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DEDICATION

This book is dedicated to all the citizens of the United States of America who have made
this program of interplanetary exploration possible and who, along with all mankind, will
benefit from the increased awareness of the universe and how the Earth and its peoples
relate to it.
NASA SP-446

PIONEER
FIRST TO JUPITER, SATURN, AND BEYOND

RICHARD O. FIMMEL
Manager, Pioneer Missions
Ames Research Center

JAMES VAN ALLEN


Professor of Physics
University of Iowa

ERIC BURGESS
Science Writer

Prepared at Ames Research Center

Scientific and Technical Information Office 1980


NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
Washington, D.C.

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1980–0-328-155

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents


U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402
4 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Authors’ Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1 – Pioneer to the Giant Planets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2 – The Pioneer Jupiter / Saturn Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3 – The Pioneer Spacecraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4 – Pioneer Science at New Frontiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5 – First into the Outer Solar System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6 – Results at the New Frontiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7 – Images from Jupiter and Saturn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
8 – First Encounter with the Giant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9 – Jupiter Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
10 – Saturn Encounter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Epilog – Beyond the Outer Giants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Appendix 1 – The Imaging Photopolarimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Appendix 2 – Technical Details of Planetary Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Appendix 3 – Pioneer Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Appendix 4 – Pioneer Award Recipients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Foreword
Some ventures are appropriately named, and Pioneer is surely one of them. The people associated with this program really
are pioneers of space exploration. Often it seems that pioneers, being out in front, do not receive the general recognition that
historically they should deserve. Fortunately, this is not the case with these Pioneer explorations of Jupiter and Saturn. Many
people are beginning to understand the tremendous revolutionary steps we are starting to take into the future as we make
important discoveries about the planets of the outer Solar System, as we find out things that we had no glimmering of before
these pioneering missions. I anticipate that years from now, when people look back on our time, they will single out the
Pioneer program as one of special importance to space science and the broadening of our intellectual horizon.

We have now moved out beyond the familiar part of the Solar System to explore planetary objects so unusual that their very
existence was something people might accept intellectually but not really in any immediate sense.

I like to compare this latter part of the 20th century with the 15th and 16th centuries, the time during which the oceans of Earth
were first explored. The sailing ships first edged their way along the shores of Europe. Then they felt their way around Africa.
Finally, they struck out across the open oceans and headed for lands so remote, countries so extraordinary, that the reports of
the returning explorers were even more incredible than the fictions they replaced. With Pioneer, we felt our way out through
the asteroid belt and struck out into the uncharted oceans of the outer Solar System. The excitement of the first flybys of
Jupiter and Saturn was a unique experience, enabling us to replace the speculative images of Jupiter and Saturn with actual
physical reports. The Pioneers truly initiated a new stage of space exploration, blazing a trail for other spacecraft: the
Voyagers, Galileo, other spacecraft yet unnamed, and some even unimagined.
Dr. Thomas A. Mutch
Associate Administrator for Space Science
NASA Headquarters
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 5

Introduction
The Pioneer spacecraft have ventured into previously unexplored space far beyond the orbit of Mars, and their missions have
added greatly to mankind’s knowledge of our Solar System. Throughout history, man has been driven by his innate sense of
adventure and curiosity to explore new frontiers, to study what he has found, and to add to his understanding of his place in
the cosmos. Author James Michener, in testimony before a Congressional subcommittee, provided an excellent description
of this drive and its importance to our civilization:

“I do not for a moment believe that the spiritual well being of our nation depends primarily upon a
successful space program. I am sure that we could as a nation attain great spiritual reassurance from
rebuilding our cities or distributing our farm produce better.

But I also believe that there are moments in history when challenges occur of such a compelling nature that
to miss them is to miss the whole meaning of an epoch. Space is such a challenge.

We risk great peril if we kill off this spirit of adventure, for we cannot predict how and in what seemingly
unrelated fields it will manifest itself. A nation which loses its forward thrust is in danger, and one of the
most effective ways to retain that thrust is to keep exploring possibilities. The sense of exploration is
intimately bound up with human resolve, and for a nation to believe that it is still committed to forward
motion is to ensure its continuance.

. . . We should be most careful about retreating from the specific challenge of our age. We should be reluctant
to turn our back upon the frontier of this epoch. Space is indifferent to what we do; it has no feeling, no
design, no interest in whether we grapple with it or not. But we cannot be indifferent to space, because the
grand slow march of our intelligence has brought us, in our generation, to a point from which we can explore
and understand and utilize it. To turn back now would be to deny our history, our capabilities.”

The Pioneers have been true explorers – the first to navigate the asteroid belts, the first to encounter Jupiter and its fierce
radiation belts and Saturn and its rings, and they will be the first manmade objects to leave our Solar System. They have
probed new frontiers and explored regions of the Solar System very different from those of the inner system near Earth.
Originally, the Pioneer missions were intended to explore only Jupiter and the interplanetary space beyond Mars, but as the
mission progressed an opportunity to reach Saturn also developed and the pathway was opened to another unexplored planet.
To carry out their missions, the Pioneers have traveled enormous distances and have operated effectively for extended periods.
In so doing, the engineering accomplishments of this mission have matched the scientific accomplishments. Pioneers 10 and
11 have been in space over 8 years and 7 years, respectively, and have traveled 4.6 billion kilometers and 4.1 billion
kilometers, respectively. All of the spacecraft systems continue to operate reliably after the years in deep space and in spite
of encounters with hostile radiation environments.

The mission has continued far beyond achieving its original objectives. The spacecraft continue to send data as they reach
toward the boundaries of the Solar System. To undertake a mission of such length called for great and continued dedication
on the part of scientists and engineers who had to devote a major portion of their professional careers to the mission. The
Pioneers and the people who made them possible have clearly met the challenge of which Michener spoke.

C. A. Syvertson
Director
Ames Research Center
6 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Authors’ Preface
The success of Pioneer 11 in its encounter with Saturn and the continued mission of Pioneers 10 and 11 into the outer Solar
System necessitated an updating of the earlier publications (SP-349, Pioneer Odyssey, Encounter with a Giant, and SP-
349/396, Pioneer Odyssey). Results from further analyses of data from the encounters with Jupiter, interplanetary results, and
results from Pioneer 11’s encounter with Saturn are included. Because the bibliography associated with this mission has now
become extremely large and continues to grow, it is published separately as NASA Technical Memorandum 81233, available
from NASA Scientific and Technical Information Facility, P.O. Box 8757, Baltimore / Washington International Airport,
Maryland, 21240.

In the preparation of this book, the authors gratefully acknowledge having drawn upon the work of many others too numerous
to mention individually. Many scientists and project staff personnel were interviewed during research to assemble material
for the book. Of particular importance was valuable assistance in the form of initial suggestions and later comments on all or
parts of the drafts of the book by Robert R. Nunamaker, John W. Dyer, and John H. Wolfe. The reviews by principal
investigators and members of their teams are also appreciated.

Personnel from Ames Research Center, the Pioneer Project Staff, the Technical Information Division, and the
Phototechnology Branch were particularly helpful in providing information and research material and in producing the book.

The authors are also indebted to personnel of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and the Optical Sciences Center of the
University of Arizona for astronomical information and photographs and for the production of images of Jupiter and Saturn
reproduced in this book. Special thanks must be given to Edward Beshore, James J. Burke, Bruce DaCosta, Joseph S.
Gotobed, Robert Kingston, Robin Strickland (computer processing), Charles Blenman, Jr., Lyn R. Doose, Charles KenKnight,
and John W. Fountain (photographic processing).

Additional thanks must be given to William Swindell, University of Arizona, for use of material written for the earlier Pioneer
publications and incorporated into this new publication.

Richard O. Fimmel
James A. Van Allen
Eric Burgess
August 1980
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 7

1
Pioneer to the Giant Planets
The space age began in 1957 when the first artificial satellite orbited Earth – 31 years after the flight of Robert H. Goddard’s
first liquid propellant rocket. Within only another 22 years, spacecraft of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
had explored all the planets of our Solar System that were known to mankind before the invention of the telescope.

On September 1, 1979, Pioneer 11 climaxed these 22 years of space exploration by reaching Saturn after journeying through
space for 6½ years over a distance of 3.2 billion kilometers. On its approach to Saturn, Pioneer found that the giant planet
has a magnetic field and a complex magnetosphere buffeted by the solar wind. These discoveries added to earlier ones made
by Pioneer about the magnetic field and magnetosphere of Jupiter.

Pioneer revealed unique and spectacular views of Saturn and its ring system. If an observer had been on board the spacecraft
as it swept by this mighty ringed planet, the view would have been spectacular. Behind the spacecraft, the Sun had shrunk to
only about one ninth the size it appears on Earth. Ahead, Saturn appeared as a rotating, flattened globe with banded patterns.
The spacecraft approached the planet from above while the south side of the rings were illuminated by the Sun. This view of
the magnificent ring system is one never seen from Earth. The usually bright rings appeared dark and the usually dark gaps
between them were bright. This vantage point provided scientists with much new information about the structure of these
rings that had been regarded as unique until recently when much less spectacular rings were discovered around the planets
Jupiter and Uranus.

At a speed approaching 114,000 km/hr, the spacecraft rushed toward Saturn. Over the several days before closest approach,
the detailed structure of the rings gradually became clearer. One by one, the bright specks of Saturn’s family of small satellites
and the globe of the huge satellite Titan appeared.

As Pioneer moved closer to Saturn, the most critical period of the mission was at hand when the spacecraft crossed the plane
of the rings and hurtled beneath them for its closest approach to within 21,400 km of the cloud tops of Saturn. There was no
way of knowing from Earth whether ring particles were present inside the bright visible rings. Even a relatively few particles
could destroy the spacecraft.

The polar areas of Saturn were by this time visible and the belts of weather systems at lower latitudes were more distinct,
although still much less clearly defined than the weather systems of Jupiter observed by Pioneer several years before.
Evidence of jet streams in the upper atmosphere began also to appear. The shadow of the rings on the planet clearly showed
the divisions in the ring system.

At just under one million kilometers from Saturn and four hours before closest approach, Pioneer discovered a faint narrow
ring outside the bright A ring. About the same time, the spacecraft’s imaging system revealed a new inner satellite of Saturn.
Data from the charged particle experiments showed unusual variations that indicated the presence of another previously
unknown small satellite. During the next few hours, the planet and its rings expanded to fill the spacecraft’s field of view as
it hurtled toward the plane of the ring system. The mission controllers and monitors on Earth anxiously wondered whether
the spacecraft would survive to complete its mission.

At 10:36 a.m., September 1, 1979, the spacecraft plunged through the ring plane. Not until 86 minutes later – the time for
radio waves traveling at 300,000 km/sec to reach Earth from Saturn – did the message reach the controllers back on Earth that
the spacecraft was undamaged. Pioneer was continuing its mission.

Back on the spacecraft, a magnificent view of the fully illuminated rings unfolded. The rings stretched overhead in great
curved sheets as Pioneer rushed along beneath them. Pioneer moved so fast and was so close to the rings that images could
not be obtained for transmission to Earth. Hurtling beneath the rings and over the cloud tops, the spacecraft recorded unique
details of the alien environment near this giant planet. Then Pioneer plunged back through the ring plane, again without
damage to the spacecraft. The encounter with Saturn was an unqualified success.
8 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

As Pioneer sped away from Saturn, the view was of a crescent-shaped planet crossed by dark rings and their shadow bands.
Ahead was the large satellite Titan, which Pioneer would pass at a distance of almost 354,000 km on September 2nd. As it
did so, the spacecraft obtained the first images of the largest satellite in our Solar System. With Titan shrinking into a star-
like object behind it, and having explored the two giants, Jupiter and Saturn, for the first time, Pioneer still had not completed
its mission. The spacecraft headed out of our Solar System toward the distant stars, seeking information about interplanetary
space to the orbit of Pluto and beyond.

During the first decade of space exploration, scientists concentrated on the inner Solar System (Figure 1-1), but at the
beginning of the second decade scientists and space technologists began to consider missions to the outer planets, particularly
to the gaseous giants Jupiter and Saturn. These two planets are perhaps the most important in the Solar System because, after
the Sun, they contain most of the matter in the Solar System. Jupiter alone accounts for over two-thirds of the planetary mass
of the Solar System.

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e)

Figure 1-1. Planets of the Solar System consist of two types: small, dense inner planets with solid surfaces Mercury, Venus, Earth with
its Moon, and Mars and large, mainly gaseous outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, some of which have satellites as
large as the smaller inner planets. Pluto, the outermost known planet, has not been observed well enough from Earth to be accurately
classified. Spacecraft have opened new vistas of our Solar System. Note the detail in the best ground based photographs compared
with the photographs of planets taken from spacecraft.

(a) Mercury (Pie du Midi Observatory) (f) Saturn (Catalina Observatory) (j) Moon, Tycho (Lunar Orbiter)
(b) Venus (Lick Observatory) (g) Uranus (Catalina Observatory) (k) Mars (Viking 1)
(c) Moon, Tycho (Lick Observatory) (h) Mercury (Mariner 10) (l) Jupiter (Pioneer 10)
(d) Mars (Catalina Observatory) (i) Venus (Mariner 10) (m) Saturn (Pioneer 11)
(e) Jupiter (Catalina Observatory)
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 9

(f) (g)

(i)

(h)

(k)

(j) Figure 1-1 continued


10 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 1-1 concluded

(l) (m)

Both giant planets (Figure 1-2) are unusual by terrestrial standards – the
density of Jupiter is only slightly greater than water while that of Saturn is
sufficiently low that the planet would float in water. Jupiter’s mass is 317.8
times that of Earth. Its gravity affects the orbits of other planets and may have
prevented the asteroids from coalescing into a planet. Jupiter’s gravitational
force pulls many comets into distorted orbits; some short period comets appear
to have become controlled by Jupiter so that their orbits at their most distant
points from the Sun are about the distance of the Jovian orbit. Saturn also has
collected a family of comets.

Despite their size, Jupiter and Saturn were not large enough to become stars.
Their masses were insufficient to raise internal temperatures high enough to
trigger nuclear reactions in their cores. However, had they been some 100
times larger, the Solar System might have been a triple star system, and
nighttime would have been infrequent on Earth. As it is, both giant planets
emit more energy than they absorb from the Sun, energy that is probably
generated as these planets continue to cool following their primordial
gravitational collapse eons ago, soon after the Solar System formed.

In 1608, spectacle maker Hans Lippershey, of Middleburgh, Holland, invented


an astounding instrument. He happened to pick up two lenses and looked
through them, discovering that objects viewed through the lenses appeared
nearer. He experimented further with a convex and a concave lens at opposite
ends of a tube. His spyglass engendered considerable excitement and word of
his invention spread across Europe.

Two men, Galileo and Simon Marius, using the idea of Lippershey’s spyglass,
constructed a device which came to be known as a telescope in about 1611 and
trained it on the heavens.

Figure 1-2. Jupiter and Saturn are dominant planets of our Solar System. The
terrestrial planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are relatively small compared
with the planets of the outer Solar System, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 11

Figure 1-3. Jupiter and its four Galilean satellites. The photograph at top shows a typical
configuration; right to left, the satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Io is obscured
by the planet. (Photographs: Catalina Observatory, University of Arizona)

Figure 1-4. Each year as Earth moves in its orbit away from Jupiter, the times of eclipse
of Jupiter’s satellites become late because light takes about 16 minutes longer to cross
Earth’s orbit. In 1675, the Danish astronomer Roemer determined the velocity of light
from this effect.

The discovery of the satellites of Jupiter (Figure 1-3) is usually credited to Galileo,
who published The Starry Messenger relating the results of observations he made
at Padua on January 7, 1610. Galileo made a staggering number of observations at
that time – “great, unusual, and remarkable spectacles, a host of stars.” The Starry
Messenger described what Galileo considered the most important discovery of all,
the moons of Jupiter. Some historians, however, claim that Simon Marius of
Auerbach, Germany, first discovered the Jovian satellites on December 29, 1609,
but he did not publish his observations.

Both men, looking at Jupiter, were astounded to discover that the bright planet
possessed a system of satellites – an undreamed of condition in the Aristotelian
philosophy of an Earth-centered universe then holding sway over most human
thought. In fact, some scientists of that day claimed the luminous objects were
defects of the new instrument, not real objects. These satellites were later given the
names Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto by Marius, but are often referred to as
the Galilean satellites. Today the satellites are frequently identified by the Roman
numerals I, II, III, and IV, respectively.

In 1675, Ole Roemer, observing Jupiter’s satellites, made one of the most important
discoveries in physics. He noted that the eclipses of Jovian satellites occur
progressively later as the Earth moves away from Jupiter and progressively earlier
as it moves toward Jupiter. He explained that this effect is evidence for the finite
velocity of light. Light traveling across Earth’s orbit, when Earth is farthest from
Jupiter, takes 16 minutes and 40 seconds to cover the additional distance. From
this, he estimated the velocity of light to be about 300,000 km/sec (186,000 mps)
(Figure 1-4).
12 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 1-5. The large Jovian satellites and Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, rival the smaller planets in size. (a) Relative sizes of
the satellites compared with some planets. (b) Relative distances the Galilean satellites from Jupiter and of Titan from Saturn.

The Jovian satellites are quite large – Callisto and Ganymede


are about the size of the planet Mercury, while Io and Europa
are larger than Earth’s Moon (Figure 1-5). Viewed through a
pair of good field glasses, all four satellites appear as star-like
objects nearly in a straight line on either side of the disk of the
planet because their orbits are viewed almost edgewise from
Earth. These satellites have been sighted without the use of a
telescope. The best viewing time is when the sky is faintly
light following sunset, before the planet becomes
overpoweringly brilliant in a black sky.

Almost three centuries later, in 1892, E.E. Barnard discovered


a fifth satellite of Jupiter. Of the 14 Jovian satellites known
today, 10 are much smaller than the four Galilean satellites.
The Jovian system thus resembles a small solar system, except
that the orbits of its four outermost satellites are traversed in the
opposite sense to that of the other satellites, whereas all the
planets orbit the Sun in the same sense, counterclockwise when
viewed from the north ecliptic pole.

Saturn and its rings and satellites resemble a small solar system
as well. But Saturn’s satellites did not intrigue astronomers so
much as other strange, unusual appendages during the years
Figure 1-6. In the years following 1610, astronomers observed following the discovery of the telescope. In 1610, Galileo was
strange appendages on either side of Saturn that disappeared mystified by two appendages, one on either side of Saturn
for a short while and then reappeared. It was many more years
(Figure 1-6). He was even more mystified when a few years
before these were correctly identified as the rings of Saturn.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 13

later he could no longer see them. Many years later, Christian Huygens, who mastered the art of grinding telescope lenses
with higher precision than his contemporaries, observed a thin ring surrounding the planet inclined at a considerable angle to
the plane of the ecliptic, sometimes seen open and bright and at other times invisible from Earth when viewed edge on. At
this same time, 1655, Huygens discovered a satellite of Saturn – Titan.

Astronomers had identified two bright rings of Saturn. But for many years, the nature of Saturn’s rings remained an enigma.
In June 1838, the astronomer Galle observed that from the inner ring a veil extended across half the dark space separating it
from the planet. It was not until 1850 that Bond in the United States and Dawes in England showed that this effect was caused
by a faint third “crepe” ring. Still the nature of Saturn’s rings remained a mystery. Laplace and Herschel thought the rings
were solid. In 1848, Edward Roche suggested they were probably small particles; Bond, in 1851, thought they must be fluid.
Not until 1857 did James Clerk Maxwell, the Scottish physicist, prove mathematically that the rings consist of particles
orbiting Saturn so closely crowded together as to appear as a continuous mass.

By the end of the 17th century, astronomers had discovered five satellites of Saturn, all but Titan being smaller than the
Galilean satellites of Jupiter. In 1789, Herschel, with a new reflecting telescope, observed two more satellites. In the next
century two more were discovered – at the time of the Pioneer missions to the giant planets nine known satellites orbited
Saturn and two more were suspected.

Solar Orbits of the Giant Planets

Ancient astronomers observing the motions of the planets against a background of stars called them wandering stars. The
word “planet” is derived from the Greek word “wanderer.” All the planets, including Earth, orbit the Sun in near-circular
paths. Jupiter and Saturn orbit the Sun outside the orbit of Earth – they are called superior planets. As seen from Earth, they
appear to move eastward on the average, nearly along the ecliptic. The ecliptic is the apparent yearly path of the Sun relative
to the stars, which is the projection of the plane of Earth’s orbit, the ecliptic plane, against the background of stars. Jupiter
takes 11.86 Earth years to orbit the Sun, Saturn, 29.46 years. So, as viewed from Earth, Jupiter and Saturn move along close
to the ecliptic year by year progressively passing through the 12 zodiacal constellations.

Figure 1-7. When superior planets such as the giant planets are on the far side of the Sun as seen from Earth, they are said to be in
conjunction (A). When opposite the Sun in Earth’s skies, they are then closest to Earth and are said to be in opposition (B). Planets
moving inside Earth’s orbit are referred to as inferior planets. Mercury and Venus are such planets and can never be in opposition,
but instead attain inferior conjunction when they are between Earth and the Sun (C).
14 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

When a superior planet is opposite the Sun in the sky, the planet is nearest Earth and is in opposition (Figure 1-7).
Consequently, the planet appears brightest at this time. At midnight it shines in the southern sky of the Northern Hemisphere,
or in the northern sky of the Southern Hemisphere. Jupiter is in opposition every 13.1 months, Saturn every 12.4 months.

A planet is in conjunction when it lies in nearly the same direction as the Sun as seen from Earth. At this time, the planet is
not visible in the night sky and is then most distant from Earth.

Figure 1-8. Because of the relative motions of Earth and an outer planet such as Jupiter or Saturn, Earth regularly “catches up” with the
outer planet because Earth moves faster in its yearly orbit. Then, as seen from Earth, the outer planet appears to loop backward for
several months. A typical loop motion of Jupiter (as shown) covers almost one third of a zodiacal constellation; a loop of Saturn is smaller.

Because the orbit of a superior planet is outside Earth’s orbit, and because Earth moves faster, each year around the date of
opposition, a superior planet is “overtaken” by Earth and the planet appears to move backward relative to the background of
stars toward the west in “retrograde motion” (Figure 1-8).

Jupiter as Observed from Earth

From pole to pole, Jupiter measures 134,000 km (83,270 miles) compared with Earth’s 12,700 km (7,890 miles). Jupiter turns
on its axis faster than any other planet in our Solar System, once every 9 hours and 55.5 minutes. Its equatorial regions rotate
slightly faster than other regions, in 9 hours and 50.5 minutes. Such rapid rotation has flattened the poles, and at its equator,
Jupiter bulges to about 8,200 km (5,095 miles) greater than its polar diameter.

Although Jupiter’s volume is 1,317 times that of Earth, its mass is just under 318 times Earth’s mass. Scientists have long
known that Jupiter is not a solid body like Earth but consists mainly of gas and liquid with possibly a small rocky core (which
is also liquid). By the 1950’s, scientists realized that Jupiter’s composition, predominantly hydrogen and helium, more closely
resembles that of the Sun than of Earth.

The sight of Jupiter, seen from Earth through a telescope, is magnificent (Figure 1-9) – stripes and bands of turbulent clouds
parallel the planet’s equator. Dusky amorphous areas cover each pole. The darker stripes or “belts” and the lighter bands
between these belts, called “zones,” are permanent enough to be given names (Figure 1-10).
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 15

Figure 1-9. In the best Earth-based photographs Jupiter is a magnificently colored globe. The picture is even more magnificent
through a powerful telescope. Its various belts and zones are clearly defined and the polar flattening is quite apparent. (Photograph:
Catalina Observatory, University of Arizona)

The colors of Jupiter appear soft and muted, yet quite definite. They change at different times – the zones vary from yellowish
to white, the belts from gray to reddish brown. The intensity of the bands changes, fading and darkening. The bands also
widen or become narrow and move up or down in latitude. Streaks, wisps, arches, loops, plumes, patches, lumps, spots, and
festoons embellish the zones and bands. Astronomers have suggested that these smaller features are clusters of clouds, and
that others are zones of turbulence between jet streams moving at different speeds. These small features are observed to
change during the course of a day, sometimes within hours.

