings in


young, low-elevation trees "led Libby [in 1963] to improperly infer that
discrepancies between tree-ring and radiocarbon dates in HIGH-
ELEVATION bristlecone pine may be attributed to frequent double
rings. All studies that have been conducted in the White Mountains
indicate that distinct double rings rarely occur" (Ibid., p. 32).

So what caused the discrepancies?

Once again, the present had to be used as a key to the past. Let us
suppose the White Mountain region was a LOW-LEVEL area for a long
period of time in the past and, then, was dramatically RAISED UP
during a period of mountain building? Is it also possible the climate of
the White Mountain area was similar to the climate of Texas at this
time? How can one know? How do we know it WAS THE SAME as it is
today?

But that's not all.


118

Very few people know that NO LIVING TREES older than about 4,900
years have ever been found. The more lengthy chronologies of 8,200
tree ring years (touted by dendrochronologists) are built up from
DEAD tree stumps that are pieced together in a very delicate manner.
When did these stumps die? How long have they been sitting there
dead?

According to the "experts" trees growing in the same area at the same
time will produce similar successions of ring widths. "Thus if a newly
felled tree some 200-300 years in age is examined, the rings from its
EARLY LIFE can be matched with their counterparts in the LATER
RINGS of a tree long since dead. The rings in this older tree can then
be matched with those from even older ones, and so on, extending the
sequence back in time as far as possible" (Peter Jones, Centuries of
Darkness. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1991. Appendix I, p.
321).

There are a number of problems with this. When this method of dating
is used, allowance has to be made for the growing time represented by
the sapwood (the soft outer part of the tree that has not yet developed
into proper rings) on the timber.

Another difficulty lies in the fact that trees of different species VARY
GREATLY in their sensitivity to the weather, so that "effective
sequences have to be built up using a SINGLE SPECIES" (Ibid.). Even
trees of the same species from the same locality will react
DIFFERENTLY to growing conditions -- the absolute widths of the rings
they form in a given year will not be the same. We have already seen
that some species (especially in lower elevations) can form MORE
THAN ONE ring per year!

There are further difficulties when dendrochronology is applied to


certain areas of the world. In some countries, such as Egypt, trees are
so scarce that local tree-ring dating could NEVER be built up. Further
more, in large parts of the world LONG SEQUENCES are still being
developed. Douglass' attempts to push dendrochronology back to
before the birth of Christ are highly suspect and, in the Eastern
Mediterranean, juniper succession so far stretches back ONLY to 1073
A.D. Even when a sequence does exist, "its application to
archaeological dating can still be difficult, since there is a real LACK of
archaeologically significant timbers. Most excavations produce NO
wooden objects, because they have simply rotted away. Only at those
sites in very dry or very wet conditions will wood survive" (Ibid., p.
322). When one or two pieces of wood from a site are proven to be
119

datable, they may have been REUSED from older buildings, but this
may not always be apparent to the archaeologists present.

Dendrochronology, therefore, was forced to extrapolate -- just as


radiocarbon was. Tree rings may also need correcting if conditions
were different in prehistoric times.

Puzzling Age Limit?

There are no LIVING 50,000-year-old trees. None at 25,000. None at


10,000. None at 8,200.

Not only that, but the oldest known trees -- the bristlecone pines --
present an enigma to uniformitarian, noncatastrophic thinking
evolutionists.

Speaking of these remarkable trees, dendrochronologist Edmund


Schulman noted: "Microscopic study of growth rings reveals that a
bristlecone pine tree found last summer at nearly 10,000 feet began
growing more than 4,600 years ago...Many of its neighbors are nearly
as old; we have now dated 17 bristlecone pines 4,000 years old or
more" (Edmund Schulman, "Bristlecone Pine, Oldest Living Things,"
National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 113, No. 3, March 1958).

Years before Dr. Schulman had been puzzled by the SAME


APPROXIMATE AGE LIMIT to the giant sequoia trees that he had been
studying. It was even more puzzling when he considered that these
magnificent trees enjoy near-perpetual life in the absence of
catastrophic destruction. They also appear to be immune to insect
attack.

With this in mind, Dr. Schulman asked the obvious question as early
as 1934:

"Pertinent also is the well-known fact that standing snags of this


species, other than those resulting from factors of gross destruction,
are unknown. Does this mean that shortly preceding 3,275 years ago
[or 4,000 years ago if John Muir's count was correct] ALL the then-
living giant sequoias were WIPED OUT BY SOME CATASTROPHE?"
(Edmund Schulman, "Longevity Under Adversity in Conifers," Science,
Vol. 119, March 26, 1934, p. 399).

Did you catch that?


120

Why is it that these still-living trees seem to be the ORIGINAL trees


that grew in the present stands?

It CANNOT be disputed that some series of cataclysmic occurrences


eradicated numerous forms of mammal life on the earth. Did a great
cataclysmic event occur just beyond the historical era -- around 4,300
years ago? Were the trees killed during this cataclysm? And, did the
effects from a catastrophe or series of catastrophes gravely DISTORT
dates from the prehistoric period? Were conditions so DIFFERENT in
the pre-historic period that radiocarbon and tree ring dating are
gravely affected? The evolutionists cannot adequately answer these
questions.

Potassium-Argon Dating

A simple method of dating that appears to be essentially reliable is


that of potassium-argon -- discovered in 1948. Potassium is the
lightest element possessing a naturally occurring radioactive isotope,
K-40, with a half life of 1,280 million years. K-40 transmutes to either
calcium 40 or argon 40, a gas, about one atom of K-40 in seven
becoming argon.

By measuring the amount of potassium and argon in a lava or rock


specimen, the specimen can be accurately dated with very refined
techniques. The method is based on two assumptions: that no argon
was trapped within the specimen at the time of its formation; and that
no potassium or argon was added or subtracted by external processes
during the lifetime of the mineral (Stokes, Essence of Earth History,
page 23).

Potassium, a common mineral found in sedimentary and igneous


rocks, offers great promise of dating many formations, and should
therefore be a useful tool for the scientists.

The potassium-argon dating method helps fill the gap between


uranium dating and the more accurate time frames of carbon 14
dating. It is useful for geological strata older than 40,000 years.
Theoretically, it helps us establish the age of those NEAR-HUMAN
CREATURES which existed and roamed various parts of the earth
during the Pleistocene age and before. This dating method has been
crucial in establishing the dates of the Australopithecines, HOMO
ERECTUS, HOMO HABILIS and similar creatures dating from several
hundred thousand years to a few million years in antiquity.
121

Use of this clock dated the Fort Ternan fossils found by Louis Leaky at
about 14 million years, give or take a few hundred thousand years.
Similarly the technique was useful in dating volcanic minerals at
Olduvai, and the deposits containing the 1959 skull of Zinjanthropus
turned out to be 1,750,000 years old, twice as old as had been
estimated on the basis of geological studies.

The basis for these dates, by and large, appears to be irrefutable.


Certainly, we must not reject out of hand, without due reason, these
and many other established dates. The scientific evidence is
substantial. In order to reconcile these findings with the biblical record
of creation, we conclude that these creatures -- Homo erectus, Homo
habilis, Swanscombe man -- WERE ALL PRE-ADAMIC CREATURES.

Meanwhile, another useful dating technique has come into vogue.

Racemization

Two researchers at the University of California at San Diego report that


men were living in the North American continent at least 50,000 years
ago. Dr. Jeffrey L. Bada, an assistant professor of oceanography at the
university's Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and Roy A.
Schroeder, a graduate student, analyzed skeletal remains found
between 1920 and 1935 around La Jolla, Del Mar, and ranging to
Laguna Beach and the Baldwin Hills section of Los Angeles.

Using a technique called "racemization," which determines how much


one form of an amino acid has changed into a slightly different form,
they dated one skull found near Del Mar at 48,000 years old.
Previously the oldest dated Amenzar skull was called Los Angeles Man,
and was dated by UCLA scientists using carbon-14 at 23,600 years. A
small sample of the same skull was analyzed by Bada and he arrived
at an age of 26,000 years.

The Scripps team dated a fragment of another old skull found near La
Jolla Shores at 44,000 years.

This discovery would indicate that early man came to the New World
long before 20,000 years ago, the date most anthropologists have
generally believed to be most accurate.
122

The findings have added a "new chapter in the history of man," the
scientists claim.

Dr. Jeffrey Bada's new technique for dating bones can be used for
dating purposes for fossils millions of years old. Bada measures the
amount of the "D-form" of certain amino acids found in all fossils.

Bada's technique is based on the fact that the amino acid components
of proteins can have two optical forms, or isomersthe D-form and the
L-form. After an organism dies, the L-form gradually converts to the
D-form. Modern amino acids consist almost totally of the L-form, but
ancient bones and fossils have a progressively higher ratio of the D-
form. Using his technique, Bada has dated a shark's vertebra at 8.7
million years and an ancient goat bone from the island of Majorca at
26,000 years.

Pre-Adamic Man?

If we accept the combined evidence of the various dating systems,


then we must conclude that various HOMINID CREATURES lived
500,000 years ago, were familiar with fire, used stone tools such as
had been made for hundreds of thousands of years-hand axes,
notched and saw-toothed implements, scrapers, engravers -- the basic
Acheulian-type tools. These beings must have been PRE-ADAMIC
creatures, primitive hunters and cave dwellers. Everything about them
speaks of a primitiveness and antiquity, a life style and mental ability
that was distinctly NOT human.

Is such a thing possible?

The answer is simple enough. First, not only do the geologic evidence
and the dating techniques of modern science demonstrate the
ANTIQUITY of these beings, but the biblical record clearly shows that
Adam was NOT a brute or subhuman specimen. He was human in
every respect. Adam was highly intelligent, articulate, sophisticated,
knowledgeable. He was not only able to provide names for every
creature YEHOVAH God brought before him, but he was capable of
language, and he was familiar with the art of cultivation and
agriculture. To pinpoint WHEN Adam was created, then, we must
search the geologic and archaeological record for the BEGINNING of
123

animal husbandry and agriculture, as well as the beginning of


civilization as such.

The scrapers, knives, hand axes, cleavers, and flint tools of the early
and middle Pleistocene times were PRIMITIVE, PRE-HUMAN, PRE-
ADAMIC. The really astonishing thing, witnessed by geological
evidence, archaeological discoveries, and radiometric dating, is the
SUDDEN FLOWERING of civilization and truly human enterprise
roughly 6,000 YEARS AGO!

Neanderthal Man

The strange breeds that arose during middle Pleistocene times and
during the next to last glaciation had large brains, overlapping modern
man, but their PRIMITIVE features included lower cranial vaults, heavy
bone ridges over the eyes and at the back of the neck, and sharply
receding chins. Their bodies were stocky, short, and heavy limbed.

"These were the classic Neanderthal people, the people who come to
mind whenever CAVEMEN are mentioned and who almost invariably
serve as models for artists depicting early man," says Pfeiffer (The
Emergence of Man, p.159).

Neanderthal man -- a PREDECESSOR of modern man, but NOT


necessarily directly related by lineage -- was ALMOST human in many
respects. He was crude, dwelled in caves, hunted wild game to
survive, and crudely buried his dead. His DIFFERENCES were more
remarkable than his similarities to modern man. It has been said that
if a Neanderthal man got on a subway in New York, dressed up in
modern clothes, he could not be distinguished from certain others on
the train. However, such a statement is merely discussing the
PHYSICAL appearance of Neanderthal. True, he didn't look too unlike
certain of the more robust, physical specimens of mankind, today.
However, the paleontological evidence shows that his society and
living conditions were EXTREMELY PRIMITIVE, created no lasting forms
of art such as evidenced by Cro-Magnon man, and was NOT able to
speak or articulate true language.

How does Neanderthal fit into the biblical record then? One historian
and geologist, Kenneth C. Hermann, a scientist associated with
Ambassador University in Texas, has come up with a remarkable
theory. He suggests that Neanderthal man was truly PRE-ADAMIC, but
also CO-EXISTED with Adamic man. Adam, he suggests, was truly
124

MODERN MAN in every respect -- HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS -- and was


of the CRO-MAGNON stock in antiquity.

Neanderthal man, if this theory is correct, may have been


representative of the beings called in the biblical record NEPHILIM.
These beings are barely alluded to in the Scriptures. But we read in
Genesis 6:4 that during the pre-Flood world, when the descendants of
Adam were multiplying on the face of the earth: "The NEPHILIM were
on the earth in those days, and also AFTERWARD..." (RSV).

The Hebrew nephil means bully or tyrant. The Nephilim were the sons
of Anak, a strong, powerful race. The King James Version refers to the
Nephilim as "giants," though that may be a mistranslation. At any
rate, they were a FEARSOME race of beings.

Were the Nephilim remnants of a pre-Adamic stock of men, whom


anthropologists refer to as NEANDERTHAL MAN? Is it possible?

Is it also possible that there was a certain amount of limited


intermarriage between the two stocks, as appears to be evidenced at
Carmel, in the Middle East, before Neanderthal man died out and
became extinct?

The physiognomy of Neanderthal man would be enough to throw fear


into more modern, gracile man. He was an excellent hunter. Short,
stocky, with massive jaw, and evidently cannibalistic, there was good
reason for modern man to view this competitor with alarm.

Neaderthal's remains have been found at Shanidar Cave in the Zagros


Mountains of Iraq, excavated by Ralph Solecki of Columbia University.
The deposits in the cave were up to 100,000 years and seven
Neanderthal skeletons were found. Three had been crushed by falling
rocks; one was recovering from a spear or knife wound in the ribs; one
was a man buried deep in the cave with a special ceremony, attested
to by the presence of fossil pollen collected from the burial site. The
pollen was from the ancestors of present day grape hyacinths,
bachelor's buttons, hollyhocks, and yellow-flowering groundsels.

Violence was COMMON in Neanderthal times. says John E. Pfeiffer:

Some sort of mayhem took place in a sandstone-rock shelter


overlooking a river in northern Yugoslavia, where at the turn of the
century investigators recovered more than five hundred bones and
bone fragments representing at least a dozen individuals. A number of
125

the bones are charred, suggesting that cannibalism may have been
practiced, while others show definite signs of having been cut (p. 172).

Extinction of Neanderthal Man

In most deposits in Europe, there is a DEFINITE INTERVAL between


the last deposits of Neanderthal man and the earliest fossils of modern
man, or what is called Cro-Magnon man.

The stone tools of Cro-Magnon were markedly MORE SOPHISTICATED


than Neanderthal implements. When archaeologists dug through
successive layers in European caves, they sometimes found tool-less --
STERILE -- layers between earlier Neanderthal deposits and later Cro-
Magnon deposits.

But during the early 1930's an Anglo-American expedition searching


for fossils in what was then called Palestine, struck it rich in two caves
on the slopes of Mount Carmel, near Haifa. At Mugharet es-Skhul
remains of ten individuals were uncovered, some resembling
Neanderthals, and others approaching the appearance of modern man.
Some anthropologists concluded the fossil men were HYBRIDS --
products of intermarriage between Neanderthals and true modern-type
men. Louie Leakey even surmised that any marriage between the two
races might well have produced STERILE offspring. At any rate, the
fossils uncovered at Mount Carmel possess a BLEND of Neanderthal
and modern traits. But mysteries remain. For example, why did
modern man SUDDENLY seem to replace Neanderthal man? What led
to the extinction of this formidable and widespread species of Homo?
Why the SUDDEN revolution in tool-making with the arrival of modern
man? Why the STERILE LAYERS that often separate Neanderthal and
Cro-Magnon periods of cave occupancy?

We don't know. But we can speculate. Was much of Neanderthal man


wiped out in a pre-Adamic destruction associated with upheavals in
climate and terrestrial cataclysms -- such as we read about in Genesis
1:2? Were the REMAINING remnants of Neanderthal wiped out by Cro-
Magnon man?

Neanderthal man, however, must have largely been pre-Adamic. This


contention is supported by an investigation of the linguistic capabilities
of Neanderthals by Philip Lieberman of the University of Connecticut
and Edmund Crelin of Yale in 1971. Measuring the neck vertebrae and
skull base of the fossil found at La Chapelle-aux-Saints, they
concluded that Neanderthal man lacked a modern kind of pharynx. He
126

was unable to utter the vowel sounds ah, oo, ee, ou, and could not
form the consonants g and k. Thus European Neanderthal fossils give
indication of only 10 percent the speaking ability of modern man.

The findings are hotly disputed, but if true, Neanderthal may have
been very limited in verbal communication. Somehow, these creatures
SUDDENLY DIED OUT, replaced by modern man, the Cro-Magnons,
who were accomplished artists who made marvelous cave paintings,
engravings and statuary. The passing of Neanderthal man was THE
PASSING OF AN ERA.

A few Russian anthropologists, however, believe that the strange Asian


beast-men variously called the Yetis or Abominable Snowmen,
encountered in central Asian deserts and mountains, are the last
surviving Neanderthals who managed somehow to survive in the harsh
climate of the Asian heartland which suits their adaptability.

Says author George Constable:

The disappearance of the Neanderthal seems to have the makings of a


soul-stirring PLAN, with the world as a stage, and the happiest ending
imaginable -- the ASCENDANCY of ourselves. The only trouble is that
no one really knows what happened....The twists and turns of the
drama that brought about the REPLACEMENT of the Neanderthals
constitute the greatest of all prehistoric mysteries (The
Neanderthals, p. 124).

Says this same author, discussing the various theories to account for
what happened, "And still others -- a minority nowadays -- insist that
ALL NEANDERTHALS BECAME EXTINCT AND WERE REPLACED BY
MODERN MEN WHO HAD EVOLVED FROM AN UNKNOWN GENETIC
STOCK IN AN UNLOCATED EDEN."

Precisely!

Creation of Modern Man

The Neanderthal period of domination is classified by archaeologists as


the Middle Paleolithic, or Middle Old Stone Age. The Cro-Magnon phase
which followed it is termed the Upper Paleolithic. The tools of
Neanderthal were VERY CRUDE. The Upper Paleolithic tools, however,
are more finely made, and include blades and burins or chisel-like
tools.
127

Cro-Magnon man, which belongs to the same species as modern man,


was generally smaller than we are, had straight limbs, and high
foreheads. They wore animal skins as clothing, were hunters and
fishermen and gatherers of fruits and berries. They had not learned to
plant crops or domesticate cattle. Remains indicate that few men
reached the age of 50, or few women the age of 35. They are believed
to have been of superior intelligence and sensitivity, "if only on the
basis of their cave art," writes Ronald Schiller (Ibid., p. 127). They
may have believed in life after death since they placed food and tools
in graves to accompany the deceased on their journeys in the afterlife.

The most recent reliably dated Neanderthal fossil is dated as 40,000


years old, although some may have indeed come down closer. The
oldest carbon-dated Cro-Magnon man lived about 26,000 years ago in
Czechoslovakia. Between the two is a HUGE FOSSIL GAP that remains
a mystery. How, when, where, and why human evolution crossed this
gap CANNOT be explained by evolutionists (Ibid., p. 130).

Western Europe is generally regarded as one place where this


evolutionary record SHOULD be preserved. "Yet," declares Constable,
"no fossil INTERMEDIATE between the local Neanderthals and Cro-
Magnons has ever been found there" (Pfeiffer, Emergence of Man, p.
242).

The mystery remains. How hundreds of thousands of the Neanderthal


race could have SUDDENLY perished, in Asia, Africa, and Europe where
they are known to have existed, boggles the mind. Perhaps the ONLY
solution to the riddle is some ECOLOGICAL CATASTROPHE, as some
experts have speculated.

But if Neanderthal man can reliably be identified with the NEPHILIM of


the Bible, then their extermination becomes apparent. Both ecological
factors, climatic changes before and after the time of Adam, when the
earth suffered tohu and bohu, and later the Flood, may well have been
partially responsible for their demise; and the coup de grace may well
have been administered by Cro-Magnon man, or modern man,
thousands of years ago.

Who, Then, Was Adam?

If some of the dating systems are basically reliable, then how can we
account for the Biblical epic of the creation of Adam? Who was Adam?
When -- and how -- was he created?
128

Biblical evidence leads us to conclude that Adam -- the first true man
in whom YEHOVAH God breathed the spirit of man -- was created by
YEHOVAH and endowed with fully human understanding and
consciousness probably 4024 B.C. -- if the generations of men, related
in the book of Genesis, are complete and entire and omit none of the
historical record.

Adam, then, actually was a fully modern man who was created AFTER
a period of pre-Adamic hominid existence. He was a relatively late
comer to the scene. He was apparently PRECEDED by "Neanderthal."

But the time came when YEHOVAH God chose to impart His unique gift
to man -- the spirit of man -- to Adam, and CREATED him in the
garden of Eden.

Now He was ready for His supreme masterpiece -- the first man
created in His very own image and likeness, PHYSICALLY, mentally,
and psychologically.

And this new creature -- Adam -- was the FIRST TRUE MAN, the
FOREBEAR of the entire modern human race!

The biblical account reveals that Adam was highly intelligent; modern
in every way; sophisticated in knowledge and language; and was
definitely religious and knew YEHOVAH God. The Scriptures also
indicate that written history began in Adam's lifetime, and agriculture
was practiced by Adam and his descendants. Does this FACT square
with the archaeological record?

INDEED IT DOES. The earliest beginnings of true agriculture, according


to anthropologists, are currently dated at the close of the last Ice Age
(Hamblin, Dora Jane, The First Cities, p. 9). The earliest signs of
agriculture are in the "fertile crescent" along a 2,000 mile arc
extending from Israel and Jordan up the eastern Mediterranean coast,
swinging through Turkey and arcing to Iran and the Persian Gulf.
Within this spot Adam was created and his descendants took up
agriculture (compare Genesis 3:14-19). Adam's own son Cain, we
read, was a TILLER OF THE GROUND (Genesis 4:2). Abel was a
HERDSMAN (same verse).

Archaeologically, the FIRST CITIES appear about this same time. "By
3500 B.C. cities were tightly organized, well governed and
sophisticated, and by 2500 B.C. metropolises with the comforts and
129

complexity of modern urban centers were in existence," says Dora


Jane Hamblin (Ibid., p. 10).

How are these dates arrived at? Says Hamblin:

The refinement of scientific dating systems, such as those that


measure the age of ancient relics by the radioactivity of carbon in
charcoal or from the glow emitted by heated pottery, has taken much
of the imaginative guesswork out of prehistoric chronology.

These dates, of course, may not be entirely correct. But they are at
least in the right ballpark. Refinements in dating techniques, in the
light of Scriptural evidence, should continually be made. Since the
Noachian deluge may have affected dates of the pre-flood world, the
accuracy of carbon-14 dating, prior to the DISTURBANCES caused by a
global cataclysm, such as a dramatic deluge, may well have been
jeopardized.

Before the Deluge

There is, of course, the possibility that dating techniques for early man
are in error due to unknown factors. In particular, the dates assigned
to Cro-Magnon man are still primarily based on C-14 dating. Is it
possible that this particular dating method is INVALID for the period
before the Noachian deluge?