Cloud formations move around Jupiter at different rates. A great equatorial current, 20° wide, sweeps around Jupiter at 360
km/hr (225 mph) faster than surrounding regions.

In the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, a huge oval feature has intrigued astronomers since it was first observed in 1664 by the
astronomer Robert Hooke. This Great Red Spot (Figure 1-11) is now about 24,000 km (15,000 miles) long, but at times has
extended to almost 48,000 km (30,000 miles). The spot has, on occasion, faded almost completely. Many scientists have
speculated on this marking, describing it as a high mountain peak or an island floating in the clouds. Small and less persistent
red spots have been seen from time to time as well as relatively short-lived white spots (Figure 1-12).

After the Sun, Jupiter is the strongest source of radio signals in the Solar System. Three types of radiation received on Earth
are emitted from Jupiter (Figure 1-13) – thermal, decimetric, and decametric. Thermal radio waves are produced by agitated
molecules in the Jovian atmosphere. Decimetric radio waves are produced by electrons spiraling around lines of force in the
planet’s magnetic field. Decametric radio waves are produced by some remarkable type of electrical instability. Scientists
have observed that decametric radiation is linked in some way to the orbital motion of Io, the closest large satellite of Jupiter.
16 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 1-10. The belts and zones of Jupiter are permanent enough to be given names as shown here.

1971

JUNE 18
7:07: UT

JUNE 20
8:07 UT

Figure 1-11. A Great Red Spot in the South Tropical Zone of


Jupiter has intrigued astronomers for centuries. Speculation
about the nature of the spot ranged from a floating island to JUNE 21
a swirling column of gas anchored to some prominent feature 13:13 UT
on a solid core. (Photograph: Catalina Observatory,
University of Arizona)

JUNE 22
9:12 UT

Figure 1-12. Jupiter often exhibits white spots that suddenly appear, brighten, JUNE 23
and then fade away. This set of ultraviolet photographs from the International 15:59 UT
Planetary Patrol Program shows the spectacular early growth of a major
disturbance in Jupiter’s South Equatorial Belt. North is at the top. At first, a tiny
spot is barely detectable in ultraviolet light on June 18, but, in less than a week,
the spot is comparable in size to the Great Red Spot. At age two days
(indicated by arrow on the June 20 image), it stands out clearly. At that time,
the disturbance was not yet detectable in red photographs of equal quality. The JUNE 24
images in this particular sequence were obtained at the Mauna Kea and the 11:24 UT
Perth Observatories.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 17

From observations of decimetric radio waves, scientists concluded that Jupiter has a magnetic field and radiation belts similar
to Earth’s belts within which charged particles are trapped and spiral around magnetic field lines. Because of the intensity of
these radiation belts, scientists calculated that Jupiter’s magnetic field is many times stronger than that of Earth.

Saturn Observed from Earth

From pole to pole, Saturn measures 107,000 km (66,490 miles). The planet spins on its axis once in about 10 hours and 40
minutes. Saturn’s equatorial regions rotate slightly faster than other regions, in 10 hours and 14 minutes. This rapid rotation has
flattened the poles and has bulged Saturn’s equatorial diameter to about 12,000 km (7,456 miles) greater than the polar diameter.

Although Saturn’s volume is 755 times that of Earth, its mass is just under 95.2 times Earth’s mass. Saturn is not a solid body
like Earth but is similar to Jupiter, consisting mainly of gas and liquid with possibly a small rocky (liquid) core. Like Jupiter,
Saturn is composed predominantly of hydrogen and helium and is therefore more like the Sun than Earth. However, there is
a striking difference between Jupiter and Saturn – the density of Saturn is only about half the mean density of Jupiter and about
one eighth that of Earth.

Figure 1-13. For over two decades, radio astronomers have


recorded and measured radio waves emitted by Jupiter. These
radio waves are of three main types: thermal, decimetric, and
decametric, each having a different origin. The decimetric
waves show that Jupiter has radiation belts of particles trapped
in the planet’s magnetic field.

Figure 1-14 (below). The planet Saturn and its magnificent


system of rings. (Photograph: Catalina Observatory, University
of Arizona)

Viewed through a telescope from Earth, Saturn (Figure 1-14) is a spectacular sight – a dull, flattened globe surrounded by
bright rings extending to a diameter of 274,200 km (170,400 miles). Faint bands on the globe suggest stripes of cloud
paralleling the planet’s equator. Large darker regions cover each pole, with dark stripes or “belts” and lighter bands between
the belts called “zones.”
18 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The colors of Saturn are softer and more muted than those of Jupiter, varying from pale yellow to brownish yellow. The
contrast between belts and zones is much less striking than on Jupiter.

Observations from Earth have revealed many interesting details. Of course, Saturn is much farther away and, viewed through
a telescope, appears as a disk whose diameter is less than half that of Jupiter. Light colored spots have been observed on
Saturn from time to time, but they do not last as long as those on Jupiter, nor are their colors so intense. No feature of Saturn
compares with Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. In fact, only 10 conspicuous spots have been observed on Saturn during 300 years
of telescopic observations from Earth.

From observations of such spots, astronomers have determined that clouds move around Saturn in 10 hours and 37 minutes
at 40° north and south latitudes, some 23 minutes longer than clouds at the equator. The variations in cloud speeds are
believed to cause turbulence between belts and zones as on Jupiter.

Since no nonthermal radiation had been detected before the Pioneer mission, whether Saturn possessed a magnetic field could
not be proved from radio data. However, because Saturn resembles Jupiter and spins rapidly on its axis, scientists thought it likely
that Saturn has a magnetic field, but a flyby spacecraft would be needed to establish its presence and to measure its strength.

Figure 1-15. The various rings of Saturn and the gaps separating them as observed before Pioneer 11’s flyby of the planet.

The ring system of Saturn (Figure 1-15) is a fascinating spectacle. These rings have divisions that were not thought to be
empty space but regions where there were smaller numbers of particles. The most prominent division – discovered by Cassini
in 1675 – is called Cassini’s division. From Earth-based observations, astronomers believed it was about 6,000 km (3,730
miles) wide. It separates the two main bright rings – A for the outermost and B for the next inner visible ring – that comprise
the bright visible system.

The B ring is the brighter – a golden yellow ring with a brighter rim near its outer circumference which stands out in high
contrast against Cassini’s division. The A ring is silvery, not so bright as the B ring. As discovered by Encke, the A ring also
has a less clearly defined gap about one-fourth the width of Cassini’s division. A faint inner “crepe” ring, or C ring, has a
milky transparency against the blackness of space or, when seen against the globe of the planet, it appears to be a dusky veil.
The rings, being so thin, virtually disappear when seen edge on. These rings were estimated to be only 2 km thick.

Some observers claim to have observed faint rings inside the C ring and outside the A ring – an innermost D ring and an
outermost E ring. Whether rings existed beyond the visible rings was an important consideration to scientists planning
spacecraft trajectories to fly by Saturn.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 19

Much of the evidence concerning Saturn’s rings was conflicting. Both the composition and size of particles in the rings were
disputed for many years. Just before the Pioneer mission, there were many speculative theories about the composition of the
rings. One of these suggested that the rings consisted of ice or ice coated rocks with diameters of at least 5 centimeters (2
inches) but not greater than several meters.

Figure 1-16. The interiors of the giant planets are quite different from the interiors of terrestrial bodies such as Earth and Moon.
20 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Planetary Interiors

Astronomers believe that the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn are very similar to each other but quite different from those of the
terrestrial planets such as Earth (Figure 1-16). It is believed that the giant planets consist of shells of increasing density. The
outermost shell, the hydrogen atmosphere, has some helium and traces of heavier gases such as methane, ammonia, and water
vapor. At depth within this atmosphere, the pressure becomes so great that the hydrogen liquifies. The next lower shell is of
liquid hydrogen. Much deeper, the pressure is so great that liquid hydrogen becomes a special form called liquid metallic
hydrogen, which behaves as a metal and readily conducts heat and electricity. Convective motions within this shell of metallic
hydrogen could be responsible for the magnetic field of Jupiter and would be expected to produce a magnetic field for Saturn
as well. Deep within each planet, highly compressed volatiles – such as water, ammonia, and methane – might surround a
liquid metallic core with a mass perhaps 10 to 20 times greater than that of Earth. Each core might be extremely hot,
exceeding the temperature at the surface of the Sun, because of the tremendous pressures at the planetary cores. Some models
of planetary interiors suggest that, for Saturn, helium might separate from hydrogen to form another shell just above the core.

Planetary Evolution

The planets of the Solar System probably formed four to five billion years ago when hosts of small rocky particles and clouds
of gas were drawn together by gravity. It is believed that as the Sun condensed from a primordial nebula, planets formed from
concentrations of matter at various distances from the Sun. One speculation is that the planets that began early to aggregate
material scooped up more matter than those planets that started later and had less free material to collect. The distribution of
mass in the clouds probably contributed greatly to the resultant masses of the planets.

Photographs taken by spacecraft of the inner planets and their satellites, coupled with geological evidence on Earth and radar
probing of the Venusian surface, show that the crusts of the terrestrial planets are densely cratered by many impacts. This
cratering presents evidence of the final stages of planetary accretion (Figure 1-17). On Earth, subsequent changes to the
surface through internal heat, plate tectonics, and weathering obliterated nearly all evidence of impact cratering. While such
cratering would not, of course, have taken place on the gaseous giants, cratering on their satellites may offer clues about the
distribution of the matter that impacted their surfaces.

Much of the primordial gas was hydrogen, the most common material in the Universe. The Sun, for example, is nearly all
hydrogen, as are the stars. Vast clouds of hydrogen fill the spaces between the stars. Earth and the other inner planets may
have possessed some hydrogen in their atmospheres for a very short time in the scale of planetary development. Energetic
eruptions on the Sun during its early development may have swept hydrogen from the inner Solar System, depleting hydrogen
from the atmospheres of the inner planets. The atmospheres of the outer planets still hold hydrogen. Jupiter and Saturn are
thought to be predominantly hydrogen, and Uranus and Neptune are also believed to contain much of this very light gas.

Knowledge of the complex atmospheres of the outer planets should be helpful in understanding Earth’s early atmosphere.
From studies of dust storms in the thin, dry atmosphere of Mars and circulation patterns in the dense, hot atmosphere of Venus,
meteorologists have gained a better understanding of planetary atmospheres in general. Information about the atmospheres
of the giant planets is expected to add to this body of understanding.

(a) (b)
Figure 1-17. The planets are believed to have accreted from particles that condensed from a primordial solar nebula. Impact craters
on the terrestrial planets are believed to be evidence of the final stages of accretion.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 21

(c) (d)
Figure 1-17 continued
(a) Mercury Crater Kuiper (Mariner 10)
(b) Earth Meteor Crater, Arizona (Photograph: U.S. Geological Survey)
(c) Moon Clavius (Hale Observatories)
(d) Mars Unnamed large crater. Crater below and slightly to the left is comparable in size to Meteor Crater (Mariner 6)

Figure 1-18. Heat in an atmosphere causes air masses to rise; on Earth this produces thunderstorms. As air cools in the upper
atmosphere, it spreads sideways and the rotation of the planet creates swirling masses. The internal heat of Jupiter and Saturn may
be producing huge thunderstorms that appear as spots such as the Great Red Spot.

At some level in the deep atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, the temperature should equal that on Earth. At this level
ammonia crystals become liquid ammonia droplets and water condenses. These droplets would rain from the clouds,
sometimes frozen into snows of water and ammonia. But the drops and snowflakes would never fall to a solid surface as on
Earth. Instead, at the warm lower regions of the deep atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, these droplets would evaporate and
return to the clouds.

Such a circulation pattern, somewhat analogous to those that create violent thunderstorms and tornadoes in Earth’s atmosphere
(Figure 1-18), would probably cause endless violent turbulence in the atmospheres of the giant planets, far more violent than
Earth’s thunderstorms. The electrical discharges that would accompany such turbulence would make Earth’s flashes of
lightning mere sparks by comparison. Thus vertical turmoil in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn may provide examples
of the most violent storms imaginable. Jet circulations in the cloud bands of these giants may be analogous to Earth’s major
atmospheric patterns such as the trade winds, tropical convergences, and jet streams.
22 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

It was long thought that Jupiter and Saturn might be inhospitable planets on which life could not survive. But since there are
probably liquid water droplets in an atmosphere of hydrogen, methane, and ammonia, the atmospheres of the giant planets
may provide the same primordial “soup” from which it has been suggested that life originated on Earth.

Life has been described as an unexplained ability to organize nonliving matter into a continuing system that perceives, reacts
to, and evolves to cope with changes in the physical environment which threaten to destroy its organization. In 1953 a mixture
of hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water vapor components of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn was bombarded by
electrical discharges to simulate the effects of bolts of lightning. As a result, some of the gas molecules combined into more
complex molecules of the type believed to be the building blocks of living systems (Figure 1-19).

At some point in Earth’s history, postulated as being about 3.5 to 4 billion years ago, highly complex, carbon-based molecules
became organized into living systems that were able to replicate themselves to reproduce. It is theorized that from this
beginning through developmental changes in this biological chain, all the living creatures on Earth evolved.

Figure 1-19. By passing electric sparks through a mixture of hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water vapor, scientists have produced
colored amino acids, the building blocks of organic life. The experiment was first performed by Stanley Miller in 1953. These
photographs show an experiment at NASA Ames Research Center’s Chemical Evolution Branch. When methane or acetylene, both
constituents of the Jovian atmosphere, is sparked in a chamber together with ammonia at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, reddish
brown polymeric material is synthesized. Such processes might be responsible for the colors in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn.

But has life evolved in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn? It is known that, on these planets, the temperature may be right
and the gas mixture suitable, and that electrical discharges occur. Although the Pioneer spacecraft were not intended to search
for evidence of such evolutionary processes, such missions could be precursors to more sophisticated ones, perhaps probing
deep into the atmospheres of these intriguing planets.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 23

Mission Objectives

The question of beginnings has always intrigued man. There are no satisfactory answers to how the Solar System condensed
from charged atoms, energetic molecules, and electromagnetic forces of some primeval nebula. Nor is it known how the
various planets evolved in their unique way. And more significant to man how did life originate and flourish on Earth, a planet
so different from all the others?

Earth itself reveals few answers because our planet can be studied only in its recent stages of evolution, a very short period in
the long history of Earth as an astronomical body. From the available information, scientists cannot be sure about Earth’s past,
let alone its future. However, other planets have passed through evolutionary phases at different rates and some, such as the
Moon and Mercury, have “fossilized” their ancient record of planetary evolution. But planets are much too far away to be
studied in great detail by use of telescopes on Earth. Also, observations are limited by the screening and distorting effects of
Earth’s atmosphere (Figure 1-20).

With the planetary probes, astronomers have learned more about the planets during the first years of the space age than in all
the previous centuries of observations from Earth. From this knowledge, man has gained a better understanding of our planet
Earth, its past and its future. Such knowledge and understanding are vital to the survival of all living species, for man must
protect his tenuous environment while adapting to inevitable natural and man made changes.

In many respects, the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn provide models of
what is taking place in the entire Universe. Many processes within these
planets may be similar to those in stars before nuclear reactions occur.
The great turmoil in these processes, particularly those of Jupiter,
coupled with the high speed rotation of these planets, provide an
opportunity for scientists to make comparative studies of jet streams and
weather in quieter planetary atmospheres such as Earth’s.

Each satellite system of the two giant planets represents a lesser solar
system, even, as for Jupiter, to the densities of the satellite bodies which,
like the planets, decrease with distance from the central body. Thus,
their formation may have paralleled the formation of the Solar System.
The outer reaches of the Solar System were relatively unknown before
the Pioneer odyssey to Jupiter and Saturn. Yet these great planets
provide valuable information to help us understand the origins of the
Solar System. Since they are so distant from the Sun, they require that
spacecraft depart Earth’s orbit very fast to reach them in a reasonable
time. For planets more distant than Jupiter, available launch vehicles
cannot boost spacecraft of practical size to the necessary velocities.
However, using the gravitational field and orbital motion of Jupiter in a
slingshot technique, spacecraft cars be hurtled into more energetic paths
to carry them to the more distant planets and to escape from our Solar
System (Figure 1-21).

But there was a danger: within Jupiter’s strong magnetic field, radiation
belts extend outward to great distances. These radiation belts must be
explored to ascertain whether they will damage spacecraft if Jupiter is to
be used as a gravity slingshot to the outer worlds. If these radiation belts
prove to be a serious hazard, the exploration of the outer Solar System
might have to await the development of more energetic propulsion
systems than chemical rockets, perhaps decades hence.

Whether Saturn can be used as a slingshot to reach Uranus and Neptune


is in doubt until scientists can determine what hazards, if any, are
Figure 1-20. Because Earth’s atmosphere selectively presented by the ring particles outside the bright visible rings of the planet.
absorbs certain wavelengths of light, especially in the
infrared and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum,
astronomers can obtain only a partial view of planets
Although scientists have estimated from radio waves emitted by the
from Earth. Jovian radiation belts approximately how many electrons are trapped
24 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

there, they have no way of knowing from Earth how many high energy protons are trapped there protons of the type that would
be especially hazardous to spacecraft. Similarly, scientists cannot determine from Earth whether Saturn’s rings extend far
beyond the visible rings. Only with a spacecraft that could penetrate the radiation belts of Jupiter and, if it survived this journey,
one that could then pass through the ring plane of Saturn near the visible rings, could scientists find out the answers.

Figure 1-21. The gravity of Jupiter (or of Saturn), coupled with its orbital motion, can be used in a slingshot technique to speed
spacecraft to the outer planets. But first NASA had to determine whether a spacecraft could penetrate the environment of Jupiter and
the ring plane of Saturn without being destroyed.

Figure 1-22. A problem with visiting the outer planets is the long time needed for radio waves, traveling at 300,000 km/sec (186,000
mps), to reach Earth from the spacecraft. It takes 92 minutes for a round trip by radio from Earth to Jupiter and back and nearly twice
that for Saturn.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 25

The mission to Jupiter and Saturn posed many technical challenges. It would extend man’s exploration of the Solar System
to a new scale 780 million kilometers (485 million miles) from the Sun to Jupiter and another 650 million kilometers (400
million miles) to Saturn, with a chance to explore interplanetary space far beyond the orbit of Uranus, although not in close
proximity to that planet.

The vast distances to be covered by the spacecraft presented problems of communications, not only because of the weakness
of radio signals, but also because of the time delay in information traveling to Earth from the spacecraft and radio commands
transmitted from Earth to the spacecraft (Figure 1-22). This delay required that controllers on Earth become adept at flying
the spacecraft 90 minutes out of step with the spacecraft itself at Jupiter and 170 minutes out of step at Saturn.

Because of the great distance between the Sun and Jupiter, sunlight at Jupiter’s orbit is only 1/27 as intense as at Earth’s orbit; at
the distance of Saturn, sunlight is only 1/90 as intense (Figure 1-23). Normally, a spacecraft’s electrical power is supplied by
converting sunlight to electricity. But a spacecraft bound for the outer Solar System must carry a nuclear energy source to
generate electricity. Also, since the spacecraft must fly through space for several years before reaching its destination, the
demands for a highly reliable spacecraft were more stringent than in previous missions. Moreover, because of the high velocities
required to reach Jupiter and Saturn, the spacecraft and its components and scientific instruments had to be lightweight.

Additionally, between Mars and Jupiter stretches an asteroid


belt (Figure 1-24) which some scientists thought might
include abrasive dust, perhaps 280 million kilometers (175
million miles) wide, which might seriously damage a
spacecraft crossing it.

Despite these obstacles, the opportunity to explore the outer


Solar System beyond the orbit of Mars beckoned strongly,
challenging the ingenuity of space technologists. The
National Aeronautics and Space Administration accepted
the challenge in a double-pronged exploratory mission: two
spacecraft, Pioneers F and G, were to make the assault.
Their journeys into the unknown to explore the far reaches
of our Solar System began early in 1972 – incredible Figure 1-23. Converting solar power to electricity is not practical
for small spacecraft at the distances of the outer planets. At
journeys to the planets Jupiter and Saturn, two spectacular
Jupiter, sunlight carries only 1/27 the energy it does at Earth, and at
points of light in the night skies of Earth that have held the
Saturn, only 1/90.
attention of mankind for centuries.
26 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

2
The Pioneer Jupiter / Saturn Mission
The Pioneer program began in 1957 when the Advanced Research Projects Agency authorized the launching of small unmanned
spacecraft toward the Moon. In March 1958, Secretary of Defense McElroy announced that the United States Air Force would
launch three such probes in an attempt to place a scientific payload in the vicinity of the Moon. The first successful Pioneer,
launched 0342 EST October 11, 1958, traveled 117,100 km (72,765 miles) from Earth and returned scientific data for 48 hours.
A magnetometer on board yielded evidence of complex geomagnetic effects thousands of kilometers from Earth. Another
Pioneer, launched December 6, 1958, confirmed the existence of two Van Allen belts of trapped energetic particles. The first
spin scan image of any planet, in this case Earth, was obtained by one of these early Pioneers.

In May 1960, about a year after the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was formed, an informal study of solar
probes was started at NASA’s Ames Research Center. This study, led by Charles F. Hall, was to demonstrate the Center’s
potential for managing a space project. From this study, a new concept was presented – a small, simple, long-lived spacecraft
to explore the interplanetary medium inside Earth’s orbit. Smith J. DeFrance, then Center Director, was enthusiastic about
this new space work for the Center. In September 1960, he organized a formal team; in 1961 and 1962, Charles Hall and
others, including scientists, tried to stimulate interest in the concept at NASA Headquarters.

As a result of several presentations made to NASA Headquarters, Edgar M. Cortright, then Deputy Director of the Office of
Space Science, invited Hall and his team to become involved in an interplanetary Pioneer spacecraft. Space Technology
Laboratories, which had been involved in the first Pioneer spacecraft for the Air Force, was chosen to determine the feasibility
of the spin-stabilized spacecraft concept they had evolved for the Interplanetary Pioneer mission; a project approval document
was issued in June 1962. Space Technology Laboratories was selected over other competitors to build the spacecraft. The
Pioneer project moved rapidly ahead for a first launch.

Pioneers 6 through 9, launched by Thor Deltas in 1965 through 1968, explored interplanetary space in a band extending
several million kilometers inside and outside Earth’s orbit. Measurements made by these spacecraft greatly increased our
knowledge of the interplanetary medium and the effects of solar activity upon the Earth. New information was gathered about
the solar wind, solar cosmic rays, the structure of the Sun’s plasma and magnetic fields, the physics of particles in space, and
the nature of solar flares. These spacecraft continued to operate in space for many years. Several of the scientists involved
with the Interplanetary Pioneers had been associated with the first Pioneers and continued with later Pioneer spacecraft
missions to the outer planets, thereby devoting a major part of their professional lives to this program.

During the development of the Interplanetary Pioneers, an important series of meetings was held as part of the activities of
NASA’s Lunar and Planetary Missions Board. In 1967, an Outer Planets Panel associated with this Board and chaired by
James Van Allen of the University of Iowa recommended that plans should be made for low-cost exploratory missions to the
outer planets because such missions would make significant contributions to space science.

In June 1968, the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences stated that Jupiter was probably the most
interesting planet from a physical point of view and that it was at that time technically feasible to send space probes to that
planet. The Board recommended that “Jupiter missions be given high priority, and that two exploratory probes in the Pioneer
class be launched in 1972 or 1973.”

In June 1969, in a further report, the Lunar and Planetary Missions Board emphasized the importance of obtaining more
information about the outer giant planets and recommended that a long-term plan be developed to explore the outer Solar
System. This report endorsed the earlier Space Science Board studies.

In previous years, a number of proposals and scientific papers had been presented about exploration of the outer planets,
including missions to several planets by one spacecraft using gravity assist from some of the planets. Several NASA centers
and private companies had completed studies showing that the gravity field of Jupiter combined with the orbital motion of the
planet could accelerate spacecraft to speeds that would enable them to complete missions to more distant planets in reasonable
times and with useful scientific payloads.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 27

In March 1967, for example, in a paper presented at the Fifth Goddard Memorial Symposium in Washington, D.C., several
types of outer Solar System probes were discussed which could explore interplanetary space beyond the orbit of Mars, the
solar wind and its interaction with deep space, and the Jovian environment. A Jupiter probe of this type would be accelerated
sufficiently by the large planet to allow the spacecraft to escape completely from our Solar System into interstellar space.
Such a mission would provide an opportunity to investigate how far the influence of the solar wind extends into the outer
limits of our Solar System.

About this time, at the Goddard Space Center, a Galactic Jupiter Probe was studied as a means to explore solar, interplanetary,
and galactic phenomena to as great a distance from our Sun as possible. Every 13 months, for a few weeks, the relative
positions of Earth and Jupiter permit a spacecraft to be launched into a Jupiter-bound trajectory with a minimum launch
energy. Launch energies required for the remainder of the 13 months are prohibitive. The study recommended that two
spacecraft be launched to Jupiter in 1972 and 1973 by Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles. As each spacecraft passed through
Jupiter’s gravity field, it would obtain enough additional energy to carry it high above the ecliptic plane or to great distances
from our Sun, hopefully into the interstellar medium. The spacecraft were to be spin stabilized and would have an Earth
oriented antenna. Each spacecraft would receive its power from radioisotope thermoelectric generators.

A mission to Jupiter was officially approved by NASA Headquarters in February 1969, and the program was assigned to the
Planetary Programs Office, Office of Space Science and Applications, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Pioneer
Project Office at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, was selected to manage the project, and TRW Systems Group,
Redondo Beach, California, was awarded a contract to design and fabricate two identical Pioneer spacecraft for the mission.

In a scientific paper delivered to the American Astronautical Society’s June 1969 meeting in Denver, Colorado, Howard F.
Mathews and Charles F. Hall described the first mission to the outer planets as “an exciting era of exploration of the outer
planets.” The initial mission plan was to reach Jupiter. The mission was later extended when it became apparent that, without
any change to its design, one of the spacecraft could reach Saturn.

From a consideration of the time needed to build the spacecraft, to select its scientific experiments, and to build instruments to
perform these experiments, the first feasible launch opportunity for the mission appeared to be during late February through early
March of 1972. The first spacecraft, Pioneer F, was scheduled to meet this launch opportunity. The second spacecraft, Pioneer
G, was to be launched approximately 13 months later, during the 1973 opportunity. Before launch, all NASA spacecraft are given
letter designations that are later changed to number designations after a successful launch – Pioneer F became Pioneer 10 and
Pioneer G became Pioneer 11. The two spacecraft are hereafter referred to by their number designations.

Planning

Planning for the Pioneer mission to Jupiter and Saturn required a close involvement between NASA and industry. The Pioneer
Program was managed at NASA Headquarters, first by Glenn A. Reiff and then by F.D. Kochendorfer.

At Ames Research Center, Charles F. Hall became Manager of the Pioneer Project. After the Pioneer 11 encounter with
Saturn, Richard O. Fimmel became Project Manager. The experiments carried by the spacecraft were the responsibility of
Joseph E. Lepetich, and the spacecraft system was the responsibility of Ralph W. Holtzclaw. The original Flight Operations
Manager was Robert R. Nunamaker, then later Norman J. Martin. For the journey of Pioneer 11 from Jupiter to Saturn and
for the encounter with Saturn, Robert P. Hogan was Flight Director. For the mission beyond Saturn, Robert W. Jackson was
Flight Director and Dr. John H. Wolfe was Project Scientist; after Saturn encounter, Palmer Dyal became Project Scientist.
Other members of the team were: Robert U. Hofstetter, Launch Vehicle and Trajectory Analysis Coordinator; Richard O.
Fimmel, Science Chief; Gilbert A. Schroeder, Spacecraft Chief, and John W. Dyer, Chief, Mission Analysis.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, provided tracking and data
system support with originally Alfred J. Siegmeth as the first Pioneer Tracking and Data Systems Manager and later Richard
B. Miller. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, provided worldwide communications to the various stations of
the Deep Space Network.

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, was responsible for the launch vehicle system, under the management of D.J.
Shramo. John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, was responsible for launch operations, under J.W. Johnson.

At TRW Systems Group, Bernard J. O’Brien was Manager of the Pioneer Project, and William T. Dixon, the Systems
Engineer. At the Atomic Energy Commission (now part of the Department of Energy, where Harold Jaffe manages the Isotope
28 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Flight Systems Office), B. Rock was Project Engineer for the SNAP 19 radioisotope thermoelectric generators built by
Teledyne Isotopes. Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, under the management of Walter L. Natzic, then Thomas S. Goves,
and later Patrick J. Barclay, supported the mission operations system. The responsibilities of the various individuals continue
into the mission beyond Saturn until communications with the spacecraft stop as they move toward the outer fringes of the
Solar System.

Mission Objectives

Initially, the objectives of the Pioneer mission to the giant planets, as defined by NASA, were:

• To explore the interplanetary medium beyond the orbit of Mars.


• To investigate the nature of the asteroid belt from a scientific standpoint and to assess the belt’s possible hazards to
missions to the outer planets.
• To explore the environment of Jupiter.

When the potential of the spacecraft to explore beyond Jupiter became clear, the objectives were extended:

• If the first spacecraft to fly by Jupiter attained its scientific objectives, the second would be targeted to fly by Jupiter in
such a way that the spacecraft would enter a trajectory that would enable it to reach Saturn.
• The second spacecraft would then explore the Saturnian environment.

Ames Research Center was chosen for the mission because of its experience with earlier spin-stabilized spacecraft that are
still exploring our inner Solar System.

The new Pioneer was required to utilize proven spacecraft modules of Pioneers 6 through 9 – it had to be a small, lightweight,
magnetically clean, interplanetary spacecraft. To propel the 250 kg (550 pound) spacecraft to the tremendously high velocity
needed to enter a transfer trajectory to Jupiter, the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle (Figure 2-1) was equipped with an additional
solid propellant stage.

A series of planning meetings was held in the late 1960’s. By early 1970, all scientific experiments had been selected:

• Magnetic fields and plasma in interplanetary space and planetary magnetic fields and trapped radiation in the
magnetospheres of the planets were to be measured.
• Polarimetric measurements and images of Jupiter, possibly Saturn, and of several satellites were to be taken.
• Compositions of charged particle beams in space were to be determined.
• Cosmic rays were to be recorded.
• Planets were to be observed at ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths.
• Asteroids and meteoroids were to be detected and the distribution of meteoric dust observed.
• The intensity and distribution of the zodiacal light were to be observed.
• The radio communication signal was to be used to probe the planetary atmospheres during occultation.
• The radio communications signal would be used to learn about the planetary masses from analysis of doppler residuals.

Principal investigators were selected for all experiments, and contracts were awarded to build the instruments and conduct the
experiments. (Experiments are more fully described in chapter 4.)

Mission Overview

The two spacecraft for this mission were identical. Pioneer 10, the first, blazed the trail. If the asteroid belt or the Jovian
magnetosphere had proved hazardous to Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11 would have been the backup spacecraft. Initially, Pioneer 11
was launched and targeted to follow the path of Pioneer 10. However, the capability existed and it was therefore planned that
Pioneer 11 be retargeted as necessary on its way to Jupiter, based on the results from Pioneer 10’s encounter with Jupiter.
Pioneer 11 was retargeted to encounter Jupiter in a way that provided it with the capability of reaching Saturn.

The launch vehicle boosted each spacecraft in direct ascent, that is, with no parking orbit, to begin the flight to Jupiter at about
51,500 km/hr (32,000 mph). A trip of just under 600 days was the shortest time to Jupiter within the capabilities of the launch
vehicle, and a trip of 748 days was the longest.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 29

Figure 2-1. Missions to the giant planets required that the space- Figure 2-2. Each Pioneer spacecraft was designed for high
craft reach the highest launch velocity yet achieved by any man reliability using space proven components. For the mission to the
made object, over 51,500 km/hr (32,000 mph). An Atlas-Centaur giant planets, TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, California,
launch vehicle was used, equipped with a third upper stage. designed and fabricated the two spacecraft.

Several in-flight maneuvers were to be made during the Pioneer 10 mission to target the spacecraft so that it would arrive at
Jupiter at a time and position best suited to observe the planet and several of its large satellites. For Pioneer 11, the in flight
maneuvers were planned to preserve the option of continuing the mission to Saturn.

Pioneers 10 and 11 were designed to be compatible with the launch vehicle, and their communications systems were designed
to be compatible with the Deep Space Network. Each Pioneer spacecraft had to provide a thermally controlled environment
for its scientific instruments. The spacecraft were also designed to operate reliably in space for many years (Figure 2-2). Each
carried a data system to sample the scientific instruments and to transmit scientific and engineering information to Earth about
the “health” of the spacecraft and its instruments. The spacecraft also had to be capable of being commanded from Earth to
perform their missions and to change the operating modes of onboard equipment (Figure 2-3).

Each Pioneer’s curved path to Jupiter was about 1,000 million kilometers (620 million miles) long, covering about 160°
azimuthally around the Sun as the spacecraft traveled between the orbits of Earth and Jupiter. During each Pioneer’s flight to
Jupiter, Earth traveled almost twice around the Sun, while Jupiter moved only about 1/6 of its solar orbit.

There were options available in selecting the path to Jupiter. Certain arrival dates were unsuitable because the sensors on the
spacecraft would have been unable to perform the desired scientific experiments. Other arrival dates were unsuitable because
they would have clashed with the arrival of another spacecraft, Mariner 10, at Venus or Mercury and would have caused
conflict in the use of the large 64-meter (210-foot) antennas of the Deep Space Network.

Pioneer 10 could have been launched from February 25 to March 20, 1972, to arrive at Jupiter some time between mid-
October 1973 and late July 1974. The arrival of Pioneer had to be timed so that Jupiter and the spacecraft would not appear
too close to the Sun as observed from Earth. About 300-325 days and 700-725 days after launch, the motions of Earth and
the spacecraft put them on opposite sides of the Sun. Thus it was impractical for Pioneer 10 to arrive at Jupiter more than
700 days after launch. During the earlier passage of the spacecraft behind the Sun, just over 300 days after launch while the
spacecraft was en route to Jupiter, communications with the spacecraft were interrupted, but not at a critical period of the
mission. Similar options applied to Pioneer 11 for its launching one year later.
30 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 2-3. Each spacecraft, spin-stabilized in flight, carried various scientific instruments and a large dish shaped antenna that would
allow communications over great distances.

There were critical targeting options at Jupiter: how close should the spacecraft be allowed to approach the planet, how much
should the trajectory be inclined to Jupiter’s equatorial plane, and at what point should the closest approach be relative to
Jupiter’s equatorial plane?

An early decision was made that the encounter trajectory of Pioneer 10 (Figure 2-4) should be one to provide the maximum
information about the radiation environment of Jupiter to the smallest feasible radial distance, even if, by the spacecraft
following such a trajectory, its systems were damaged by radiation and the mission ended at Jupiter. Hence, images of Jupiter
could only be assured before closest approach. An approach trajectory was selected so as to view a well-illuminated planet
before encounter and a partially illuminated crescent planet after the encounter. At first it seemed desirable that occultation
of the spacecraft by Jupiter should be avoided, but an occultation was selected because the information it could provide about
the Jovian atmosphere could not be obtained any other way.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 31

Because Jupiter has radiation belts trapped within its


magnetic field, scientists wanted to know how close a
spacecraft could safely approach Jupiter to take advantage of
the gravity slingshot effect without damage to the
spacecraft’s electronic and optical equipment. Obtaining an
answer to this question was one of the primary objectives of
the first mission to Jupiter.

In July 1971, scientists at a workshop held at the Jet


Propulsion Laboratory defined the Jovian environment in
terms of the best available information. With slight
modifications, this environment was accepted as the design
environment for the Pioneer spacecraft and its scientific
instruments. No one could be sure that this environment,
although based on the very best observations from Earth, was
the actual environment of Jupiter – it was a task of the Pioneer
mission to determine the true Jovian environment. The
environment of Saturn was considered less hazardous than
Jupiter’s, at least from the standpoint of radiation damage.

A tradeoff for the Pioneer mission was that, although a


closer approach to Jupiter would increase the intensity of
Figure 2-4. (a) The first encounter trajectory was chosen to probe
radiation encountered, the spacecraft would fly by Jupiter the radiation belts of Jupiter and to ensure that the spacecraft would
more quickly and would therefore be exposed to radiation have opportunities to obtain images of the terminator, the Great Red
for less time. These two factors, which determine the Spot, and several satellites, and would be occulted by Io as seen
integrated or total radiation dosage, were carefully from Earth. (b) The second encounter trajectory was chosen to
considered before the final flyby path was selected. allow the spacecraft to continue to Saturn after its encounter with
Jupiter, and to provide options to pass inside or outside the rings of
Saturn and to approach Titan, Saturn’s largest satellite.
Generally, the mission was designed so that Pioneer 10
would fly by Jupiter at three times the radius of the planet
(referred to as 3RJ), that is, twice the Jovian radius above the cloud tops. Although it was possible to target Pioneer 10 at a
closer approach, this trajectory was selected because, from available information, the spacecraft might have been seriously
damaged by radiation had it been sent closer to the planet. When the mission was being planned, the ephemeris of Jupiter
was uncertain to about 2,000 km (1,250 miles) but, navigationally, the spacecraft could have been sent to within 3/8 Jupiter
radii above the cloud tops. Navigation to Jupiter is simplified somewhat because the intense gravitational pull of the planet
provides a focusing effect. Such gravity focusing would reduce an aiming error of 1,600 km (1,000 miles) to an encounter
error of 480 km (300 miles).

After the approach was chosen the electronic equipment and science sensors were designed to survive the level of radiation
expected while Pioneer 10 passed through the radiation belts.

The amount of propellant carried on Pioneer 10 permitted the time of arrival at Jupiter to be changed by several days, thereby
allowing mission planners to direct the spacecraft to fly close enough to a Jovian satellite to obtain a spin scan image of it or
to be occulted by a satellite.

Hazards of the Mission

In 1800, Johann Elert Bode called a meeting of astronomers at the Schroter Observatory in Lilienthal, Germany. He asked
them to search for a planet believed to be orbiting between Mars and Jupiter. On January 1, 1801, Giuseppe Piazzi, director
of the Observatory of Palermo, Italy, discovered a small planetary object, 1,022 km (635 miles) in diameter, which he named
Ceres. But soon after it was discovered, Ceres, moving along its orbit, was lost in the glare of the Sun.

The great mathematician Friedrich Gauss developed a theory for determining the orbits of planetary bodies based on a
minimum number of observations. He calculated the orbit of Ceres and showed where it would emerge from the solar glare.
While observing Ceres again in 1802, Heinrich Olbers discovered a second planetary body smaller than Ceres, measuring only
560 km (348 miles) across, which he named Pallas. Other surprising discoveries were made by Karl Ludwig Harding in 1804,
Juno, 226 km (141 miles) in diameter; and by Olbers in 1807, Vesta, 504 km (313 miles) in diameter, the brightest of these
32 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

minor planets. These small planetary bodies (Figure 2-5), called “asteroids” by William Herschel, were regarded as fragments
of a trans-Martian planet.

At least eight other asteroids larger than Juno are known today, but they were not discovered until almost 50 years after the
discovery of the first four. The year 1845 marked the beginning of discoveries of great numbers of minor planets – today
40,000 to 100,000 such bodies are postulated. Many have been discovered photographically (Figure 2-6). Most are found
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, while others stray closer to or farther from the Sun in more elliptical orbits. Several
have approached Earth; one at least approaches the orbit of Mercury and another, that of Saturn (Figure 2-7).

Figure 2-6. Asteroids are shown in thousands by photographs that


reveal them in a time exposure as streaks among the “fixed” stars.
The peculiar white streak on this photograph is an Apollo asteroid
(taken by Eleanor Helin, of the California Institute of Technology,
with the 18-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar, in July 1973). It was
traveling 97,000 km/hr (60,000 mph) in relation to Earth, 13.7 million
kilometers (8.5 million miles) away from Earth. The exposure time
was about 2 hours. It was calculated that the asteroid is 6.5 to 7 km
(4 to 4.5 miles) in diameter. (Photograph: Hale Observatories)

Figure 2-5. Asteroids, or minor planets, are relatively small


bodies on a planetary scale. Here five of the largest asteroids are
shown relative to a map of the western United States.

The orbits of the larger asteroids have been cataloged, but


many of the asteroids move in unknown orbits. Although the
risk of a spacecraft colliding with a charted asteroid was
negligible, there was no way to estimate how many particles
the size of a grain of sand might be present in the asteroid belt
to collide with the spacecraft and seriously damage it.

At the beginning of the Pioneer program, scientists did not


know whether the first Pioneer would survive passage
through the asteroid belt on its way to Jupiter. But before
other missions to the outer planets could be considered, at
least one spacecraft had to penetrate this region and survive
the passage.

Another problem had to be faced by the Pioneer mission


planners: how to supply electrical power to the spacecraft at
such great distances from the Sun. Solar cells were
considered during early planning of the mission because
radioisotope power generators had not then been tested over
the long lifetimes required for such a mission and the Figure 2-7. While asteroids such as Ceres are generally
radiation from them would have a mildly deleterious effect concentrated between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, some stray
to the orbit of Mercury (e.g., Apollo) and to the orbit of Saturn (e.g.,
on certain scientific instruments. However, since sunlight at
Hidalgo). Several have passed relatively near Earth.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 33

Jupiter carries only 1/27 the energy it does at Earth, very large arrays of solar cells would be required. Also, damage to solar
cells by the Jovian radiation belts could be serious. Therefore, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were judged to be a
better engineering choice and were adopted for the Pioneer spacecraft.

Because of the tremendous speed required to carry the spacecraft from Earth to Jupiter, the payload weight was severely
restricted – complicated onboard computing systems would be much too heavy. The Pioneer spacecraft had to be virtually
“flown from the ground,” despite the long delays in communicating over the vast distances to Jupiter, Saturn, and beyond.

Figure 2-8. The Pioneer mission to Jupiter and Saturn consisted of several phases of spacecraft operations near launch,
interplanetary, encounter, and post-encounter. When the first Pioneer survived its encounter with Jupiter and achieved all its scientific
objectives, the second spacecraft was directed into a path that, after encounter with Jupiter, would allow it to rise high above the ecliptic
plane and fly across the Solar System toward Saturn. Both spacecraft reached sufficiently high velocities from their planetary
encounters to fly completely out of the Solar System.

The long time span of the mission and the weight limitations imposed on the spacecraft also required that all spacecraft
components be reliable to an unprecedented degree. Such a level of reliability was achieved by making the spacecraft as
simple as possible, leaving as much as possible of the complexity on the ground. Such vital items as transmitters and receivers
were duplicated, and only systems and components that had been flight proven on other spacecraft were used. Electronic
components were “burned in” before they were assembled on the spacecraft so that components likely to fail were eliminated
before the flight. The success of the mission depended heavily on an advanced command, control and communications system
to link Earth-based computers and human controllers to the spacecraft.

Command, Control, and Communications

Mission Phases – Five distinct phases of command and control characterized the Pioneer mission to Jupiter, Saturn, and
beyond (Figure 2-8). Each phase required different approaches and techniques. Two phases – Earth launch and planetary
encounter – were critical from the standpoint of controllers having to quickly make corrections if any problems arose. For the
other three interplanetary phases – travel from Earth to Jupiter, from Jupiter to Saturn, and beyond planetary encounters – time
was not so critical.

During prelaunch and launch at John F. Kennedy Space Center, launch teams from Ames Research Center and Lewis Research
Center controlled the spacecraft and launch vehicle, respectively. Shortly after the spacecraft separated from the launch
vehicle and entered the transfer orbit to Jupiter, control of the spacecraft was transferred to the Ames flight operations team
at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Figure 2-9). Simultaneously, control of the scientific instruments within the spacecraft was
transferred to the Pioneer Mission Operations Center (PMOC) at Ames Research Center (Figure 2-10). This period of split
control between engineering at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and science at the Pioneer Mission Operations Center was
34 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

arranged to take advantage of the multiple consoles and backup computers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the critical first
days of Pioneer’s epoch making flights to the outer Solar System. Engineer specialists were thereby able to simultaneously
monitor all subsystems, such as telemetry, power, thermal, attitude control, data handling, and command.

As Pioneer 10 moved away from Earth, passing the orbit of the Moon less than 11 hours after liftoff (compared with 3 days
for the Apollo spacecraft to reach the Moon), the monitoring activities changed from assessing the “health” of the spacecraft
and its scientific instruments to readying Pioneer for its momentous voyage to Jupiter and beyond.

Several days after liftoff and after


midcourse maneuvers, with all
equipment and scientific instruments
performing well, the mission crews left
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and John
F. Kennedy Space Center and returned
to Ames Research Center – now the
control center for the entire mission.

As the spacecraft settled into the


interplanetary mode, the task for those
monitoring the Pioneer became one of
watching and waiting, and becoming
familiar with the unavoidable and
increasing delays for signals to travel to
the spacecraft and from the spacecraft to
Earth. During the interplanetary
“cruise” phase, a team of five to seven
scientists with supporting personnel at
the Pioneer Mission Operations Center
monitored the spacecraft. During this
Figure 2-9. From immediately after liftoff until the Pioneer spacecraft had settled down
and had been thoroughly checked out, the major facilities of the Space Flight Operations phase, and in the subsequent flight of
Facility (SFOF) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, were used. Pioneer 11 from Jupiter to Saturn and
beyond the planetary encounters for
both spacecraft, all data received from
the spacecraft were continually
monitored by computers and by
personnel (Figure 2-11) to alert ground
control to any malfunction at the earliest
possible moment an important
consideration if corrective action were
required. A computer at Ames Research
Center monitored telemetry signals on
critical aspects of both spacecraft and
their payloads. If a voltage or
temperature were to rise or fall too
much, or if the status of an instrument
were to change without being
commanded to do so, the computer
sounded an alarm and printed out a
message. Day or night, whenever the
situation required it, the duty operator
immediately notified the cognizant
engineer or scientist, who then resolved
the problem. The mission controllers
Figure 2-10. Afterward, the Pioneer Mission Operations Center at NASA’s Ames were given specific procedures to cover
Research Center assumed control, with continued support from the SFOF.
any emergency and they were advised
where to obtain specialized technical
help if it were needed.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 35

During the long voyage through interplanetary space, data from each scientific instrument were sampled periodically to assess
how well the instrument was functioning, in both a scientific as well as an engineering sense. Controllers, engineers, and
scientists watched for any need to change bias voltages, to adjust the range or sensitivity of instruments, or to switch modes
of operations.

When each Pioneer reached the edge of the Jovian system, quick
action again became the mode of operation but action quite
different from that during the Earth launch phase. Since the
Pioneer spacecraft were then over 800 million kilometers (500
million miles) from Earth, radio signals took 92 minutes for the
round trip to the spacecraft and back. When Pioneer 11 reached
Saturn, the round trip time was 173 minutes. All commands to the
spacecraft had to be planned well in advance because of the delay
in communication.