During the pre-diluvian world, we find described waters ABOVE THE


FIRMAMENT as well as beneath (Genesis 1:7). At the time of the
Deluge, the WINDOWS OF HEAVEN were opened like a mighty sluice,
and the fountains of the great deep were broken up (Genesis 7:11).
The waters which were ABOVE THE FIRMAMENT apparently cascaded
down to the earth, altering the composition of the atmosphere. The
waters above the firmament may have acted as a shield, absorbing
much of the cosmic radiation, vastly reducing the formation of C-14
prior to the Deluge. The absence of cosmic radiation may be partly
responsible for the long life spans of man before the Flood, as
recorded in the book of Genesis. But after the Deluge, and the break
up of the concentration of waters above the firmament, cosmic
radiation would have INCREASED in the atmosphere and on the earth,
resulting in a rapid increase of C-14 (which still hasn't reached
equilibrium), and also in SHORTENING the life span of man on the
earth.
130

If this theory is true, then we can account for the apparent great age
given Cro-Magnon man and Neanderthal man by the C-14 method. For
Example, if 4,000 years ago the C-14 in the atmosphere had reached
equilibrium, a sample would now be dated close to 4,000 years by the
C-14 method. However, if C-14 had not yet reached equilibrium, the
sample might have received only ONE HALF the expected amount of C-
14 in its tissues. Thus it would appear to have been 8,000 YEARS OLD
according to the C-14 method. If a sample started its decay curve with
a level of C-14 content LESS THAN ONE EIGHTH the strength of a
fresh sample, today, it would appear to be 15,000 YEARS OLD, when it
might be only 5,000 years old. If originally there was VERY LITTLE or
NO C-14 content, a sample from 4,000 years ago (or from the pre-
diluvian world) would appear to be extremely ancient -- 35,000 OR
40,000 YEARS OLD.

This is a very strong possibility which we should keep in mind. Several


creationist schools of thought tend to think this is the proper
explanation for early dates of man derived from the C-14 dating
technique.

A Deceitful God?

If All the radiometric evidence is wrong, and the duration of the


geological and paleontological eras is grossly distorted, then YEHOVAH
God must have seen fit to play DECEITFUL TRICKS on geologists and
biologists. If fossils were placed by the Creator where we find them
now, deliberately giving the appearance of great antiquity, then
YEHOVAH must be absurdly deceitful.

Does it make sense that YEHOVAH God created the universe to appear
much older than it really is? The idea that YEHOVAH God created the
universe and the earth with "apparent age" is a common belief among
creationists.

Would YEHOVAH go to the trouble of making the universe appear older


than it really is? Why would He do this? Is such a "universal joke" in
keeping with the character of a God "THAT CANNOT LIE"?

YEHOVAH God is not a great deceiver, or a cosmological practical


joker. YEHOVAH had no reason to create a world which appears old,
but in reality is only 6,000 years old. The great age of the earth, and
life upon it, DOES NOT conflict with the Scriptures in any way.
131

When we take both the Biblical record, and the data amassed by
scientists, and let the facts speak for themselves, then we must
conclude that YEHOVAH God indeed created the world, and life upon it.
But much time passed in the process. The geologic record indicates
that YEHOVAH created new forms of life at VARIOUS STAGES of His
Divine plan. Thus in the earliest strata of the earth containing
abundant fossil remains, we find trilobites and brachiopods and other
creatures of the sea predominate. At a much later era, we find that
dinosaurs -- huge reptilian creatures that cause us to stand in awe,
today -- suddenly appear. At a later time, deciduous trees, mammals,
and finally MAN, take their place in the creation.

Hope of Israel Ministries


P.O. Box 2186
Temple City, CA 91780, U.S.A.
www.hope-of-israel.org

Early Man before Adam


Lucifer ruled the earth for millions of years. God guided the progress
on earth several times by having Lucifer send calamities for the
purpose of accelerating the evolution of life. God had a grand plan that
needed evolution to produce ever more intelligent beings. After the
Ages of the Great Lizards, a new form of life came upon the scene with
warm blood, hair and intelligence. It was the Age of Mammals. About 2
million years ago proto-man appeared.

Early Man before Adam

The basic history of mankind before Adam and the Rebellion of Lucifer
has the following major historical periods:

Cro-Magnon Paleolithic Period: Cro-Magnon is the name given to


all anatomically modern humans found in Europe and the Middle East,
appearing around 40,000-30,000 years ago. In contrast to the earlier
Neanderthals (Homo sapiens erectus}, who were much more primitive,
the Cro-Magnons, who are classified as Homo sapiens sapiens,
possessed such modern human features as higher, more vertical
foreheads--indicating a modern configuration of the frontal lobes of the
brain--reduced brow ridges, smaller faces and teeth, and a chin.
132

Neolithic Era is marked by the transition from roaming and hunting


to an agricultural society and begins around 9,000 B.C. The first
evidence for domestication of plants and animals come from
temporary campsites and are first seen from 9,000 B.C onwards.
Village communities started appearing around 6,000 B.C. and were
common by 4,000 B.C. Cities began to be built in 6th and 5th
millennium B.C. and city-states were just beginning around 4,000 B.C.
It was during the beginning of the city states and metal working
societies that Lucifer became aware of true nature of God's plan for
mankind. It was the realization of mankind's God potential that caused
Lucifer to sin because of envy and pride.

When the Mother Earth brought forth mankind, God announced his
plan to reproduce God throughout the infinities. God asked Lucifer to
reveal the Father to his creation and help them become sons and
daughters of God.

Lucifer felt anger and betrayal and hated mankind. Lucifer had council
with his Angels and they formed a plan of violence and revenge. This
was known as the Rebellion of Lucifer.
133

The Age of the goddess

Michelle Grim

The written word has certainly been the most useful tool for gathering
history about ancient religion. Oral tradition always changes with the
teller and it takes only one link in the generational chain to break for
the entire tradition to be lost to the void. With the revolution of writing
came the ability for future generations to understand the world on a
larger scale, and it is due to the lack of it that we only know about 5%
of the human story (or 0.1% of the hominid story). But there is
another accessory of mankind that has given us a glimpse into the
dark age of human illiteracy: the idol. Throughout the final fifth of our
lost tale of the homo sapien, stone statuettes of a large-breasted
woman were carved into soft stones such as steatite, calcite, or
limestone have been discovered throughout Europe and Asia. Although
archaeologists have been extremely reluctant to provide any definitive
explanation for their cultural significance, the most common sense
answer is that they represent religious iconography. What makes this
very remarkable is that that’s nearly all that is known to have been
carved throughout Europe and Asia for about 15,000 years. With this
kind of pedigree, the Venus figurines are doubtless the most far-
reaching cultural practice unearthed by archaeology. What other
cultural belief or practice can claim to have traveled so far or has been
around for so long? What’s more, how did such a practice get to be so
134

widespread in a time before cities or roads or a known written


language?

The majority of these statuettes, carved in either stone or ivory, hold


key recognizable features that prove cultural solidarity: a featureless
golf-ball head, tiny bent arms covering immense sagging breasts, a
swollen possibly-pregnant belly, gigantic hips and buttocks narrowing
down to pin-size feet. The “Venus” figurines portray an unmistakably
original, yet they have been found across France, Spain, Germany,
Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Turkey, Israel, the Middle
East, Russia, and as far east as Mal’ta (a little north of China). The
overwhelming predominance of feminine statuettes over masculine
ones gives unmistakable evidence that the principal representation of
God for the majority of homo sapien history has been that of a
woman.
135

Bible not meant for today’s people/People before Adam/Jesus a


polygamist
Lecture given by Orson Hyde, JoD 2:75-81

The title of this may sound scattered and rightly so! Stick with me
though and the method to my madness will iron itself out! Once or
twice a week I make a practice of cruising through other people’s
websites that are pro-Mormon just to get the general idea of where
the average member is coming from and how they view their church.
While doing this I found a website (pro-Mormon which I won’t
mention) that spoke of the early Church leaders and their teachings.
On this particular site was a chat room so I “listened in” on some of
their posts.
While the majority of the people at this chat room were converts to
Mormonism there were also several multi-generational Mormons who
had been in the Church for a good length of time and knew what they
were talking about. The thread turned to the topic of the age of the
earth and how long ago Adam was created. More than a handful of
multi-generational Mormons expressed their desire for the teachings of
the Church to return to the way they were in the nineteenth century.
While taken aback at the mere thought of being one of many wives, I
was even more surprised at their understanding of creation and whom
Adam was. (And no, it’s not about Adam being God.)

During the exchange of posts, a middle-aged mom of six expressed


that she was confused by what she learned in Sunday school that
week. She said the teacher told her that there were people on earth
before Adam and she gave LDS scriptural references to the students.
I immediately jotted down the reference for future use and continued
to “listen in” to find out more. The general consensus of the week
long posts was that while it’s not known for sure where or when the
first man came to be, most assuredly Adam was not the first. As I
mentioned before, this chat room had a varying degree of converts,
non-converts, gender and age groups. There were roughly 150
participants in that particular group from around the world, having
membership in the LDS Church as the only common factor between
them.

While I am fully aware that what is being spoken about in a chat room
isn’t official LDS doctrine it gives us a general idea of how much the
average member knows about their faith.
136

Now to unravel the confusing part about the title of this article! I
looked up the reference the active LDS members had provided to the
mom of six. From the Journal of Discourses, vol. 2:78-81, we read a
part of a lecture given by Orson Hyde in Salt Lake on October 6, 1854.
When I got to said reference I could not believe my eyes. Because Mr.
Hyde’s lecture that day was quite detailed with numerous accounts of
blasphemy, I have broken it down into three topics for examination.
Today’s topic is the authenticity of the Bible. While the references for
the three topics overlap each other, I’ve only kept to one small section
of this lecture given by the apostle. I would rank this lecture near the
top of my list for the most blasphemous teachings of the LDS Church.
And because I stick by the rule to be fair to all I highly encourage you
to read the lecture in full so you can see I am not taking this out of
context.
The entire speech can be found in Journal of Discourses 2:74-87.
Because of copyright laws I am unable to post the speech in its
entirety. In order to read the speech without interruption, please go
to www.lds.org

Part I of III – Journal of Discourses 2:78-81

“Well, now, friends and brethren, will you listen to me for a short time,
and let me conduct you as far as I shall be able this evening, through
the volume of inspiration that is universally acknowledged by all
Christendom to be the word of God, the truth of heaven… Judge for
yourselves whether it be so or not.”

“In the first place, then, we will look unto Abraham our father, and to
Sarah who bore us, for if we are Christ's, then we are Abraham's seed,
and heirs according to the promise.”

Interestingly enough Mr. Hyde’s “challenge” of judging “for yourself”


as to the truth of his speech was a ruse. Questioning “the brethren” is
strongly discouraged in Mormonism because as they say; “When the
leaders speak, the thinking has been done”. Ensign 6/1946. In
addition to this he alluded to the “word of God being the truth of all
Christendom”. While that part is true, the LDS Church doesn’t believe
this “little” detail. The 8th Article of Faith says; “We believe the Bible
to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly; we also
believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God.” Key phrase here
if you’re not familiar with Mormon doctrine is “as far as it is translated
correctly”. When the missionary tells you they do believe in the Bible
137

ask him or her if they believe without reservation. One hundred


percent of the time they will tell you “no”.

Mr. Hyde goes on to openly invite them to dig deep to see where the
truth lies and then arrogantly led the people into a selfish, perverted
way of thinking.

“Let us see what Abraham's works were. Abraham obtained promises.


What promise have you obtained? What promise has the Christian
world obtained? "Why," says one, "the Bible is all full of promises
made to the people of God long ago." But what have the promises to
the people of God long ago to do with us? Have we obtained promises
to ourselves? There is the point. If our fathers obtained promises that
they should be fed, and were fed, their eating and drinking does not
satisfy my appetite. It satisfied them, but that has nothing to do with
me, I want the same kind of substantial food myself. If Abraham
obtained promises, I want to obtain promises also.”

Wow! This reminds me of a petulant two year old. The temper


tantrum attitude of “Mommy he took my toy away” doesn’t cut it Mr.
Hyde! He is driving it home to the people out in the open pasture land
of early Utah that their Bibles are useless. A good and faithful believer
and follower of God would show the congregation the comforting
words of Isaiah 40:8; “The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but the
word of our God shall stand for ever.” Because Orson Hyde gave the
people permission to be the judge I would encourage the members of
the Church to go ahead, be the judge. Statements like the one above
are just one of the deceptive ways the Church has led the beautiful
people of Mormonism out from the fold of Jeshua. If you’re a member
of the Church let me ask you:

Has God been unfair to you?


What promise haven’t you received that you feel is rightly yours?

If salvation is what Orson Hyde was thinking of, he doesn’t stand a


chance at the throne of God claiming that Jesus has been unfair or
that he (Hyde) could only be fed by having manna dropped personally
to him. The promise that God gave to Abraham is the promise that he
and Sarah would have a son; the Savior would come through his
lineage and that his (Abraham’s) descendants would be as numerous
as the sands of the seashore. (See Genesis chapters 15-18 and
Romans 9:4-16.) The result of that promise is reserved for those who
believe in the God of Heaven and earth, who is the One True God
Almighty.
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Only the cynic would say the message of the Bible is not meant for
him personally so I suggest we take a look at when the Israelites only
had manna to sustain them during their exodus from Egypt.
Admittedly the account of that passage is for that particular time,
however if you look into the story we can see how God is speaking to
us even today through what happened some 3,000 years ago. God is
our only source of “food”. Whether that food is spiritual or literal, He
is still the only source. He is the reason we are employed, thus our
blessing of being able to shop for food to feed our families. He is the
provider of our blessings of buying or renting our homes, having
transportation, electricity, etc., the list is endless!
Spiritually speaking He is the only source of manna that we should rely
upon! His word endureth forever just as it says in Isaiah 40:8 and as
Jesus told the Samaritan woman at the well, He is the source of living
water that gives us eternal life – see John 4:6-26. Why wouldn’t His
promises from long ago be for us as well?
You want, you want Mr. Hyde…How about you need God for salvation
and you need His endless mercy to forgive you of these teachings and
beliefs!

What makes me so upset about teachings like this is twofold. First


and foremost; speaking against God like that is incredibly arrogant! I
feel a righteous anger swell inside of me when I think of someone
speaking like this about the Lord. Secondly, I see my ancestors sitting
in that audience listening to this and my heart is crushed…
The speech went on to say: “…"That Old Bible was for the Jews, and
has nothing to do with us; that is the Old Testament; and having more
wives was according to their law, and according to their custom, but it
does not apply to us; the Savior of the world is our great pattern, he is
our great lawgiver."”

When I read the blasphemy in the annals of LDS writings, I am


reminded of a sermon that was given by a pastor friend of mine. He
said; “Remember, the bad guys of the past haven’t been judged yet
for what they did while here on earth. God will not execute judgment
until the end. There will be more people who will believe their lies and
that has to be accredited to their account as well”. To this I say;
praise God!

In regards to the snippet of information in the last paragraph of this


lecture: God has never given a law endorsing polygamy. God has
never told man to marry lots of women because polygamy is
synonymous with salvation! Deuteronomy and Leviticus adamantly
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warn us about the sins of lifting the skirts of women to whom you’re
not married. We are reminded of the sin of David when his and
Bathsheba’s son died and we also have the example of Solomon whose
ruin was largely due to sexual sin. In addition to all of that, Mr. Hyde
has lied to the masses. The LDS Church unequivocally endorsed
polygamy as key to salvation. D&C 132 is proof; in fact you can still
see this in modern day versions of D&C 132. In other words Hyde
even lied about that! We’ll talk more about the subject of polygamy in
the third part of this study.

Secondly, if you knew and worshipped the Jesus of the Bible you would
already know that Jesus could only be the lawgiver if He was God
Himself; this isn’t something the LDS doctrine adheres to at this time.
Isaiah 33:22 says; “For the LORD is our judge, the LORD is our
lawgiver, the LORD is our king; he will save us”. The Hebrew word for
LORD is Jehovah, meaning Self-Existent; it’s also the Jewish national
name for God.

And last but not least, the Old Testament is for the Christians! There
wouldn’t be a New Testament without the Old Testament! How would
we know of God’s provision for the Israelites and His continual love for
them and the need we all have for a Savior if we didn’t have the Old
Testament?

“The Christian world by their prejudices have driven us away from the
Old Bible, so we must now appeal to the New Testament, for that
seems to suit the prejudice of the people; though to me it is all alike,
both the Old and New Testaments; for the scribe that is well
instructed, brings out of his treasury things both new and old. This is
my treasury, or rather; it is one of my treasuries, and what I cannot
find there, I trust will come down from on high, and lodge in my heart.
The gift of God is also my treasury, even the Holy Spirit.”

Just a few lines above in his speech he told the audience the Old
Testament had nothing to do with Christianity; therefore there was no
reason to discuss it. Now he’s telling them the Christians drew
attention away from the Old Testament because of their prejudices.
Which statement is true?

The “treasury” lodged in this man’s heart certainly isn’t from on high!
I cannot begin to imagine these “inspired teachings” came from the
Lord. If I were in attendance when he gave that speech I would have
been confused. First he believes in the Bible and proclaims that it’s
true. Then he can’t believe in parts of it because of tradition, and next
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if he can’t find what he “needs” in the word of God then he will go


elsewhere.

I am picturing my mother sitting in the audience listening to somebody


at a General Conference quoting Orson Hyde from this speech. If she
were to take a test on what she learned after attending something like
that I am absolutely positive she wouldn’t have understood even half
of what was said. When she and I listened to a General Conference
from her own living room just a few years ago I asked her what she
learned from the speaker. She said she didn’t understand most of it
but she feels just like she did when her father would read to her from
the Book of Mormon. In other words, it’s a “feel good” experience.

The only “Christians” that have driven people away from the Old
Testament are the pseudo-Christians. They just slap the name
“Christ” at the end of their church and viola` “we’re Christian too
because the name of Christ is in the title of our church name”! This
should be a red flag to anyone investigating a new home church.

Also, how are both the Old and New Testaments “all the same” to this
man? Are they the same for you? To me they are completely
different! The Old Testament is richly filled with tradition, sacrifice and
observances performed by God’s chosen people. The New Testament
as we all know is the message of God’s redemptive power to save
God’s chosen people as well as the Gentiles. I don’t see the Old
Testament as something that doesn’t pertain to me; rather it is a
personal message to me of God’s personality, and the relationship He
had with the Israelites including an historical account of the history of
the world. It is the preparation for the setting of the New Testament
while proclaiming the coming of the Messiah!

One other item to note about the last paragraph mentioned here.
What exactly is the “gift of God” and “even the Holy Spirit”? If he is
trying to convince the people that the Holy Spirit is the gift of God that
is “lodged in his heart”, it is evident he is without the gift of the Holy
Spirit. The Holy Spirit would never contradict Himself considering He
is a part of the Triune God! Isaiah 9:6 says: “For unto us a child is
born, unto us a son is given; and the government shall be upon His
shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The
mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace”. The God of
the Bible said His word would last forever and the Jesus of the Bible
said “the gates of hell shall not prevail against His church”. According
to everything LDS this is not true!
141

May the LDS people see the truth so they may be set free. We pray
continually for their eyes to be open and God’s mercy to continually be
poured upon them as He has always done!

Part II of III – People Before Adam – Journal of Discourses 2:78-81

That’s right! There is a not so well known teaching within the


corrupted doctrines of the LDS Church that the earth was inhabited
before Adam, the “first” man on earth! Sensationalistic you say?
Yeah, I thought so too until I began researching the subject and found
hundreds of references on this subject. I heard/read about this
teaching from the posting in a pro-Mormon chat room. The
participants were talking about the “old school” of Mormonism and
their desire to see the original teachings come back to modern-day
society. Ironically enough the three subjects talked about in this chat
room had been taught in Sunday school the previous week at one of
the chat room participant’s local ward.

Think of it, this is what was taught to the early people of Mormonism
and obviously at times even today. As stated in the title of this article,
this is the second of a three part series. The doctrine comes from a
lecture that was delivered by the Apostle Orson Hyde in Salt Lake on
October 6, 1854 and can be found in its entirety in the Journal of
Discourses 2:74-87. Today’s topic can be found on page 79.

Because of the complexity of this lecture given by the Apostle Orson


Hyde and his style of speech, I have divided it into three parts/topics
to address individually. Typically I don’t do things this way but I was
floored to see the level of blasphemy he went to and couldn’t let it slip
by untouched! I also cannot legally post the whole speech in its
entirety because of copyright laws. To read the entire passage I’m
referring to, please go to www.lds.org I also won’t be addressing the
issue of Jesus’ alleged marriage or polygamy in this article. For now
we’re just looking at the LDS teaching of people inhabiting the earth
before Adam.

Journal of Discourses 2:79; “…I will go back to the beginning, and


notice the commandment that was given to our first parents in the
garden [sic] of Eden. The Lord said unto them, "Multiply and replenish
the earth." I will digress here for a moment from the thread of the
subject, and bring an idea that may perhaps have a bearing upon it.
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The earth, you remember, was void and empty, until our first parents
began at the garden [sic] of Eden. What does the term replenish
mean? This word is derived from the Latin; "re" and "plenus;" "re"
denotes repetition, iteration; and "plenus" signifies full, complete;
then the meaning of the word replenish is, to refill, recomplete.

First let’s stop here and take a look at what he’s saying because
already it’s a mixed message! Get out your concordances, bibles and
dictionaries!

This word “replenish” in Genesis is taken from the Hebrew word


“male`”, pronounced maw-lay. If the article you were reading came
from the Roman Empire then yes, it’d be a good chance the word
would come from the Latin, but not here, not now. The transliteration
for this word means “to fill”. God is telling Adam to fill the earth with
people, not to refill the earth. Now if this were really the case and God
wanted Adam to refill the earth with people who’ve disappeared
somewhere then we would find other verses throughout the Bible that
backs this up!

The earth was void and empty until God created it and then placed
Adam and Eve onto the earth. Mr. Hyde makes it sound as if they
were here before the rest of creation was here and that is not the case
at all!

As I’ve said countless times in earlier articles, I am not a scholar in


any language and that would include English, however anyone is able
to dissect, contemplate and come to a logical conclusion about what
they’re reading. Telling the crowd that words “came from the Latin” is
nothing but lies, thankfully for us who are living in today’s
technological bonanza, the lies are easily seen through!

Mr. Hyde said; “What does the term replenish mean? This word is
derived from the Latin; "re" and "plenus;" "re" denotes repetition,
iteration; and "plenus" signifies full, complete; then the meaning of
the word replenish is, to refill, recomplete.”

The other subject we’ll want to pay attention to is the matter of time-
lines. We want to get a rough idea of when Latin was “invented” and
just for good measure check out the same info for Hebrew. In any
good encyclopedia you will find that Latin is first known to have
existed circa 700 BC, spoken by small groups of people living along the
lower Tiber River. It first spread with the Roman Empire throughout
Italy, then into Europe and eventually Africa. (Source: “Latin
143

Language. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006.). The “Middle English


Language” existed circa 1100 to 1500 AD (Source:
www.wikipedia.org).
[The information above was taken from an article I wrote in 2004.
You can see it in full at: http://www.lifeafter.org/language.asp ]

As a side note I thought it’d be interesting to share with you what I


found in the doctrines of Mormonism in my Gospelink program. From
Answers to Gospel Questions 1:7; “It is held by some that Adam was
not the first man upon this earth, and that the original human was a
development from lower orders of the animal creation. These,
however, are the theories of men. The word of the Lord declares that
Adam was "the first man of all men,"(Moses 1:34.) and we are
therefore in duty bound to regard him as the primal parent of our
race.”
Here we have a prophet of the Church just some 40-50 years later
denouncing any theory of man existing on earth before Adam; in
addition to that he used LDS scripture to substantiate his claims. I also
found subject titles of “pre-Adamites” in Mormon Doctrine,
Encyclopedia of Mormonism and various other documents in Gospelink.
What was interesting in these books is that when you look up the
subject “pre-Adamites” it always refers you to “Adam” or “Creation”
and nothing is ever said about “pre-Adamites”. Why would it be in
there if it wasn’t a subject matter?

Let’s continue looking at what else Mr. Hyde had to say to his audience
that day!
“If I were to go into a merchant's store, and find he had got a new
stock of goods, I should say—"You have replenished your stock, that
is, filled up your establishment, for it looks as it did before." "Now go
forth," says the Lord, "and replenish the earth;" for it was covered
with gloomy clouds of darkness, excluded from the light of heaven,
and darkness brooded upon the face of the deep. The world was
peopled before the days of Adam, as much so as it was before the
days of Noah. It was said that Noah became the father of a new world,
but it was the same old world still, and will continue to be, though it
may pass through many changes.