The most critical piece of equipment in this respect was the


imaging photopolarimeter (IPP) (described in detail in Appendix
1). It required long sequences of commands during the planetary
encounters to best utilize the time when the spacecraft passed by
the planets and their satellites. A sequence of contingency
commands was designed to reconfigure the Pioneer spacecraft
and their instruments should spurious commands be generated by
the accumulation of electrical charges or by intense radiation Figure 2-11. Duty operators kept constant vigil during the
during close approach to Jupiter. many years of flight, observing the performance of the
spacecraft and their scientific instruments.

The fourth phase of command and control,


which applied to Pioneer 11 during its
voyage from Jupiter to Saturn, was a quiet
period as the spacecraft flew high across
the Solar System above the plane of the
ecliptic. During this period, project
personnel were busy planning how the
spacecraft should penetrate Saturn’s ring
plane and were executing maneuvers of
the spacecraft to allow a close look at
Titan, Saturn’s largest satellite, while
ensuring an encounter with Saturn on the
far side of the Sun from Earth early
enough to prevent too much interference
from the Sun itself.

The Pioneers entered the final phase of


command and control as they passed
beyond planetary encounter. As the
Pioneers continue to move farther away,
their received signals become fainter and
fainter and take longer and longer to reach
Earth. Ultimately, somewhere beyond the
orbit of Neptune, contact with these tiny
emissaries from Earth will be lost as both
spacecraft continue to move out of our
Solar System and into interstellar space.

Tracking and Data Acquisition Support –


The NASA Communications Network
operated by Goddard Space Flight Center Figure 2-12. Communications with the two Pioneer spacecraft at unprecedented
provided worldwide ground commun- distances relied on the large antennas of the Deep Space Network, such as this one
at Goldstone in the Mojave Desert of California.
36 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

ications circuits and facilities to link Earth terminals that receive signals from the spacecraft with control centers on the west
coast of the United States.

Extending around the world, the Deep Space Network (operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) provided deep
space tracking, telemetry data acquisition, and commanding capabilities through the 26-meter (85-foot)- and 64-meter (210-
foot)-diameter antennas (Figure 2-12) at Goldstone, California, and in Spain, South Africa (until July 1, 1974), and Australia.
During the later phases of the mission, some of the smaller antennas were enlarged to 34-meter (112-foot)-diameter dishes;
then each of the three stations had one of each size of antenna. As Earth turned on its axis, the controllers maintained contact
with the spacecraft using stations in Goldstone, Australia, Spain, or, for part of the Pioneer 10 mission, South Africa, operating
in turn each day. As each Pioneer spacecraft began to set at one station, the next station acquired it (Figure 2-13), with periods
of overlapping coverage. The encounter with Saturn was timed so that signals from Pioneer were received at both the Madrid
and Goldstone stations during the most critical period of the encounter to reduce the chance that vital data might be lost.

GOLDSTONE SPAIN

34-m ANTENNA AUSTRALIA

Figure 2-13. A worldwide network of antennas and communications ensured that, as Earth turned on its axis, communication was
maintained with the distant spacecraft through the Deep Space Network. Encounter of Pioneer 11 with Saturn was timed so that two
of the large antennas received the data simultaneously from the spacecraft during this critical period.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 37

Telecommunications – Communications over the vast distances to Jupiter and Saturn and beyond presented problems never
before encountered in our space program. Transmitters and antennas on board the spacecraft had to be designed to conserve
power and to be as lightweight as possible. Communications with Earth relied heavily on the extremely sensitive 64-meter
(210-foot) antennas of the Deep Space Network and their advanced receiving systems. During the long interplanetary cruises,
the spacecraft used the 26-meter (85-foot)-diameter antennas when the larger antennas were required for other space missions,
but with the smaller antennas, information had to be transferred from the spacecraft to Earth at a lower rate.

When used to transmit commands to the spacecraft, the 64-meter (210-foot) antennas were so precise in directing their radio
beams and provided such a high radiated power (up to 400,000 W at Goldstone) that these commands could be received by
the spacecraft at greater distances (to several hundred times the distance between Earth and the Sun) than those at which
messages from the spacecraft could be received at Earth (perhaps 40 times the distance between Earth and the Sun).

The spacecraft carried three antennas to receive and to send signals low-gain (omnidirectional), medium-gain, and high-gain
(beamed). It also carried two redundant receivers (for commands from Earth) and two redundant transmitters. The redundancy
provided a backup in the event of a failure during the journeys of the two Pioneers, which lasted more than two decades.

The amount of energy received at Earth from the spacecraft via radio links from Jupiter’s distance is incredibly small: from the
distance of Saturn the amount is smaller still by more than two thirds. A 26-meter (85-foot)-diameter antenna collecting this
energy from the distance of Jupiter would require 17 million years to gather enough energy to light a 7.5 watt night lamp for a
mere one-thousandth of a second. From Saturn it would require nearly 56 million years. Only the sophisticated data coding
and signal modulation techniques, coupled with the large antennas and the advanced, ultra cold receiving devices attached to
them made it possible to receive and record these faint signals from the two Pioneer spacecraft. All the pictures of Jupiter and
Saturn reproduced in this volume, all the information from space to beyond the orbit of Uranus, all the information about the
environment of the two planets, all the engineering data about the spacecraft and their many scientific instruments, all the
tracking of the spacecraft to 2 billion miles from Earth derived from these incredibly weak radio signals. The communications
system of the Pioneer spacecraft and the Deep Space Network are truly great technological achievements.

The rate at which information is passed over a radio link is expressed in bits/second, where a bit is defined as a unit of
information analogous to the dots and dashes of the Morse code. On board each spacecraft, a data handling system converted
science and engineering information into an organized stream of data bits for transmission to Earth. Just as a street lamp
shining at night appears fainter and fainter with increasing distance, radio signals from a spacecraft also become fainter with
distance. Also, natural background radio signals create interference, and even the components of the electronic apparatus
generate radio noise by the movement of electrons within them. As signals become fainter with distance they tend to be
drowned out by this background of noise. Therefore, sophisticated techniques and equipment had to be developed to receive
information from these extreme distances.

As the Pioneer spacecraft moved farther into our Solar System, their signals became weaker and weaker at Earth. The
telemetry system adjusted to these weaker signals by commanding a change in the rate at which information was transmitted
to Earth. Power per unit of information depends on the rate at which the information is sent – the bit rate. To extract
information from a radio signal, the energy level of the signal must exceed the energy of the background noise. As the
spacecraft moved farther and farther away, the bit rate was reduced so that less information was sent per second. Each bit of
information lasted longer and thereby possessed more energy, so that it could be detected above the radio noise.

By reducing the bit rate, controllers compensated for the fainter signals received from the Pioneer spacecraft. When each
spacecraft was on its way to Jupiter, the communication system could pass a maximum of 2,048 bits of information to Earth
every second, using the 26-meter (85-foot) antennas. But at Jupiter, because of the increased distance, the maximum rate was
only 1,024 bits/sec, using the 64-meter (210-foot) antennas. Near Saturn the maximum rate was maintained at 1,024 bits/sec
with the larger antennas because their sensitivity had been improved during the five years the Pioneer spacecraft took to travel
from Jupiter to Saturn. Because of the increased sensitivity of the Deep Space Network, communication between Earth and
the two Pioneers far exceeded original expectations. At Saturn encounter, however, proximity to superior conjunction with
the Sun forced a reduction in the transmitting rate from 1,024 to 512 bits/sec for part of each station’s view period.

A digital telemetry unit onboard each spacecraft prepared the data for transmission in one of 13 data formats at one of 8 bit
rates from 16 to 2,048 bits/sec. An onboard data storage unit was able to store 49,152 data bits for later transmission to Earth.
This storage capability allowed data to be gathered by the spacecraft during important parts of the mission faster than the data
could be sent to Earth. It also stored data when the data could not be transmitted at all, for example, when the spacecraft was
passing behind Jupiter or Saturn. The data were later transmitted in response to ground command.
38 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Command and Control – At Pioneer Mission Operations Control, 222 different commands were used to operate the Pioneer
spacecraft. The command system consisted of two command decoders and a command distribution unit within each
spacecraft. Commands were transmitted from Earth at 1 bit/sec. Since each command message consisted of 22 bits, a
command required 22 sec to transmit.

Each spacecraft also carried a small command memory that could store five commands. When a series of up to five commands
had to be executed in less time than was needed to transmit them from Earth at the command rate, that is, 22 sec for each
command, this memory was used. The command memory with time delay was also used to command the spacecraft when it
was behind Jupiter and Saturn and out of touch with Earth.

A command distribution unit in each spacecraft routed the commands within the spacecraft: 73 commands to operate
experiments and 149 to control subsystems of the spacecraft. Science commands, for example, included those to calibrate
instruments, change modes, move the photopolarimeter telescope, and change instrument data types. Spacecraft commands
included firing the rocket thrusters and changing from one component to another redundant component, selecting different
antennas, and changing the modes of the data-handling subsystems.

Any command not properly verified by the decoder in the spacecraft was not acted on by the command distribution unit. Thus,
precautions were taken against the spacecraft accepting wrong commands. Commands were also verified on Earth by a
computer and by controllers before the commands were transmitted. A Pioneer Encounter Planning Team, headed by the
Project Science Chief, considered many possible contingencies that might arise during the weeks when each Pioneer spacecraft
was passing through the systems of the giant planets, and they developed command sequences to meet such contingencies.

The decision early in the planning stages to “fly” the Pioneer spacecraft by command required constant scrutiny and diligence
on the part of the controllers well in advance of any commanded events taking place on the spacecraft. Indeed, two years of
careful planning preceded the first encounter with Jupiter. All commands (e.g., more than 16,000 total for the first Pioneer)
were meticulously sequenced, checked, and stored in a ground-based computer in 8-hour-long files suitable for transmission
during the time that a ground station would be in contact with the distant spacecraft. Most of these commands were
transmitted to the spacecraft in a four-week period. Personnel at the Pioneer Mission Operations Center, the Ground Data
System, and the Deep Space Network met all the demands of the mission sending commands on time, with the high level of
reliability the mission demanded. This performance was repeated for the encounter of the second Pioneer with Jupiter and,
five years later, with Saturn.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 39

3
The Pioneer Spacecraft
The Pioneer spacecraft were designed to fit within the 3-meter (10-foot) shroud of the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle. Each
spacecraft was stowed with its booms retracted and its antenna dish facing forward (i.e., upward on the launch pad). Basically,
the two spacecraft had to be extremely reliable and light-weight; their communications systems had to transmit information
over extreme distances; and each had nonsolar heat sources to supply electrical power.

Each Pioneer spacecraft comprised several distinct subsystems: a general structure, an attitude control and propulsion system,
a communications system, thermal control system, electrical power system, navigation system, and most important to the
scientific mission, a payload of 11 sophisticated instruments for scientific observations and measurements (Figure 3-1).

To communicate over the great distances from the outer Solar System, the dish shaped antennas of the, spacecraft had to be
pointed toward Earth. The simplest and least expensive way to do this was to spin stabilize each spacecraft, keeping its spin
axis pointing toward Earth (Figure 3-2).

General Structure

From its cone-shaped, medium-gain antenna to the adapter ring that fastened the spacecraft to stage three of its launch vehicle,
each spacecraft was 2.9 meters (9.5 feet) long. The structure of each spacecraft centered around a 36-cm (14-inch)-deep, flat
equipment compartment, the top and bottom of which consisted of regular hexagons with sides 71 cm (28 inches) long.
Attached to one side of this hexagon was a smaller “squashed” hexagon compartment that carried most of the instruments for
the scientific experiments.

A 2.74-meter (9-foot)-diameter, 46-cm (18-inch)-deep parabolic,


dish-shaped, high-gain antenna of aluminum honeycomb sandwich
material was attached to the front of the equipment compartment.
Its feed was topped with a medium-gain antenna mounted on three
struts which projected about 1.2 meters (4 feet) forward. A low-
gain, omnidirectional antenna extended about 0.76 meters (2.5 feet)
behind the equipment compartment mounted below the dish of the
high-gain antenna. Two three-rod trusses, 120° apart, projected
from two sides of the equipment compartment. At their ends,
radioisotope thermoelectric generators were held about 3 meters
(10 feet) from the center of the spacecraft. A third single-rod boom,
120° from the two trusses, projected from the experiment
compartment to position a magnetometer sensor about 6.6 meters
(21.5 feet) from the center of the spacecraft. All three appendages
were extended after launch.

Attitude Control and Propulsion

A starlight sensor on each spacecraft provided a reference on the


bright southern star Canopus, and two sunlight sensors provided a
reference to the Sun. Attitude was calculated from the reference
directions to Earth and the Sun, with the known direction to
Canopus provided as backup. Before Pioneer 11 was launched,
the gain and threshold settings of its starlight sensor were
modified to improve performance on the basis of experience
gained during the first few months of Pioneer 10’s flight.
Figure 3-2. Each Pioneer spacecraft was stabilized by rotation,
as shown in this photograph of a spacecraft under spin test.
40 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

ATTITUDE CONTROL & PROPULSION

GENERAL STRUCTURE

Figure 3-1. A Pioneer outer planet


spacecraft and its major subsystems.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 41

NAVIGATION

THERMAL CONTROL

SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS

ELECTRICAL POWER COMMUNICATIONS


42 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Three pairs of rocket thrusters located near the rim of the antenna dish (Figure 3-3) were used to direct the spin axis of each
spacecraft, to keep it spinning at the desired rate of 4.8 rpm, and to change the velocity of the spacecraft for in-flight
maneuvers. The system’s six thrusters could be commanded to fire steadily or in pulses. Each thruster developed its
propulsive jet from the decomposition of liquid hydrazine by a catalyst in a small rocket thrust chamber to which the nozzles
of the thruster were attached.

Figure 3-3. Thrusters were used to control the spin of the spacecraft, its attitude, and its velocity.

Attitude and velocity were changed by two thruster pairs mounted on opposite sides of the rim of the antenna dish. One
thruster of each pair pointed forward, the other aft. To change attitude, the spin axis of the spacecraft was precessed in the
desired direction by firing two thrusters, one on each side of the antenna dish. One thruster was fired forward, one aft, in brief
pulses of thrust at a precisely timed position in the cycle of rotation of the spacecraft. Each thrust pulse, timed to the rotation,
precessed the spin axis a few tenths of a degree until the desired attitude was reached.

To change velocity, the spin axis was first precessed until it pointed in the direction along which the correcting velocity had
to be applied. Then two thrusters, one on each side of the antenna dish, were fired continuously, both in the same direction
(i.e., forward or aft, to apply the correcting velocity in the desired direction). For example, if the spacecraft’s spin axis were
aligned to its flight path, the correcting velocity would be applied forward to increase its velocity along its flight path and aft
to decrease it.

To adjust the spin rate of the spacecraft, two more pairs of thrusters, also set along the rim of the antenna dish, were used.
These thrusters were aligned tangentially to the antenna rim, one pointing against the direction of spin and the other pointing
with it. Thus, to reduce spin rate, two thrusters were fired against the direction of spin. To increase spin rate, they were fired
with the spin direction.

Communications

Each Pioneer spacecraft, in its journey to explore the giant outer planets, carried two identical receivers. The omnidirectional
and medium-gain antennas operated together and were connected to one receiver, while the high-gain antenna was connected
to the other. The receivers did not operate at the same time, but were interchanged by command or, if there was a period of
inactivity, they were switched automatically. Thus, if a receiver had failed during the mission, the other would have
automatically taken over.

Two radio transmitters, coupled to two traveling wave tube power amplifiers, each produced 8 watts of transmitted power at
S-band. The communications frequency uplink from Earth to the spacecraft was at 2110 MHz, the downlink to Earth, at 2292
MHz. The turn-around ratio, downlink to uplink, was precisely controlled to be compatible with the Deep Space Network.

The data system of each spacecraft converted scientific and engineering information into a specially coded stream of data bits
for transmission by radio to Earth. A convolutional encoder arranged the data in a form that allowed most errors to be detected
and corrected by ground computer at the receiving site of the Deep Space Network. There were 11 data formats divided into
scientific and engineering data groups. Some science formats were optimized for interplanetary data, others for the encounters
with Jupiter and Saturn. Engineering data formats specialized in data handling, electrical, communications, orientation, and
propulsion data. All formats were selected by command from Earth.

Thermal Control

Temperature was held between 23° and 38° C (10° and 100° F) inside the scientific instrument compartment, and at various
other levels elsewhere so that the scientific equipment onboard the spacecraft operated satisfactorily.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 43

The system of temperature control was designed to adapt to the gradual decrease in solar heating as the spacecraft moved away
from the Sun, and to those frigid periods when the spacecraft passed through Earth’s shadow soon after launch and when it
passed through Jupiter’s or Saturn’s shadow during planetary encounters. The temperature control system also controlled the
effects of heat from the third stage engine, atmospheric friction during launch, spacecraft thermoelectric power generators,
and from other equipment.

Equipment compartments were insulated by multilayered blankets of aluminized plastic. Temperature responsive louvers at
the bottom of the equipment compartment, opened by temperature sensitive bimetallic springs, controlled the amount of
excess heat allowed to escape. Other equipment was individually thermally insulated and was warmed as required by electric
heaters and twelve 1-watt radioisotope heaters fueled with plutonium-238.

Electrical Power

Nuclear fueled electric power for the Pioneer spacecraft was


derived from SNAP 19-type radioisotope thermoelectric
generators (RTGs), developed by the Atomic Energy
Commission, similar to those that had been used successfully
to power the Nunbus 3 meteorological satellite. These units
converted heat from the radioactive decay of plutonium-238
into electricity (Figure 3-4).

A THERMOELECTRICS
B FUEL CAPSULE
C REENTRY HEAT SHIELD
D FUEL DISCS
E HEAT RADIATING FINS

Figure 3-4. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs)


provided electrical power in each Pioneer spacecraft.

The RTGs (Figure 3-5) were located on the opposite side of the
spacecraft from the scientific instruments to reduce the effects
of neutron radiation. Mounted in pairs on the end of each
three-rod truss, these four RTGs developed about 155 watts of
electrical power for each spacecraft at launch. By the time
each spacecraft reached Jupiter, the power output had
decreased to about 140 watts. It continued to decrease, but at
a slower rate, as Pioneers 10 and 11 proceeded on their long
journeys after Jupiter encounter. The depletion of power was
not caused by the isotope source itself, but resulted from a
deterioration in the junctions of the thermocouples which
converted heat into electricity within each unit. The RTGs
supplied adequate power for the mission because each
spacecraft needed only 100 watts to operate all its systems and
experiments. The scientific instruments consumed only 25
watts. Any excess power from the RTGs not required by the
spacecraft was dissipated into space in the form of heat by a
shunt resistor radiator. Alternatively, any excess power was
used to charge a battery that automatically supplied additional Figure 3-5. Two RTGs were mounted at the end of each of two
power for short periods when the spacecraft required more than extended booms. Here the effects on the sensitive scientific
the output of the RTGs. instruments of radiation emitted from the nuclear fuel of the
RTGs were much reduced.

Navigation

Throughout the mission, the axis of the high-gain antenna was slightly offset from, but parallel to, the spin axis of each
spacecraft within close tolerances. Except during the early stages of the flight near Earth and when adjustments were made
44 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

to realign the spacecraft to make course corrections, the spin axis of each spacecraft always pointed toward Earth, within a
tolerance of 1°, to provide best communication.

Analysts used the shift in frequency of the radio signals from the spacecraft together with angle tracking by the antennas of the
Deep Space Network to calculate the speed, distance, and direction of the spacecraft from Earth. The motion of the spacecraft
away from Earth caused the frequency of the spacecraft’s signals to drop and their wavelength to increase. This effect, known
as the doppler shift, allowed the speed of the spacecraft to be calculated from measurements of the change in frequency of the
signal received at Earth. As the spacecraft continued outward, angle tracking became less important. Pioneer’s path was
calculated by use of celestial mechanics, and the radio data were used to determine just how close the spacecraft was to its
calculated path. Residual doppler data (i.e., the difference between the doppler shifts expected and those observed) provided
information to keep the trajectory updated and to determine the masses of planetary bodies the Pioneers encountered.

The radio beam to Earth was offset 1° from the spin axis of the spacecraft. As a result, when the spin axis was not directed
exactly toward Earth, uplink signals received by Pioneer from Earth varied in intensity synchronously with the rotation of the
spacecraft. A system on the spacecraft, known as conical scan (CONSCAN) (Figure 3-6), was originally intended to
automatically change the attitude of the spacecraft in a direction that would reduce such variations in signal strength, thereby
returning the spin axis to align with the direction of Earth to within a threshold of 0.3°. However, flight operations personnel
developed and used a direct command technique that allowed them to conserve the gas supply of each spacecraft so that the
mission could be extended beyond the encounters with Jupiter and Saturn.

Figure 3-6. An automated system in each spacecraft CONSCAN


could be used to point the spin axis of Pioneer toward Earth. It
relied on a slight offset in the antenna feed axis to produce a
wobbling signal when the antenna was not pointing exactly
toward Earth. Controllers, directing the spacecraft so that its
antenna drifted past the optimum point, conserved thruster
propellant. CONSCAN could have automatically pointed the
spacecraft’s axis, but with a greater expenditure of propellant.

Scientific Payload

The Pioneer spacecraft, as they moved through interplanetary space on their way to Jupiter and Saturn and beyond, were to
investigate magnetic fields, cosmic rays (fast moving parts of atoms from the Sun and from the Galaxy), the solar wind (a
flow of charged particles from the Sun) and its relationships with the interplanetary magnetic field and cosmic rays, and any
interplanetary dust concentrations they might encounter in the asteroid belt.

At Jupiter and Saturn, Pioneer investigated their planetary systems in four main ways: by measuring particles, fields, and
radiation; by spin scan imaging the planets and some of their satellites; by accurately observing the paths of the spacecraft and
measuring the gravitational forces of the planets and their major satellites acting on them; and by observing changes in the
frequency of the S-band radio signal before and after occultation to study the structures of their ionospheres and atmospheres.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 45

4
Pioneer Science at New Frontiers
The scientific payloads of Pioneers 10 and 11 for the missions to Jupiter and Saturn were virtually identical. They were
designed to gather new knowledge about interplanetary space beyond Mars and about the Jovian and Saturnian systems.
Several of the science instruments measured particles, fields, and radiation, while an imaging photopolarimeter provided spin
scan imaging and analysis of scattered light. Additionally, the radio signals from the spacecraft were used to measure the
gravitational fields of Jupiter and Saturn and their major satellites and to investigate the atmospheres of the two planets. The
Pioneers performed several experiments in interplanetary space between Earth and the target planets and beyond:

• Mapped the magnetic field in interplanetary space.


• Determined how the solar wind changed with distance from the Sun and, during the flight of Pioneer 11 to Saturn, how
the solar wind changed high above the plane of the ecliptic.
• Measured solar and galactic cosmic ray particles.
• Studied interactions among the interplanetary magnetic field, the solar wind, and cosmic rays.
• Searched for a transition region of the heliosphere the region where the influence of the Sun on interplanetary space ends
in two opposite directions.
• Measured the amount of neutral atomic hydrogen in interplanetary space and near Jupiter and Saturn.
• Ascertained the distribution of dust particles in interplanetary space in the outer Solar System.
• Determined the sizes, masses, fluxes, and velocities of small particles in the asteroid belt, thus providing information on
the probability of damage by such particles to spacecraft passing through this region.
• Searched for gravitational radiation impinging on the Solar System by means of its effects on the spacecraft’s velocity as
revealed on the microwave radio link between Earth and the spacecraft.
• Searched for the gravitational effects of large undiscovered objects orbiting the Sun.