Why is it that when we are continually dealing with pride issues,


exalted man, man becoming gods, etc., that alongside it we also find
that man will not and cannot for a moment think that God is
something bigger than his own simple mind? Why would the word
“replenish” in the Bible have to mean the same as the example he is
giving about the grocery store’s owner?
144

When God said, Go forth and replenish the earth; it was to replenish
the inhabitants of the human species, and make it as it was before.
Our first parents, then, were commanded to multiply and replenish the
earth; and if the Savior found it his duty to be baptized to fulfil all
righteousness, a command of far less importance than that of
multiplying his race, (if indeed there is any difference in the
commandments of Jehovah, for they are all important, and all
essential,) would he not find it his duty to join in with the rest of the
faithful ones in replenishing the earth? "Mr. Hyde, do you really wish
to imply that the immaculate Savior begat children? It is a
blasphemous assertion against the purity of the Savior's life, to say
the least of it.”

To begin with, nowhere in the Bible did it say “to make it as it was
before” in regards to replenishing the earth. I have shown from a
Hebrew dictionary what the word “replenish” means. Yes, God wanted
Adam and Eve to be fruitful and multiply, replenish the earth, meaning
replace you with another who will take your place or fill the earth to
have another here (Garden of Eden) in addition to you. God already
knew what was going to take place. Adam and Eve would sin and Cain
would kill Abel, the world would never be the same. The key element
to know here is that as man we don’t know what it would have been
like without sin. Just because God hasn’t revealed this to us as
mankind doesn’t mean that He had it all wrong!

This type of scenario reminds me of another lie told by the Church.


They say they have proof there is a pre-existence by what it says in
Job 38. What the LDS Church doesn’t tell its members is that this
passage of scripture is when God is asking Job these questions he is
also chastising him for the way he handled his three friends while at
the same time showing him how much he means to God.

The Church tells its members that God wouldn’t be asking him those
questions if he hadn’t been in the pre-existence to witness all of it!
They will quote the verses of Job 38:4-7 as their proof. See Higher
Laws: Understanding the Doctrines of Christ, pg. 7 by Orrin G. Hatch,
1995 as just one example.

I mentioned in part one of this three part series the Church made the
statement in 1946 that “when the leaders speak the thinking has been
done”. On the other hand the Church encourages the members to
seek the truth as they have nothing to hide. In LDS doctrine it is
commanded that salvation is gained through knowledge! In Mormon
145

Doctrine from pgs. 425-7 the apostle Bruce McConkie states; “The
process of gaining exaltation consists in growing in knowledge until a
state of godhood is reached…But it is the knowledge of God and his
laws that leads to high reward in the hereafter. (2 Ne. 9:28-29, 42.)…
it is for this reason that the saints are commanded to seek knowledge
in all fields. (D. & C. 88:77-81, 118; 93:53; Doctrines of Salvation,
vol. 1, pp. 290-306.)… Similarly, when he said, "It is impossible for a
man to be saved in ignorance" (D. & C. 131:6), he meant there could
be no salvation in ignorance of Jesus Christ and the saving principles
of the gospel. "The principle of knowledge is the principle of salvation,"
he said on another occasion…”

I would venture to say that they are encouraging its members to study
their doctrines about God! Right? Wrong answer. Typically those of
us who begin studying the doctrines of Mormonism are thrown into the
lake of the “anti-Mormons” for whom there is no hope. The fear of
being titled an “apostate” or the “whore of Babylon” keeps many God-
fearing, Jesus loving Mormons in the chains of Mormonism! I can say
this with all assurance seeing as how it was at the top of my list of
reasons for not leaving sooner!

With all that being said though I encourage each and every Mormon to
study, seek diligently as it says to do in Moroni 10:3-5 for the truth. If
truth cannot lie then you will certainly be able to see if Mormonism
stands the test of time as their prophet Joseph Fielding Smith said in
Doctrines of Salvation 1:188; “Mormonism, as it is called, must stand
or fall on the story of Joseph Smith. He was either a prophet of God,
divinely called, properly appointed and commissioned, or he was one
of the biggest frauds this world has ever seen. There is no middle
ground.”

There is no shame in wanting to know the truth. Go to your


dictionaries and lexicons. The internet is large enough now that you
can find a reputable source to meet your needs for research materials.
Reference books such as concordances, encyclopedias, history logs,
dictionaries, etc., can be easily used, for free I might add, and are
there for your benefit!

Lies that are taught and propagated throughout the Church need to be
exposed to the light and we will continue to do this until they repent of
their ways! It is in no way done to condemn nor to bash the people of
Mormonism as they are the innocent bystander! I pray daily for all
Mormons and those sitting on the fence. You don’t have to accept the
lies! Mr. Hyde couldn’t even tell the truth about the Hebrew word
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“replenish”! Either he didn’t know to begin with and just outright lied
or he just kept making things up as he went along…either way it is
disgraceful and no one should place their eternal welfare on the likes
of him!

If you’re interested in knowing how to receive the real Jesus into your
heart let us know! Please e-mail us at info@lifeafter.org or you can
call here on the ministry line at 1-877-362-2751
begin_of_the_skype_highlighting 1-877-362-2751 end_of_t
he_skype_highlighting. We’d love to hear from you!

Part III – Polygamy

The Edmunds-Tucker Act of 1890 brought the state of Utah to its


knees, both literally and figuratively. It required Utah to immediately
halt the practice of polygamy if they had any intention of becoming a
member of the union in the United States. This would bring a
complicated issue to further confusion for the Mormons in regards to
their doctrine, family dynamics as well as economic issues. If the
practice of polygamy had to be stopped immediately what were they to
do with doctrines such as D&C 132? As we’ve seen in the past 100
plus years, they have conveniently ignored it.

From the writings of the Apostle Bruce McConkie in Mormon Doctrine


we see just how ambiguous the Church’s formal stand is on the issue.
On page 578 it says; “From such fragmentary scriptural records as are
now available, we learn that the Lord did command some of his
ancient saints to practice plural marriage. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
— among others (D. & C. 132) — conformed to this ennobling and
exalting principle; the whole history of ancient Israel was one in which
plurality of wives was a divinely accepted and approved order of
matrimony. Those who entered this order at the Lord's command, and
who kept the laws and conditions appertaining to it, have gained for
themselves eternal exaltation in the highest heaven of the celestial
world.”

As I stated in one of the earlier articles on this lecture there is no


commandment given by God to the early patriarchs that they must
practice polygamy. The only time we see a commandment for this is
when we read LDS doctrine. Whenever we’ve presented a member of
the Church with this and explain why this fulfills the requirements of a
147

false prophecy we are often given an answer like the following which
they’ve been taught to offer for an excuse; “At that time conditions
were such that the Lord by revelation withdrew the command to
continue the practice, and President Wilford Woodruff issued the
Manifesto directing that it cease. (Discourses of Wilford Woodruff, pp.
213-218.) Obviously the holy practice will commence again after the
Second Coming of the Son of Man and the ushering in of the
millennium. (Isa. 4.)” Now obviously not every single Mormon will be
quoting that verbatim, however they won’t have a problem sharing
their own version or understanding of this excuse for not practicing
polygamy today.

For the members of the LDS Church: I would implore you to ask
yourself the following questions:

Does it bother you that in Mormonism this god have changed his
mind?
How comfortable are you in knowing that he could change his mind
again?

If the prophet of the Church announced that he had received another


revelation and it was time to practice D&C 132 would you obey? If
your answer is no; why and whom do you feel that you would be
disobeying? Would it be the Mormon god or the LDS Prophet?

As a child I recall sitting in my primary classes to learn the story of


Jesus being married. Every child believes everything their parents
teach them; I wasn’t any different as I looked to my own parents and
teachers for truth. It hadn’t occurred to me all of the “teachers” in my
life had been lied to their entire lives as well.

All of that changed when I learned about cause and effect outside the
comfortable world of play-pens and backyard swing sets. It wasn’t
until they gave me a Bible at my baptism that I began questioning the
teachings of those primary teachers and my parents.

I had always believed Jesus was my elder brother and that Jesus was
married. I wouldn’t have been able to tell you who He was married to
or how many kids He had, but I equated His sufferings to that of
Joseph Smith who was tarred and feathered for sharing the gospel.
Jesus was simply here on earth to portray obedience towards Heavenly
Father, get married and earn His own earth someday. Sounds very
simplistic and grandiose, but it is what it is.
148

It wasn’t long after I officially left the Church before I “discovered” the
true LDS version of Jesus. Not only are the doctrines appalling, but
the prolific amount of heretical literature that is embedded in Mormon
terminology and doctrine is startling to say the least of it. The lecture
we’re examining by Orson Hyde sits near the top of my “most heretical
teachings list” of the LDS Church.

From pg. ; “…Abraham obtained promises. What promise have you


obtained? What promise has the Christian world obtained…If Abraham
obtained promises, I want to obtain promises also “…A man that has
more than one wife obtain promises from God?" I tell you there were
but few in olden times who ever did obtain promises from God, that
had not more than one wife, if the Bible be true. There was David, and
there was Solomon; there were the whole line of the kings of Israel.
Says one, "That Old Bible was for the Jews, and has nothing to do with
us; that is the Old Testament; and having more wives was according
to their law, and according to their custom, but it does not apply to
us; the Savior of the world is our great pattern, he is our great
lawgiver." And how is it with him? Let us Inquire.”

It’s not meant to be rude, but I like to jump on opportunities like


this. I see here where I am invited to inquire of what is being
preached. The one thing that stands out of course is the false doctrine
of what Hyde claims to be in the Judaic Law. There are 613 laws and
not one of them requires a man to have more than one wife!

“Did the Savior of the world consider it to be his duty to fulfill


righteousness? You answer, yes. Even the simple ordinance of baptism
he would not pass by, for the Lord commanded it…Our first parents,
then, were commanded to multiply and replenish the earth; and if the
Savior found it his duty to be baptized to fulfil [sic] all righteousness, a
command of far less importance than that of multiplying his race, (if
indeed there is any difference in the commandments of Jehovah, for
they are all important, and all essential,) would he not find it his duty
to join in with the rest of the faithful ones in replenishing the earth?”

Now this is where the leadership of the LDS Church goes astray. Yes,
the Lord Jesus came to fulfill all righteousness, He tells us this in
Matthew 5:17; “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the
prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill.” And yes, I would
also agree that we should obey His commandments. In Matthew 22
we find that the first two most important commandments are to love
149

the Lord your God with all your heart and to love your neighbor as
yourself. Jesus said these “on these two commandments depends the
whole Law and the Prophets” – Matthew 22:40.

Wouldn’t you think that somewhere in any of the part of the New
Testament that if salvation was dependent upon being married that
Jesus would have said something either here or in other passages?
Wouldn’t anyone have said something about Jesus being married if
that was truth? The marriage in Cana was not a wedding for Jesus;
nowhere in the text does it allude to such a thing. The only time I’ve
ever heard of anyone believing that Jesus was married is by the LDS
Church and people like Dan Brown who wrote The Da Vinci Code.
There is no biblical basis for it whatsoever. He continued on in his
speech by saying the following:
“Now suppose I should set out myself, and travel through the cities of
the nation as a celebrated reformer, preaching revelations and
sentiments as lofty as the skies, and rolling out ideas strange and
new, to which the multitude were entirely unaccustomed; and
wherever I went, suppose I had with me three or four women—one
combing my head, another washing my feet, and another shedding
tears upon them, and wiping them with the hair of her head. Suppose
I should lean upon them, and they upon me, would it not appear
monstrous in the eyes of the world? Would they ride me into
Jerusalem upon our ass's colt, and cast branches of the palm tree
beneath my feet, shouting, "Hosannah, blessed is he that cometh in
the name of the Lord, hosannah in the highest?" I guess they would
give me a coat of tar and feathers, and ride me on a rail; and it is my
opinion they would serve the Savior the same, did he go about now as
he did eighteen hundred years ago.”

I personally cannot imagine going through my life and not being


repulsed by the statement made above. I don’t even want to think of
what our Lord thought of that “teaching” promoted by Mr. Hyde. The
Church obviously didn’t have a problem with it seeing as how they
published it. The same holds true even for today with the Church. If
they denounced the teaching wouldn’t they publicly proclaim it? I
assure you that if/when they ever do denounce it I will be at the top of
the list to publicize their proclamation!

Our God, the God of the whole universe, the God who created man
from nothing, the God who controls each breath we take is not subject
to what we as man is subject to. The assertion to promulgate
anything less than what is truth is blasphemy.
150

I have a box filled every week with packages of videos and books to be
sent out to members of the LDS Church who are discovering the truth
about the teachings of the Church. In their hearts they know they
love Jesus and are repulsed by doctrines such as these. The
frustration, fear and turmoil they go through is nothing short of tragic
and I’m not sure who I feel sorrier for; them or Jesus.

It hurts me deeply when these things are discovered and I can’t help
but picture Jesus hanging on that cross for something like this. He
hung there to forgive us for believing the lies and he’ll even forgive us
for teaching them to others. The trouble is that our pride gets in the
way and won’t allow Him to do His work in us.

Another one of my “discoveries” in this genre was a book written by


Ogden Kraut. It’s called “Jesus Was Married” and was printed and sold
by the author. This however shouldn’t discount the fact that what he
had to say wasn’t Mormon doctrine. I bought the book at a Deseret
Industries in Ogden, Utah on Washington Blvd. in the mid nineties.

On page 84-5 he said;


“Man’s honor and glory is obtained by woman. Alone and
single, man fades into insignificance, but through women and
children, his glory is extended and perpetuated. For this
reason Paul said that “the woman is the glory of the man.” (1
Cor. 11:7) Jesus was not the exception to this principle.
Before He died he said to the Father: “Father, the hour has
come; glorify thy Son that thy Son may also glorify thee; “I
have glorified thee on the earth; I have finished the work
which thou gavest
me to do.” (John 17:1, 4).
“But if one or either of the ten virgins, after she is espoused,
shall be
with another man, she has committed adultery, and shall be
destroyed; for they are given unto him to multiply and
replenish the earth, according to my commandment, and to
fulfil the promise which was given by my Father before the
foundation of the world, and for their exaltation in the eternal
worlds, that they may bear the souls of men; for herein is the
work of my Father continued, that he may be glorified.”
“This promise is yours also, because ye are of Abraham, and
the promise was made unto
Abraham; and by this law is the continuation of the works of
my Father, wherein he glorifieth himself. Go ye, therefore, and
do the works of Abraham; enter ye into my law
151

and ye shall be saved.”


D&C 132:63, 31, 32”

I could write books and books on the subject of Jesus being a


polygamist that the LDS Church has taught. Orson Hyde also said this
about the jesus he worships: “I worship one that is just pure and holy
enough "to fulfil all righteousness;"” – Journal of Discourses 2:210.
To the members of the LDS Church: If you’re tired of trying to live
up to the righteousness that seems out of reach it’s probably because
what you’re looking to isn’t found in the LDS Church. My late brother
Phillip once gave me a wise word of advice: “Michelle the Jesus you’re
looking for isn’t here in Utah; you’ll find Him, just not here and not in
this way”.
Remember we don’t publish this to bash the Mormon people; we do it
because of our concern for you! We pray for you always!

With Love in Christ;


Michelle Grim
1 Cor. 1:18
152

They Lived Before Adam (Part 1)


Eemah Khephzybah

June 1, 2010 at 5:30pm

Special Discussion

A SPEECH PRESENTED BY PROFESSOR CATHERINE


ACHOLONU ON THE OCCASION OF THE USA
LAUNCHING/PRSENTATION OF THE BOOK THEY LIVED BEFORE ADAM:
PRE-HISTORIC ORIGINS OF THE IGBO, THE NEVER BEEN RULED AT
THE IGBO STUDIES ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE, HOWARD
UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON DC, 3RD-4TH APRIL. 2009

Fellow scholars of Igbo and African Studies, last year at this very
conference, my co-researcher Dr. Ajay Prabhakar and I, presented a
paper titled “The Sons of God and the Unshakable Generation: Tracing
Igbo Divine Rights through Pre-History, Forgotten Scriptures and Oral
Tradition”. It received excited reactions form some members of the
audience, keen interest from others and laughter from a few. But we
remember keenly that at the same conference, one Dr. Abdul Salau, a
Hausa/Fulani presenter from Delaware University gave a paper
detailing Igbo linguistic influence on ancient Egypt. Our paper dwelt on
Igbo language influences on ancient Akkadian, Sumerian ancient
Canaanite/Hebrew, modern Chinese, English and other far-flung
153

languages. But it did something more, it followed the Igbo story


through the Oral Traditions of other Nigerian and Kwa peoples through
North Africa onto ancient Greece and so forth using information
gleaned from ancient and esoteric literatures and lost Scriptures.

Since the time we last stood before this venerable audience, we have
in fact concluded the first phase of the research and we have published
our findings under the title They Lived Before Adam: Pre-historic
Origins of the Igbo, The Never Been Ruled (a CARC Publication,
Abuja, 2009).

They Lived Before Adam traces the unknown and lost History of the
people of Igbo extraction all the way to 500,000 – 1,000,000 B.C. It is
the result of more than 20 years of painstaking search and research
through mainstream scientific discoveries in the area of Archaeology,
Paleontology (the study of Human fossils), Genetic and DNA
Engineering, Linguistics but also through ancient and esoteric records,
lost Scriptures and Mythologies of Africa, Europe and Asia, as well as
through the Histories and Oral Traditions of various nations and
continents of the globe, for traces of Igbo presence.

This search revealed that the Igbo are the oldest single group of
people on planet earth; that Igbo presence on planet earth goes all the
way back to Early Man, otherwise called Homo Erectus, the direct
ancestor of Homo Sapiens Sapiens (Modern Man/Thinking Man); that it
was the Igbo who seeded other races and gave culture and civilization
to the rest of the human race; and that Igbo language was a direct
off-shoot of that One World/Mother Language of Humanity supposedly
lost at Babel.

The now late Professor Adiele Afigbo, may his great soul rest in perfect
peace, foremost Igbo and Nigerian Historian, who was to review the
book for the Abuja launch that took lace on 25th of March, 2009
before he fell ill a few weeks before and never recovered, said of our
work in this regard, “They Lived Before Adam is out of this world. It is
not only a work of History. It’s a work of Revelation.” And he admitted
to Prof. T.U. Nwala, that “the area of Pre-History is an area we have
not given serious attention to. And I find Catherine’s work a bold
challenge to not only Historians in this part of the world but to scholars
in all areas of Cultural Studies…”

Senator Uche Chukwumerije who is spear-heading an all-Igbo re-


launch of the book describes They Lived Before Adam as “a life
defining-landmark, a central literature for Ndi Igbo”.
154

Ambassador Raph Uwaechue, Elder Statesman and President,


Ohanaeze Ndi Igbo said of They Lived Before Adam, “The information
contained in that book makes our work of Igbo emancipation, spiritual
empowerment and moral and ethical re-engineering a lot easier. It is a
veritable tool for Igbo Renaissance.”

At the just-concluded world presentation of the book at Abuja,


requests were made that an all-Igbo launch of the book should be held
at Enugu state in the not-so-distant future. HRH Light Eze
Ezedioramma Aniagu, Shikagumma of Enugunato-Ihe, whom we were
meeting for the first time, kindly offered to promote the book by
buying one hour weekly airtime on NTA Network Service towards the
dissemination of the contents of the book.

They Lived Before Adam is a roughly 500-page compendium of


hitherto unknown facts about Ndi Igbo in Pre-historic times. It details
the forgotten and lost Igbo past from their earliest beginnings and
supplies the missing links that have created the foundation upon which
Igbo Philosophy, social systems, belief systems, politics, culture and
tradition have been crafted through the millennia. It details the results
of decades of research on the lost and forgotten roots of Ndi Igbo and
brings to the fore Professor F. Anozie’s archaeological conclusions that
as early as 500,000 to one million B.C. Igbo heartland land was
inhabited by an Early Stone Age race of people whom paleontologists
have classified as Homo Erectus or Early Man. These people, whose
culture was characterized by the stone axe, were the direct ancestors
of Homo Sapiens. They were the products of a very long evolution in
the Nigerian environment and French Paleontologists working in the
Chad Basin have dated their earliest known ancestors to 7 million B.C.

The archaeological findings at Ugwuele documented over twenty years


ago by veteran archaeologist of the Nsukka School, late Professor F.N.
Anozie, have lain dormant, excised from the realm of Igbo Studies
because the esteemed Professor Adiele Afigbo had written that the
Ugwuele Archeulians were not Igbo. But our work shows that they
were indeed Igbo, and that they were both the products and the
carriers of an unbroken bloodline of sons and daughters of the
Uncreated God and, being themselves uncreated products of evolution,
were the ancestors of Adam – the man who was hand-made.

We have evidence from recently translated cuneiform records of


ancient Sumer that Adam was a product of genetic mutation of Homo
155

Erectus specimens taken from West Africa by so called Nephilim Gods


or Annunaki. These earliest humans were in fact the source of the
claim by the mainland Igbo that they are ‘sons of the soil’. Along with
other pockets of Homo Erectus inhabitants of Africa, the Igbo Early
Man was the direct ancestor of Modern Man (Homo Sapiens Sapiens
otherwise called Adam). Specimens of Adam’s words and the words
spoken by succeeding generations of his children show that Adam
spoke a language very close to the Igbo language still spoken today in
Nigeria; and that through him and his seed, Igbo culture was
dispersed in its earliest form, throughout the first world and took root
in ancient Palestine, Asia, Europe, the Americas to name a few.

Linguistic evidence found on all five continents of the globe, indicate


that all pockets of Homo Erectus people on the African continent spoke
one single language and that that language was inherited by Homo
Sapiens. This singular Mother Language of mankind, which was said to
have been lost at Babel, was in fact not far removed from the
language spoken today in Igbo land and to a lesser extent among their
Kwa brethren – Yoruba, Benin, Igala, Ashanti, etc. Its traces still
abound in almost every language spoken by man to this day. Igbo
linguistic, cultural, philosophical and ideological gifts to the world,
which have survived to this day, are legion. They include Democracy
and Monotheism.

Leaning on Archaeology, Linguistics, Historical, Anthropological and


Paleontological sources, but also using Igbo, Yoruba and Benin Oral
Traditions (for all these peoples are related), Biblical and extra-Biblical
sources such as the Hebrew and Chinese Cabbalas, our researchers
trace the presence of Igbo-speaking, ichi-bearing god-men world
civilizers all the way from the ancient Nok region of Nigeria, to the
Sahara Desert of North Africa and to Pre- and Post-Deluge civilizations
around the world, all the way to Egypt, China, India, Greece, Babylon,
Assyria, Palestine, etc.; their Pre-Deluge connections to the lost
continent of Atlantis where the Igbo language was also spoken; their
contributions to the shaping of Hebrew culture, Judaism, the Cabbala
and ultimately, Christianity; and their role in ancient Egypt in shaping
world Democracy and Philosophy as inventors, architects, philosophers
and masterminds of Theocracy and of the egalitarian society known in
Greece and the world over as Democracy. Indeed Ndi Igbo have never
ceased to be world travelers. As they populate the remotest parts of
the planet today, so have they done since at least 500,000 B. C.