Within the systems of Jupiter and Saturn, the Pioneer spacecraft performed a more involved series of experiments:

• Mapped the magnetic fields of the planets – their intensity, direction, and structure.
• Determined how many electrons and protons of various energies were distributed along the trajectory of each spacecraft
through the planetary magnetospheres and, for Saturn, determined how the rings affect the distribution of those particles;
for both planets, determined how the particles were affected by the satellites.
• Searched for auroras in the polar atmospheres of the two planets.
• Obtained information to help interpret the observed characteristics of the two main types of radio waves from Jupiter –
decimetric and decametric.
• Mapped how the two planets interact with the solar wind.
• Measured the temperature of the atmospheres of the two planets and of those of some of their larger satellites.
• Determined the structure of the upper atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, where molecules are ionized by solar radiation
to produce an ionosphere.
• Mapped the thermal structure of the two planets by measuring their infrared radiation, and deduced how much more heat
each planet radiates into space than it absorbs from the Sun.
• Obtained spin scan images of Jupiter and Saturn in two colors during the encounter sequences, and close-up images of
special planetary features (the Great Red Spot and polar regions of Jupiter and the rings of Saturn); made polarimetry
measurements of Jupiter and Saturn and of some of their large satellites.
• Probed the upper atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn with S-band radio waves at occultation; similarly, probed the Galilean
satellite Io to establish whether it has an atmosphere.
• Investigated, at relatively close range, several of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, and Saturn’s largest satellite, Titan, by
spin scan imaging and other measurements to determine their sizes and other physical characteristics.
• Determined the shape of the external gravitational fields of Jupiter and Saturn and inferred the internal mass distribution
and structure of those fields.
• Determined more precisely the masses of Jupiter and its Galilean satellites, and the masses of Saturn, the rings of Saturn,
and of the Saturnian satellites, Rhea, Iapetus, and Titan, by accurate observations of the effects of their gravitational fields
on the motion of the spacecraft.
46 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

• Provided information to calculate with greater precision the orbits and ephemerides of Jupiter and its Galilean satellites,
and of Saturn and Titan.
• Determined the maximum radiation dosage for planning future missions.

Figure 4-1. These. scientific instruments were carried onboard Pioneers 10 and 11; only Pioneer 11 carried the flux gate
magnetometer.

Eleven scientific instruments and experiments (Figure 4-1) were selected from more than 150 proposals submitted to NASA
Headquarters in response to the original request for proposed onboard experiments for the original Pioneer mission to Jupiter.
These instruments, and two non-instrumented experiments, are described in the following subsections. In addition, a high-
field magnetometer was later selected for Pioneer 11 to ensure adequate coverage of higher magnetic field strengths that might
be encountered. This instrument a flux gate magnetometer is also described.

Magnetic Fields

Magnetic fields permeate the plasma of electrically charged particles in interplanetary space as it spreads out from the Sun
across the Solar System. Before the Pioneer missions to Jupiter and Saturn, these effects had been observed and measured
only to the orbit of Mars. Scientists were still uncertain about many specific details concerning the interplanetary medium
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 47

and particularly the configuration of the magnetic field beyond the orbit of Mars to the outer regions of the Solar System. The
outer boundaries of the Sun’s influence were, and still are, vague, and interactions between the plasma and the magnetic fields
of the Solar System and those of the nearby interstellar medium still puzzle scientists. Pioneers 10 and 11 will continue to
explore the regions beyond the orbit of Saturn and will provide data that will help define the transition region of the solar
influence, or the heliopause.

Figure 4-2. The magnetometer, mounted on a long boom to minimize interference from spacecraft magnetic fields, measured magnetic
fields in interplanetary space and near Jupiter and Saturn. The electronics shown at the left of the magnetometer were mounted within
the spacecraft.

Of even greater importance was the objective of measuring the detailed magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn and the
configurations throughout the magnetospheres of these planets.

Principal Investigator: Edward J. Smith, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California


Coinvestigators: David S. Colburn, Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field, California
David S. Colburn, Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field, California
Charles P. Sonett, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona
Douglas E. Jones, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah
Paul J. Coleman, Jr., University of California at Los Angeles
Leverett Davis, Jr., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California

This experiment used a sensitive magnetometer (Figure 4-2) mounted on the tip of a light-weight boom extending 6.6 meters
(21.5 feet) from the center of the spacecraft to reduce the effects of even the minute amount of residual magnetic field of the
spacecraft and to help balance the spin-stabilized Pioneer spacecraft. The helium vector magnetometer measured the fine
structure of the interplanetary field, mapped the fields of Jupiter and Saturn, and provided field measurements to evaluate the
48 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

interaction of the solar wind with the two planets. The magnetometer operated in any one of eight ranges, the lowest of which
covered magnetic field strengths from ±0.01 to ±4.0 gamma (1 gamma = 10-5 gauss); the highest measured field strengths up
to ±140,000 gamma (i.e., ±1.4 gauss). (The surface field of Earth is about 0.5 gauss.) The ranges were selected by ground
command or automatically by the instrument as it reached the limits of a given range.

The sensor for the magnetometer consisted of a cell filled with helium that was excited by electrical discharge at radio
frequencies and by infrared optical pumping. Changes in helium absorption caused by magnetic fields passing through the
magnetometer were measured by an infrared optical detector.

Flux Gate Magnetometer Experiment

Pioneer 11 carried another instrument for measuring the magnetic field, a flux gate magnetometer. This instrument was
designed to measure the intense planetary fields of Jupiter and Saturn and to extend the measuring capability of the spacecraft
beyond the range provided by the helium vector magnetometer. The scientific objectives were to study the intrinsic magnetic
fields of Jupiter and Saturn by carrying out measurements during the closest approach phases of the Pioneer 11 mission. The
knowledge acquired allowed a comprehensive study of the general problem of how planets, including Earth, generate their
magnetic fields, and a determination of the detailed geometry of their inner magnetospheres.

Principal Investigator: Mario H. Acuna, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland
Coinvestigator: Norman F. Ness, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA

Figure 4-3. A flux gate magnetometer (on Pioneer 11 only) was used to measure high intensity magnetic fields in the inner
magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 49

The instrument (Figure 4-3), mounted on the main body of the spacecraft, used two magnetic ring cores that were driven to
saturation by associated oscillators at a frequency of 8 kHz. The presence of an external magnetic field created an imbalance
in the sensors which was detected by four coil windings; the coil windings were oriented perpendicular to each other. The
instrument had a single dynamic range with a compressed response that provided a maximum field measurement capability
of ±10 gauss (0.001 tesla) and a resolution of ±0.05 gauss for external fields of less than 2 gauss.

Interplanetary Solar Wind and Heliosphere

The solar wind consists of streams of protons, electrons, and some helium nuclei emitted by the Sun in all directions. Particles
in the solar wind affect electrical and communication systems on Earth and may give rise to long term weather cycles. This
wind was unknown until spacecraft began to explore space beyond Earth’s magnetosphere less than 20 years ago. Some of
the charged particles of the solar wind become trapped in radiation belts by Earth’s magnetic field. They also account for the
aurora borealis, the aurora australis, and other phenomena that baffled scientists until the radiation belts were discovered by
experiments carried out by Earth satellites.

The behavior of the solar wind at great distances from the Sun could only be conjectured before the flight of Pioneer 10 to
the outer planets. Until the Pioneer 10 mission, instruments on spacecraft had measured the wind only as far as the orbit of
Mars. And virtually nothing was known of the interaction of the solar wind with Jupiter and Saturn or about the effects of
Saturn’s rings on the wind.

Principal Investigator: John H. Wolfe (Jupiter / Saturn), Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field, California
Aaron Barnes (Post Saturn), Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field, California
Coinvestigators: John Mihalov, Ames Research Center, NASA
H. Collard, Ames Research Center, NASA
D.D. McKibbin, Ames Research Center, NASA
Louis A. Frank, University of Iowa, Iowa City
Reimar Lust, Max Planck Institut fur Physik and Astrophysik, Garching, Germany
Devrie Intriligator, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
William C. Feldman, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, New Mexico

The Pioneer spacecraft each carried a plasma analyzer (Figure 4-4) to evaluate the solar wind. It looked toward the Sun
through a hole in each spacecraft’s large dish shaped antenna. The solar wind particles entered the plasma analyzer’s apertures
between two quadraspherical plates where the direction of arrival, the energy (speed), and the number of ions and electrons
making up the solar wind were measured.

A voltage was applied across the quadra-spherical plates in a maximum of 64 steps, at a rate of one step/revolution of the
spacecraft, to count particles in discrete energy ranges. The direction of particle travel was determined from instrument
orientation and by knowing which of the detector targets the particle struck. The instrument had a high-resolution analyzer and
a medium-resolution analyzer to detect particles of different energy levels. The high-resolution analyzer had 26 continuous
channel multipliers (CCM) to measure the number of ions per second with energies from 100 to 8,000 eV. The medium-
resolution analyzer had 5 electrometers to count ions in the energy range from 100 to 18,000 eV and electrons from 1 to 500 eV.

Charged Particle Composition

The charged particle detector (Figure 4-5) had four measuring systems: two particle telescopes that operated in interplanetary
space and two that measured the trapped electrons and protons inside the radiation belts of Jupiter and Saturn.

Principal Investigator: John A. Simpson, University of Chicago


Coinvestigators: Joseph J. O’Gallagher, University of Chicago
Anthony J. Tuzzolino, University of Chicago
R. Bruce McKibben, University of Chicago

During the interplanetary phase of the mission, before and after encounter with Jupiter and Saturn, this experiment sought to
identify the chemical elements hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, and to separate
hydrogen, deuterium, helium-3, and helium-4 in an attempt to differentiate between particles emanating from the Sun and
those from the Galaxy. The instrument was also used to determine how streams of high energy particles from the Sun travel
through interplanetary space.
50 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

(a)

Figure 4-4. A plasma analyzer was aimed toward the Sun


through a hole in the large dish antenna of each Pioneer (b)
spacecraft; its purpose was to map the density and energy of the
solar wind. (a) Diagram of the plasma analyzer. (b) Plasma analyzer ready for installation in the spacecraft.

The main telescope of seven solid state


detectors measured the composition of
cosmic rays from 1 to 500 MeV, and a
three-element, low-energy telescope
measured 0.4 to 10 MeV protons and
helium nuclei.

Two new types of sensors were developed


to cope with the extremely high intensities
of trapped particles in the Jovian
magnetosphere. A solid state electron
current detector, operating below 40° C
(40° F), detected those electrons above 3.3
MeV that generate the decimetric radio
waves emitted by Jupiter and similar
electrons in the radiation environment of
Saturn. A trapped proton detector
contained a foil of thorium, the atoms of
which underwent nuclear fission when hit
by protons with energies above 35 MeV;
Figure 4-5. Charged particle detectors were used to study the life history of cosmic the foil was insensitive to electrons.
rays in the Solar System and to study radiation trapped in the Jovian and Saturnian
magnetospheres.

Energy Spectra of Cosmic Rays

The cosmic ray telescope used for this experiment (Figure 4-6) was designed to monitor solar and galactic cosmic ray particles
and to track the high energy particles from the Sun. The instrument could determine which nuclei of the 10 lightest elements
are the cosmic ray particles. Before saturation by radiation when near Jupiter and Saturn, the cosmic ray telescope measured
high energy particles in the radiation belts of these planets.

Principal Investigator: Frank B. McDonald, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland
Coinvestigators: Kenneth G. McCracken. Minerals Research Laboratory, North Ryde, Australia
William R. Webber, University of New Hampshire, Durham
Edmond C. Roelof, University of New Hampshire, Durham
Bonnard J. Teegarden, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA
James H. Trainor, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 51

The instrument consisted of three three-


element solid state telescopes. The high-
energy telescope measured the flux of
protons between 56 and 800 MeV. The
medium-energy telescope measured
protons with energies between 3 and 22
MeV and identified the 10 elements from
hydrogen to neon. The low-energy
telescope measured the flux of electrons
between 0.05 and 1 MeV and of protons
between 0.05 and 20 MeV.

Figure 4-6. A combination of cosmic ray telescopes was used to determine the
composition of solar and galactic cosmic ray particles and their energy ranges.

Charged Particles in the Jovian and Saturnian Systems and in Interplanetary Space

This instrument (Figure 4-7) measured the intensities,


energy spectra, and angular distribution of energetic
electrons and protons in interplanetary space and near
Jupiter and Saturn. On Pioneer 10, the instrument used an
array of seven miniature Geiger Miiller tubes, collectively
known as a Geiger tube telescope (GTT). Each tube was a
small gas-filled cylinder. When a charged particle passed
through the gas, an electrical pulse was generated by tile
applied voltage. Individual pulses from five of the tubes and
coincident pulses from three combinations of the seven
tubes were transmitted. Protons of energy greater than 5
MeV and electrons with energies greater than 40 keV were
detected.

On Pioneer 11, one Geiger Mirller tube was replaced by a


thin silicon wafer to detect protons in the specific energy
range 0.61 to 3.41 MeV.

Other minor changes were made to improve the


characteristics of the detector system.

Figure 4-7. Other telescopes measured various characteristics of


the electrons and protons in the radiation belts of Jupiter and Saturn.
52 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Principal Investigator: James A. Van Allen, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
Collaborators: Daniel N. Baker, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
Bruce A. Randall, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
Michelle F. Thomsen, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
Roger F. Randall, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
Christopher K. Goertz, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
Davis D. Sentman, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
Mark E. Pesses, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

The trains of pulses were passed through quasi-logarithmic data processors and then to the radio telemetry system of the
spacecraft. Angular distributions were measured as the spacecraft rotated.

Trapped Radiation in the Planetary Systems

Telescopes different from those described in the previous experiment were used in a trapped radiation detector covering a
broader range of electron and proton energies. The greater range of this instrument was obtained through use of several
different kinds of detectors. An unfocused Cerenkov counter detected the light emitted in a particular direction as particles
passed through it. It recorded electrons with energies from 0.5 to 12 MeV. An electron scatter detector was activated by
electrons with energies from 100 to 400 keV.

Principal Investigator: R. Walker Fillius, University of California at San Diego


Coinvestigator: Carl E. McIlwain, University of California at San Diego

The instrument also included a minimum ionizing detector consisting of a solid state diode that measured minimum ionizing
particles (i.e., less than 3 MeV) and protons in the range 50 to 350 MeV. Sensitive materials of different types in two
scintillation detectors distinguished between electrons of less than 5 keV and protons of less than 50 keV. These five different
“eyes” of the instrument (Figure 4-8) provided basic information about several of the fundamental features of the planetary
radiation belts, including the types of particles within the belts, their distribution, energy, and intensity.

Particles and Dust in Space

This investigation consisted of two distinct experiments, using different experimental techniques. One technique detected
light reflected from particles, the other detected particle impacts.

The instrument for the first experiment (Figure 4-9) consisted of four non-imaging telescopes that detected sunlight reflected
from meteoroids passing through their fields of view. Each telescope had a 20-cm (8-inch)-diameter primary mirror,
secondary optics, and a photomultiplier tube that converted light to electrical signals. When a particle passed through the
telescope’s 8° field of view, reflected light from it was detected by the photomultiplier tube. The fields of view for the four
telescopes overlapped slightly. If a particle was “seen” simultaneously by any three of the telescopes, the instrument recorded
an event. From these data, the particle’s distance, trajectory, velocity, and relative size were calculated.

These telescopes could detect objects ranging from distant asteroids (miles in diameter) to minute sunlit particles of dust
several feet from the telescope.

Meteoroid-Asteroid Detector

Principal Investigator: Robert K. Soberman, General Electric Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Coinvestigator: Herbert A. Zook, Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston, Texas

Meteoroid Detector

Principal Investigator: William H. Kinard, Langley Research Center, NASA, Hampton, Virginia
Coinvestigators: Josh M. Alverez, Langley Research Center, NASA
Robert L. O’Neal, Langley Research Center, NASA
Donald H. Humes, Langley Research Center, NASA
Richard E. Turner, Langley Research Center, NASA
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 53

Figure 4-8. A trapped radiation detector measured, over a very broad range, the energies of electrons and protons trapped by the
magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn.

The second experiment consisted of 13 panels, each containing 18 pressurized cells; the cells were filled with a mixture of argon
and nitrogen. These panels had an area of 0.605 m2 (6.5 ft2) and were mounted on the back of the dish antenna (Figure 4-10).

When a cell was punctured by a particle in interplanetary space, it lost gas at a rate proportional to the size of the hole made
in the cell wall. The loss in pressure was detected when the pressure reached a certain threshold value. Cells on Pioneer 10
recorded impacts with particles with masses as small as 1 billionth of a gram; on Pioneer 11 the cell walls were thicker so that
only more massive particles would be detected.

Ultraviolet Photometry

The ultraviolet photometer carried onboard Pioneers 10 and 11 (Figure 4-11) measured the scattering of solar ultraviolet light
or emission of ultraviolet light from interplanetary hydrogen, helium, and dust; from the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn;
and from some of their satellites.

Principal Investigator: Darrell L. Judge, University of Southern California, Los Angeles


Coinvestigator: Robert W. Carlson, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

Radiotelescopes have shown that the Solar System is immersed in and traveling through an interstellar gas cloud of cold,
neutral (uncharged) hydrogen. By measuring the scattering of the Sun’s ultraviolet light in space, the ultraviolet photometer
measured the amount of neutral hydrogen in the heliosphere. The presence of neutral hydrogen (already measured near Earth)
could be the result of the neutralization of fast solar wind hydrogen ions at the boundary of the heliosphere, their conversion
into fast uncharged hydrogen atoms, and diffusion of these neutral atoms back into the heliosphere. Or the source of the
neutral hydrogen might be in the Galaxy itself. The hydrogen penetrates the Solar System as a result of the System’s relative
velocity to the interstellar gas of 73,000 km/hr (45,000 mph).
54 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

(4-9a) (4-9b)

(4-10a)

Figure 4-9. The meteoroid asteroid detector used four


nonimaging telescopes to track and characterize interplanetary
objects ranging from bits of dust to distant large asteroids. (a)
Electronics. (b) Nonimaging telescopes. (c) Instrument
installation.

Figure 4-10. Thirteen panels comprising 234 pressurized cells


were mounted on the back of the spacecraft’s main dish antenna.
(4-9c) When penetrated and depressurized by impact with small
meteoroids, the cells served to measure meteoroid distribution. (a)
Pressure cell panel. (b) Panel electronics. (c) Panel installation.

The experiment was intended to gather data to resolve the origin of the neutral hydrogen and to establish the boundaries of
the heliosphere. From measurements of the interplanetary helium, experimenters hoped to determine also the percentage of
helium in the interstellar medium. This was expected to throw more light on the question of whether the universe originated
in a “big bang,” a single creative event, or is a continuous creation still going on.

The viewing angle of the ultraviolet photometer was fixed so that the spin of the spacecraft caused the photometer to scan the
celestial sphere. When near Jupiter and Saturn, the photometer scanned the medium above the cloud tops. By measuring the
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 55

changes in intensity of ultraviolet light reflected into two photocathodes of the instrument – one measuring radiation at 1216
A, the other at 584 A – the photometer detected light emitted by excited hydrogen and helium atoms, respectively.

Within the systems of Jupiter and Saturn, the instrument measured the scattering of solar ultraviolet light by the atmospheres
of the planets. This scattering provided information about the amount of atomic hydrogen in the upper atmospheres, the
mixing rates within the atmospheres, the amount of helium in each, and therefore the helium / hydrogen ratio within the
atmospheres of these huge gas giants. Virtually all theories of the origin of these two planets and their subsequent
development make assumptions about the amount of helium in the planetary atmospheres, but before the Pioneer missions,
helium had not been identified in the atmosphere of either Jupiter or Saturn.

By measuring changes in the ultraviolet light glow, the instrument checked to see if Jupiter and Saturn had polar auroras at
the times of flyby. Such auroras are bright, glowing regions in the upper atmospheres caused by precipitation of particles
along magnetic field lines from space toward the poles of the planet.

(4-10b)

(4-10c)
(4-11a)

(4-11c)

Figure 4-11. Scattering of ultraviolet light was measured by the


ultraviolet photometer to determine the quantities of hydrogen
and helium in space and on Jupiter and Saturn. (a) Ultraviolet
photometer. (b) Diagram of the photometer. (c) How the
photometer scanned Jupiter.

(4-11b)
56 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Infrared Radiometry

Infrared emissions from Jupiter have been measured successfully from Earth. Maps of the planet at infrared wavelengths
show belts and bands similar to those on photographs of the planet in visible light. But most of Jupiter’s infrared radiation,
and that from Saturn, is emitted at 20 to 40 µm, wavelengths that can be observed effectively only from a spacecraft (because
Earth’s atmosphere readily absorbs them, blocking the 40 µm region entirely). The infrared radiometer was designed to
measure radiation from Jupiter and Saturn at wavelengths of 20 and 40 µm.

Principal Investigator: (Jupiter) Guido Munch, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena


(Saturn) Andrew P. Ingersoll, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena
Coinvestigators: Gerry Neugebauer, California Institute of Technology
Stillman C. Chase, Santa Barbara Research Center, California
Laurence M. Trafton, University of Texas, Austin
Glenn S. Orton, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California

An important question about Jupiter and Saturn is that


concerning their heat balances the balance between the
radiation emitted by each planet and absorbed sunlight.
Observations from Earth had shown that Jupiter is hot
enough to emit more heat than it absorbs. The infrared
radiometer provided a more accurate measurement of the net
heat energy outputs of both Saturn and Jupiter. (The output
from Saturn is even more difficult to ascertain from Earth-
based observations.)

The two-channel radiometer (Figure 4-12) measured infrared


radiation in the wavelength ranges of 14-25 µm and 26-56 µm.
The instrument not only determined the temperature across the
disks of Jupiter and Saturn and its ring system, but also provided
important information to aid in determining the thermal structure
and chemical composition of each planet’s atmosphere.
Figure 4-12. The infrared radiometer measured the amount and
Like the ultraviolet photometer, the infrared radiometer used
distribution of heat energy from Jupiter and Saturn and provided
a fixed telescope that scanned the surface of the planetary
information on temperature distributions in the outer atmospheres.
cloud tops as the spacecraft rotated. Because of the fixed
viewing angle, the infrared instrument could view the planets for only limited times during approach.

Designed with a 7.6-cm (3-inch)-diameter Cassegrain optical system, the instrument relied on 88-element, thin-film,
bimetallic thermopiles to detect infrared radiation. Its field of view was about 725 by 2,400 km (450 by 1,500 miles) on
Jupiter’s cloud surface at about the time of closest approach. Its resolution at the distance of closest approach was about 2,400
km (1,500 miles).

Celestial Mechanics Experiment

Deep space tracking of the Pioneer spacecraft determined their velocities along the Earth-spacecraft line to within a fraction
of a millimeter per second. This information was obtained once per minute during tracking periods.

The two-way doppler tracking data, augmented by optical and radar position data about the planets, were used to determine
the planetary masses from their perturbations on the path of the spacecraft. Computer calculations, based on the spacecraft’s
trajectory and known planetary and satellite orbital characteristics, provided a five-fold reduction, for example, in the
uncertainty of Jupiter’s mass (Figure 4-13). Masses of the four large satellites of Jupiter (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto)
were determined to an accuracy of better than 1%. The experiment also determined the polar flattening of the planets to great
precision (within 0.8 km (0.5 mile) for Jupiter).

The gravitational fields of the planets were determined, and their response to a relatively rapid rotation was used to construct
new models for the planetary interiors. The equations of state for hydrogen, helium, and rocks under high pressures were used
for the models.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 57

Thus, this celestial mechanics experiment made use of the spacecraft itself as a sensitive instrument affected by the
gravitational fields of Jupiter, Saturn, and the large satellites of the two planets.