In fact the ‘Out of Africa’ phenomenon whereby Early Man left the
African continent to populate other continents of the globe, was a
156

Mega-Igbo Phenomenon, occasioned by the incurable Igbo urge to


expand, discover and settle. We found evidence of Anambra-speaking
ichi-bearing Igbos in Anatolia (Turkey) and the Aegean as far back as
2,500 B.C. The Awka/Nri/Nkanu/Nsukka/Enugu cultural phenomenon
was an offshoot of ancient Nok, the lost Holy City of Light, Old Ife/Ihe,
the seat of Idu - a world-renowned sovereign who ruled the world from
the center of the Earth, which is in today’s Nigeria - a place marked in
ancient maps of the world as Median Biafra (a ‘Median’ in any map is
the center of that map). They gave Egypt its first god-men or
Pharaohs (Opara-Ihe) before 9,000 B. C.

Speakers of Ngwa, Onitsha and Umuahia dialects were writing Igbo on


sticks and on stone in the British Isles by 5,000 B.C. and were the
inventors of the ancient Irish Ogam(also called Ogu ama) alphabet
whose stone inscriptions have now been transcribed, revealing an
ancient Igbo Bible on Stone. The only surviving vernacular word from
Atlantis recorded by Plato from Egyptian priests is a word still in use in
Anambra State.

300 carved ancient stone monoliths with strange inscriptions known as


Akwa-Nshi were discovered fifty years ago by colonial anthropologists
in the forests of Ikom in Cross River State. The natives claim the
ancient inscriptions were made by “Stone Age Early Man” dwarfs
known in Ikom as Monkom and in Igbo land as Nwa Nshi. The linguistic
connection between Akwa-Nshi, Nwa-Nshi and Nshi-biri – the local
name of the inscriptions (which translates into Igbo as ‘written by
Nshi’) reveals that the inscriptions were made by a people who spoke
Igbo Language. Ikom description of these people in their oral
traditions shows that they were the same Stone Age Homo Erectus
Igbo of Anozie’s archaeological discovery.

Professor F.N. Anozie’s archeological work in Ugwu-Ele, Uturu, Okigwe


and his revelation that Early Man (Homo Erectus) was living in Igbo
land in Okigwe and environs by 500,000 to 1 Million B.C. places
ancient Ndi Igbo in Igbo land at least 250,000 years before the
creation of Adam following the calculations of Geneticists from
Mitochondrial DNA analysis conducted in four leading US universities.
Orlu/Amaigbo/Isu migrated from Ugwuele, Uturu, Okigwe under the
umbrella of a man called Ele (alias Okwara-Ugwu-Ele) and are thus the
direct descendants of the Ugwuele Homo Erectus or sons of the Soil.
They and the people of Mbaise and Mbano and others within the
heartland still retain in their native customs, cultural traits that are
aboriginal, perhaps belonging to the Homo Erectus period, 500, 000 B.
C., a period defined in the works of Adieele Afigbo as “the Age of
157

Innocence when our earliest Igbo ancestors walked with God and were
fed divine substance as food: an Eternal Day with no night, sleep or
toil”.

Yoruba Ifa Oral History maintains that the greatest god known to the
Yoruba was Obatala (Oba ntu ala), who is the ancestor of the Igbo
nation. Ifa claims that Obatala was the god who saved the earth after
the Deluge. Ifa priests refer to him as “Osere Igbo: the Ancient of
Days, the First Son of God … the Prince of Peace … the one who
conquered death by rising from the dead after 16 days in the grave”.
These are, to say the least vital discoveries about Igbo origins and
identity unknown to the Igbo themselves.

The 2,000 year old Nag Hammadi Scriptures of Jesus Christ and his
chosen disciples, uncovered sixty years ago deep in the desert-sands
of Egypt, adds the final missing links to the mystery of Igbo identity. It
tells about a people whose cosmology is rooted in the numbers four
and eight, who emanated from the realm of the Eternal Day where
there was no Darkness, nor toil, nor sleep; a “kingless generation with
no kingdom over them because they are all kings” (Igbo Enwe Eze); a
people whose most central symbol is the quadrangle (the basic
geometry of Igbo ichi); a people who worship the Primal Goddess (as
in Ala/Ani); a people among whom “the three entities Father, Mother
and Child exist as perceptible speech having within it three names
abiding in three nnn” as in Nne, Nna and Nwa or Nwoke, Nwanyi and
Nwata – the Nag Hammadi Trinity. The Nag Hammadi also called The
African Gospel of Jesus Christ calls this people the First Sons of the
true God, and says of them,

“the fourth generation, which is the most exalted, is kingless and


perfect. These people – kingless, perfect generation – will enter the
Holy place of their Father and thy will reside in rest and eternal
ineffable glory, and ceaseless joy. They already are kings. They are
the immortal within the mortal and they will condemn the gods of
chaos and their powers.”

The Nag Hammadi Scriptures is not alone in ascribing divinity and


royalty to the Igbo, in fact Yoruba oral tradition says in Ifa that the
greatest of all the divinities in the Yoruba pantheon is the ancestor of
the Igbo nation. They call him Obatala and Ifa says he is the ‘First Son
of God’ who was sent to save the earth after the deluge and to
repopulate it with life; that he was the creator of man. Benin oral
tradition says that the Deluge took place over quarrels between the
158

gods arising from the birth of an Igbo child under illegitimate


circumstances.

We studied the esoteric meanings of Igbo symbols and etymons from a


global perspective, and found that they are not only universal, they
are leading symbols used in all major religions to describe the nature
of God or the Goddess as the case may be. Thus the double concentric
circle of Igbo Ukwu fame and the Kwa in Okwa-ra both represent the
First Son of God, while the ichi is a representation of the children of
the Earth-Goddess. Chi is the name of the god-man and the etymon –
ka- [as in Nkanu, nka, dioka, ka (greeting)] means Sacred Fire or Holy
Spirit. It is also synonymous with Kwa.

Our ongoing research shows that the Igbo were the first sons within
the Kwa language family, thus we were able to prove Adiele Afigbo’s
Mega Igbo/Proto-Kwa hypothesis, and we told him so at the Ahiajoku
lecture, and he was very happy. We found very deep-rooted Kwa and
Igbo links with the Nok civilization and with the lost continent of
Atlantis. We found that Nri was an offshoot of the Nok civilization of
the Niger-Benue confluence, which was the so called Old Ife of Idu
fame, the locale of the famous filial rivalry between the Yoruba
ancestor and his Igbo senior brother Obatala which led to their parting
ways and to the loss of the Oduduwa title by the Igbo ancestor.

They Lived Before Adam is a must read for every Igbo man, woman
and child and a vital source book for Igbo scholars. This book restores
our self worth as a people and makes an undeniably powerful case for
the preservation and study of Igbo origins, native language and
dialects, culture, oral traditions and philosophies. It was through our
good understanding of Igbo dialects that we were able to draw most of
the vital conclusions that were critical to our theses. For that, we join
professor Chinua Achebe in calling for the preservation of Igbo dialects
as is being done in all other languages at this time.

Ndi Igbo at home and abroad can give our children something to
believe in at last – themselves and their ancestral values. They Lived
Before Adam does this for us. In fact the magic and mystery that
surrounds Igbo identity as a divine race is known to all and sundry,
except Ndi Igbo themselves. To paraphrase the words of the iroko
himself, Chinua Achebe, the failure of a people begins when the belief
in themselves is taken from them; then the detractor needs do no
more (Achebe, Morning Yet on Creation Day).
159

Ndi Igbo happen to be among the few groups of people in the world
whose core traditional philosophies of life consist of virtues rather than
vices – Justice and fair play (Ikpe kwu oto), Impeccability (ikwuba aka
oto/ijide ogu), Peace and the brotherhood of Man (onye biri ibe ya
biri), right action and right judgment (ofo na ogu/ome ihe jide ofo),
right is might (ofo ka nsi), Eucharistic communion with God and man
as demonstration of purity of mind and soul in one and all (onye
wetara oji wetara ndu, egbe bere ugo bere). The Igbo are perhaps the
only group of people in the world whose basic custom, Grundnorm and
Philosophy of life is rooted in the observance of personal and collective
Holiness, sinless-ness and living in a state of grace. This is totally at
variance with what obtains in the customs of the Hebrews for instance,
where the Law of God gave approval to a people to exterminate their
hosts and take over the latter’s land. In all these, ancient Igbo culture
shows itself as the likely fore-runner of Christianity, and The Nag
Hammadi revelations confirms it to be so.
160

Replies to This Discussion


Permalink Reply by Eemah Khephzybah on June 1, 2010 at 5:31pm

PART 2
The compilation and release of They Lived Before Adam were planned
to coincide with the Ohaneze Ndi Igbo, CODES and Aka Ikenga
sponsored First Festival of Igbo Civilization, as our contribution to the
161

celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart


and to honor Achebe’s achievements for the Igbo on the global scene.
Accordingly it was formerly presented to the President of Ohanaeze
Ndi Igbo, Ambassador Raph Uwaechue and to Chinua Achebe who
received his copy along with his wife after his Ahiajoku Lecture at
Owerri. They Lived Before Adam is a vital step in the process of piecing
together those Things (that) Fell Apart in the Igbo world. It is a labor
of love from a woman who has spent the best twenty years of her life
searching out the truth about Ndi Igbo. The book also addresses Igbo-
phobia in African Studies and the Olaudah Equiano/Vincent Caretta
controversy. It was launched in Abuja on 25th March 2009 and the
President Gneral, Ohanaeze Ndi Igbo is hosting an All-Igbo
Launch/Rally in support of They Lived at Okpara Square, Enugu on
27th June, 2009.

Ohanaeze Ndi Igbo, the apex Igbo organization, has requested that a
simplified edition of They Lived Before Adam be produced for the less
educated readers and that schools editions be made available for
children in Nursery, Primary and Secondary schools. We are therefore
calling on interested individuals and organizations to sign up, join
and/or support the second phase of the project and take the Igbo
Story to all Ndi Igbo and to the world.

On behalf of my co-authors, I thank you all as I salute and bow before


the Divinity in all Igbo and in you.

Catherine Acholonu,

Washington D. C., April 4th, 2009

Permalink Reply by Eemah Khephzybah on June 2, 2010 at 9:52am

Additions to this writing:

It is worthy of note that in ancient Akkadian, Egyptian and Greece the


words Paraa/Peraa/pr/phar/pal all mean First Son, Divine Prince and
Royalty - another Igbo gift to the world, which implies that the Igbo
were the first kings the world knew and that the word ‘Prince’ (Opara
Nshi?) was most likely derived from Igbo language and ancient global
tradition of kingship of the world. This appears to be so because the
Greeks and other Aegean nations got their kings from a clan of god-
men of unknown origins who called themselves Pelop (translated as
‘Crown Prince’), a cognate of Igbo Opala Okpu. It was obviously these
Igbo-speaking Crown Princes who gave the tradition of royalty to
162

Greece and the rest of Europe.

Our analysis of the language of the earliest settlers in the Americas


also reveal that Igbo was the language of the land chiefs who brought
culture and writing to the Andes and environs. As in Greece, these
migrants bore the ichi scarifications on their faces and their boats and
named their installations and cities in Igbo language. All these details
are clearly delineated in They Lived Before Adam, a must read for
every Igbo and Black African; a must read too for everyone who is
keen on truth

Permalink Reply by nwabueze eleke on October 20, 2010 at 8:07am


The above contribution is a big lesson for all to appreciate the truth,
no matter who tell the truth.

Permalink Reply by Mama Wisdom on June 4, 2010 at 12:45pm


The book sounds like something you have to have in your collection
but it sounds very over the edge to me. I have one question though,
do you think Igbos first came to the land of Ethiopia?

Permalink Reply by nwabueze eleke on October 20, 2010 at 8:00am


This is one spiritual interpretation of the King James version bible story
account of Mechizedek and the record account that revealed secret
thought of many. It is very unfortunate that those who seek to change
the time and law where unable to hide the true real face value image
of Africa that now speaks for itself.

Are There Human On Earth before Adam?

August 17, 2009, 05:07 PM »

Adam & Eve, are Not the first family.


Genesis 4:14:: King James Version (KJV) - “Behold, thou hast driven
me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I
be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it
163

shall come to pass, that everyone that findeth me shall slay me.”

At this time there was only supposed to be living on the planet Earth
1. Adam, 2. Eve, 3. Cain who killed Abel, the only other person on the
planet Earth right? Right! So then who was the “EVERYONE that
findeth me (Cain) shall slay me?” Think now. Just stop and think.
Then look at Genesis 3:1:

Genesis 3:1:: King James Version (KJV) - “Now the serpent was more
subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And
he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every
tree of the garden?”
“. . . And he (the serpent) said unto the woman . . .” There are no
species of snake that can speak, and no species of reptile have a
larynx. In order to hold a conversation, and don’t say the heavenly
father gave him or it that power, just to beguile (trick) Nekaybaw
(Eve) against his own commandments, no, not really. Think! And one
more point, (Genesis 4:16) “the land of Nod,” if this is the first and
only family on the whole planet Earth, no one else was created yet,
just (and I repeat)
1. Adam, 2. Eve, 3. Cain, tell me who set up the land of Nod? Who
were the people that lived there, where did they come from, and how
long before Adam and Eve did they exist?

schmuck (m) August 17, 2009, 05:42 PM

Many people do not know and those that do know


won't want to admit it because it doesn't support
what is written in the scriptures and probably Quran too.

Many people all over the world are now waking up to the
realities of this planet earth.

Human have been existing on this planet for 100 thousand of years
before Adam's story.

Civilizations have come and gone.

Ours is surely not the first civilization on earth.

mantraa: August 17, 2009, 06:05 PM

There have been many different species of humans on this planet over
the last 7 million years, of which we are now the last surviving species.
164

Here is a guide to 22 known ancient human species which are now


extinct.
http://www.amazon.com/Last-Human-Twenty-Two-Species-
Extinct/dp/0300100477/ref=cm_cr_pr_product_top

schmuck (m) August 17, 2009, 06:09 PM

Just to let you guys know, human have been genetically engineered
for millions of years by some extraterrestrial beings ,

If you don't believe in extraterrestrials then you are in for


one heck of a SHOCK

mantraa August 17, 2009, 06:32 PM

Shock me!!. What extraterrestrials have been genetically engineering


humans for millions of years?

Where did they come from and do you have any evidence to support t
his claim?

Horus (m) August 17, 2009, 07:55 PM

This is correct, and some of the scientists who created us are from the
planet Rizq, which is the 8th planet of the 19th galaxy called Illyuwn.
Rizq is the planet where the Annunaqi Eloheem is from.

macIB (m)

Adam and Eve story, believe it at you own risk. It is just a


Jewish

mantraa August 17, 2009, 09:10 PM

@Horus
You seem like an intelligent person, so why do you believe all this
extraterrestrial stuff which originated from the imagination of one
man, Dwight York. Founder and leader of the newaubian cult who is
now serving life in prison for many many crimes including the
despoiling of children in his commune.
I have read his "Holy Tablets" and many other his books and it sounds
like a mix of Scientology, ufology, black supremacy, Egyptology etc.
165

The man is not a god. He is a human being just like you and me.
Albeit a very self deluded human being, like all cult leaders are.

Black_Revo August 17, 2009, 09:14 PM

Genesis 2:15:
And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the Garden of
Eden to dress it and to keep it.
Genesis 2:18-20:
And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone;
I will make him an help meet for him.
And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field,
and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he
would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature,
that was the name thereof.
And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to
every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help
meet for him.

These verses are important for three reasons:

1. Humans were created on the sixth day and told to multiply and
replenish the earth and to have dominion over the whole earth but
Adam and Eve were placed in the Garden of Eden. That was to be their
home.
2. Verses Gen 1:27 -28 says that God created man and woman and
told them to multiply. In contrast, verses Gen 2:18 - 20 gives a
different account. According to this, Adam was originally meant to be
alone. It wasn't until after creating all the animals for Adam to see and
name that God created Eve. (BTW, it says he named them, not that he
alone had dominion over them, or that he had dominion over them at
all. Adam's world was a garden, he had no need for dominion over the
world's animal population.) The reason God re-created all the animals
of the world for Adam was to find him a help meet.
3. In verses Gen 1:24 - 28 it states that man was created after the
animals. Verses Gen 2:18 - 20 seem to be a direct contradiction unless
you realize were reading about two different times, places and
people(s).

After terraforming the earth, God put man and animal here and told
mankind to be fruitful and replenish the earth. Adam and Eve were
placed in the Garden of Eden and had perfect bodies. Had they not
sinned, it's likely that they would never have had children, would still
be alive today and none (or few) of the rest of the events mentioned in
166

the Bible would have come to pass.

Genesis 1:31:
And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very
good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
Genesis 2:1-4:
Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of
them.
And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and
he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.
Compare the highlighted verse above to these:
Genesis 2:8-9:
And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he
put the man whom he had formed.
And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that
is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the
midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. And
God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he
had rested from all his work which God created and made.
These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when
they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and
the heavens,

This is the end of the creation story and the beginning of the lineage of
Christ.

Genesis 2:5-7:
And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every
herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to
rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.
But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face
of the ground.
And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and
breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living
soul.

It's well documented scientifically that early mankind were


hunter/gatherers, not gardeners or farmers. This is a reference to
them, not that there were no humans at all. If all mankind were
descended from Adam it's unlikely that the knowledge of such a
rudimentary skill as farming would be lost. If however, a separate
group of humans, the ones that were told to Be fruitful, and multiply,
and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the
167

fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing
that moveth upon the earth, were not given the knowledge of farming,
there would not be a man to till the ground. The hunter/gatherers that
we know of scientifically and this other race of humans spoken of in
the Bible are one and the same.

Genesis 4:13-15:
And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can
bear.
Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth;
and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a
vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that
findeth me shall slay me.
And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain,
vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark
upon Cain, and female created he them.
bullet And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful,
and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have
dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and
over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. 1,2

lest any finding him should kill him.

Who was Cain going to be a fugitive from? Who else was there, outside
of Eden, that Cain was afraid might kill him? Who was God protecting
him from by giving him the mark? His descendants or the descendants
of future siblings? Unlikely. Adam and Eve's future family would have
respected Cain's banishment as God's punishment. Retribution
wouldn't have entered their minds. As for Cain's descendants, had he
not been protected by the mark, he could've simply not had children.
No, he was afraid of someone else. It was the other humans that he
was being protected from.

Genesis 4:16-18:
And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the
land of Nod, on the east of Eden.
And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: F30
and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name
of his son, Enoch.
And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael
begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech.

Who was Cain's wife? Except for Eve, no woman is mentioned in the
168

Bible up to this point. It's been argued that he married an unnamed


sister. Admitting that there were other humans not mentioned,
whether a sister or whomever, just helps me make my point. It's
logical that if someone as important as a member of Adam's family is
not mentioned, other humans, who were of virtually no importance to
the story at hand wouldn't be mentioned either.

Words for "man" in Genesis:

In Genesis, two different words are translated as "man". (Actually


three, but the other usually refers generically to a child or youth)

One being 'iysh {eesh}, Strong's # 0376

Outline of Biblical Usage

1) man
the earth.
So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he
him; male
a) man, male (in contrast to woman, female)

b) husband

c) human being, person (in contrast to God)

d) servant

e) mankind

f) champion

g) great man

2) whosoever

3) each (adjective)

The other is 'adam {aw-dawm'}which is the same word as the name


Adam

'adam {aw-dawm'} Strong's # 0120

Outline of Biblical Usage


169

1) man, mankind

a) man, human being

b) man, mankind (much more frequently intended sense in OT)

c) Adam, first man

d) city in Jordan valley

Easton's Bible Dictionary defines Man (as used in Genesis) as:

1. Heb. 'Adam, used as the proper name of the first man. The name
is derived from a word meaning "to be red," and thus the first man
was called Adam because he was formed from the red earth. It is also
the generic name of the human race. Its equivalents are the Latin
homo and the Greek anthropos. It denotes also man in opposition to
woman.

Genesis 1:24-28:
And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his
kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind:
and it was so.
bullet And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle
after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his
kind: and God saw that it was good.
And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and
let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of
the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every
creeping thing that creepeth upon
2. Heb. 'ish, like the Latin vir and Greek aner, denotes properly a
man in opposition to a woman, a husband; man with reference to
excellent mental qualities.

The above highlighted part of the definition gives credence to my


theory since the second definition is used exclusively for Adam and his
descendants. The first definition is used only when speaking of man or
mankind in general or as the proper name for the first man mentioned
by name. It's likely that the other humans, as a group, were not as
intelligent as Adam and his descendants were, given the fact that they
didn't know how to farm. The two distinct words used to denote man
or mankind and their usage is strong indication that the Bible is
speaking of two different groups of humans.
170

The name Adam and the word "man" mean the same thing. Adam is
the name of the first "man" mentioned by name. The word "man" is
used when speaking about mankind in general or as a group. Only
when talking about Adam personally is his name used.

The humans of today may be descendants of both Adam and the other
race. Cain married into the other race and so did Adam's other
descendants. Noah's family was likely of mixed race and since we're
descended from them, we are as well.
This research shows a direct connection between scientific data and
biblical history. One does not have to contradict the other, they
compliment each other. Instead of scientists stating the Bible is wrong
and the church dismissing science, we should examine the evidence
presented here and agree that both are right.
http://www.religioustolerance.org/pers01.htm

Those beings are from several planets/galaxies.

Some are from such Star system like Lyran, Sirius (Dog Star),
Arcturus, Plaidean and Zeta Reticuli,
and have been interacting with world government as far back as 1943.

We should be enlightened and know exactly our position in the Galactic


Federation.

We humans are still been considered primitive when compared to


those E.Ts.
171

I am a Christian, but I know for a fact that most of the stories in the
Bible especially creation story
have appeared in some ealier text like Sumerian text, Egyptian etc

Most times. Religion and the imagination of one man, do your


research, all the scientists are awar

Five sized pyramid and Face

@mantraa
Dont believe the propaganda. I never deal with believe, never. The
creation of the human is millons of years old and do not originated
from the imagination of one man. If you study pictures from Nasa you
will realise that there is five sized pyramids and a Face. All the pictures
are avalaible to everyone and are not from e of it.

Those beings are from several planets/galaxies.

Some are from such Star system like Lyran, Sirius (Dog Star),
Arcturus, Plaidean and Zeta Reticuli,
and have been interacting with world government as far back as 1943.

We should be enlightened and know exactly our position in the Galactic


Federation.

We humans are still been considered primitive when compared to


those E.Ts.

I am a Christian, but I know for a fact that most of the stories in the
Bible especially creation story
have appeared in some ealier text like Sumerian text, Egyptian etc

Most times. religion and politics are a form of control/domination by


some people bent on controlling the human
population.

Those beings are from several planets/galaxies.

Some are from such Star system like Lyran, Sirius (Dog Star),
Arcturus, Plaidean and Zeta Reticuli,
and have been interacting with world government as far back as 1943.

We should be enlightened and know exactly our position in the Galactic


172

Federation.

We humans are still been considered primitive when compared to


those E.Ts.

I am a Christian, but I know for a fact that most of the stories in the
Bible especially creation story
have appeared in some ealier text like Sumerian text, Egyptian etc

Most times. religion and politics are a form of control/domination by


some people bent on controlling the human
population.

politics are a form of control/domination by some people bent on


controlling the human
population.

Those beings are from several planets/galaxies.

Some are from such Star system like Lyran, Sirius (Dog Star),
Arcturus, Plaidean and Zeta Reticuli,
and have been interacting with world government as far back as 1943.

We should be enlightened and know exactly our position in the Galactic


Federation.

We humans are still been considered primitive when compared to


those E.Ts.

I am a Christian, but I know for a fact that most of the stories in the
Bible especially creation story
have appeared in some ealier text like Sumerian text, Egyptian etc

Most times. religion and politics are a form of control/domination by


some people bent on controlling the human
population.

mantraa: August 18, 2009, 03:46 PM

This is nonsense, based on science fiction and conspiracy theorists.


Do you know how far those star systems are from us and how many
light years it would take to get here (travelling at the speed of light)?
Do you really think that a civilisation so advanced would be captured
by our primitive 'world government' or crash land in the desert close to
173

a secret military base?


If we were able to send a mission to another star system, dont you
think we would monitor it and keep in contact with it? Just think what
would happen if the native americans had captured an early explorer
like columbus and his ship for instance. Do you think the chiefs would
be able to keep it quiet from the people. The british empire would
launch a rescue mission with their advanced weapons and technology.
Do you think that advanced alien beings who can travel across
galaxies and between galaxies are that silly that they can be controlled
by our primitive governments who cant even control their own
budgets?
Why has no one ever captured one definite alien spacecraft on video
now that so many people carry video phones? Think about it.

Quote
I am a Christian, but I know for a fact that most of the stories in the
Bible especially creation story
have appeared in some ealier text like Sumerian text, Egyptian etc

This is true, but does mean to you that aliens must have wrote it? This
just shows that a lot of stories in the bible incorporate a lot of earlier
myths and legends. This is quite normal.

Quote
Most times. religion and politics are a form of control/domination by
some people bent on controlling the human
population.

I agree with this 100%

Horus (m) August 17, 2009, 11:41 PM


Quote
Are you saying that you think these were made by extraterrestrial
beings from the planet rizq.

Yes by the Eloheem, who look exactly like us, whooly hair dark skin
with Nubian/Negroid facials features. They used Mars as a base before
coming here. Mars was originally called Lahmu by ours great
ancestors. The NASA dont want you to know too much about that,
because they have an inferiority complex, they got all the pictures
since 1976 but released the informations only in 1994. You have to
174

overstand that the technology used today by NASA is very primitive


compared to the technology used by ours ancestors the Eloheems.

@Mantraa,

Points taken. But the planet earth is very important for some of this
E.Ts. Different species have different reasons for coming to earth.
Talking about the distances between galaxies, those beings do not
travel at the speed of light.
Their technology has transversed time/space continuum. A distance
of 50 light-years can be made in a matter of days.

Most of them especially "the Grays" needed human genetic DNA for
the own re-engineering because they have messed up their own
genetics thru excessive manipulation. (A Gray E.T was captured during
Roswell Crash in New Mexico.

Below you will find testimonies from top government officials


concerning the government cover-up since 1947.

Because of pressure from the general public now, the government


both British & American have started releasing files on UFO & E.Ts

The Greatest Secret in Modern History

UFOs and a Solution to the Environmental and Energy Crisis

The Cover-up: UFOs

Mercury & Gemini Astronaut, Colonel Gordon Cooper


A saucer flew right over [us], put down three landing gears, and
landed out on the dry lakebed. [The cameramen] went out there with
their cameras towards the UFO….I had a chance to hold [the film] up
to the window. Good close-up shots.
There was no doubt in my mind that it was made someplace other
than on this earth.—Video interview.
Transcribed in Disclosure, Steven M. Greer, MD., ed., pp. 226-227.
See also Gordon Cooper & Bruce Henderson, Leap of Faith: an
Astronaut’s Journey into the Unknown, pp. 80-91, 194 - 200.

FAA Division Chief of Accidents and Investigations, John


Callahan77.
UFO Message: Don’t Mess With Nuclear Weapons
175

US Air Force, FAA, Captain Robert Salas


[The security guard called and] said, “Sir, there’s a glowing red object
hovering right outside the front gate. I’ve got all the men out here
with their weapons drawn.” We lost between 16 to 18 ICBMs [nuclear-
tipped InterContinental Ballistic Missiles] at the same time UFOs were
in the area….[A high-ranking Air Force Officer] said, “Stop the
investigation; do no more on this and do not write a final report.” I
heard that many of the guards that reported this incident were sent off
to Viet Nam.—Video and Disclosure, pp. 168-171.
US Air Force Lieutenant, Professor Robert Jacobs
So this thing [UFO] fires a beam of light at the warhead, hits it and
then it moves to the other side and fires another beam of light. And
the warhead tumbles out of space. What message would I interpret
from that? [The UFOs were telling us] don’t mess with nuclear
warheads. Major Mannsman said, “You are never to speak of this
again.” After an article [about the incident years later], people would
call and start screaming at me. One night somebody blew up my
mailbox.—Video and Disclosure, pp. 184, 187.

For full story see book Disclosure and witness videos at


www.disclosureproject.org.

Disclosure Project has over 400 government and military


witnesses prepared to testify on this subject.

More Cover-up: Advanced Technologies Developed from UFOs

Russian Air Force, Space Communications Center, General


Vasily Alexeyev
As a rule, [places where UFOs appear] are objects of strategic
significance….[The Air Force] came up with a table with pictures of all
the shapes of UFOs that had ever been recorded—about fifty—ranging
from ellipses and spheres to something resembling spaceships….The
study of UFOs may reveal some new forms of energy to us, or at least
bring us closer to a solution.—pp. 345–347.

US Army, General Stephen Lovekin


Colonel Holomon brought out a piece of what appeared to be metallic
debris. He went on to explain that this was material that had come
from a New Mexico crash in 1947 of an extraterrestrial craft, and that
was discussed at length….Igot an opportunity to travel with the
President [Eisenhower]. He was very, very interested in what made
[the UFOs] go. But what happened was that Eisenhower got sold out.
He realized that he was losing control of the UFO subject. He realized
176

that the [study of these technologies] was not going to be in the best
hands. That was a real concern.—Video interview and Disclosure, pp.
230 - 236.

US Air Force, Aerospace Illustrator, Mark McCandlish


This [US made] antigravity propulsion system—this flying saucer—was
one of three that were in this hangar at Norton Air Force Base. They
called [it] the Alien Reproduction Vehicle [ARV], also nicknamed the
Flux Liner.—Disclosure, p. 501.

US Marine Corps, Captain Bill Uhouse


The [flight] simulator was for the extraterrestrial craft they had—a 30
meter one that crashed in Kingman, Arizona, back in 1953. I was
inside the actual alien craft for a start-up, There are probably two or
three dozen [ARVs] that we built.—Disclosure, pp. 384, 385.

US Air Force, NRO Operative, Sergeant Dan Morris


UFOs are both extraterrestrial and manmade….It’s not that our
government doesn’t want us to know that there are other people on
other planets. What the people in power don’t want us to know is that
this free energy [from energy generators developed with UFO
technology] is available to everybody. So secrecy about the UFOs is
because of the energy issue. When this knowledge is found out by the
people, they will demand that our government release this technology,
and it will change the world.—Disclosure, pp. 364.

US Air Force, Colonel Charles Brown


I was getting 20 to 30% improvement in efficiency on an internal
combustion engine. I sponsored the US Army race team on a racing
car, [and] we won a race. [Then] the Federal Trade Commission
performed an illegal act. I lost my vehicle, about $100,000 worth of
equipment, and a test vehicle was stolen….So in three weeks,
psychologically I was wiped out.—Disclosure, pp. 247 - 251.

US Army, Ph.D. in Nuclear Engineering, Colonel Thomas E.


Bearde n
Probably 50 inventors have invented [virtually cost-free energy
systems]. If we use these systems, we can clean up this biosphere.
But, what we have is a situation where the entire structure of science,
industry, and the patent office are against you. And behind this, we
have a few people who are quite wealthy. The more powerful the
agency, the more they will resort not only to legal, but to extra-legal
means to suppress their competition. Lethal force is used.—Disclosure,
pp. 534 – 542. See also www.cheniere.org.
177

The Grand War Plan: It’s All Based on a Lie


Corporate Manager of Fairchild Industries, Spokesperson for
Wernher Von Braun, Dr. Carol Rosin
Von Braun [founder of modern rocket science] told me [in 1974] that
the reasons for space-based weaponry were all based on a lie. He said
that the strategy was to use scare tactics—that first the Russians, then
the terrorists are going to be considered the enemy. The next enemy
was asteroids. “The last card is the alien card. We are going to have to
build space-based weapons against aliens, and all of it is a lie.”….I was
at a meeting in Fairchild Industries in the War Room. The conversation
[was] about how they were going to antagonize these enemies and at
some point, there was going to be a Gulf War. Now this is 1977!—
Video, Disclosure, pp. 255-259.

Disclosure Project, Founder and Director, Steven M. Greer, M.D.


The situation is so dire that senior Joint Chiefs of Staff leaders in the
Pentagon, who I have briefed, have no more access to such projects
than any other civilian—unless they are on the ‘inside.’ The
government is really quite outside the loop. We have insiders and
scientists who can prove that we do in fact possess energy generation
systems capable of completely and permanently replacing all forms of
currently used energy generation and transportation systems. Every
single person who is concerned about the environment and the human
future should call for urgent hearings to allow these technologies to be
disclosed, declassified, and safely applied.—Disclosure, pp. 14, 15,
567. See also

Dr. Greer’s websites at www.disclosureproject.org, and


www.seaspower.com.
For full story see book Disclosure and witness videos at
www.disclosureproject.org.
Feel free to copy and share this with any and all who might be
interested. Help us to change the world.

Horus (m)
Again same for you i just explained the agenda behind science fiction
movies, so i am not dealing with "stargate", I am not dealing with
stories, and i am not dealing with Beliefs. The more important thing
that you have to know first is that I am NOT trying to convince you
of anything, and this is very important, I am just giving you some
facts. The caucasian have a different origin and were created under a
different influence from luciferians reptilians beings. The same beings
who influenced Adolph Hiltler to create a new blond hair blue eyes
178

race. I know that you have some facts because you talk about green
skin. We have taken in so many ions, and oxygen, which are poisoning
our systems. This olive green skin tone we are lacking is because the
melanin in our body is deficient of a vital molecule called magnesium.
Many people think that melanin is suppose to make our skin color
brown, however, it doesn’t. Magnesium was lost from the melanin and
that was when iron took its place. When you mix iron with water and
oxygen, it rusts. This rusting color is your brown skin tone. Now it is
no longer magnesium that is dominant, but the iron when mixed with
water and oxygen; both elements are essential to your life, and is
what turns your skin color brown instead of green. Oxygen has now
become toxic to your bodies. Believe it or not, the constant inhaling of
oxygen to the system is poisonous. It has certain radioactive isotopes
in it 14-0, 15-0, 19-0. You may not believe this, yet, if you do a little
research you will find that it clears up many oddities about our present
biochemistry. The NETERU, which is the Egyptian name for the
ANUNNAQI, had an excellent balance of zinc, copper, magnesium, and
iron in their blood streams to have green skin, copper would have to
have been abundant in the blood. In other words their blood would
had to have been more like chlorophyll, or even a gold color. The
constant inhaling and processing of toxic oxygen and especially the
content of CO2 in the air as it is, you are killing yourselves. You are
speeding your life force, and you are bright and healthy looking, but
you are aging more quicker than usual. We don’t have enough zinc in
our systems and this is why our sisters labor so much in childbirth;
because of the lack of zinc. I’m not saying the color brown isn’t a
beautiful color, it is, but it still lacks something, and that lack is the
color green, that chromatophore, that green, that magnesium, that
gives you the chlorophyll base.

schmuck (m)
I know about the stone carving you are talking about. If I see the
image, I will post it.

Imagine a stone carving dated about 2,500 years ago, showing an


helicopter & a spacecraft. How do you think those ancient people get
to know about all those stuffs when there wasn't even a bicycle??

Most gods they worship in ancient Egypt and Sumeria are actually
aliens that descended from their spacecraft down to earth.

Annunaki (m
179

@morpheous
We created you humans so that your race would develop to take up a
glorious place in the universe. We have civilizations on several other
planets as well. The purpose for creating man would be revealed to
mankind when the human race matures enough to appreciate it's role
in the bigger universal picture. For now your race is still too primitive
and evil to be a part of the supreme order. The eloheems have visited
your ancestors several times to reveal the truth to mankind. So of this
truths remain in a distorted manner in some of your so called holy
books. We never asked men to start a religion we just motivated them
to live a good life. The whole human race is being assesed on this
basis. It is only when your race proves it self that they would be
admitted into the higher realm and allowed to co-dominate the
universe.
schmuck (m)
Let me shed moer light on this.

It's not the E.Ts that didn't want to reveal themselves, it's actually our
own government that is covering this up.

Their argument is this: that it will cause chaos, fear and general
disorder if the public know the truth that aliens have been present on
earth permanently for decades.

Google 'area 51' and see what you come up with.

But the fact is this;the power that be in this world are covering it up
because if the aliens presence is known and their technology revealed,
it will cause a change in power balance.

Have you heard about Zero Power Generation, Anti-Gravity Technology


etc??

Those are the things the world power doesn't want to make public.

Imagine what will happen to countries that rely solely on oil and oil
product to control the world. That means the world will be generating
enough and enourmous amount of power/energy free.
That is the extent of those aliens technology.

Imagine having anti-gravity technology on a full scale???

No need to construct roads, you can build your house anywhere you
want you move anywhere at any instant , the advantages are endless.
180

What it translate to is that there will be shift in power balance. No


more civilized societies, 'cause everyone will be the same.

World power don;t want this to happen.

God the Author of Nature and the


Supernatural
Part Two: Creation as a Divine Fact
181

Section Two: Supernatural Anthropology

THESIS VIII
Before the fall, Adam Possessed Sanctifying Grace
and the Preternatural Gifts of Integrity, Immortality and
Infused Knowledge.

By Fr. John A. Hardon, S.J.

Having studied the nature of man according to his nature, his origin in
soul by an immediate creation of God and in body by some special
agency directed by God, we are now in a position to examine into the
moral and religious phase of human kind. Our immediate concern will
be with the first man, Adam, as the father of his race; and our scope
of inquiry will be twofold: to establish the fact that he was possessed
of original justice or sanctity, covered by the term "sanctifying grace,"
and of certain additional gifts that followed on this supernatural
orientation, namely, in his mind, and body and relation to the external
world.

The basis which we face in this matter is the naturalistic mentality,


almost inbred in modern thought, which conceives of man as
autonomous agent and self-sufficient "master of his own destiny." Yet
faith requires us to say that man not only came from the hands of God
primordially, in soul and body, but his destiny is beyond the capacities
of nature and therefore a sheer gift of divine love. All that we ever say
in theology about the supernatural order had its beginnings for the
human race in Adam, in the possession he received from the Creator
and the means he was given to retain the gift for himself and transmit
the same to his progeny.

From the viewpoint of modern paleontology and ethnology, which posit


man in ancient times as crude and undeveloped, we seem to face a
contradiction to the present thesis. If primitive man was also
"primitive," how square this with the dogma that the first man was
superlatively gifted with powers of mind and body?

Terminology

Adam in context means first of all the man, described in Genesis and
St. Paul as distinct from Eve. This is the term also found in the
documents of the Church. However we do not use the word of him
alone but extend it to Eve, in fact apply it to human nature as
represented in our first parents.
182

The expression "before the fall" simply states the fact that Adam
possessed grace and the preternatural gifts, without committing
ourselves as to when the infusion took place.

By sanctifying grace we understand that permanent gift, which is now


given through Christ and by which a man becomes formally justified, a
partaker of the divine nature, an adopted son of God and heir of
eternal life. In the present order, sanctifying grace is associated with
the uncreated gift of the Holy Spirit and such created gifts as the
infused virtues of faith, hope and supernatural charity.

The three gifts of bodily immortality, integrity and infused knowledge


are called preternatural because they are not strictly due to human
nature but do not, of themselves, surpass the capacities and
exigencies of created nature as such. In other words, they are not
entitatively supernatural.

Bodily immortality is the converse of mortality, i.e., the possibility of


separation of soul from body. Adam was therefore capable of not
dying. Yet the gift was conditional, provided he did not sin; it was
gratuitous, since Adam's nature by itself did not postulate this
prerogative but came from the divine bounty; and it was participated,
since only God enjoys essential immortality.

The gift of integrity is equivalent to exemption from concupiscence. It


is called "integrity" because it effected a harmonious relation between
flesh and spirit by completely subordinating man's lower passions to
his reason.

This integrity, it should be noted, did not consist in lacking the natural
power to desire for sensible or spiritual bona, nor was it a lack of
activity of this power, since all of these belong to the perfection of
human nature. Rather it was the absence of certain kinds of acts of the
appetitive faculty, namely those which anticipate or go before
(praevertunt) the operations of reason and will and tend to continue in
opposition to the same.

Stated positively, integrity consisted in the perfect subjection of the


concupiscible and irascible appetitive powers to the dictates of reason
and free will. As a consequence the will had not only indirect
(diplomatic) but also direct (despotic) dominion over the appetite.

Two kinds of concupiscence should be distinguished, the one dogmatic


and the other moral. In a dogmatic sense, concupiscence is the
183

appetite - primarily sensitive and actual, and secondarily spiritual and


habitual - in so far as its movement precedes the deliberation and
dictate of reason and tends to endure in spite of the command of the
will. In a moral sense, concupiscence is the appetite - again primarily
sensitive and actual, and secondarily spiritual and habitual - in so far
as 1) its acts not only precede reason and perdure in spite of the will,
but 2) they tend to moral evil. Another name for the latter is
inordinate or prava concupiscence.

Our concern in the thesis is with concupiscence in the dogmatic sense,


and integrity as immunity from this kind of appetitive drive.

In order, further to clarify Adam's gift of integrity, we may say that he


was perfectly sound, entire and integral, in the sense that hedid not
experience within himself that division which mankind now
understands so well. Our own indeliberate tendencies, we know, often
oppose themselves to what we decide or want to do. The life of a man
who wants to do well and avoid evil is literally a conflict, more or less
violent, between reason which sees and approves the good and wants
fewer tendencies. This conflict is variously described as a tension
between spirit and flesh, between the interior and exterior man, or
simply between soul and body. But in our first parents there was no
such internal discord. Their integrity was "the absence of any
resistance from their spontaneous tendencies, notably the sense
appetite, in the performance of good or avoidance of evil." In a word it
was a perfect dominion of animal and spiritual passion.

Adam's infused knowledge was not acquired, in the sense of natural


cognition derived from experience and the reasoning process; nor was
it intrinsically supernatural as giving a knowledge of the mysteries,
such as the souls enjoy in the beatific vision. It was infused because
not naturally acquired, but yet entitatively not beyond the capacity of
man's faculties in his statu viae. Theologians commonly refer to three
areas of special knowledge possessed by Adam: regarding God and His
attributes, the moral law or man's relations to God, and the physical
universe both material and spiritual.

Adversaries

Since the main object of the thesis is the supernatural order, the
principal adversaries would logically be the classic opponents of
supernaturalism. Historically and chronologically they are Pelagianism
and Rationalism.
184

Pelagianism was named after the British lay monk, Pelagius, and now
is practically synonymous for the denial of grace or of a higher order
than nature in human existence.

Little is known about the personal career of Pelagius. Born in England


about 354, he came to Rome in the time of Pope Anastasius (399-
401), where he was so alarmed by the low morality of the day that he
became convinced it could only be reformed by concentrating on the
responsibility of men for their actions. Together with his disciple
Celestius, he began teaching a doctrine of free will which left no room
for grace.

Pelagius and Celestius went to Africa in 410, the latter staying to find
himself charged with heresy by the Council of Carthage in 412, while
Pelagius went on to Palestine and met the same treatment at the
hands of St. Jerome. In 418 a plenary Council of Carthage protested to
Pope Zozimus and Pelagius was formally condemned by Rome. Though
Pelagius leaves the scene of controversy at this point, eighteen Italian
bishops, led by Julian of Eclanum, refused to submit to the Pope.
Condemned once more at the Council of Orange (529), Pelagianism
disappeared as an organized system in the second half of the sixth
century, but its influence in opposition to orthodox Christianity remains
to the present day.

Two premises served as basis for Pelagius' theory. Arguing from the
principle that “A person is free if he does what he wills and avoids
what he wants to avoid," he said that heaven and the beatific vision
are attainable by the use of our native powers alone, since nothing but
free will isneeded to practice virtue and keep out of sin. From the
axiom that "Adam neither injured nor deprived us of anything,"
Pelagius concluded that men require no special help to repair what
Adam is supposed to have lost.

Historians of dogma distinguish four stages of development in the


Pelagian system: 1) No grace is necessary for right living, but nature
and free will are enough to keep the commandments and reach eternal
life. 2) Nature itself and free will are grace, because they are free gifts
of God. 3) Besides nature and freedom, external graces may be
admitted, in the form of preaching, miracles, revelation, and the
example of Jesus Christ. 4) If, for the sake of argument, real
supernatural grace were needed, it would be only as light for the mind
and never internal grace in the will. "You destroy the will," it was
argued, "if you say it needs any help."
185

Pelagianism was therefore in conflict with orthodoxy by claiming that


grace is not gratuitous on the part of God, but comes to everyone
according to his natural merits and that, in the last analysis, grace is
not absolutely necessary but only a help to facilitate the operations of
nature.

St. Augustine was the most formidable adversary of Pelagian


speculation. At least five of his major treatises were directed against
the innovation, which he accused of corrupting the Scriptures and
denying man's elevation to the supernatural order.

Directly pertinent to our thesis, the Pelagians denied that Adam was
possessed of sanctifying grace as a supernatural gift of God. Regarding
Adam's integrity, the principal adversary among the Pelagians was
Julianus, who identified concupiscence with the sense faculty.
Immortality in the Pelagian theory was not a special gift, nor was
infused knowledge in Adam.

Rationalism has been variously defined in different fields. But in


theology it is that system of thought which postulates the absolute
rights of natural reason as the only source of religious truth. Common
to all rationalists is a dogmatic confidence in the powers of human
inquiry and a conviction that man alone, without revelation, may
comprehend whatever he needs to reach his final destiny.

As a trend in religious culture, rationalism is as old as Judaeo-


Christianity. Among the ancient Jews, the Sadducees denied the
resurrection and questioned bodily immortality. The very name
Gnostics in the first century of the Christian era meant "knowers" who
professed to have a special understanding that was not shared by
other believers. Arius was condemned by the Council of Nicea because
he insisted on a complete explanation of the hypostatic union. Pelagius
"settled" the problem of original sin, grace and freedom by denying the
supernatural order. The Reformers did the same by liquidating free
will. In fact, the rationalist tendency has been active in every major
heresy since apostolic times, challenging the Church's right to teach
the mysteries of faith on the word of God and not on the strength of
human speculation.

The same critical attitude was adopted by those who questioned the
foundations of the Christian religion in England, France and Germany.
Tindal, Collins and Hume, Voltaire and Rousseau, Kant, Hegel and
Strauss were all rationalists in the generic meaning of the term. They
found Christianity unreasonable by their own standards of rationality.
186

Since the turn of the present century, rationalism has entered a new
stage that was partly the creature and partly creator of a new concept
of history as an empirical science. The area of conflict has shifted from
the mainly philosophical grounds that featured the rise of English and
French Deism, and especially the idealism of Kant and Schleiermacher.
Now the onus probandi was placed on the faithful, and those who
would believe in Christianity had to defend themselves against the
charge of being unhistorical.

In the context of our thesis, modern Rationalism does not


speculatively agitate against the special gifts of nature and grace
which orthodoxy claims Adam received from God. It rather centers
attention on the objective historicity of the facts, and under guise of
sublimating dogma by “rising above the anthropomorphisms and
metaphors of Scripture,” reduces the most fundamental doctrines of
the Christian religion to mere symbolism. Among such symbolic
truisms, original justice and sin, bodily immortality and freedom from
concupiscence in the first man - and intended for the human race - are
prominent in today's rationalists.

Paul Tillich isa good example. By Christian standards, original sin is a


contingent fact, the result of Adam's loss of original justice through a
wilful transgression of God's law. For Tillich, on the other hand, "The
difficult concept of ‘original sin’ denotes an original self-contradiction in
human existence, coincident with human history itself" Protestant Era,
pg. 165. Accordingly the Judaeo-Christian notion of a prior state of
justice and holiness, from which the first man fell, by Tillichian norms
is to be taken as a symbol of the built-in tension within the human
frame. Man was always as he is now, and the "fall" is only an
imaginative way of expressing a conflict that is descriptive of man's
inevitable existence.