Principal Investigator: John D. Anderson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California


Coinvestigator: George W. Null, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
William B. Hubbard, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

Figure 4-13. A celestial mechanics experiment determined the


masses of Jupiter and its Galilean satellites (Io, Europa,
Ganymede, and Callisto); of Saturn and its largest satellite, Titan;
and of Saturn’s rings. Also, previous findings about the polar
flattening of Jupiter and Saturn were verified. This diagram
shows the experiment for Jupiter.
Figure 4-14. As the spacecraft flew behind the planets (and Pioneer
10 behind a satellite of Jupiter), radio signals from the spacecraft
Occultation Experiment had to pass through the planetary (and satellite) atmospheres on
their way to Earth. This diagram illustrates how this experiment was
The radio signals from the spacecraft were used in another performed at the encounter of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft with
Jupiter. As the spacecraft flew behind Io and Jupiter, its radio
experiment to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn
signals were modified by the ionosphere and then cut off by the
and the innermost large satellite of Jupiter, Io (Figure 4-14). surface of Io and by the dense atmosphere of Jupiter. Changes in
Passage of each spacecraft’s S-band radio signal through the the radio signals as they passed through the atmospheres of these
atmospheres of the planets when the Pioneers swung behind bodies provided valuable information about atmospheric structures,
them as viewed from Earth directly measured the vertical temperatures, compositions, and charged particles.
structure of their ionospheres and provided information on
the density of the atmospheres to a pressure level of about
1/10 Earth’s atmosphere.

Principal Investigator: Arvydas J. Kliore, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California


Coinvestigators: Gunnar Fjeldbo Lindal, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Dan L. Cain, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Boris L. Seidel, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
S. Ichtiaque Rasool, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.

Similar analyses have been made from Earth using the light of stars occulted by Jupiter, but Pioneer’s S-band signal is a
precisely controlled monochromatic source capable of providing very accurate measurements. Refraction of the radio signal
58 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

provided measurement of the electron


density structure of the ionospheres
and, used in conjunction with infrared
temperature measurements, allowed
inferences to be made about the
hydrogen/ helium ratio in the
atmospheres of each of the two
planets. It was shown, for example,
that the amount of helium in the
atmosphere of Saturn is somewhat
depleted compared with that of
Jupiter. As Pioneer 10 swung behind
Io, a similar experiment resulted in
the discovery of a tenuous
atmosphere on that satellite.

Figure 4-15. A special instrument, the


imaging photopolarimeter, measured the
faint glows in interplanetary space of the
zodiacal light, the Gegenschein (or
counterglow), and integrated starlight.
This same instrument scanned the
planets and satellites to examine their
reflective properties and to provide spin
scan images.
Imaging Photopolarimetry Experiment

The imaging photopolarimeter used in this experiment (Figure 4-15) is described in detail in appendix A. The
photopolarimeter operated in three modes, which differed mainly in their sensitivity and instantaneous fields of view.

Principal Investigator: Tom Gehrels, University of Arizona, Tucson


Coinvestigators: (Jupiter) Charles Blenman, Jr., University of Arizona
Arthur Clements, University of Arizona
Jyrki Hameen Antilla, University of Arizona
Charles E. KenKnight, University of Arizona
William Swindell, University of Arizona
Martin G. Tomasko, University of Arizona
David L. Coffeen, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City
Robert F. Hummer, Santa Barbara Research Center, California
(Zodiacal Light) Jerry Weinberg, Space Astronomy Laboratory
Martha Harmer, Space Astronomy Laboratory, State University of New York, Albany
(Saturn) Charles Blenman, Jr., University of Arizona
James J. Burke, University of Arizona
Lyn R. Doose, University of Arizona
Charles E. KenKnight, University of Arizona
Martin G. Tomasko, University of Arizona
David L. Coffeen, Goddard Institute for Space Studies

The most sensitive operating mode of the instrument was used during the interplanetary phase of Pioneer’s mission to measure
the zodiacal light, Gegenschein (counterglow), and integrated starlight from our Galaxy. This mode was not used during
planetary encounter. The other two modes gathered photometric and polarimetric data on Jupiter and Saturn over a wide range
of phase angles and distances, to provide new knowledge about the shape, size, and refractive index of cloud particles and the
abundance of gas above the clouds. Information was also gathered about the ring system of Saturn and the larger satellites of
the two planets. The photometric mode also provided data that were processed by computer into images of the planets and
some of their satellites and the ring system of Saturn.

The imaging experiment relied on the spin of the spacecraft to sweep a small telescope across the planet being viewed. The
instrument scanned strips of the planet’s surface that were only 0.03° wide, in red and blue light. The strips were then
processed to reconstruct images of the planets.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 59

5
First into the Outer Solar System
An announcement of the experiments that would be carried aboard the Pioneer spacecraft on their missions to Jupiter and
Saturn was a press release addressed to editors in the San Francisco Bay area:

On Thursday, May 7 [1970], the 13 experimenters participating in the first mission to Jupiter will be at
NASA’s Ames Research Center, Mountain View, for a project coordination meeting. The Pioneer . . .
scientific spacecraft . . . are scheduled for launch to the vicinity of Jupiter in 1972 and 1973. At 11:30 a.m.
we will present a review and question and answer session for news media on the mission and experiments.

Several hundred scientists and engineers met in the Main Auditorium at Ames Research Center to plan trajectories to Jupiter.
A tentative launch date in early 1972 had been chosen. Questions raised by scientists in connection with their experiments
were pondered by celestial dynamicists and spacecraft engineers: “The ultraviolet experiment needs to look at the sunlit side
of the planet. It would be important to look at the solar wind outside the ecliptic plane. Could the trajectory to Jupiter provide
for this? Can Pioneer reach the region of space, perhaps 30 to 100 times Earth’s distance from our Sun, where the solar wind
stops? Does 15 times Earth’s distance from the Sun represent the limit of communication with Pioneer?”

These and other questions sparked the first of a series of coordination meetings to plan the Pioneer mission. It was stressed
that one of the prime purposes of the Pioneer mission to the outer planets was to provide information on the environment of
Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, information that would aid scientists in planning more sophisticated spacecraft
for later missions to all the outer planets.

Among matters debated by scientists was whether to have the spacecraft pass over a pole of Jupiter, where the Jovian
atmosphere seemed to be more transparent than over regions nearer the equator. From a path over the planet’s pole, Pioneer
might be able to look deeper than it could over equatorial regions into the 138,000 km (86,000 mile) diameter ball of hydrogen
that Jupiter is. Although considered, the polar passage was rejected for the first Pioneer in favor of an objective to gain as
much information as possible about the radiation belts of Jupiter, which were believed to be concentrated equatorially.

What the effects of nuclear powered, radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) might be on the scientific instruments
carried by Pioneer was discussed. The Pioneers were designed to be as electromagnetically clean as possible so they could
measure very weak magnetic fields in deep space. The radiation from the RTGs could “dirty” the spacecraft with neutrons
and other subatomic particles, thereby making the instruments less sensitive to the space measurements. Representatives of
the Atomic Energy Commission explained how the radiation from the RTGs might be reduced by eliminating impurities from
the radioactive fuel elements and they described ways in which purification techniques were being tested.

At a press conference following the technical meetings, the exploratory and ambitious nature of the mission to the two giant
planets was emphasized. The duration of each of the two flights (Pioneers 10 and 11) would be much greater than that of any
other space project to date. There were many unknowns in the environment between Mars and Jupiter and in close approach
to Jupiter itself. And if the mission were successful enough for one Pioneer spacecraft to continue to Saturn, there were many
unknowns about passage close to that ringed planet. Moreover, as pointed out by Glenn A. Reiff, then Pioneer Program
Manager at NASA Headquarters: “The telecommunications network will be stretched to the limits of its capabilities.”

Charles F. Hall, Project Manager at Ames Research Center, confirmed that the spacecraft design had been completed, and that
construction of the first of the two spacecraft was under way at TRW Systems, Redondo Beach, California. “Experimenters
and staffs are here to discuss the design of the scientific equipment to integrate with the spacecraft and its mission profile.”
Everything was on schedule. He pointed out how the mission schedule was constrained by the launch window the interval of
time during which conditions would be favorable for launching the spacecraft. For Pioneer 10, that window would be open
for only 18 days in 1972.

Almost a year after that first press conference and meeting in May 1970, a similar meeting was held in the Main Auditorium at
TRW Systems. Scientists at the March 1971 meeting reported that the RTGs were generating higher radiation than had been
60 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

expected at the time of the 1970 meeting, but that instruments had been adapted to the more intense radiative environment. Details
of the science experiments showed the wealth of data expected from the mission in space and at the planets. Scientific equipment,
as well as the spacecraft, was being readied on schedule. Because scientists could only make considered guesses about conditions
in the asteroid belt and within the Jovian system, instruments had to be designed with a wide range of capabilities.

Meanwhile, trajectory analysts continued their work. They evaluated various approaches to Jupiter that would be best suited
to Pioneer’s information gathering experiments and that would make the most of the spacecraft’s capabilities, if it survived
the encounter and was still functioning. Targeting so that the spacecraft would be occulted by a satellite of Jupiter during the
encounter would cause its radio signals to Earth to pass through any atmosphere held by the occulting satellite. Changes in
the radio signals as they pass through an atmosphere provide valuable data on the atmosphere’s density and distribution. Io,
one of Jupiter’s Galilean satellites, was the prime candidate for such an experiment because it was known that Io modulated
radio waves from the Jovian system. The other Galilean satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto were also of interest.

On November 16, 1971, Ralph W. Holtzclaw, Space Systems Manager at Ames Research Center, discussed the need to make
the spacecraft reliable for their long mission. “No single component failure can be catastrophic to the mission,” he insisted.
He pointed out that the Pioneer mission was quite different from earlier space missions. Scientists had to spend several years
planning the experiments. Then the spacecraft would operate for 7 or 8 years more in space, possibly even longer. Scientists
were thus being asked, in effect, to dedicate some part of their time for 10 years or more to a single experiment.

All the mission preparations went well. From contract award to the scheduled launch date in early March 1972 was 1 month
less than 2½ years. But the thousands of people upon whom the success of the Pioneer missions to Jupiter and Saturn
depended performed on schedule to meet the critical time of the launch window (Figure 5-1).

Charles F. Hall praised those who had made the program possible:

It is most appropriate to compliment the many dedicated people who have worked so hard to reach this first
goal of the Pioneer . . . mission to Jupiter and to congratulate all for a job well done. I estimate that at the
time of the Pioneer [10] launch, more than 15 million man-hours will have been expended to make this goal
possible. I am sure that you all feel as I do that a successful mission wherein we will be exploring new
frontiers in space will be a just compensation for this large effort and that we are, indeed, a fortunate, select
group which has been given the opportunity to participate in and contribute to the Pioneer . . . mission.

By December 22, 1971, the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle stood ready on Launch Complex 36A at the John F. Kennedy Space
Center, Florida. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft was airlifted from TRW Systems, California, to Florida on January 14, 1972, with
its full complement of scientific instruments, but without its RTGs.

To ensure operational readiness of the spacecraft and its science


instruments for launch, it was tested through a simulated countdown
in Building AO (Figure 5-2). The RTGs were installed and the
spacecraft loaded with propellant. Finally, it was mated to the third
stage of the launch vehicle and encapsulated within a protective nose
shroud for its journey through Earth’s atmosphere. The entire
assembly was then transferred to the launch pad and mated to the
Atlas-Centaur.

When the launch window opened on February 27, 1972, blockhouse


electrical power failed within 59 minutes of the planned liftoff time
of 8:52 p.m. EST. High winds delayed the launch until March 2. On
March 2, 1972, at 8:49 p.m. EST, the Atlas-Centaur lifted from the
launch pad (Figure 5-3) carrying Earth’s first space probe to an outer
planet. The grandeur of the night launch from Cape Kennedy was
enhanced by distant thunder and by lightning flashes on the cloud
tops as the brilliant light of the Atlas engines’ exhaust jets rose
through the clouds.

Figure 5-2. A simulated countdown at Kennedy Space Center thoroughly


tested each spacecraft before launch.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 61

Figure 5-1. Thousands of people contributed to the development and fabrication of the Pioneer spacecraft destined to journey to
Jupiter and Saturn. Their dedication made it possible to meet the tight schedule for the launch windows.
62 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Following the launch, telemetered data poured into the


control centers by radio from the launch vehicle and from the
spacecraft. Any malfunctions would have required
immediate corrective action if the spacecraft and its scientific
payload were to be saved. Pioneer withstood the launch
without ill effect. After 17 minutes of powered flight,
Pioneer 10 had been accelerated to 51,682 km/hr (32,114
mph), almost 11,300 km/hr (7,000 mph) faster than any
previous man-made object. After the Atlas had exhausted its
propellants and dropped behind, the Centaur engines took
over and continued to thrust the Pioneer into space. But the
tiny ball of brilliant white fire began to disappear into the
black void of the night sky – Pioneer 10 soon disappeared, on
its way to Jupiter, and beyond, for it would ultimately escape
the Solar System and journey among the distant stars.

Shortly after separation from the upper stages, the spacecraft


deployed its RTG power units at the end of their two booms,
thereby slowing its rotation rate. Then the third boom, tipped
with a sensitive magnetometer, was slowly extended to its
full length of 5.2 meters (17 feet).

The launch of Pioneer 10 was so accurate that a correction of


only 50.4 km/hr (31.3 mph) to the spacecraft’s velocity was
required. This correction was commanded and took place on
March 7. Pioneer 10 could have reached Jupiter without the
Figure 5-3. At 8:49 p.m. EST, March 2, 1972, Pioneer 10 began its
journey to Jupiter, the first mission to the giant planet, then on toward correction, but it was needed to assure a time of arrival better
the boundaries of our Solar System and into interstellar space. suited to some of the experiments.

After Pioneer 10 separated from its launch vehicle, a sequencer activated the attitude control system to turn the spacecraft
around and orient it for its long voyage so that the big dish antenna pointed toward Earth. Actually, while near Earth, Pioneer
10’s orientation was such that sunlight illuminated it from the side, which caused heating problems for several weeks after
launch. To reduce these temperature problems, the spacecraft was commanded to point slightly away from Earth so that the
shadow of the dish antenna would shield vulnerable parts (such as the battery) from solar heat.

Only 11 hours after launch, Pioneer 10 passed the orbit of the Moon (Figure 5-4).

The plasma analyzer was the only instrument on board


Pioneer 10 designed to look directly at the Sun. Some of the
others could not be pointed sunward without risking serious
damage. In the early stages of the flight, therefore, when the
Sun illuminated the spacecraft from the side, several
instruments were left unenergized and others were suitably
shielded from the Sun. Instruments such as the magnetometer
and charged particle detectors were not affected by sunlight.
They were turned on quickly so they could be calibrated in
flight as they passed through the well known magnetic and
radiation environments surrounding Earth.

Two days after liftoff, the cosmic ray telescope was turned
on; then, sequentially over the next few days, the ultraviolet
photometer, asteroidmeteoroid detector, imaging photopol-
arimeter, and plasma analyzer were turned on. All scientific
Figure 5-4. Only 11 hours after launch, Pioneer 10 passed the
orbit of the Moon, shown in this artist’s conception. Actually, the instruments had been turned on by 10 days after launch.
spacecraft did not pass near the Moon because the Moon was at
another part of its orbit.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 63

Scientists at the Pioneer Mission Operations Center watched each instrument closely by checking telemetry records as
commands were sent to turn each instrument on. The science chief for Pioneer, the cognizant instrument engineer, and the
principal investigator for the appropriate science instrument inspected instrument related data returned from the spacecraft to
look for instrument malfunctions needing corrective action. All went well with Pioneer 10, however, and the science
experiments checked out perfectly. All had survived the stress of the launch.

After a month in space, the performance of Pioneer 10 was still excellent. As Ralph W. Holtzclaw said at the time:

Now that we have had a chance to recover from the emotional trauma of getting Pioneer 10 launched, it is
time to sit down and perform a factual engineering examination of this machine “we” have wrought. As
Pioneer 10 settles into the “cruise” phase of its voyage to Jupiter, many analyses must be made of the live
operation of this vehicle in a space environment to ensure specified performance during the crucial Jupiter
encounter. Preliminary indications are that Pioneer 10 is a good spacecraft and a good mission.

Ninety-seven days after launch, Pioneer 10 had endured about 1/7 of the mission time to Jupiter and had traveled about ¼ the
distance. There had been a few anomalies within the spacecraft, but nothing serious. Experimenters were enthusiastic about
the way equipment had performed. By this time the characteristics of charged particles, interplanetary plasma, and zodiacal
light had been observed in detail.

Project scientists announced to the press some preliminary findings of Pioneer 10 as the spacecraft crossed the orbit of Mars
and moved into unexplored space. Said Charles F. Hall: “This meeting today is to cover the passage of the Pioneer spacecraft
into a new area. By tomorrow we will have crossed a point farther from the Sun than the farthest distance of Mars. From
now on, we will be in a new area of space.”

As it crossed the most distant point of the orbit of Mars, Pioneer became a true pioneer into the unknown. Beyond the orbit
of Mars the solar wind was expected to change dramatically. The spacecraft might be damaged as it passed through the
asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. As Pioneer 10 increased its distance from Earth, its signals became
weaker and weaker and the time required for radio signals to travel between Earth and the spacecraft steadily increased. The
controllers and the scientists were gaining experience in controlling a distant spacecraft, a process that required initiating
commands on Earth now for actions required by Pioneer 10 many minutes later.

The imaging photopolarimeter, the instrument that later in the mission would provide data to build up photographic quality
images of Jupiter and several of its satellites, had been collecting much data on the zodiacal light. The sky, viewed from Earth
on a moonless night (Figure 5-5) away from the glare of city lights, has a very faint glow over its entirety, but the light is
concentrated near the path of the Sun through the celestial sphere, along the constellations of the zodiac. In spring, in the
Northern Hemisphere, the zodiacal light is most easily seen as a cone of light in the western sky after the sky has darkened at
sunset; in autumn, this cone precedes the rising of the Sun in the eastern sky.

Pioneer 10 measured the intensity of the zodiacal light in interplanetary space and, for the first time, investigated away from
Earth a concentration of zodiacal light in a direction away from the Sun. This antisolar concentration is called the
Gegenschein or counterglow. Although the prevailing scientific opinion was that this glow resulted from sunlight scattered
by interplanetary particles, there was some speculation that it might be connected with Earth, possibly a reflection from a tail
of particles streaming away from the Sun. But Pioneer 10 showed that the counterglow still shines as far as Mars and
confirmed that it is not an Earth-related phenomenon.

A further correction was needed to ensure that the spacecraft reach Jupiter at the precise time to observe one of the Galilean
satellites. Said Charles F. Hall:

If we don’t make any further correction to the trajectory, we [the spacecraft] will not be occulted by Io. We
are in error by 14 minutes at the arrival. Our plan is to correct at the end of June or by mid-July. We have
waited this long because there is a pressure on the spacecraft due to light energy from the Sun. We wanted
to allow the spacecraft to coast for a long period of time so we can accurately determine just what this solar
pressure is.

On July 15, 1972, Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to enter the asteroid belt. Since this belt is too thick to fly over
without prohibitively expensive launch vehicles, all missions to the outer planets must fly through it.
64 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 5-5. One of the first scientific tasks of the Pioneer spacecraft was to investigate the zodiacal light, a faint glow visible in dark
Earth skies after sunset and before sunrise.

Based on various analyses, project officials expected a safe


passage, but there was the risk that analyses based on
observations made from Earth could be wrong. Pioneer’s
closest approach to any of the known asteroids, visible by
telescope, was 8.8 million kilometers (5.5 million miles).
One was a 1-km (0.6-mile)-diameter asteroid on August 2
and the other was 24-km (15-mile)-diameter Nike on
December 2, 1972. However, any particle over 0.05 cm (0.02
inches) in diameter could seriously damage the spacecraft.
Impact with such an object could be at a speed 15 times that
of a high powered rifle bullet. Scientists estimated there was
a 90% chance that Pioneer 10 would pass through the belt
undamaged.

Pioneer 10 was 322 million kilometers (200 million miles)


from Earth on September 1, 1972 – then deep in the asteroid
belt and still undamaged (Figure 5-6). At this time it took 36
Figure 5-6. Pioneer also investigated the concentrations of small min for a radio signal to travel from Earth to the spacecraft and
meteoroids in space, especially those within the asteroid belt for a reply to be received at Earth. Ten of the scientific
where a hazard to space flight might have been encountered.
experiments onboard were operating. The remaining
Pioneer found that the number of these bodies varies somewhat
with distance from the Sun, but not entirely as had been expected. experiment the – infrared radiometer – was not needed until the
Pioneer 10, and later Pioneer 11, penetrated the asteroid belt and spacecraft reached Jupiter; nevertheless, the radiometer had
emerged from it undamaged. been turned on monthly to check that it was operating correctly.

In August 1972, several unprecedented storms on the Sun (Figure 5-7) provided Pioneer 10 with a unique opportunity to
measure the solar wind and solar energetic particles at much greater interplanetary distances than ever before. A huge area of
the Sun’s photosphere unexpectedly erupted to produce three enormous storms on August 2 and another on August 7. The
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 65

event on August 7 generated in one hour enough energy to furnish all the electrical power that would be consumed (at the
present rate) in the United States over the next 100 million years.

Effects of the solar storm were severe in Canada, the northern United States, Sweden, and Alaska because the solar wind
warped Earth’s magnetic field and caused magnetic disturbances and blackouts of power and communications.

Pioneer 10’s measurements of the effects of the storms in space were correlated with those from a series of earlier Pioneers
still in orbit around the Sun. These four spacecraft – Pioneers 6, 7, 8 and 9 – were located at different azimuthal positions
from Earth, but at solar distances only slightly different from that of Earth. The Pioneers measured the solar wind and its
magnetic fields as it swept through space (Figure 5-8). Pioneer 9, close to Earth, saw the highest solar wind speeds ever
recorded: 3.6 million km/hr (2.24 million mph). But, in crossing the 214 million kilometers (133 million miles) to Pioneer
10 in just 76 hours, the wind lost about half the velocity it had possessed when close to Earth.

Pioneer 10 measured the enormous temperature equivalent of the solar wind: 2 million degrees K, which is similar to that of
the solar corona itself.

Dr. John Wolfe, Pioneer Project Scientist, explained at the time:

The velocity of the solar wind in the interplanetary medium is dependent on the temperature of the solar
corona, and from a temperature point of view, the solar corona is quite inhomogeneous. Thus, the Sun emits
both fast and slow-moving plasma. The energy density of the solar wind is 100 times that of the
interplanetary magnetic field, so the solar wind drags along and carries the magnetic field with it. This
magnetic field not only screens incoming cosmic rays and prevents those with low energy originating
outside the Solar System from entering into the inner Solar System, but also stops the fast flowing plasmas
from penetrating the slow flowing plasmas.
Because the Sun rotates, a fast solar wind can catch up with a slow solar wind. When the fast and slow
winds interact, they produce a snow plow effect, and steep [magnetic] gradients are produced at the
interface. These gradients scatter incoming cosmic rays. One of the mission objectives of Pioneer 10 is to
check where these cosmic ray scattering regions might fade away, perhaps at 10 to 15 times the distance of
Earth from the Sun, way beyond the orbit of Jupiter.

Because the Sun is the only star we can study at close range, the data from Pioneer 10 are expected to enhance our
understanding of all Sun-like stars.

Halfway through the asteroid belt, Pioneer 10 still proceeded undamaged. It passed unscathed through the two regions of
greatest asteroid density, at 400 million kilometers (250 million miles) and 480 million kilometers (300 million miles) from
the Sun, although sightings of larger asteroid particles appeared to increase in number for about a week near the 400-million-
kilometer (250-million-mile) region.

In February 1973, Pioneer 10 emerged from the asteroid belt, at a distance of 550 million kilometers (340 million miles) from
the Sun, having completed the 435-million-kilometer (270-million-mile), 7-month passage through the belt without incident.
Pioneer 10 showed that the belt apparently contains much less material in small particle sizes than had been anticipated.
Pioneer had opened the way for exploration of the outer Solar System.

As the spacecraft emerged from the asteroid belt, its follow-on companion, Pioneer 11, was being readied for launch at the
Kennedy Space Center. Should Pioneer 10 in any way fail during the rest of its mission to Jupiter or at the planet, Pioneer
11 would be programmed to repeat the failed part of the mission. Otherwise, Pioneer 11 would be retargeted to fly a different
course through the Jovian system and obtain another set of samples of the environment there. If all conditions were favorable,
the path past Jupiter could be arranged so that the second Pioneer would be able to fly across the Solar System to an encounter
with Saturn almost 5 years later.