Dogmatic Value

It is defined doctrine, at least implicitly in Trent, that Adam possessed


sanctifying grace before the fall.

Regarding Adam's integrity, theologians distinguish between immunity


from carnal and spiritual concupiscence. They say it is implicitly
defined in Trent (DB 792) that Adam was free from sense
concupiscence; or according to others it is proxima fidei. Immunity
from spiritual concupiscence is said to be at least theologically certain;
or the composite of integrity as such may be called proxima fidei.
187

Adam's immortality of body has been defined by the Church, and is


found in a series of documents: DB 101, 174, 788.

The possession of infused knowledge is held to be common and certain


doctrine, though some assign a higher dogmatic note.

Theological Proof

Part One: “Adam Possessed Sanctifying Grace."

I. Ecclesiastical Documents

Besides the Council of Orange against the Pelagians (DB 192),


the most explicit documentation is in Trent which declared, “If
anyone does not profess that the first man Adam immediately
lost the justice and holiness in which he was constituted when he
disobeyed the command of God in the Garden of Paradise…let
him be anathema" DB 788.

The only question is the meaning of sanctitas and justitia in the


definition. But these terms either singly or at least together
certainly equivalate sanctifying grace, as appears from general
conciliar language and specifically in Trent, “Justification…and
sanctification" are defined as taking place through the voluntary
acceptance of "grace and the gifts" DB 799. And again in a
canon, it issaid that "grace…justifies us" DB 821.

II. Sacred Scripture

Briefly the probative argument from Scripture goes to St. Paul,


not only to individual passages but to the whole tenor of his
economy of salvation. The work of Christ, in Pauline terminology,
was to restore what Adam had lost for the human race, since
what Adam originally possessed was regained for us by the
cross. Christ restored us to divine friendship through grace;
therefore Adam must first have had what he later was
dispossessed of through sin.

Paul simply describes Christ as the "new Adam" (I Corinthians


15:21), whose work of restoration is to repair what the first
Adam had inflicted by his disobedience. So that if through one
man sin came into the world, and through sin death, and thus
death has passed into all men because in him all have sinned,
188

from the justice of the one (Christ) the result is unto justification
of life to all men (Romans 5:12, 18).

Summarily the work of Christ, according to Paul, was one of


reconciliation and redemption - in both cases repairing the
damage done by Adam. Either concept singly or in combination
means the restoration of sanctifying grace and of those
supernatural gifts that man needs to attain the vision of God.

III. Patristic Evidence

While the precise theological language of today was not yet


current, the Fathers explicitly teach that the first man possessed
sanctifying grace, which they called "deification" and which
Adam lost by the fall. "How can we be said to be renewed," St.
Augustine asked, "if we do not receive what the first man lost, in
whom all of us die? Plainly we receive the one in some way, and
just as plainly we do not receive the other. For we do not receive
the immortality of a spiritual body (as did Adam); yet we do
obtain justice, from which man had fallen by his sin” (RJ 1698).

Some of the Greek Fathers, like Basil and Cyril of Alexandria,


believed that the supernatural sanctification of Adam is indicated
in Genesis 2:7. They took spiraculum vitae to mean the grace of
the Holy Spirit as a supernatural vital principle. Others, notably
Ireneus, Gregory of Nyssa and Augustine, held that imago Dei
referred to Adam's nature, while similitudo Dei described him as
being in the state of sanctifying grace. Apart from their
interpretation of the texts, the Fathers’ common belief that
Adam received both natural and supernatural life is a witness to
Christian tradition.

Part Two: "Adam Possessed the Gift of Integrity"

I. Ecclesiastical Documents
1. The primary text is in Trent, which says, "Concupiscence,
which the Apostle sometimes calls sin, this council declares
that the Catholic Church has never understood that it is
called sin because there is, inthe regenerated, sin in the
true and proper sense but only because it is from sin and
inclines to sin. If anyone thinks the contrary: let him be
anathema” DB 792. Since the council defined that
concupiscence comes from sin and leads or inclines to sin,
it implicitly declared that concupiscence had not been
189

present before sin, which in context means before the sinof


Adam.

We may further note that Trent speaks directly about concupiscence in


the moral sense, namely as the appetite (mainly sense) which tends
before the dictate of reason to an object which is morally sinful.
However by implication the dogmatic type of concupiscence (defended
in the thesis) is also understood; necessarily because the council is
talking about the concupiscence which is now in us, namely the kind
which may also tend to objects that are morally good or indifferent,
yet antecedent to the dictates of reason and continuing in the same
direction even against the dictamen rationis.

2. Among papal documents treating of the subject, the


Encyclical of Pius XI Christian Education is specially
pertinent. He states the principles of faith that should
guide the training of youth.

"It must never be forgotten that the subject of Christian


education is man whole and entire, soul united to body
inunity of nature, with all his faculties natural and
supernatural such as right reason and revelation show him
to be; man, therefore, fallen from his original estate, but
redeemed by Christ and restored to the supernatural
condition of adopted sons of God, though without the
preternatural privileges of bodily immortality or perfect
control of appetite. There remain therefore in human
nature the effects of Adam's sin, the chief of which are
weakness of will and unrestrained desires of soul" DB2212.

II. Sacred Scripture

In the Book of Genesis, the sexual life of our first parents is


described as radically different before and after the fall.

Before the fall, their sex life appears as perfectly under control.
God willed the difference between the sexes (Genesis I:27),
since man cannot find a helpmate like to himself among the
animal kingdom. The Lord therefore created woman to be man's
companion and cooperator in the procreation of children
(Genesis 2:20-24). Man and woman have no reason to be
ashamed of their mutual relation. (Genesis 2:25).
190

After the fall, things are quite different. Adam and Eve become
conscious of their nakedness, which the author of Genesis has
coincide with their sense of need for clothing (Genesis 3:7), and
with their desire to hide (Genesis 3:10-11). Conjugal life also
begins to be a burden and source of sorrow for the woman
(Genesis3:16).

The mode of narrative implies that the inspired text wants to


show that deordination in the sexual life began only after the
fall. It may further be said that the author meant to refer beyond
mere sexuality, which he used to illustrate the loss of man's
dominion over all his lower powers. Consequently before they
sinned, Adam and Eve had perfect command of their passions,
which is synonymous with integrity.

In the New Testament, when the Pharisees pose the question of


divorce, this gives Christ the opportunity to emphasize what was
the original state of things, when matrimony was more strict
than under the Mosaic law, because there had not been the
obstacle of "hardness of heart" (Matthew 19:3-12, Mark 10:1-8).
This hardness of heart can be identified with concupiscence, and
the relaxation of the law makes us see what was the original
condition of things, when perfect equilibrium existed in the
sexual life, which mankind later evidently lacked.

St. Paul in Romans 6 and 7 speaks of "sin" which cannot mean sin
formally, because it is found also in the just. Rather it is an inclination
to sin, or concupiscence. If we further see that this concupiscence is
later called sin in that context of the epistle where Paul is speaking of
the corruption introduced into the world by Adam's disobedience, we
can only conclude that it had its origin in the sin of Adam. Before his
disobedience, therefore, Adam was exempt from this defect, which
meant that he possessed integrity.

III. Patristic Evidence

From the time of Pelagianism, there is no lack of clarity and


insistence among the Fathers that the special privileges of our
first parents are a matter of faith. However even before Pelagius,
there is evidence of a Patristic tradition on the subject.

In fact some of the Fathers were so firmly persuaded of the


natural integrity of our first parents that they derived marriage
from original sin. Thus it seems Athanasius and John
191

Damascene. No doubt this was going too far. Sexual propagation


does not exclude natural integrity, and we may safely say that
marriage would have been instituted even if Adam and Eve had
remained in their first innocence. It was this attitude which later
caused Augustine to retract his earlier statement that if the
human race had preserved its primal innocence and grace,
propagation might have been asexual.

But with Pelagianism to combat, the original tradition on


integrity became clearer than ever. Pelagians maintained that
concupiscence was not a defect of nature but a positive vigor,
which anticipated the Freudian theory of modern times.
Augustine fought against this view in his De Nuptiis et
Concupiscentia; and in Contra Julianum he expressly says that
freedom from concupiscence was a gift of grace.

Part Three: "Adam Possessed the Gift of Bodily Immortality"

I. Ecclesiastical Documents

Besides the Councils of XVI Carthage (DB 101) and orange (DB
174), the Council of Trent defined that "If anyone does not
profess that the first man Adam… when he disobeyed the
command of God in the Garden of Paradise…incurred the death
with which God had previously threatened him…let him be
anathema" (DB 788).

Later on, when Baianism was condemned by the Church, among the
rejected propositions was, the claim that "The immortality of the first
man was not a gift of grace, but his natural condition" (DB 1078). This
corresponds to another condemned proposition of Baius, to the effect
that "The integrity found in first creation was not a gratuitous
elevation of human nature, but its natural condition" (DB 1026).

II. Sacred Scripture

The immortality of our first parents is seen from the sanction


which God imposed on them in forbidding them to eat of the tree
of knowledge, and His application of this sanction (Genesis 2:16-
17, 3:3, 19, 22-24).

The Lord foretold that man would die in whatsoever day he ate
of the forbidden fruit. This threat did not literally mean death on
the same day as the sin, since the Old Testament often refers to
192

time in broader terms, e.g., III Kings 2:42. Rather it meant that
the moment man disobeyed the precept, he would become
subject to mortality. Consequently in Genesis and elsewhere
(Wisdom 2:24, Ecclesiasticus 25:33) the sacred authors wished
to teach that physical death was not man's original lot, but came
into the world because of sin. In other words, except for sin,
man would have been immortal in body.

In the New Testament, St. John calls the devil “a murderer from the
beginning" (John 8:44). And according to St. Paul, death entered the
world as a result of Adam's fall (Romans 5:12, I Corinthians 15:21-
22). The death in question is not merely spiritual death, since it is
contrasted with bodily resurrection, which came to us through Christ.
Logically, therefore, if Adam had not sinned by following the
suggestion of the devil, he would have preserved himself in bodily
immortality.

III. Patristic Evidence

The Fathers unanimously taught as a matter of faith that man in


his primeval condition was gifted with immortality of body and
soul. Thus Theophilus of Antioch explained that God made man
neither mortal nor immortal, but capable of either, depending on
whether Adam would sin or not (RJ 184). Tatian describes the
Word of God “making man a sharer in His own divine
immortality" (RJ 156). According to St. Cyprian, with the advent
of the first sin there disappeared both man's integrity of body
and immortality, which were a special grace of God (RJ 566). St.
Athanasius taught that men who are by nature mortal would
have been immortal, had they not sinned, thus rising superior to
the powers of nature by the power of the Word of God (RJ 750).
St. Ambrose says that God did not make death, but imposed it
upon man as a penalty for sin, so that now he must return to the
earth from which he came (RJ 1325). And St. Augustine held
that man was mortal because he was able to die, immortal
because he was able not to die, so that he was mortal conditione
naturae and immortal beneficio Dei (RJ 1699).

Part Four: “Adam Possessed the Gift of Infused Knowledge,”

I. Ecclesiastical Documents

It is difficult to cite authoritative documents which treat


professedly of the infused knowledge of our first parents.
193

Generally there are only oblique references to man's superior


mental and moral condition before the fall, implying some special
privileges of mind. Thus Pius XII in the Allocution to the
Academy of Sciences previously quoted, said "On the day when
God formed man and crowned his brow with His own image and
likeness…He taught him agriculture, how to care and cultivate
the garden in which He had placed him; led him to all the beasts
of the fields and all the birds of the air so that man might name
them. And he gave to each of them its true and fitting name…
Man is great, and he was greater when created…If he fell from
his original greatness…if the remnants of the command once
given him over the animal world are nothing more than a fading
recollection of his former power…even in his ruin he looms great
because of that divine image and likeness he carries in his spirit"
(November 30, 1941).

II. Theological Reason

Christian tradition reasoned on the datum in Scripture to


conclude that if Adam was given complete dominion over the
lower organisms and ability to name the animals, i.e.,
understand their properties enough to describe their nature; if
moreover the Lord placed the first parents in a place which they
were to cultivate - Adam and Eve must have been given
adequate knowledge for these purposes, and the knowledge
would have been infused since ex hypothesi this was the
beginning of human history.

Also in Ecclesiasticus (17:1-9), we are told that "Man, too, God


created out of the earth, fashioning him after His own likeness…
To him and to that partner of his, created like to himself and out
of himself, God gave will and speech and sight and hearing. He
gave them a heart to reason with, and filled them with power of
discernment. Spirit itself should be within their ken, their hearts
should be all sagacity. What evil was, what good, He made plain
to them. He gave them His own eyes to see with, so that they
should keep His marvelous acts in view, praise His holy name,
boast of His wonders and tell the story of His renowned deeds."
Given all these, the Fathers and theologians reasonably conclude
that the first man and woman were specially gifted with
knowledge infused into them by the Creator.
194

However any attempt to describe the extent of Adam's infused


knowledge would be hazardous. On the supernatural level,
opinion differs from Suarez' position that Adam probably had a
belief in the Trinity and the future Incarnation of the Word of
God, to a minimist school which credits the first man only with
the essentials necessary for salvation.

St. Thomas restricted the limits of Adam's infused knowledge by


setting down two rules: 1) Adam depended on phantasms for his
intellectual concepts. Consequently unlike the human soul of
Christ, he did not enjoy the beatific vision before the fall; he
could have no intuitive but only an abstractive knowledge of the
angels; and he even did not have intuitive knowledge of his own
soul. 2) In the domain of nature, Adam had a perfect infused
knowledge only regarding those things which were indispensable
to him and his descendants to live in conformity with the laws of
reason. This did not mean that he would not have had to learn
and inquire, or that he was unable to progress in matters of
science and culture. There is no reason to suppose that Adam
knew about the Copernican system, or electronics, or nuclear
fission. Yet, in its own way, Adam's knowledge was extensive; it
was specially given him by God; and, according to St. Thomas, it
was infallible - though subject to obscurity. A safe norm to follow
with regard to Adam's infused knowledge is to attribute to the
first man quite extraordinary insight in the moral and religious
order, while limiting his understanding of things material and
technical to the needs of his condition before the fall

Kerygmatic Development

1. Original justice and Prehistory. Until recent times,


theologians were only mildly concerned with the problems posed
by scientific discoveries, notably anthropology and paleontology.
Among the Catholic pioneers, Wilhelm Schmidt ranks as
outstanding. Since then the field has become quite thoroughly
explored.

Specifically the problems revolve around the apparent


contradiction between a highly endowed first man and the
primitive, in the sense of crude, state of civilization so far
unearthed from times past. A number of careful distinctions have
to be made.
195

The condition of man in paradise is known to us from revelation


and accepted on faith. It was not a state of culture which man
acquired by his native power, but the result of a special action of
God at the dawn of human history. Small wonder, then, that we
have no exploratory evidence of this from ethnology or one of
the natural sciences.

This primeval condition was not what we would call a


"civilization," that existed for centuries and therefore could leave
monuments or other historical vestiges for investigation. It may
be described as a brief episode in the story of mankind, which
science therefore can neither prove nor disprove from a study of
human remains.

There is no need to expand on the perfection of our first parents


in the Garden of Paradise. It was certainly considerable as
regards things of the spirit and their relations with God; but
could also have been quite modest in everything else. And even
their religious ideas were capable of development, from the
instinctive to a more reflexive and demonstrative knowledge.

But most important, we must keep in mind the radical change


which took place after the fall. Although scientists speak of the
most ancient peoples as "primitive" this is a relative term. Even
the oldest civilizations, known or yet to be discovered, are really
decadent from their primordial state. Bereft of the special
privileges it once enjoyed, the human race had to face and try to
surmount the grave difficulties that stood in its way - personally,
socially, morally and religiously. So true is this, that the very
necessity for a special revelation from God of naturally knowable
truths is a logical corollary to man's fallen condition.

2. Basic principles and Secondary Elements. While holding no


brief for the rationalism of Bultmann and the radical Form
Critics, we should recognize the prejudice they seek to meet in
the modern mind. In large measure this is the result of four
centuries of biblicism in Protestant thought, which has affected
Western thought to a degree we are slow to admit.

The biblical account of Adam and Eve too often concentrates on


secondary elements, which strike the fancy and have been
further elaborated by imaginative literature: the picture of the
Garden, the rivers which spontaneously flow water and irrigate
the land, the Lord walking in the stillness of the night, rows of
196

animals brought before Adam to be named. All the while, the


essentials maybe overlooked, namely, the elevation of man to
supernatural friendship with God, his disobedience and
consequent loss for himself and posterity of grace, integrity and
twofold immortality.

Study Questions

1. Of whom do we predicate the possession of sanctifying grace


and the preternatural gifts? And when were these received?

2. Briefly distinguish natural, preternatural and supernatural.

3. What kind of immortality did Adam receive as a special gift of


God? Explain.

4. Distinguish the following: concupiscence in the moral sense and


in the dogmatic sense; sensitive appetite and spiritual appetite;
diplomatic and despotic dominion of the appetitive faculties.

5. What exactly was Adam's gift of integrity, and why was it


preternatural?

6. What was the nature and scope of Adam's infused knowledge?

7. Outline the basic tenets of Pelagianism, and how were the


Pelagians against our thesis?

8. What is Rationalism in theology, and how does it oppose our


position that the first man was elevated to the supernatural
order and received preternatural powers?

9. Give the dogmatic value for the various parts of the thesis.

10. Prove from the documents, Scripture and especially St.


Paul that Adam possessed sanctifying grace. What was the
Patristic teaching on the subject?

11. Show from Trent, Scripture and the Fathers that Adam had
the gift of integrity.

12. Using Trent, Genesis and St. Paul, prove that Adam was
originally destined to be immortal in body. Briefly state the
doctrine of. two of the Fathers on this fact.
197

13. How do we argue from theological reason, using Scripture


as basis, that Adam had special infused knowledge?

14. How do we reconcile our thesis with the current idea of the
“primitive man”?

Pre-Adamic man:
were there human beings on Earth
before Adam?
By Russell Grigg
198

Could there have been human creatures, commonly called ‘pre-


Adamites’, living on Earth before God created Adam?

Many readers, no doubt, will think this a foolish question, but it is, in
fact, the belief of many evangelicals. And leading ‘progressive
creationist’ Hugh Ross teaches something similar when he says that
‘bipedal, tool-using, large-brained primates roamed Earth for hundreds
of thousands (perhaps a million) years’.1

Ross does not believe in biological evolution, although he accepts


cosmic and geologic evolution and the evolutionary timescale. He also
believes in the same general sequence of events and the same order
of appearance as evolutionists. Although he believes that God made
Adam from the dust, he also accepts the evolutionists’ long-age
interpretation of the fossil record. But human fossils are found ‘dated’
earlier than Adam’s genealogies could possibly allow. This requires
Ross to postulate the existence of creatures with human-like
characteristics, but ‘spiritless’ (see Skull Wars p. 51 this issue).2,3 Ross
says,

“…… these creatures went extinct before Adam and Eve came on the
scene.’4

Why did they ‘become extinct’?

According to Ross, because the world was a place of death, violence


and decay for hundreds of thousands/millions of years before the
Curse recorded in Genesis 3:14–19.

He makes the extraordinary statement:

”The step-by-step approach to bipedal primate creation that we can


see in the recent fossil record may reasonably reflect God’s
understanding of the difficulty other life-forms would encounter in
adapting to sinful humans.’5

This is a classic example of the confusion that Christians get


themselves into when they depart from the text of the Bible and allow
outside influences, especially long-age naturalism, to dictate the
meaning of Scripture.
Pre-Adamism has a long history
199

In 1655, Frenchman Isaac La Peyrère published his theory that not


only did Adam come from pre-Adamic stock (rather than being formed
by God from the dust of the ground), but also Cain’s wife and the
inhabitants of Cain’s city came from other pre-Adamic stock.6 (See
bottom box.)

In the 18th and 19th centuries, because white and non-white people
looked superficially different, a minority of Christians thought that God
had created non-whites separately from Adam, and so they must have
descended from pre-Adamic creatures. Hence pre-Adamism took the
form of polygenism, or multiple creations of different races.
Proponents of this idea often thought that non-whites were inferior
beings who could be treated as slaves. Pre-Adamism thus became the
scientific justification for slavery, and a defense for racism.

Pre-Adamites were also an integral part of the now-discredited gap


theory.7 In this the pre-Adamites were soulless beings which all
perished in a catastrophe called ‘Lucifer’s Flood’, which allegedly
occurred between verses 1 and 2 of Genesis 1 ‘in the far-distant
dateless past’.8
Modern pre-Adamists

In the 20th century, with the rise of Darwinism and the continued
discovery of allegedly very old human-like fossils, many evangelicals
compromised by adopting theistic evolution. They accepted a
relatively young age for the Biblical Adam (if they retained belief in
him at all), but said that the ‘old’ human fossils came from pre-
Adamite human-like creatures.

One such neo-evangelical is Londoner John R.W. Stott (who also


compromises the Bible’s teaching on eternal conscious punishment for
the unsaved because it offends his sensibilities). He writes:

‘[M]y acceptance of Adam and Eve as historical is not incompatible


with my belief that several forms of pre-Adamic ‘hominid’ seem to
have existed for thousands of years previously……… It is conceivable
200

that God created Adam out of one of them. … I think you may even
call some of them Homo sapiens...….’9

Pre-Adamism has thus been used by some Christians to try and


harmonize science and the Bible. However, in doing this, Stott and his
fellow-thinkers not only add something to Genesis that is not there
(i.e. pre-Adamites), they also deny Genesis 2:7, which specifically say:

‘The Lord God formed man from the dust of the ground’—the very dust
to which Adam would return after God had pronounced the death
penalty for sin (Genesis 3:19).

Pre-Adamism of this type is also starkly contrary to what Genesis tells


us about Eve, namely that God made her from one of Adam’s ribs
(Genesis 2:21), not from some pre-existing creature; and that Adam
named her Eve ‘because she was the mother of all living’ (Genesis
3:20).

Evangelicals who cannot accept the plain text of the Bible regarding
the creation of the first man from the dust of the ground often do not
accept what the Bible says about the Flood being global, because they
accept the fossil layers as evidence for millions of years, not the result
of the sequence of burial by a global flood.

John Stott writes: ‘The flood seems to have been a comparatively local
—though widespread—disaster.’10

Christian creationist anthropologist Marvin Lubenow describes the


evidence of a sin nature in the (allegedly pre-Adamic) human fossil
record, including examples of cannibalism, and injury due to violence,
scalping and disease, including syphilis. He writes:

‘Most pre-Adamite and old-Earth advocates seem to be unfamiliar with


the extent of this human fossil evidence and may not realize the full
significance of what they are proposing when they place the bulk of
the human fossils prior to the fall of the Biblical Adam. ……. The
human fossil record reveals the pre-Adamite theory to be in error.
……. We find in [the human fossils] the conditions we would expect to
find after the Fall of Adam, not before.’11
Implications of pre-Adamism
201

The Bible says nothing about the existence and death of any pre-
Adamite creatures, either spirited or spiritless. Some Christians say
that Adam was the first man to be made in the image of God, though
there were also human-like creatures before him. But they have
assumed that the alleged Pre-Adamic fossils constitute a reliable
record; i.e. the fossils have been interpreted correctly in both anatomy
and age. They are also, in effect, saying:

1. That the first land animals and man were not created by God at the
same time, namely during the 24 hours of Day Six of Creation Week,
as Genesis 1 clearly states;

2. That the short age timescale in Genesis (obtained from the


genealogies and other parts of the Bible, e.g. Mark 10:6) is not
correct;
3. That the Curse of death in the created world was not the result of
Adam’s sin, as Genesis 3 states. If pre-Adamite creatures were
living and dying for hundreds of thousands/millions of years before
Adam, then the connection is lost between the first Adam, who
brought physical death into the world, and the last Adam (the Lord
Jesus Christ), who brought physical resurrection from the dead (1
Corinthians 15:22, 45).12 As Adam was federal head of the entire
creation, his fall affected everything else (Romans 8:20–22).

The fact is that, Biblically, all physical death has occurred since
Adam’s fall, not before. ‘As sincere as they may be, those
[Christians] who espouse the pre-Adamite theory and its history of
death before Adam are actually endangering the very doctrine of
salvation they hold dear.’12
1. That the ‘very good’ world which God created included carnivory,
despite the Genesis 1:29–30

Teaching that animals and humans were originally vegetarian.

The Bible tells us that Adam was the first biological man—in Genesis
1–5; Deuteronomy 32:8; 1 Chronicles 1:1; Luke 3:38; Romans 5:14;
1 Corinthians 15:22, 45; 1 Timothy 2:13; and Jude 14. So, how
many parts of the Bible are they willing to concede as being ‘errant’,
202

or in need of ‘reinterpreting’, in order to accommodate the


evolutionary/uniformitarian interpretation of the fossil record?
The key issue

Hugh Ross and his fellow progressive creationists, along with the other
pre-Adamite proponents, are trying to rescue the Bible from a
perceived conflict with ‘science’ by reinterpreting the Bible rather than
by questioning the ‘science’. This is because they erroneously think
that ‘science’ speaks with more authority than God’s Word about
origins and the age of the Earth. Such a mindset overlooks the fact
that where modern science deals with origins, it is based on strict
naturalism (the humanistic view that all phenomena can be explained
in terms of natural, not supernatural, causes and laws). Unfortunately
compromise of this sort means having to continually change one’s
position to keep up with evolutionary pronouncements.

For example, Ross stated on his Web site in 1997: ‘Starting about 2 to
4 million years ago God began creating man-like mammals or
“hominids.”?

These creatures stood on two feet, had large brains, and used tools.
Some even buried their dead and painted on cave walls. However,
they were very different from us. They had no spirit. They did not
have a conscience like we do. They did not worship God or establish
religious practices. In time, all these man-like creatures went extinct.
Then, about 10 to 25 thousand years ago, God replaced them with
Adam and Eve.’13

Notice that Ross states that Adam and Eve lived 10–25 thousand years
ago (he realizes that he can’t push the genealogies too far). However,
when the same dating methods in which he trusts said that the
Australian Aborigines and American Indians lived 40–60,000 years
ago, he changed the sentence in the above quote to read:

‘Then about 10 to 60 thousand years ago, God replaced them with


Adam and Eve.’14
203

Presumably the change was made because the 25,000 year limit would
mean that the Aborigines and Indians could not have been
descendants of Adam and Eve. However, his adjusted range of dates
does not solve the problem. If it is possible that Adam and Eve lived
10,000 years ago, then this implies it is possible that such indigenous
people are not descendants of Adam and Eve (which would mean that
they could not be saved through Christ, our kinsman/redeemer—Isaiah
59:20).15

No doubt, further adjustments will appear should some evolutionist


claim that Aborigines lived 80,000 or 100,000 years ago.

The same problem shows up in the writings of well-known Old


Testament scholar Gleason Archer. He struggles with having human
skeletons dated, by the secular methods he and Ross trust in, as older
than could possibly fit into the genealogies in the Bible. Hence their
need for soulless pre-Adamites. Gleason writes:

‘To revert to the problem of the Pithecanthropus, the Swanscombe


man, the Neanderthal and all the rest (possibly even the Cro-magnon
man, who is apparently to be classed as Homo sapiens, but whose
remains seem to date back at least to 20,000 B.C.) it seems best to
regard these races as all prior to Adam’s time, and not involved in the
Adamic covenant. We must leave the question open, in view of the
cultural remains, whether these pre-Adamic creatures had souls (or, to
use the trichotomic terminology, spirits).’16

Gleason goes on to assert that only Adam and his descendants were
infused with the breath of God and a spiritual nature corresponding to
God himself, and to say that all mankind subsequent to Adam’s time
must have been literally descended from him. However, he retains the
concept of pre-Adamic races (e.g. Cro-Magnon man), and says, ‘They
may have been exterminated by God for unknown reasons prior to the
creation of the original parent of the present human race.’16

In reality, no scientific method exists for measuring the age of


something directly. All dating methods rely on unprovable
assumptions. The evidence suggests there is something radically
wrong with the assumptions upon which radiometric dating rests (see
204

page 20 this issue). Christians, when opting for dates in the Earth’s
fossil record, should use the chronology of the Bible. This is because it
is an accurate eye-witness account of history which bears within itself
the evidence that it is the Word of God.17

Christians today have no mandate from God to reinterpret His infallible


Word to make it fit any current fallible atheistic human opinions. As
noted American evangelical theologian Dr John MacArthur says,
‘Scripture, not science, is the ultimate test of all truth. And the further
evangelicalism gets from that conviction, the less evangelical and
more humanistic it becomes (emphasis added).’18

MacArthur also says: ‘Evangelicals who accept an old-earth


interpretation of Genesis have embraced a hermeneutic [i.e.
interpretation] that is hostile to a high view of Scripture. They are
bringing to the opening chapters of Scripture a method of biblical
interpretation that has built-in ant evangelical presuppositions. Those
who adopt this approach have already embarked on a process that
invariably overthrows faith. Churches and colleges that embrace this
view will not remain evangelical long.’19,20

EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF MAN

65,000,000 BC TO 200,001 BC

EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY 200,000 BC - 35,001 BC

Man was created by God (a supreme entity) is a belief from antiquity.

Who or what is man has no universal definition.

Homo Erectus separates man from animal.

Homo Sapiens uses tools, fire, practices religious rites, burial rites.

Man has a soul.

Man evolved from animal or Man is created by the infusion of a soul.


205

The People of America believe everything has a soul and

is therefore deserving of our respect.

As we read our history put on your colored glasses based on Principles, Beliefs, and Values.

PRINCIPLES reflect fundamental RIGHTS, the foundation of our actions, that transcend BELIEFS

RIGHTS TO:

LIFE

DIGNITY

SECURITY OF PERSON

LIBERTY (FREEDOM)

BELIEFS

WORK

PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS

It is noteworthy that religion is not a Principle but a Belief.

BELIEF is the acceptance of something as being true or real that does not violate Principles.

Should be rational, not arbitrary

Should impair the rights as little as possible

Should be proportional

Beliefs should not be confused with FAITH which is the blind acceptance of a belief without verification

or knowledge. Blind faith is for children or the mentally impaired not adults.

VALUES, Standards and Guidelines support the formulation of action, scope, direction and the ability to

measure results.

Should not violate Beliefs.

800 to 600 million B.C. the equator was glaciated and the poles were ice free. Some scientists speculate

this was caused by the earth being tilted over 54° rather than the present 23°. Others have speculated

this was a violent change and has occurred more than once. Immanuel Velikovcky b-1895 suggested, in

'Worlds in Collision' (1950), it has happened in relatively modern times. He speculated a near collision

with the planet Venus caused the last one.

480,000,000 B.C.

Researchers have confirmed the out of Africa Continental Drift Theory that originated in the late 1800's.

Alfred Wegenar (1880-1830) and Frank Taylor were the first professional geologists to publish the

Continental Drift theory that had been circulating in the 19th century. They calculated that in 200 million
206

a super-continent existed called Panaego (Pangaea) that began to break up. Sailors had remarked for

years of the common rock types, fossils and fauna found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Nova

Scotia, New Brunswick, New England, the Carolinas, British Islands, France and Spain share these

common identifiers of Pangaea aka Gondwana..

400,000,000 B.C.

The earth’s rotation is 400 22 hour days in a year. The earth spin is slowing down and days are getting

longer by 20 seconds every million years.

250,000,000 B.C.

Some scientists believe a massive asteroid, much larger than the one that killed the dinosaurs, hit earth

killing 90% of all life. It hit the southern land mass (east Antarctic). Evidence suggests it hit the Bedout

High some 320 kilometers northwest of Australia. It is believed to have killed 90% of sea animals and

80% of all land animals. Some believe this caused Gondwana the super continent to break up.

Others suggest the near extinction was a result of the Siberian basalt eruption, the largest volcanic even

that covered an area the size of the United States and in some places the lava was 3 miles deep.

200,000,000 B.C.

Pangaea began to split up separating Europe, Africa and the Americas. Some of the oldest rocks of

Pangaea can be found in Canada. From a geological perspective America is the old world. More recent

research pushes this date back to 480 million years.

65,000,000 B.C.

Most scientists now agree that a huge chunk of space debris struck the earth, blasting dust into the air,

blocking the sun and plants died as did the dinosaurs. There can be little doubt this had a significant

impact on the planet. It is believed the asteroid hit at 7,000 to 40,000 km an hour. No ice covered the

polar regions and some dinosaurs migrated as far north as Alaska. The asteroid produced 10,000 billion

tons of carbon dioxide, 100 billion tons carbon monoxide and 100 billion tones of methane, an amount of

carbon equivalent of 3,000 years of modern fossil-fuel burning in less than one week. Fires broke out

around the planet but northern Canada and northern Europe had the least damage. Some contend it

took 10,000 years for the earth to recover, others suggest it was only 100 years. Some suggest the

carbon cycle didn't return to normal for 130,000 years.

India tectonic plate collided with Euroasia.

55,000,000 B.C.
207

The north pole was a green belt with surface temps of 18° C, then it went through a burst of super-green

growth with temperatures of 23° C.

During the period of 55 million B.C. to 35 million B.C. the earth was exposed to dramatically global

warming resulting in a boon to primates, our ancestors, which thrive in sultry climates. The small

mammals spread all over the world. They dived into two groups, the present day animals like lemur and

a second group anthropoids who evolved into monkeys, apes and humans. We don't know when or

where this great separation took place or why. What we do know it wasn't confined to one land mass.

Some argue the anthropoids originated in China, others say in Africa. Research finding are shifting the

arguments from Africa to Asia.

38,000,000 B.C.

A fossil from Myanmar, Burma suggests anthropoids are from Asia, with full-blown anthropoid features

and behavior.

24,000,000 B.C.

Between 24 -65 million B.C. Africa was an island. This year Africa and Eurasia collided and dogs, lions,

hippos, antelope, gazelles and hyenas migrated south from Eurasia. Many African animals from Egypt

dated to 33 million B.C. disappeared. The reason is little understood.

20,000,000 B.C.

It is believed that the first apes appear in Africa about this time. Other suggest they did not appear in

African until 15,000,000 B.C.. There are more than 40 genera of apes some as small as a house cat or 3

kilograms, to gorilla like at 80 kilograms.

17,000,000 B.C.

During the period 17,000,000 to 16,500,000 B.C. some assumed the apes in Africa migrated to Eurasia.

Other evidence is growing that the great apes and humans evolved not in Africa but in Eurasia. Other

animals that migrated to Eurasia include elephants, rodents, pigs, antelopes and aardvarks.

It should be noted that Homo was not the first Hominid to colonize Asia: Pongo (Orangutan, meaning

man of the forest) had arrived in Southeast Asia some 15 million years before.

16,500,000 B.C.

During the period 16,500,000 to 13,500,000 B.C. some apes returned to Africa from Eurasia. The great

ape that produced the human lineage did not appear in Africa until some 1.5 million years later.

13,000,000 B.C.
208

Pierolapithecus Catalaunicus is discovered in Spain and is believed by some to be the link between early

humans and the gorillas, orangutans and chimpanzees families.

9,000,000 B.C.

During the period 9,000,000 to 6,000,000 B.C. drastic climate changes wiped out most of the Eurasian

great apes only two lineages survived, the Sivapithecus and Dryopithecus. They survived by moving into

Southeast Asia and the African tropics.

8,000,000 B.C. to 6,000,000 B.C.

Some believe this is the period when we shared the last common ancestor by humans and chimpanzees.

I think this is mostly based on education speculation to narrow the search field.

7,000,000 B.C.

Some time over the next million years Sahelanthropus Tchadensis man is living in northern Chad, Africa

based on a discovered skull. Summer 2001. The site is near Toros-Menalla in the Djurab Desert. This

find is classified as the earliest discovered hominid. Some contend, like all other animals, humanoids

had evolutionary diversity. It is noteworthy this predates the Ethiopia and Kenya finds and opens a new

window of understanding. What is not answered is how are these early humanoids related to man or are

they dead ends in the evolution of man. It also casts doubt on the origin of man being east Africa.

There is no common agreement of how to define hominids. More researchers now suggest the evolution

of man may have evolved in Europe and Asia before entering or reentering Africa. Most agree it is a

complex affair, the evolution of man.

6,770,000 B.C.

Dmanisl, Georgia is discovered skeletons of Homo Habisd.

6,500,000 B.C.

Human and gorilla/chimpanzee lineages diverged +/- 1.5 MY

6,000,000 B.C.

The French claim the discovery in Kenya of the bones of the earliest known bipedal, upright, hominid and

most likely a direct precursor of modern man called Orrorin Tugenensis at Tugen Hills. February 2001

It is believed that humans differenced from Gorilla and Chimpanzee about this time.

This cooler period lasted until 5,300,000 B.C.

5,800,000 B.C.
209

Ethiopiaro, some believe a chimp-like creature walked upright at this time. Paleontologists believe that

upright walking marks the evolutionary split between man and apes.

5,960,000 B.C.

The Strait of Gibralter closed tight and the Mediterranean Valley derided up. The Mediterranean Valley

covered 965,000 sq. miles to a depth of 12,200 feet near Greece. It is believed that it takes about 1,000

years to dry up and this has occurred a number of times. Others suggest the closure was closer to

5,559,000 B.C.

5,330,000 B.C.

The Mediterranean Valley began slowly flooding again to create the Mare Nostrum.

5,000,000 B.C.

The Strait of Gibraltar opened allowing the flooding of the Mediterranean basin, destroying all life in the

region.

The climate changed turning the Sahara Region into a desert.

Ardipithecus Ramidus Kadabba from the middle awash of Ethiopia is discovered believed to be a

hominids. The Aging of the 60 discovered samples are in question.

The Peking Man Site, early excavations in 1921 and 1923 revealed evidence of human habitation from

5,000,000 to 2,000,000 years ago. The cave was excavated from 1927-37 yielding 200 human fossils

(from 40 individuals) Homo erectus, more than 10,000 pieces of stoneware, several cinder layers

indicating fire use in early man, as well as animal fossils from 200 separate species. Tragically the bulk of

this material was lost in 1941 during the Japanese Occupation and has never been recovered.

4,500,000 B.C.

Proto-Hominid is walking upright about this time based on evidence dated to 3,700,000 B.C. in Africa. It

is noteworthy that apes, chimps and humans are about 99% genetically identical.

Ardipithecus Ramidus. a Proto-Hominid remains are discovered at the As Duma site in Ethiopia Afar

Region.

4,400,000 B.C.

A new Homo species is discovered northeast of Lake Turkana, Ethiopia but other independent

researchers have not reviewed the findings. Ardipithecus Ramidus is discovered at Aramis, Eathiopia and
210

is believed able to walk on two feet. An attribute by some to define human? Others suggest modern

man did not emerge until 200,000 B.C. After 15 years study some agree Ardipithecus Ramidus is the

oldest hominoid skeleton on record. She (Ardi) stood 4 feet tall weighing about 110 lbs. This predates

'Lucy' Australopithecus Afarensis at 3.2 million B.C.

4,200,000 B.C.

Australopithecus Anamensis (4.2M-3.9M B.C.) is discovered in Kanapoi, Kenya.

4,000,000 B.C.

Australopithecus (4-1 million B.C.) inhabited much of Africa and is believed by some to be the ancestors

of the Homo genus. Australopithecus Bahrelghazali occupied a region 1,500 miles west of the East

African Rift.

The Sterkfontein Caves in South Africa yielded the skeleton remains of the pre-human man called

Australopithecus. Others dispute the dating techniques used to age these finds.

3,900,000 B.C.

Australopithecus Afarenis (3.9-3 million B.C.) occupied Eastern Africa.

3,600,000 B.C.

Bipedal footprints are discovered in northern Tanzania. Some suggest they represent a different sub-

species different from Afarensis (Lucy).

Australopithecus Akarensis (3.6M-2.9M B.C.) is discovered in Laetozi, Tanzania.

3,180,000 B.C.

The most famous partial skeleton of Australopithecus (4-1 million B.C.) uncovered at Hadar, Ethiopia is

nicknamed Lucy and dated to this period. Some scientists agree that this Afarensis is crossing the line

from ape to human. Some consider Lucy as the mother of humankind. Some suggest she is a male of

her species. She/he stood upright and some believe made the breakthrough to bipedalism. Others

argue Lucy is a side evolution and not of the main stream to modern humanoid. They argue that Lucy

descendants would have to take a too complex mutation path. The argue that bipedalism evolved from

tree dwellers not ground forgers.

3,000,000 B.C.

Australopithecus africanus (3-2.3 million B.C.) occupied Taung Southern Africa.

Yeast survived in Siberian in soil frozen from this period of time. This cool period lasted to 2,400,000

B.C.

2,800,000 B.C.
211

Australopithecus Aethiopicus (2.8M-2.3M B.C.) is discovered in Omo Basin, Eathopia.

2,600,000 B.C.

Australopithecus aethiopicus (2.6-2.2 Million B.C.) occupied Eastern Africa. Australopithecus Boisei and

A. Aethiopicus (2.6-1 million B.C.) occupied Eastern Africa. Hominid Australopithecus, who lived 4-1

million B.C., is early man in Africa based upon evolved evidenced, by use of tools. The classification of

this culture as man, depends on one's definition of what is man, as animals also use tools. First findings

are by Raymond Dart in 1924 at Taungs, Transvaal. Many still believe man evolved much later. Again

some refer to early man and modern man depending on definition. The definition of man vs. animal may

never be established until we can measure the presence of the soul. Early American culture however

believed everything has a soul deserving our respect.

2,500,000 B.C.

Homo Habilis (2.5-1.6 million B.C.) occupied Eastern and Southern Africa. Homo Rudolfensis (2.5-1.9

million B.C.) occupied Eastern Africa. Homo Ergaster (1.8-1.4 million B.C.) occupied Eastern Africa.

Others define the species differently. Australopithecus Garhi is discovered in Gouri, Eathiopia

Many believe this is the earliest date for evidence of the use of stone tools that some attribute to the

Homo species. Others suggest Proto-Hominid is capable of making and using stone tools. Some people

believe that three species of the Homo genus likely evolved about this time. Homo Habilis, Homo

Erectus and Home Sapiens replaced Australopithecus but when where or how is not known.

2,400,000 B.C.

Chinese archaeologists announced the discovery in Fanchang County in east China's Anhui Province of

180 stone tools dating back 2.4 million years.

Homo Rudolfensis (2.4M-1.8M B.C.) is discovered Koobi, Kenya.

The discovery of Homo habilis near Dmanisi, Georgia dispelled the belief they were too primitive nor

constructed to be an intercontinental traveler. They used simple choppers and scrapers not the complex

stone tools believed required for migration. These Hominids are likely the ancestors of Homo Dmanisi

who lived here 1,750,000 B.C. Some are now suggesting there may have been numerous migrations

back and forth between Europe, Asia and Africa. Some are even suggesting that Homo erectus may

have evolved outside Africa. If Europe, Asia and Africa migrations why not America?

2,300,000 B.C.

Australopithecus Boisei (2.3M-1.4M B.C.) is discovered in Olduvai, Tanzania

2,000,000 B.C.
212

Australopithecus Robustus (2-1.2 million B.C.) occupied Southern Africa. Homo Erectus is believed to

have evolved into a separate species in Java about this time. Traditional experts suggest Homo Erectus

evolved from Homo Habilis in Africa about 1,800,000 B.C. but no evidence supports this contention

unless the Asia and Africa Hominoids are different species as some suggest. Some believe homo erectus

migrated into/out of Africa over the next two million years. Recent evidence however does not indicate

that it was not necessarily Homo erectus.

Homo Habilis is discovered in southern Ethiopia.

Homo Habilis occupied caves in Kuruman Hills in South Eastern Africa about this time.

Stone tools are discovered in Riwat, Pakistan suggesting homo erectus occupation.

Some believe mycobacterium tuberculosis dates back to this period having mutated from the

hypothetical mycobacterium canettii. Many are skeptical. Others contend it may go back to 2 million

B,C

1,995,000 B.C.

Austealopithecus Sediba was discovered by a 9 year old boy in South Africa. It stands about 4 feet 2

inches but has a brain the size of 1/3 of comparable modern man.

1,900,000 B.C.

Some DNA studies suggest there was a major migration out of Africa about this time. The study

suggests it was an interbreeding migration with local peoples.

A new species of humans was discovered in a cavern 40 km from Johannesburg, South Africa. He

walked upright with a height of 4'2" a woman and a boy age 11-13 years old. They called them

Australopithecus sediba. They lived at the same time as Homo habilis but their brain sizes was 2/3 the

size of H. habilis. A. sediba had longer legs and a pelvis shape to make them a more efficient walker.

Homo Habilis (1.9M-1.6M B.C.) is discovered in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

Australopithecus Robustius (1.9M-1.5M B.C.) is discovered in Kromdrapt, South Africa.

Homo Erectus is confirmed to be living in Java before Africa leading to speculation that they may have

migrated from Asia to Africa. Others speculate these people are a different species than the later African

species. Homo Erectus appears to continuously occupy Java until about 100,000 B.C. A jaw, tooth and

stone tools found in Longgupo Cave in China and some scientists suggest Homo Erectus originated in

China then migrated to Africa. The actual origin of Homo Erectus is likely to remain unknown and will

continue to change location over time as new evidence is found.

1,800,000 B.C. to 2.0 MYA


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Evidence at Sangiran Java, anb Mojokerto, Indonesia of a cranium of a child suggests Homo Erectus

existed in this region supporting the contention that Homo Sapiens may have evolved independent of

African Homo Erectus. About fifty other Homo Erectus fossils support this contention. It is noteworthy

that Homo Erectus also first appeared about this time in Kenya, East Africa and the Hsihoutu site in

China. To complicate matters Homo Erectus is discovered at Thilisi, Georgia (Russia). The Dmanisi,

Georgis site has uncovered 4 skulls and 100's of stone tools with animal remains. They are tiny-brained

humans about 1/2 the size of modern humans.

Homo Habilis spread throughout Eurasia between 1.8 MYA and 1.5 MYA

The problem is that within 100,000 years Homo Erectus can and probably did travel to most places in the

world. We tend to under estimate the mobility of people if they are motivated to travel. The Blackfoot

Indians of Alberta, Canada as an example first heard of the horse and walked to New Mexico to obtain

some and returned in the same season. This equates to an easy three-season trip from the Middle East

say to Malaysia.

Some suggest Homo Ergaster began about this time in Europe.

1,750,000 B.C. to 1.8 MYA

Homo Dmanisi man discovered in Dmanisi, Georgia has huge canine teeth, thin brow, uses complex

stone tools, had a relatively small brain but is humanoid. Previous to this find most believed Homo

erectus who migrated out of Africa was big brained that gave them the ability to make complex stone

tools. The paleo-anthropologists world has been turned upside down as a result of this find of bones of

six individuals. They believe it is a link between Homo habilis and Homo erectus and the question could

be are they coming from or going to Africa or both? Many palaeontogists refused to accept the

overwhelming evidence. Their tool set included choppers and cutters. The discovery opened so many

questions about our ancestry that one scientist quipped: "They ought to put it back in the ground." It

is noteworthy that some trates of Homo Dmanisi man turned up in Homo floresiensis of 93,000 B.C. in

Flores, Indonesia.