The first launch window for Pioneer 11 opened at 9:00 p.m. EST on April 5, 1973. During the prelaunch period, severe
thunderstorms at the Florida launch site had delayed preparations. But launch crews made up for the prelaunch delays and
had the spacecraft ready for liftoff at 9:11 p.m. EST on April 5, 1973 (Figure 5-9). The spacecraft separated from the launch
vehicle at 9:26 p.m., as scheduled, but the first few hours of the mission were tense. There was trouble when the RTG booms
should have been deployed to slow the spin of the spacecraft and place the radioactive material of the RTGs as far as possible
from the body of the spacecraft. One of the booms failed to extend fully and the spacecraft continued to spin too fast.
66 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 5-7. In August 1972, an unprecendented event on the Sun


allowed Pioneer 10 a unique opportunity to observe the solar wind
and energetic solar particles. A series of immense flares erupted on
the Sun and sprayed interplanetary space with highly energetic Figure 5-8. Pioneer 10, operating in conjunction with other
particles. (Photo: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Pioneer spacecraft closer to Earth, observed the distribution of the
solar wind from these flares and how its characteristics change
with increasing distance from the Sun.

Thrusters were commanded to fire to vibrate the spacecraft in


an attempt to free the boom. Firing of the thruster did cause
the boom to extend a little farther, but it was not until the
spacecraft was reoriented to prevent excessive solar heating
that the boom extended fully. The spin rate of the spacecraft
then adjusted to its correct value of 4.8 rpm. All systems
were operating correctly on Pioneer 11, as were its scientific
instruments. Pioneer 11 was on its way to the outer giants.

Pioneer 11 repeated the experiments of Pioneer 10 during its


interplanetary cruise. And as had Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11
passed through the asteroid belt without incident. Pioneer 11
was targeted to be closest to Jupiter at 9:21 p.m. PST on
December 2, 1974, about one year after Pioneer 10.
Afterward it would fly on to a September 1979 rendezvous
with Saturn. A much larger spacecraft, Voyager, would
arrive at Saturn many months later. In the meantime, Pioneer
11 would demonstrate whether a spacecraft could safely pass
through the ring plane of Saturn relatively close to the planet.

Meanwhile, Pioneer 10 was fast approaching its encounter


Figure 5-9. Pioneer 11 followed Pioneer 10 toward Jupiter on April
with Jupiter. In early November 1973, controllers entered the
5, 1973. The spacecraft was launched within a few seconds of the most active period connected with Pioneer 10 as they readied
opening of the launch window. This spacecraft was to fly on to the spacecraft for its flyby. Closest approach of Pioneer 10
Saturn after an encounter with Jupiter. to Jupiter was scheduled for early December. By November
6, long range imaging tests began at a distance of 25 million
kilometers (15.5 million miles) – these pictures of Jupiter
were successfully transmitted back to Earth. Pioneer 10
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 67

crossed the orbit of Jupiter’s outermost known satellite, Hades (renamed Sinope), on November 8. By this time, controllers
were beginning to send some 16,000 commands to the spacecraft to direct all the various scientific experiments and the
spacecraft for the 60 day encounter period during which Pioneer would approach to within 130,354 km (81,000 miles) of
Jupiter’s cloud tops on December 3, 1973.

The Pioneer mission had already set an array of records:

• Pioneer 10, the first NASA spacecraft to use all-nuclear electrical power, had traveled farther and faster than any other
man-made object. Its launch speed of 51,682 km/hr (32,114 mph), a record in itself, was soon to be surpassed by its speed
at closest approach to Jupiter of 132,000 km/hr (82,000 mph).
• Pioneer 10 had communicated from distances far greater than ever before, and held promise of communicating over the
immense distance from Uranus’s orbit, nearly 3.2 billion kilometers (2 billion miles) from Earth.
• Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to fly beyond the orbit of Mars, the first to cross the asteroid belt, and would become
the first man-made object to escape our Solar System.

Moreover, the accuracy of control was such that Pioneer 10 was expected to reach its closest approach to Jupiter within one
minute of the planned time: one minute in almost two years of flight. This accuracy was needed to time the crossing of the
orbital plane of Io precisely when the satellite was between Pioneer 10 and Earth, so as to obtain an occultation by Io.

Shifts of scientists watched Pioneer 10 around the clock for several weeks as Pioneer 10 passed through the Jovian system
(Figure 5-10). They included experts on Pioneer’s subsystems and on the scientific instruments, project personnel, and
experimenter personnel; even a trained volunteer (H.H. Dodeck) from Germany’s Helios project was involved.

Figure 5-10. Shifts of people maintained around the clock vigil on the Pioneer spacecraft for the several weeks during each encounter
with Jupiter and Saturn.

By November 29, 1973, with all systems on board the spacecraft functioning perfectly, Pioneer 10 had crossed the orbits of
all seven outermost known satellites of the Jovian system and was readying for its plunge toward the radiation belts and its
close encounter with Jupiter. Dr. Hans Mark, then Director of Ames Research Center, told newsmen gathered in the Main
Auditorium at Ames for the historic Jupiter encounter (Figure 5-11):

This is an unusual event. The planet Jupiter, as you know, is an object that has been the subject of fairly
extensive observation for almost 400 years. Galileo, who looked at the planet through his primitive
telescope in 1610, discovered . . . the four brilliant moons that surround the planet. This observation
68 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

provided, I think, the first really visible proof, as it were, that the Copernican model of the Solar System
wasn’t exactly the way it looks. Jupiter, therefore, served, perhaps, the function of quite profoundly
changing the way we think about the Universe.

Charles F. Hall added: “We are really only twelve generations away from Galileo and his first crude look at the planet. Twelve
generations later, we are actually there measuring many of the characteristics of the planet itself.” (See Figure 5-12.)

Pioneer 10 had, by this time, already passed through the bow shock where Jupiter’s magnetic field affects the solar wind. This
took place about noon on November 16, at a distance of about 108.9 Jupiter radii, or about 6.4 million kilometers (4 million
miles) farther out than had been anticipated. The spacecraft’s crossing of the shock was indicated by an approximate 50%
drop in solar wind speed, as recorded by Pioneer’s instruments. This information, of course, arrived at Earth 45 minutes after
the spacecraft measured the change in velocity. Before Pioneer encountered the shock, the solar wind blew on the spacecraft
at 451 km/sec (280 miles/sec). Immediately after crossing the shock, the spacecraft’s instruments showed that the velocity of
the solar wind had dropped to about 225 km/sec (140 miles/sec), and its temperature rose from about 50,000º to 500,000º K.
The spacecraft itself did not experience this temperature, of course; the highly rarefied plasma, although incredibly hot, had
too little mass per unit volume to transfer significant quantities of heat to the spacecraft.

Figure 5-11. Dr. James C. Fletcher, NASA Administrator at the time of the first encounter of a spacecraft with giant Jupiter, and Dr.
Hans Mark, then Director of Ames Research Center, briefed newsmen and visiting scientists gathered in the Main Auditorium at Ames
Research Center.

A day later, at noon on November 27, 1973, Pioneer 10 crossed the boundary between the shocked solar wind and the magnetic
field of Jupiter – the magnetopause. The distance was 96.4 Jupiter radii. Explained Dr. John Wolfe (see Figure 5-13):

The observation is that this is the point at which the pressure of plasma coming from the Sun, after it has
gone through the shock wave, becomes equal to the pressure of Jupiter’s magnetic field, and the plasma
which is contained within that field. So the solar wind stopped at this point.

Although similar to that of Earth, this environment of Jupiter was discovered by Pioneer to be in some ways quite different.
Near the boundary of Earth’s magnetic field, all that holds off the solar wind is the strength of Earth’s field. But for Jupiter,
Pioneer found much plasma within Jupiter’s magnetic field near the boundary, where it helps to hold off the solar wind. This
additional barrier was found to be about equal to Jupiter’s magnetic field. Pioneer also discovered that the magnetopause was
relatively close to the bow shock.

Pioneer 10’s instruments confirmed what radio astronomers had already postulated about the magnetic field of Jupiter: that it
is inverted relative to that of Earth its magnetic north pole is to the south. The science experiments showed, too, that the
magnetosphere of Jupiter is markedly different from that of Earth, being flattened in its outer regions. This was inferred from
the way Jupiter’s magnetic field lines were stretched out from the planet in the outer regions. The Jovian magnetic field was
also shown to be tilted from the planet’s axis of rotation so that, at any point in space around the planet, the field appears to
move up and down; the disk of the outer magnetosphere wobbles relative to the surrounding space.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 69

As for Pioneer 10, none of its redundant circuits had yet been
needed. So mission planners were optimistic that, even if
some of the spacecraft’s equipment were damaged during
passage through the Jovian environment, there would still be
backup equipment available for the flight beyond Jupiter.

The spacecraft had speeded up slightly over its anticipated


course, however, and would arrive at Jupiter one minute early
because Jupiter turned out to be slightly more massive than
expected; as a result, its gravitational field was slightly
stronger than had been calculated from Earth based
observations.

In the previous 24 days, thousands of commands had been


transmitted to Pioneer 10. During that time, only one ground
data system failed: a computer became overloaded but it
recovered within 2 minutes. By this time, the numbers of
commands were increasing daily from 400 to 2,000 per day
as Pioneer moved toward its closest approach to Jupiter. A
special command sequence was developed to reconfigure the
imaging photopolarimeter regardless of any spurious
command functions that might be activated by the radiation.
Also, a sequence of contingency commands was periodically
transmitted so that the spacecraft could be corrected even Figure 5-12. Twelve generations after Galileo’s first telescopic
before the telemetry signals telling of spurious commands look at Jupiter, we are actually there making measuremetns,
could be received at Earth. commented Charles F. Hall, then Pioneer Project Manager.

During the encounter, only one scientific objective was


missed because of false commands generated by Jupiter’s
intense radiation – the close-in imaging of the satellite Io. The
imaging photopolarimeter responded to spurious commands
10 times, but the reconfiguration countered those commands
so that only the image of Io and a few partial close-ups of
Jupiter were lost.

Pictures of Jupiter had by this time been coming back for


several days, each one built up from a number of scans as the
rotating spacecraft swept the imaging photopolarimeter’s
narrow angle telescope system’s field of view across the disk
of Jupiter. Twelve pictures of Jupiter were received at Earth on
November 26, and many more on subsequent days. Images
were returned in two colors, red and blue, from which a
detailed color picture of the planet could be reconstructed later.

Quick-look pictures from the spacecraft were displayed on


television screens in the Main Auditorium at Ames Research
Center by the Pioneer Image Converter System (PICS). As
the scans of data from the spacecraft arrived, they were
placed alongside each other on the screen as a series of bars
until the complete picture of the planet was assembled.

The PICS was developed by L. Ralph Baker of the University


of Arizona. The system was designed to present a real-time Figure 5-13. Dr. John H. Wolfe, Project Scientist, explained
display of Pioneer spin scan images to allow scientists to observations made by Pioneer 10 as it traversed the Jovian system.
monitor operation of the imaging photopolarimeter during
encounter, and also to provide a video signal so that the images could be displayed to the press and made available to television
networks. Thus, the public was able to view the results of this first flyby of Jupiter as it took place half a billion miles from Earth.
70 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The imaging photopolarimeter scanned the planet in two colors, red and blue. But these colors, although chosen to get best
scientific results from Jupiter, were not sufficient to produce a visually satisfactory image. If the red and blue images from
Pioneer 10 had been simply mixed together, they would have produced a magenta image, quite unlike Jupiter and most
unnatural to the human eye. Instead, the red and blue signals were used to make a synthetic green image so that a normal
three color combination could then be obtained (Figure 5-14).

For this real-time display of images of Jupiter, the Pioneer Program received an EMMY award from the National Academy
of Television Arts and Sciences (Figure 5-15).

The first pictures of Jupiter displayed on the PICS were similar to those taken from Earth because, with the spacecraft far from
the planet, there was little distortion. But as the spacecraft sped toward the Jovian cloud tops, the rapidly changing geometry
made the disk of Jupiter look like a painting of the planet on a rubber sheet that had then been stretched out of shape. Even
so, the visible details (Figure 5-16) held tremendous promise for the time when these close-in pictures could be processed and
corrected by the computers. Later, for the encounter of Pioneer 11 with Jupiter, the PICS was improved to remove some of
the distortion experienced on the Pioneer 10 images. Further modifications were made to cope with the severe geometric
distortions resulting from the Saturn encounter.

By December 2, 1973, the quality of the imaging of Jupiter began to exceed that of the best pictures obtained previously from
Earth. When Pioneer 10 approached to within six Jupiter radii and still functioned well, it had cleared the way for the 1977
Voyager mission. (That was the distance planned as the closest approach for the two Voyager spacecraft. Actually, they
approached somewhat closer during their mission; Voyager 1, for example, passed by Jupiter at 280,000 km (174,000 miles)).

But Pioneer 10 explored still farther down into the hostile environment of Jupiter, to 1.86 Jupiter radii above the cloud tops.
Robert Kraemer, of NASA Headquarters, said: “We can say that we sent Pioneer 10 off to tweak a dragon’s tail, and it did
that and more. It gave it a really good yank and . . . it [Pioneer 10] managed to survive.”

Some spacecraft systems began to show the effect of the Jovian radiation environment. Several of the energetic particle
instruments approached their saturation levels. Two interplanetary cosmic ray detectors saturated a day before closest
encounter. Scientists had planned for this and had provided a special Jovian radiation belt detector, which worked well.
Protons were measured for the first time in the radiation environment of Jupiter. The instrument that measured interplanetary
electrons also saturated on the way in, but again the experimenters were ready with a pair of special detectors for the Jovian
environment to measure electrons and protons close in. All experimenters anxiously watched as telemetered data showed their
detectors climbing toward operating limits. They were relieved to observe the peaks reached and passed, and then the
measured intensities began to drop.

Until noontime of December 3, as Pioneer 10 approached periapsis, its closest approach to the giant, all went well with the
imaging photopolarimeter. Many thousands of commands had been sent successfully. Then, about 10:00 a.m., at a distance
of 9 Jupiter radii, the instrument began to react as though it had received false commands that had upset the imaging sequence.
The problem was quickly overcome by contingency commands, but it occurred again on the way out from Jupiter at about the
same distance from the planet.

Nevertheless, the equipment obtained close-in images of the terminator – the boundary between night and day on the planet
– and of the Great Red Spot. But then Pioneer 10 went behind Jupiter and communication with Earth ceased. Anxiously, the
experimenters waited for signals from the Pioneer spacecraft. Would all the scientific instruments continue working after the
deluge of radiation at closest approach? Lyn R. Doose, one of the imaging experimenter staff at the University of Arizona,
described the drama of the emergence:

We watched the PICS image displayed in real time as the signals came back from the distant planet. A
single bright spot appeared, and then another, until a line gradually built up. We knew we were seeing
sunrise on Jupiter as the PICS image showed a crescent-like shape (see Figure 5-16). We had survived
passage through periapsis: the IPP (imaging photopolarimeter) was still working.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 71

Figure 5-14 (above). A Pioneer Image Converter System (PICS)


allowed scientists and the public to see images of Jupiter almost
as quickly as they were received at Earth. Color images of the
planet were built up for display as they were received at the
Pioneer Mission Operations Center. Not only could scientists
monitor the quality of the imaging experiment data during
encounter, but also the images provided the public with firsthand
views of Jupiter as Pioneer flew by. The PICS produced a
synthetic green image of Jupiter to mix with the blue and red
images returned from the spacecraft, thus providing a reasonable
color rendition also suitable for public television.

Figure 5-15 (right). For the real-time display and release to the media
of the Jupiter images, the Pioneer program received an Emmy Award
from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences.

The following hours produced more unique crescent images of Jupiter as Pioneer 10 headed away from the planet. All other
equipment performed as expected. Ultraviolet and infrared scans and meteoroid dust sampling proceeded according to plan.

Immediately after the close encounter, Robert Kraemer commented:

The mission, by all standards, is written down right now as 100 percent successful. It is very hard to see
how it (Pioneer 10) could have done its job any better. All elements went beyond the project team’s
expectations – getting off to a good launch a couple of years ago, tracking the spacecraft, getting all the data
back, has been just a beautiful effort.
72 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 73

Figure 5-16. Excitement rose as the PICS displayed


images of Jupiter of ever increasing size as Pioneer 10
plunged at high speed toward its closest approach to the
planet. The most dramatic moment was perhaps after
closest approach and after the spacecraft had been
hidden behind Jupiter. PICS began to show a few spots
on the screens, which gradually built up into a very
distorted crescent-shaped Jupiter. “Sunrise on Jupiter,”
exclaimed an experimenter excitedly. “We’ve made it
safely through periapsis.” Subsequent PICS images
were of a crescent Jupiter gradually decreasing in size as
the spacecraft sped away out of the Jovian system.
74 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 75
76 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The spacecraft contractor’s Project Manager from TRW


Systems, B.J. O’Brien, said:

We did see the radiation effects at about the


points we predicted . . . the small
indications of . . . failures . . . were precisely
in those areas we would have predicted,
namely, the power. We feel a little bit like
Professor Higgins in Pygmalion who said,
“We did it.”

Project Science Chief, Richard O. Fimmel, commented:


“This has been the most exciting day of my life!” Many of
the principal investigators agreed wholeheartedly.

Pioneer 10 did what it was supposed to do: determine


whether spacecraft could explore Jupiter despite the hazards
of the Jovian environment. Pioneer 10 measured the severity
of Jupiter’s environment and provided enough new data to
whet our appetites for further exploration of the giant planets
of the Solar System.

Afterward, Pioneer 10 headed for the outer reaches of the


Solar System. It would cross the orbit of Saturn in 1976 and
that of Uranus in 1979. By 1990, the spacecraft will cross
the orbit of Pluto and then continue at over 40,000 km/hr
(25,000 mph) into interstellar space. On its way out of our
Solar System, Pioneer 10 will gather additional information
about the behavior of the solar wind at extreme distances
from the Sun.

Meanwhile, Pioneer 11 had been following Pioneer 10 on its


way to a rendezvous with Jupiter. On April 11, 1973, the
course of the spacecraft was changed slightly by an Earth-line
velocity change maneuver. This correction aimed Pioneer 11
to pass to the left of Jupiter as viewed from Earth and about
20,000 km (12,400 miles) above the cloud tops. This aiming
point was chosen to provide several flyby options, including
a continued journey beyond Jupiter to Saturn, the choice of
option to be made later in the mission by another maneuver.

With the spacecraft 11 million kilometers (7 million miles)


along its way, the solar wind and cosmic ray instruments
were sending valuable data about the interplanetary
medium.

The trajectories of Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 as seen from


the celestial north pole projected onto the ecliptic plane are
shown in Figure 5-17 (drawn to two scales). During
Figure 5-17. Sun centered trajectories of Pioneer 10 and 11. (a)
encounter with Jupiter, the flyby trajectory was such that the Time marks along each trajectory and on the orbits of the planets (to
speed of Pioneer 11 would be almost doubled. The transfer Uranus) represent the positions at one-year intervals. (b) The Solar
of energy from Jupiter to the spacecraft boosted the System is shown on a smaller scale. The paths of the two Pioneer
spacecraft’s speed just as effectively as a large rocket engine spacecraft are drawn beyond the orbit of Pluto. The planet’s
and flung Pioneer 11 toward Saturn. Pioneer 11’s trajectory positions are shown here at five-year intervals. Closest approaches
of Pioneer 11 to the outermost planets are: Uranus (6.2 AU) in 1985,
from Jupiter to Saturn was about three times longer than its
Neptune (12.2 AU) in 1989, and Pluto (17.0 AU) in 1985. (An
path from the Earth to Jupiter. Along that trajectory to astronomical unit is Earth’s mean distance from the Sun.)
Saturn, Pioneer 11 would fly high above the plane of the
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 77

ecliptic, reaching a height of 160 million kilometers (100 million miles) in the early part of 1976. Pioneer 11 would be the
first spacecraft to probe deep space far from the ecliptic plane.

Pioneer 11 passed safely through the asteroid belt on March 20, 1974. The experiments on Pioneer 11 confirmed the findings
of Pioneer 10 about the numbers of particles in the asteroid belt. As the second spacecraft traveled from Earth’s orbit outward
in the Solar System, the smallest particles (0.001 mm) detected by the spacecraft’s instruments appeared to decline in number.
Somewhat larger particles (0.01 to 0.1 mm) seemed to be evenly distributed all the way from Earth’s orbit through the asteroid
belt itself, with no increase within the belt. Still larger particles (0.1 to 1.0 mm) were found to be three times more numerous
in the center of the belt as they are near Earth.

The modified meteoroid impact detector instrument on board Pioneer 11 reported some findings that were different from those
of Pioneer 10. The walls of the gas cells of the detector panels mounted behind the dish antenna were thicker on the Pioneer
11 instrument than on that of Pioneer 10. Because of the thicker cell walls, more massive particles were required to penetrate
the walls on impact. Therefore, only particles from 0.02 to 0.1 mm in diameter (100 millionths to one millionth of a gram)
would be recorded.

For such particles, about half as many more gas cell penetrations were found near Earth by Pioneer 11 than by Pioneer 10,
which seemed to suggest that about equal numbers of small and large particles were present. However, between 180 million
and 344 million kilometers (112 million and 214 million miles) from the Sun, Pioneer 11 encountered virtually no larger
particles – its detector recorded only one penetration. In the asteroid belt, the larger particles appeared again, but only about
one-sixth as many as in the total range measured by Pioneer 10. This appears to mean that, in the asteroid belt, smaller
particles, 0.01 to 0.1 mm, are three times more common than larger particles.

Between Earth and the outer edge of the asteroid belt, Pioneer 11 counted 20 penetrations, seven of them while the spacecraft
was within the belt. The larger asteroidal particles, measured by the asteroid meteoroid telescope, were mostly in the size
range of 0.1 to 1.0 mm in diameter, one-millionth to one-thousandth of a gram. A few of the particles seen by Pioneer 10
were as large as 10 to 20 cm (4 to 8 inches). Analysis of the Pioneer 10 data suggested that there are almost three times more
large particles inside the asteroid belt as between Earth and the belt. The data from Pioneer 11 confirmed this finding.

Particles in the center of the belt, which orbit the Sun at about 61,200 km/hr (38,000 mph), would penetrate 1 cm thick
aluminum, even if the particle weighed only 0.001 gram. But most of the particles seen by Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 were
smaller, and the total number of such particles was found to be far lower than had been predicted before the Pioneer mission.
Although the belt contains quite large bodies as well as tiny dust particles, dangerous concentrations of high-velocity dust
particles, which would be hazardous to spacecraft, were not encountered by the two Pioneer spacecraft. This finding was
confirmed when two much larger Voyager spacecraft crossed the belt in subsequent years on their way to Jupiter and Saturn.

Just after Pioneer 11 emerged from the asteroid belt, its trajectory was modified by command from Earth. On April 19, 1974,
thrusters on the spacecraft were commanded to add another 63.7 m/sec (210.2 ft/sec) to the spacecraft’s velocity, thereby
correcting the aiming point at Jupiter to 43,000 km (26,725 miles) above the cloud tops. The main mission of Pioneer 11 at
Jupiter was to penetrate deeper into the radiation belts. The inner radiation belt of the planet could easily destroy the electronics
onboard the spacecraft if the intensity of particles continued to increase beyond the maximum measured by Pioneer 10 at its
closest approach. (The closest approach of Pioneer 10 was 2.86 Jovian radii, that is, 132,252 km (82,000 miles) above the cloud
tops.) Pioneer 11 was directed to approach to less than one-third the distance of Pioneer 10, from which distance it could make
unique observations of both Jupiter and its environment. The close approach also allowed the spacecraft to be accelerated by
Jupiter to a velocity 55 times that of the muzzle velocity of a high speed rifle bullet – 173,000 km/hr (108,000 mph) – so that
it would be carried across the Solar System some 2.4 billion kilometers (1.5 billion miles) to Saturn.