1,700,000 B.C.

It is said that Yuanmou Man lived 1,700,000 years ago and was the earliest man in China known to the

people. He was found in Yunnan Province.

Homo Erectus (1.7M-250K B.C.) is discovered in Trinil Indonesia

Homo Ergaster (1.7M-1.5M) is discovered in Koobi For a, Kenya

Home Ergaster with his stone tools is discovered at Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia.

Hand axes are dated to 1.37-1.7 million B.C. at the Great Rift Valley (Ethiopia/Kenya) and many

speculate that speech is required to pass on this technology.


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Homo erectus first appeared in western Asia about 1.7 million B.C.

Homo erectus first appeared in Indonesia about 1.6 million B.C.

Homo erectus first appeared in western Europe in Spain about 1.4 million B.C.

Damanisi, Georgia, homo erectus discovered on this site do not represent the conventional

paleoanthropological wisdom that suggests the first out of Africa humans are tall, large-brained people

equipped with sophisticated stone tools. These were small, small-brained (1/2 the size of modern man)

people equipped with unsophisticated stone tools. These people likely represent the Euroasia evolved

homo erectus people. Some suggest this is the link between homo habilis and home erectus. Still others

suggest we grossly underestimated the diversity of homo erectus. Thirty people are now working this

site and only a fraction of the site's extent has been explored. It is commonly believed that homo

erectus only migrated out of Africa in 1,000,000 B.C. Some refer to him as Homo Antecessor.

Southeast (Asia) was reached about 1.7 million years ago by Homo Erectus.

1,660,000 B.C.

About this time period, modern man is evident, based on stone artifacts found in the Nihewan Basin,

China

Homo erectus first appeared in western Asia about 1.7 million B.C.

Homo erectus first appeared in Indonesia about 1.6 million B.C.

Homo erectus first appeared in western Europe in Spain about 1.4 million B.C.

1,600,000 B.C.

Homo Erectus remains are verified in Java and Turkana, Kenya East Africa where they are manufacturing

stone tools. No stone tools are discovered in Java lending support to a separate cultural identity. A

stone tool is discovered in Riwat, Pakistan dated to this period. Homo Erectus is living in the Republic of

Georgia. The Turkana Boy an adolescent Homo ergaster is considered by some to be the first hominids

with a modern body skeleton.

A stone tool uncovered in Nihewan Basin west of Beijing are similar to those found in 1,750,000 B.C. on

the eastern Black Sea coast with Homo erectus.

The hand ax was believed developed in Europe and rapidly spread throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa.

1,500,000 B.C.

Charred Antelope bones found in South Africa suggests fire may be in use.

Homo ergaster/erectus is evident near Lake Turkana, Kenya from 24 foot-prints in sedimentary layers.
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Java, Indonesia is home to Homo erectus about this time.

1,400,000 B.C.

Homo Erectus near the Sea of Sea of Galilee, Israel is using the hand axe. One branch of homo erectus

migrated out of Asia to Africa.

Homo erectus first appeared in western Asia about 1.7 million B.C.

Homo erectus first appeared in Indonesia about 1.6 million B.C.

Homo erectus first appeared in western Europe in Spain about 1.4 million B.C.

1,440,000 B.C.

It was always assumed that Homo Erectus was a descendent of Home Habilis. Findings in Kenya suggest

Homo Habilis and Homo Erectus lived at the same time.

1,360,000 B.C.

Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site of China are

magnetostratigraphically dated 1.36 million years ago

1,270,000 B.C.

The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxiof, China is the earliest recorded of use of fire by Homo

Erectus,.

1,200,000 B.C.

A jawbone from caves near Burgus in northern Spain is claimed to be proof that humans lived in western

Europe Province about this time. Several teeth and rudimentary scraping tools were also found among

animal bones. It is believed to be Homo Antecessor.

Some suggest west Europe was populated since c. 1.2 million ago by Homo Erectus.

1,100,000 B.C.

Homo erectus is discovered at Gongwangling, China

1,000,000 B.C.

Some people suggest Homo Erectus is differentiated between Homo Erectus African and Homo Erectus

Asian about this period. Others suggest they evolved from separate species. Australopithecus (4-1

million B.C.) is believed totally replaced by the Homo species about this time. Some suggest the

possible use of fire by Homo Erectus at the Swartkrans, South Africa digs. Fire is likely in use

throughout the known world. Others suggest that Homo Erectus in China about this time is the ancestor
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of modern Chinese and not a dead end species as some suggest. Homo Erectus a tall slender species

migrated onto Europe likely from Asia by way of Africa between now and 700,000 B.C.

Homo Neanderthal DNA has been 60% decoded (2010). One to 4% of Homo Neanderthal DNA is

present in non-African peoples. French, Han Chinese and Polynesian were tested and had similar

amounts of Homo Neanderthal DNA. The two Africans proved negative (no Neanderthal DNA). It’s

noteworthy that African blood type is ‘B’ whereas American Indian blood type is ‘A’. The Homo

Neanderthal genes appear to be survival genes that improve cognitive functions, ability to metabolize

food into energy and a role in the shape of the skull, rib-cage and shoulder joint. It is noteworthy that

Homo Neanderthal had a larger skull and had more muscle than Homo sapiens. He was better adapted

at survival in colder climates.

Keep in mind only two bone samples were used, one dating to 40,000 – 32,000 B.C. Another from

43,000-41,000 BC. A 28,000 B.C. finger bone from the Denisova Cave in Siberia so far suggests a one

million year old DNA not found in Homo Neanderthal or Homo sapiens. This might bring pressure on the

generally accepted out of Africa theory. We can't just speculate that out of Africa happened before one

million BC. The limited DNA study suggest there was likely no migration into Africa from Euroasia by

Homo Neanderthal man after this time.

It’s possible and the unknown Denisova hominid, Homo Neanderthal hominid, and Homo sapiens lived

near each other. We now know that Homo Neanderthal and Homo sapiens inter married, so they can’t

be genetically too far apart. We need to rethink past assumptions about the simple hominoid tree and

think a bush instead. I think it's too early to be definitive but the future looks exciting.

The DNA found in Siberia doesn't match modern humans or Homo Neanderthals, two species that lived in

that area around the same time ( 30,000 to 50,000) years ago. Their analysis indicated the Siberian

species last shared a common ancestor with modern humans and Homo Neanderthals about 1 million

years ago. Without a completed analysis of the nuclear DNA, “we are not saying this is a new species,”

The new creature could be an early version of Homo antecessor, a forerunner of Homo Neanderthals and

modern humans known from fossils in Spain. Or, it could be a new species. In fact, the eventual

decision could hinge mostly on the philosophical question of just how different a creature has to be to be

declared a new species.

Mounting evidence suggests homo erectus originated in Euroasia and back migrated to Africa rather that

out of Africa.

Some suggest Home Heidelbergenis (Heidelbergensis) or Homo Antecessor originated about this time in

Europe and lasted to 250,000 B.C. Some call them Archaic Homo Sapiens. Some argue they migrated

into Africa to become Homo Sapiens. Others suggest they are the ancestors of Homo Neanderthal. Still

others suggest they are Homo Ergaster 1.8 to 1.5 million B.C.
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Ancestors of a hobbit-like species of humans may have colonized the Indonesian island of Flores as far

back as a million years ago, much earlier than thought, according to a new study. These early

ancestors, or hominins, were previously thought to have arrived on the island about 800,000 years ago

but artifacts found in a new archaeological site suggest they might have been around even earlier.

These hobbit-like humans, Homo floresiensis or “Flores man“, who stood about one-metre tall and had

skulls the size of grapefruit. “Flores man” is thought to be a descendant of homo erectus and a massive

volcanic eruption on the island caused their extinction in 10,000 B.C.

900,000 B.C.

Growing evidence suggests Homo Erectus (Ceprano) likely roamed Italy, Germany, Spain and Britain

about this time. It is noteworthy that Homo Erectus is in Java by 1.8 million B.C. Many tools of Homo

Erectus dating to 800,000-900,000 B.C. found on the Indonesian Island of Flores suggests they used

watercraft to reach the Island. Other animal evidence suggests no land bridge linked the other Islands

to Flores. Homo Erectus is likely smarter than generally believed.

Homo erectus is unearthed in the Liang Bua cave on Isle Flores in Indonesia. The Homo Floresiensis a

dwarf people in 93,000 B.C. are believed their descendants.

840,000 B.C.

Some suggest that a major migration out of Africa lasted from this date to 420,000 B.C. based on

genetic DNA studies. Others suggest it was 700,000 B.C. Another wave occurred 150,000 to 80,000

B.C. Both migrations were not a replacement but resulted in a interbreeding migration. The 'Eve

Theory' does not stand up to DNA analysis. Humans expanded again and again into and out of Africa.

Human ancestors (homo erectus) are know to occupy Flores Soa Basin, Indonesia about this time and it

would take a boat to get there.

Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia is the location of the largest eruption in know history of the world. Eruptions

occurred in 840,000 B.C., 700,000 B.C and 75,000 B.C. The 75,000 eruption ejected 2,800 Km3. The

next closest was Yellowstone in 2.2 million B.C. that ejected 2,500 Km3

800,000 B.C.

Some scientists believe the modern human brain started evolving at this time because of climate

variability. Human brains tripled in size. Climate change turned forests into Savannahs; savannahs

became deserts; ice ages came and went. Early humans who specialized for narrow habitats faded.

Stone tools are discovered in southern China near the Vietnam boarder.

The Trinil beds of Java may date to this period as does the skull from Lantien China. Homo Erectus at

Choukoutien, Mongolia hunted giant sheep, horses, pigs, buffalo, rhinoceros and deer. It is believed
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they and their ancestors occupied this region until 130,000 B.C. They migrated north and south likely

following the glacial advances and retreats. Home Erectus in France is known to be using fire.

Homo Antecessor is discovered in Dolina, Spain. They used stone tools and hunted deer, bison and

rhinoceros. Evidence suggests they practiced cannibalism.

Researchers in Spain claim to have discovered a link between the Homo Ancestors Homo Neanderthal

and so called modern man.

Stone tools on the Indonesian Island of Flores dated to 800,000 to 900,000 B.C. suggests that Homo

erectus crossed at least 20 kilometers of water, likely on rafts. This also suggests they had better

mental, technological and linguistic skills than previously thought.

790,000 B.C.

Early man on the banks of the Jordan River was making fire using flint.

780,000 B.C.

The magnetic pole changed from south to north for unknown reasons and consequences. This

phenomena is used to date many archaeological finds.

Some suggest Home Heidelbergenis (Heidelbergensis) or Homo Antecessor artifacts date to this period.

Others suggest 400,000 is the oldest artifact.

The Gran Dolina Cave in the Atapuerca Hills on northern Spain the fossils were called Homo

heidelbergensis but may represent another distinct form.

750,000 B.C.

Australian anthropologists contend that Aborigines in Australia originate from Java Man (Homo Erectus)

and then Homo Neanderthal. Human presence is discovered in the Soa Basin of Flores, Indonesia.

700,000 B.C.

Some researchers suggest Modern Man and Homo Neanderthals had a common ancestor about this time.

In 2005 scientists said that 32 black flint artifacts, found in river sediments in Pakefield in eastern

England, date back 700,000 years and represent the earliest unequivocal evidence of human presence

north of the Alps.

Homo Erectus in Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel suggest man separated their living space for food

preparation 25 feet away from their eating area. It was previously believed this social organization

didn't develop until 200,000 B.C.


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Homo Erectus is located at Isernia La Pineta, Italy (southeast of Rome). They are using flakes, scrapers

and choppers. Quartzite pebble tools are discovered at Ulauka, Siberia. Some suggest they are shaped

by nature not man. The Filimoshki site in the Amur River basin is dated 700,000 B.C., others date it as

130,000 and 30,000 B.C. based on different interpretations. The Indonesian Island of Flores contains

stone tools, causing much concern.

Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia is the location of the largest eruption in know history of the world. Eruptions

occurred in 840,000 B.C., 700,000 B.C and 75,000 B.C. The 75,000 eruption ejected 2,800 Km3. The

next closest was Yellowstone in 2.2 million B.C. that ejected 2,500 Km3

Homo Erectus is discovered at Lantian, China.

Homo Erectus is discovered at Tighhenif, Algeria.

Anglia man is located in East Anglia, Britain.

Paleolithic sites are found in China as early as this date. Zhoukoudian, about 50 kilometers (31 miles)

southwest of Beijing, China was a natural habitat of human ancestors.

670,000 B.C.

Homo erectus occupied the Longushan cave. The Dragon Bone Hill site is 30 miles southwest of Beijing.

The bones were found in the 1920s-1930s and were popularly referred to as Peking Man.

660,000 B.C.

Some believe Homo Neanderthal Man genetically split from Homo Erectus about this time. OR may

Homo Erectus split from Homo Neanderthal Man about from this time. OR maybe they never genetically

split because it is believed Homo Neanderthal Man was either replaced or absorbed about 28,000 B.C.

Science is just not sure, yet.

630,000 B.C.

A severe ice age started about 685,000 B.C., peaked about this time and returned to hot conditions by

625,000 B.C.. Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.

600,000 B.C.

A Homo Erectus skull contains mixed characteristics of features from Java, China and Europe suggesting

a more complex pre-history than previously believed. Paleolithic period (Older stone age) begins, that

includes two ice ages, called Gunz-Mindel and Riss-wurm, in Europe. Evidence includes chipped stone

implements, use of fire and burial rights developed during this period. Some believe tool modification,

control of fire and religious belief signals the beginning of man. This is likely the reason why

archeologists attribute religious interpretation to most artifacts. Others believe the size of brain capacity
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determines man. This belief would place modern man as being inferior to Homo Neanderthal man.

Depending on one's definition of modern or man this might be a complement.

Excavations begun in 1921 at Zhoukoudian, China, suggested evidence that Peking Man had mastered

fire and practiced cannibalism over this period.

Three archaeological periods make up the Stone Age:

600,000 - 100,000 B.C. Older Stone Age,

100,000 - 50,000 B.C. Middle Old Stone Age, and

50,000 - 10,000 B.C. Upper Old Stone Age.

585,000 B.C.

A moderate ice age started about 625,000 B.C., peaked about this time and returned to hot conditions

by 570,000 B.C.. Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.

505,000 B.C.

A severe ice age started about 670,000 B.C., peaked about this time and returned to cool conditions until

the next severe ice age that peaked 425,000 B.C.. Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.

500,000 B.C.

Pithecanthropus (Homo Erectus), development of early man, using the hand-axe, in Indonesia, China,

Africa, and Europe, the earliest evidence of controlled fire is from China and Africa. The hand axes called

Acheulian are still being made until 50,000 B.C. Paleolithic man is also living in Korea at this time.

Some suggest Homo Erectus is differentiated between African, Asian and European Archaic about this

time. Others suggest they evolved from separate related species.

Bone fragments of proto-humans are found all over China.

Homo sapiens (archaic). Skull of adult male found by Greek villagers at Petralona, Greece in 1960.

A human jawbone of about this age, homo Heidelbergensis, was found in Heidelberg, Germany, in 1907.

A human skull fragment form Turkey shows signs of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Others are skeptical

suggesting other diseases could cause the sane results.

Zhoukoudian near Beijing is one of the most famous and most extensive. Homo erectus, also known as

"Peking Man," is first identified from fossils found in a cave at this rich site that also yields antlers,

bones, and teeth from many animals, and evidence for the use of fire.
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The Peking Man Site is situated in the Dragon Bone Hill near Zhoukoudian. Since 1921, eight sites of

ancient human remains have been discovered. 26 localities where high concentrations of fossils were

found have been excavated. 118 kinds of animal fossils and over 100,000 stone wares have been

unearthed. These fossils and remains serve as evidence of the existence of humanoid species 500,000

years ago in Zhoukoudian, China.

There is evidence that Homo erectus has been traveling Africa, Europe and Asia for the past 400,000

years. Pebble tools are discovered north of Mosul, in the Tigris valley (Iraq). The hand axe is discovered

in Britain. Britain is much warmer than present as hippopotamus bones were uncovered.

Stone Age: Some of the earliest relics of Stone Age man in the subcontinent are found in the Soan

Valley of the Potohar region near Rawalpindi, Pakistan with a probable antiquity of about 500,000 years.

Ancient Babylonian tradition established the beginning of the world at this time.

The enormous carnivores, saber-toothed cats, hyenas and hunting dogs are extinct in Europe.

Some suggest Homo Neanderthal and modern man differentiated about this time. Homo Neanderthal

was considered the stronger and more intelligent of the Homo Sapiens Men.

Homo sapiens skeletons discover about this time in China do not differ much from Homo sapiens

skeletons discovered in 20,000 B.C. in China.

Humans have inhabited the Korean peninsula from as early as the Pleistocene era, about 500,000 B.C.

Studies of mtDNA in Europe suggest Homo Neanderthals and humans had a common ancestor about this

time. This is highly questionable because most suggest mtDNA is only good for tracing 50,000 years

maybe 100,000 years. Other question the assumption of one genetic mutation every 10,000 years. The

other concern is this belief is based on a a very small questionable sampling.

460,000 B.C.

Homo erectus is located at the Zhoukoudien caves in China.

440,000 B.C.

The Mittelberg Hill above the village of Wangen, in the Unstrut Valley, near Nebra in central Germany

was a major trading center during the Bronze Age (2,500-1,500 B.C.). A Sun Disk used to chart the

night sky was discovered this location dated 1,600 B.C.. This location however has been occupied since

440,000 B.C.

430,000 B.C.

A prolonged warm period that lasted 28,000 years reached its peak about this time.

425,000 B.C.
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A moderate severe ice age started about 405,000 B.C., peaked about this time and returned to warmer

conditions by 400,000 B.C... Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.

420,000 B.C.

The youngest Homo erectus (from China) date in this period.

400,000 B.C.

Members of a Homo Erectus (Homo erectus pekinensis) (Peking Man or Beijing Man) band of people

gathered around a fire at Choukoutien Cave in China. They used stone tools, hunted and gathered

plants for food. It is known that they killed elephant, rhinoceros, horse, bison, water buffalo, camel, wild

boar, sheep, deer and antelope. It is believed they used speech to communicate and had developed a

social structure. Homo Erectus is also living at Terra Amata near Nice. Evidence of Homo Erectus in

Java dates from 1,900,000 to 400,000 B.C. The evolution from Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens may

have begun about this time or as late as 200,000 B.C. The Choukoutien caves of China are still occupied

by Homo Erectus until about 350,000 B.C. They are controlling the use of fire. The Swanscombe

deposits in Kent, England dates a species of Homo Sapiens to this period. Homo erectus at Eddsfleet,

Kent in southern Britain are killing rhino and elephant, likely with spears and are cutting up the kill with

flint tools. These findings do not support the out of Africa theory in 100,000 B.C.

Homo Neanderthals of Schoningen, Germany are using finely crafted, precisely designed and balanced

throwing spears. The three spears found were about 30 years old and used to hunt horses. The 1.8 to

2.3 meter javelins are examples of very clever wood workers and organized hunters. That the spears

survived for thirty years speaks volumes.

Researchers in Germany in 1997 unearthed wooden spears made of spruce of this age from an ancient

lakeshore hunting ground. The spears were found in a coal mine in Shöningen, near Hanover.

Researchers in 2000 found evidence from a homo erectus skull, Sm 3, of this period that individuals

communicated with each other.

Some believe the Arctic Ocean lost its ice cover during a period of warming.

Plant DNA frozen in Siberia is authenticated by Copenhagen and Oxfords and is believed the oldest

recovered.

385,000 B.C.

Some time between 385,000 to 325,000 B.C. on the Roccamonzina Mountains near Campania, in

southern Italy walked a fully bipedal, free standing gait man. He is believed to be homo Heidelbergenis

an ancestor of Homo Neanderthal man. They found footprints and palm-prints in volcanic ash. It

appears he only used his hands to steady themselves on the difficult slope.
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350,000 B.C.

Skulls found in China in 1989 dated to 350,000 B.C. and again throw doubts that modern man only

originated in Africa, so reports the British Scientific Journal. The skulls are definitely identified as Homo

Erectus. Their facial features are more modern looking than other human groups in other parts of the

world. The brain casings however are those of a primitive Homo Erectus man. The infusionists believe

all mankind migrated out of Africa. It is noteworthy that the difusionists earlier believed all mankind

migrated out of China. We may never be sure where Homo Sapiens originated or if it is a singular event

or a global occurrence. It is known that early Hominoids traveled extensively throughout the world.

Humans left tracks in the volcanic ash of the Roccamonfina volcano in Italy

Homo Neadderthalensis spread across Europe, Russis, and western Asia from this time until 30,000 B.C.

Their brain sized topped modern man by 1,700 cubic centimeters.

335,000 B.C.

A ice age started about 400,000 B.C., peaked about this time, had a mid cycle warming period 365,000

and returned to hot conditions by 325,000 B.C.. Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.

325,000 B.C.

Between 325,000 and 200,000 B.C. the world climate osculated between moderately cool to warm and

then hot.

300,000 B.C.

Clactonian (Clacton, Essex) cultures established themselves in England, France and Germany, as well as,

India and Africa. They are probably an offshoot of Australoids and Asiatic peoples, replacing the

Abbevillian, who migrated to Africa carrying the Clacton culture with them. Fossilized human skulls with

Homo Erectus and Homo Sapiens features are discovered throughout Europe. Pre-Neanderthal

(Heidelbergensis) is disposing the bodies of their dead in the Sierra de Atapuerca cave in Spain. In La

Sima de los Huesos, Spain or the Pit of Bones are 32 individuals mostly teenagers representing different

types of humans. They had some Homo Neanderthal features yet are as short as modern humans are.

Castel Di Guido or more accurately La Polledrara Di Cecanibbio, Italy is discovered a mud sink hole

containing elephas antiquus along with primative instruments made of flint and bone

The largest know ape was Gigantopithecus being two to three times larger than a gorilla and lived in

China and southeast Asia.

270,000 B.C.
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Molecular analysis of mans Y chromosome suggests modern man originated about this time and all

differences between man are really superficial variations. The science community calls this the Adam

theory. The ancient Sumerian tradition supports this theory but place the timing closer to 246,000 B.C.

The Chaldaeans, Parthians, Medes and Hebrew tradition call the first man Adam. Other traditions call

the first man Thouthos, Phos (Prometheus) or Epimetheus according to Egyptian theology.

260,000 B.C.

Homo Erectus or another hominid species occupied Siberia at the confluence of the Lena River and Diring

Creek considered the cold pole of the world at present time.

250,000 B.C.

Stone tools are being used in England.

Spear points made from flint first appeared in Europe about this time.

In Siberia stone tools along a river near Irkutsk were dated by radioisotope to about this time.

Some believe the first people arrived the Philippines about this time.

246,000 B.C.

Sumerian (Sumer or Shumer) tradition (Iraq) places the creation of man about this time. Their story of

creation explains that the people must be the servant of the gods. It also accounted for the natural

wickedness of humanity being created from the blood of the evil god Kingu. This early belief that man is

intrinsically evil is unique to the Sumerian but would eventually spread throughout Europe. Some

speculate this belief evolved because the erratic climatic nature of Iraq led the people to believe the gods

are punishing man for doing bad things. Many other peoples of the world met with the same natural

disasters but did not come to this masochistic conclusion. The Sumerian story of creation however is the

oldest creation story recorded.

The Sumerian believed their culture began in Eridu, Iraq and only two king clans reined for the next

64,800 years. The Sumerian is neither Semitic nor Indo-European linguistically and some postulate they

are closer to Caucasian.


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