Meanwhile, as Pioneer 11 cruised toward Jupiter, interest in this giant planet, sparked by the findings of Pioneer 10, was
producing new discoveries from Earth-based observations.

Charles Kowal, a research assistant in astronomy at California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, developed a new technique
to search for small objects near Jupiter. Using the Palomar Schmidt telescope’s enormous light gathering power, a special
screen to mask the glare of Jupiter, and photographic plates baked in nitrogen gas to increase their sensitivity, Kowal
discovered a thirteenth satellite of Jupiter in September 1974. A fourteenth satellite was discovered a year later while Pioneer
11 was on its way to Saturn. These satellites were too small to be seen by the imaging systems of the Pioneer spacecraft.
78 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 5-19. The encounter trajectories of Pioneers 10 and 11 with


Figure 5-18. Pioneer 10 and 11 encounters with Jupiter as viewed Jupiter as viewed from the celestial north pole. Pioneer 10 swung
from Earth. The hour time marks show the locations of the around Jupiter in a counterclockwise direction, but Pioneer 11
spacecraft relative to the periapsis target point, that is, the closest moved around along a clockwise course. Jupiter rotates
approach of each spacecraft to Jupiter. counterclockwise in this view. The numbers alongside each
trajectory show the time (in hours) before and after closest approach.

The trajectory of Pioneer 11 had been selected so that the spacecraft would approach Jupiter on the left side (as viewed from
Earth) and in the planet’s southern hemisphere, and then hurtle almost straight up through the intense radiation belts, thereby
reducing the time it would be exposed to the radiation (Figure 5-18). B.J. O’Brien, Pioneer Project Manager at TRW Systems,
where the Pioneer spacecraft were built, told the press just before encounter that the total radiation dosage Pioneer would be
expected to receive would be less than that of Pioneer 10’s, “. . . and we’re betting that’s what counts.”

The problem was that the billions of electrons and protons trapped in Jupiter’s magnetic field bombarded the spacecraft. Some
of those particles traveled fast enough to dislodge electrons from atoms, and even whole atoms from molecules, within the
spacecraft. When this happened to a critical part of the spacecraft’s electronics, spurious information could be generated or
the electronics would fail completely. Explained O’Brien:

Pioneer 10 passed along the magnetic equator, where most energetic particles appear to concentrate. The
spacecraft took lots of hits over a [relatively] long time. But Pioneer 11 will go in slowly, slip through the
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 79

area of maximum radiation fast, and come out in the clear pretty quickly. The radiation counts will probably
soar at a pace that will scare us half to death just before closest approach, but the total dose Pioneer 11
receives won’t be as great as Pioneer 10 took because the time [of exposure] will be much shorter.

Pioneer 11 will be out of communication with Earth at the time of closest approach. It will have gone
behind Jupiter at 9:01 p.m., 21 minutes before closest approach. Its onboard magnetic memory will be
recording data for later transmission to Earth. Then we sit and wait . . . and fidget. At 9:44 p.m., 22 minutes
after closest approach, Pioneer 11 will come out from behind Jupiter. But we have another 40 minutes wait
before we hear anything because of the signal’s travel time from the distance of Jupiter to the Earth. So, at
10:24 p.m., if Pioneer is still working, we’ll hear that we made it.

The close path by Jupiter also provided a bonus in that it permitted images of the polar regions of the giant planet to be
obtained by the spin scan imaging system and the infrared radiometer, thereby providing views of Jupiter that could never be
obtained by observation from Earth. Thus, Pioneer 11 was able to satisfy the need for a polar view of Jupiter as expressed at
the first science meeting in 1970. And, unlike Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11 was directed to fly by Jupiter against the direction of
the planet’s rotation (Figure 5-19).

After passing in front of Jupiter as the planet moved along its orbit around the Sun, the spacecraft then went around the dark side
of Jupiter and completed a circuit of the planet by crossing the spacecraft’s own incoming trajectory before heading for Saturn.

The PICS images of Jupiter returned from the spacecraft (Figure 5-20) were displayed live to thousands of interested people
over cable television in the San Francisco Bay area. During the encounter, several public halls, to which the television images
and a running commentary by Apollo 15 astronaut Colonel A. Worden were relayed, were jammed for many hours.

Before its closest approach to Jupiter, the spacecraft’s view of the planet showed the terminator near the left-hand edge of the
disk. After closest approach, the spacecraft’s view showed the terminator very near the upper right-hand edge of the disk.
The south polar regions were seen before closest approach and the north polar regions afterward.

As with Pioneer 10, there were five phases to the encounter. The first lasted about 3 weeks, starting November 3, 1974, when
the spacecraft passed from interplanetary space into the Jovian system, and covered the distance from about 24 million to 10
million kilometers (15 million to 6 million miles) from the planet.

The second phase covered entry of Pioneer 11 into the inner system, after penetration of the bow shock in the solar wind
created by the interaction of Jupiter’s magnetic field with the wind, on November 25, 1974, at 10:00 p.m. PST. At 9:00 p.m.
PST on November 26, the spacecraft entered the magnetosphere where the magnetic field of Jupiter prevents the solar wind
from approaching close to the planet. Pioneer 11 was by that time 7 million kilometers (4.3 million miles) from Jupiter. But
at 10:20 a.m. PST on November 27, at a distance of 6.6 million kilometers (4.1 million miles), Pioneer 11 was overtaken by
the inward moving bow shock and was outside the magnetosphere for 5.5 hr before it crossed the bow shock again and
returned to the magnetosphere at a distance of 6.44 million kilometers (4.0 million miles) from Jupiter. These repeated
crossings of the bow shock, first experienced by Pioneer 10, confirmed the model of the Jovian magnetosphere that likened
it to an unstable soft balloon buffeted by the solar wind and often squeezed in toward Jupiter on the side facing the Sun.

The third phase of the encounter was when Pioneer 11 continued flying through the outer magnetosphere from about 4.8 to
3.2 million kilometers (3 million to 2 million miles) from the planet.

Phase four, the period around closest approach, covered the day and a half before and after periapsis, during which the
spacecraft’s most detailed measurements and better spin scan images of Jupiter and the large satellites were obtained.

During phase five, Pioneer 11 left Jupiter behind and repeated many of the earlier observations, but in reverse sequence.

On November 7, Pioneer crossed the orbit of Sinope, the outermost satellite of Jupiter. In the following few days, the
spacecraft successively crossed the orbits of Pan (renamed Carame) and Andrastea (renamed Ananke). By November 21,
Pioneer 11 had crossed the orbit of Hera (renamed Elara) at just over 11.75 million kilometers (7 million miles) from Jupiter;
it later crossed the orbits of Demeter (renamed Lysithea) and Hestia (renamed Himalia). But the Jovian system is so large
that, despite Pioneer 11’s enormous speed, it was not until December 1, the day before closest approach, that the spacecraft
began to cross the orbits of the Galilean satellites. There were no really close approaches to those satellites. Pioneer 11 came
within 786,000 km (488,420 miles) of Callisto, within 692,200 km (430,130 miles) of Ganymede, and within 265,500 km
80 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 5-20. This series of PICS images shows views of Jupiter


as Pioneer 11 approached the giant planet from the south, flew by
Io, and then rose high above the north polar region.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 81
82 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

(164,981 miles) of Io. The spacecraft passed within 587,000 km (364,760 miles) of Europa and within 127,000 km (78,920
miles) of the innermost satellite, Amalthea. Spin scan images were obtained of several of these satellites (see chapter 9).

By the time Pioneer 11 entered the orbits of the inner satellites, television screens at Ames Research Center were displaying
good sized images of Jupiter showing an orange and gray white striped sphere with detailed cloud features and a prominent
Great Red Spot (see figure 5-20).

The excellent image of the Great Red Spot (shown in chapter 9) was obtained as a result of quick revision to the command
sequences for the spacecraft. Pioneer 11 was flying by Jupiter at high speed and in opposite direction to the planet’s rotation. The
combination of these two rapid motions made it mandatory that the timing of a close-in image of the spot be extremely precise.

Months before the encounter, Lyn R. Doose of the University of Arizona, working with the imaging photopolarimetry team,
contacted ground-based observatories to determine the spot’s position and drift rate to estimate where it would be at the precise
time of Pioneer 11’s flyby. When a final position had been established, a series of computer-generated drawings was prepared,
simulating how the planet would appear to the spacecraft at one-hour intervals during the close encounter. From these
drawings, the best observing opportunity was selected and reserved for imaging the Great Red Spot; other activity of the
imaging photopolarimeter was arranged around the timing for the Great Red Spot image.

Just before the encounter, Doose explained:

A somewhat different approach from that used on Pioneer 10 would be employed. The Great Red Spot
would be scanned nearer to the center of the planet’s illuminated hemisphere so that it would not be
foreshortened and would be well away from the terminator and evenly illuminated.

The commands to the imaging photopolarimeter were written, rewritten, checked, and rechecked. Only
days before the flyby we discovered an error. The time for obtaining the best image of the spot as derived
from the computer-generated drawings was referenced to where the telescope should execute the
commands, but had been interpreted as being when the commands should be transmitted.

The rotation of Jupiter, coupled with the motion of the spacecraft, would have put the Great Red Spot
outside the field of view of the image.

For two days the imaging command sequence for the several hours before closest approach was revised. New commands were
written and command files were prepared for transmission to the spacecraft in the tight command sequence. With these last
minute changes, the Great Red Spot sequence worked perfectly and a unique image of the Great Red Spot was obtained (see
Figure 9-11).

In addition to presenting higher latitudes to the spin scan imaging system, the flyby trajectory chosen for Pioneer 11 allowed
the magnetic field and radiation environment to be explored to higher latitudes of the magnetosphere. Also, in contrast to
Pioneer 10, which maintained an almost constant view relative to Jupiter for several hours during closest approach (because
its direction of travel was the same as the direction of rotation of Jupiter), Pioneer 11 traveled in a direction opposite that of
Jupiter’s rotation and traversed a full circle of longitude during its close-in observations during the four hours in which
periapsis was centered.

Approximately 1,300 commands were transmitted to Pioneer 11 on each of 2 days at closest approach. Many of these
commands were intended to ensure that the equipment carried by the spacecraft would continue to operate in a correct
configuration despite radiation effects. Thus, the spacecraft was repeatedly commanded to the correct data format, to the
correct data bit rate, to keep its transmitter switched on, and to keep the scientific instruments operating. Also, the spin scan
imaging photopolarimeter, which lost several important images during the Pioneer 10 encounter because of false commands
generated by radiation, was periodically reset (indexed) to the correct aspect angle for planetary imaging. This command
technique, which had proved invaluable during the encounter of Pioneer 10, was expanded in scope for the more rigorous
encounter of Pioneer 11.

A more serious problem than the radiation environment of Jupiter was a threatened strike of diesel operators in Australia
which endangered the mission in the last few hours before the critical and unique periapsis passage. Fortunately, the strikers
permitted technical personnel to operate the ground station for the encounter. Had this not been permitted, the mission would
have lost 6 to 8 hours of scientific data each day. However, flight operations could not be certain that the Deep Space Network
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 83

station at Canberra would indeed be available for the encounter – the strike situation was that serious. In the less than 30
minutes available, the encounter sequence was reprogrammed to enable the Goldstone Deep Space Network station to
maintain communications with the spacecraft for a longer period than normally, almost until the spacecraft set on the
Goldstone horizon. This also required that the rate at which data were transmitted to Earth be dropped from 2,048 to 1,024
bits/sec. So the mission was more seriously endangered by social problems on Earth than by the harsh, alien environment half
a billion miles away.

Although the spacecraft went behind Jupiter at 9:02 p.m. PST on December 2, telemetered signals continued until 9:42 p.m.
because of the time delay in the radio waves’ propagation over the great distance to Earth. Everyone waited anxiously. It was
during this occultation that the spacecraft hurtled through its closest approach to the giant planet, skimming 43,000 km (26,725
miles) above the cloud tops as it passed through the greatest intensity of the radiation belts.

Would the spacecraft survive? Pioneer 11 was scheduled to emerge from behind Jupiter at 9:44 p.m. PST, 22 minutes after closest
approach. But the signals, if they were still being transmitted from the spacecraft, would not arrive at Earth until 10:24 p.m.

Eleven seconds after 10:24 p.m. PST, the Deep Space Network station at Canberra, Australia, picked up the whisper faint
signal from the spacecraft and relayed it to the Pioneer Mission Operations Center at Ames Research Center. Engineers,
scientists, and newsmen covering the event at the Center cheered. Ten seconds later the big antenna at Goldstone in the
Mojave Desert picked up the signal, too. All was well. Pioneer 11 had survived its encounter with this giant of our Solar
System. Again, the tail of the dragon had been given a mighty tug.

Although there were no serious problems during flyby, there were irregularities in the functioning of the plasma analyzer, the
infrared radiometer, the meteoroid detector, and the spin scan imaging system. Also there was a small decrease in output
current of the spacecraft’s power system; but this was less than that experienced by Pioneer 10 and caused no difficulties.

The most serious problem was again spurious commands that caused the infrared radiometer to miss observing the northern
hemisphere of Jupiter despite the contingency commands. As soon as the signals reached Earth and the problem was detected,
the Project Science Chief and the science advisor immediately prepared a 108 command sequence to correct the settings of
the infrared radiometer’s register, thereby saving 50% of the planned observations of the northern hemisphere,

In the next few hours, scientists were able to report the details of the radiation belts and to inspect the tremendously detailed
spin scan images of the northern hemisphere of Jupiter that were returned to Earth. Predictions of the high-energy electron
intensity during close encounter proved to be correct, but, surprisingly, the measured proton flux was about 1/10 that predicted
(based on extrapolations from Pioneer 10 data). Pioneer 11 showed that near the planet the radiation belt is intense but
occupies a smaller volume than expected. Although Pioneers 10 and 11 found shells of extremely high-energy protons near
Jupiter’s magnetic equator, the shells were dangerous only at low latitudes and posed a relatively minor hazard to spacecraft
flying through them at highly inclined trajectories. Also, the intensity of high-energy electrons was found to be only slightly
higher than that found by Pioneer 10, even though Pioneer 11 went much closer to the planet. But Pioneer 11 also found a
flux of high-energy electrons at higher latitudes that was greater than expected from the measurements made by Pioneer 10.

Again the picture emerged of an enormous spinning magnetic field buffeted by the solar wind and stirred by Amalthea and
the Galilean satellites.

During this second encounter, Pioneer 11 determined very accurately the mass of Callisto (1.47 lunar masses). Also, the close
approach provided information to determine more accurately the gravitational field of Jupiter itself.

In making the first observations of Jupiter’s immense polar regions (Figure 5-21), Pioneer 11 found that the planet’s cloud
tops are substantially lower at the poles than at the equator, and they are covered by a thicker but transparent atmosphere.
Although there is much less evidence of rapid atmospheric circulation at the poles than at the equator, the polar area
unexpectedly showed many small convective cells, dwarfing similar thunderstorms that occur on Earth. Blue sky, visible at
the poles, was attributed to the same cause as terrestrial blue skies – to multiple molecular scattering of light by gases of the
transparent atmosphere at Jupiter’s poles.

Many more flow features were revealed in the clouds around the Great Red Spot than were seen a year previously by Pioneer
10. And new details were revealed within the spot which suggested convection and circulation patterns. The center of the
spot appeared brighter than its edges.
84 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Immediately after the encounter with Jupiter, Pioneer 11 was officially renamed Pioneer Saturn as it headed to an exploration
of the next outer giant planet of our Solar System. The spacecraft is, however, referred to as Pioneer 11 throughout this book.

Several weeks after the Jupiter encounter, problems again arose with spurious commands that this time could not be attributed
to radiation. The problem continued for several months as Pioneer 11 headed toward Saturn. Analysis of special test results
indicated that the asteroid meteoroid detector had been damaged by radiation during the encounter with Jupiter and that it was
the source of signals responsible for the spurious commands. The instrument was turned off and the spurious commands
ended. But in the series of tests to isolate the cause of the spurious commands by turning off each piece of equipment in turn,
the plasma analyzer had been switched off. When commanded on again, the instrument did not produce data even though its
power came on. Because of its importance for the flyby of Saturn, this instrument was subjected to further, special command
sequences in an effort to reestablish data output, but without success at this time.

After its encounter with Jupiter, Pioneer 11


looped high above the ecliptic plane and
across the Solar System on its voyage to
Saturn. By the end of May 1976, Pioneer
11 was halfway along its roughly 2.5-
billion-kilometer (1.5-billion-mile) flight
between the two giant planets. And it was
more than 1 AU above the ecliptic plane.

Some significant discoveries were made


about the magnetic field of the Sun. At
almost 160 million kilometers (100
million miles) above the ecliptic plane, the
spacecraft was about 16° above the
equatorial plane of the Sun.
Measurements of the solar magnetic field
by instruments on board the Pioneer
spacecraft showed that solar rotation
produces a warped current sheet that
separates the north and south magnetic
fields of the Sun. As a consequence, the
current sheet seems to move up and down
as seen from Earth and from the other
planets. Spacecraft close to the ecliptic
plane, where all but Pioneer 11 had
previously been confined, see a reversal of
the solar field each time the current sheet
passes through their paths (Figure 5-22).
Instead of having a complex magnetic
field broken into many sectors, as
physicists had thought, the Sun was found
to have a relatively simple north pole /
south pole configuration, somewhat
complex, but in many ways like the fields
Figure 5-21. Pioneer 11 obtained these first photographs of the polar region of Jupiter which
show that cloud patterns change dramatically between equatorial regions and the poles.
of Earth and Jupiter.

Two flyby trajectories were tentatively suggested for the encounter with Saturn: one would have penetrated the plane of the rings
just outside the outer visible ring (A ring); the other would have penetrated inside the visible rings at about 1.15 Saturn radii.

The celestial mechanics objectives of the Saturn encounter might best be exploited by a flyby that carried the spacecraft inside
the innermost visible ring and about 9,000 km (5,600 miles) above the cloud tops (Figure 5-23). Such a close approach to the
planet would not only most accurately define Saturn’s gravitational field, but also provide data that, when combined with
corresponding observations from a more distant Voyager flyby in 1981, would allow a good estimate of the mass of the ring
system. The close approach would also provide information about the internal structure and shape of Saturn. Even if the
spacecraft were damaged by its passage through the ring plane, valuable gravitational data would still be obtained before its
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 85

penetration of the ring plane. In addition, the close approach would make it possible to distinguish an internal source from an
external source of magnetospheric particles.

Scientists and mission planners were faced with a dilemma. Pioneer 11 offered the only chance for many years to explore the
environment of Saturn near the planet. The two Voyager spacecraft that would follow the trail blazed by Pioneer 11 to Saturn
were constrained to trajectories that carried them past Saturn at a much greater distance. As a result, they would not be able
to provide information about the inner Saturnian particles and field environment. Moreover, no further missions to Saturn
were planned by the United States. Eleven of the 12 principal investigators on the Pioneer program favored a trajectory for
Pioneer 11 that would pass inside the bright rings and provide a very close approach to Saturn.

Either of the two trajectories could be chosen as late as 1977, when the spacecraft would be aligned in space so that it could
be most accurately maneuvered to a selected course. During such a maneuver, the time of arrival at Saturn would be changed
to ensure coverage by two stations of the Deep Space Network of the period of closest approach to the planet. In this way,
there would be a better chance of obtaining all the data from this unique encounter with Saturn.

If Pioneer to Saturn survived its passage through the ring plane and through whatever radiation environment existed there, its
subsequent close approach to the largest Saturnian satellite, Titan, could be expected to provide a more accurate measurement of
Titan’s mass. Also, spin scan images of Titan might make it possible to search for surface markings. The photopolarimeter and
the infrared radiometer could provide valuable information about the atmosphere of the huge satellite and about its temperature.

Figure 5-22. In its voyage across the Solar System high above the plane of the ecliptic, Pioneer to Saturn made important discoveries
about the structure of the magnetic field of the Sun the warped current sheet shown here.
86 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Titan orbits Saturn in just under 16 days, at a mean distance of 1,222,000 km (759,300 miles). Its diameter is about 4,800 km
(3,000 miles). From Earth-based observations, Titan was known to have an atmosphere, the constituents of which were
believed to be of a type that might have supported primitive life forms on Earth before the terrestrial atmosphere became
oxygen enriched. So the satellite was regarded by some scientists as a prime candidate among bodies of the Solar System as
one that might support life.

A complication in selecting the time of arrival of Pioneer at Saturn was the motion of Earth around the Sun. As Saturn moved
relative to Earth to pass behind the Sun as seen from Earth, radio noise from the Sun would interfere with the faint radio
signals from the spacecraft. So arrival at Saturn had to be timed in advance of Saturn’s moving into conjunction with the Sun
on September 11, 1979. The Sun-Earth-spacecraft angle was closing at about 1°/day around the time of encounter, so moving
the encounter forward in time provided an opportunity for a subsequent encounter with Titan that would still allow radio
signals to be received from the spacecraft. Unfortunately, there would be a period on the outward leg of the flight beyond
Saturn during which some data about particles and fields would be lost because the radio signals from the spacecraft would
be obscured by the radio noise of the Sun.

Figure 5-23. Two proposed trajectories for Pioneer 11, renamed Pioneer Saturn after it successfully flew by Jupiter, to fly by Saturn.
One trajectory would carry the spacecraft outside the rings, the other inside the rings.

At the distance of Saturn, it was also necessary to accept a reduced rate at which data could be transmitted to Earth during the
encounter. A rate of only 256 bits/sec (possibly 512 bits/sec) was anticipated, compared with 2,048 bits/sec at the time of
encounter with Jupiter. The lower bit rate primarily affected the data from imaging, which required data to be sampled and
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 87

transmitted rapidly. The effect was to reduce the image scans to smaller sectors of about one-half to one-quarter those possible
at Jupiter. However, improvements to the Deep Space Network enabled a rate of 1,024 bits/sec to be used for part of each
station’s pass.

Final course targeting for Pioneer 11 was completed during the first part of 1978. NASA Headquarters decided that the
trajectory for the spacecraft’s encounter with Saturn should pass outside the bright visible rings. The course correction needed
to aim Pioneer toward this trajectory involved a series of timed rocket thrusts that locked the spacecraft onto a trajectory that
would bring it to within 35,400 km (22,000 miles) of the edge of Saturn’s outer bright visible ring (A ring),

The spacecraft would then swing under the plane of the rings to 21,400 km (13,300 miles) from the cloud tops. Later, this
trajectory would carry Pioneer 11 within 355,600 km (221,000 miles) of Titan, the largest of Saturn’s known satellites. The
flyby chosen (Figure 5-24) was called a balanced flyby because the inbound descending and outbound ascending courses were
the same distance from Saturn at the crossing of the ring plane, namely, 112,000 km (70,000 miles). The inclination of the
spacecraft’s trajectory to the ring plane would be 6.6°, with the trajectory’s closest approach in the southern hemisphere of the
planet. Earth and solar occupations would occur shortly after periapsis. During Earth occultation, the spacecraft would be
out of communication; during solar occultation it would pass through the shadow of Saturn.

The most crucial moment of the Pioneer mission to Saturn would be on the morning of September 1, 1979, when Pioneer
would first pass through the ring plane. An impact with a fragment orbiting in the E ring, believed to lie outside the A ring,
could destroy the spacecraft. The spacecraft would pass through the ring plane in only 0.8 seconds because of the high speed
of the spacecraft and the thinness of the rings.

Meanwhile, by July 11, 1979, Pioneer 10 had crossed the orbit of the planet Uranus at a distance of 2.9 billion kilometers (1.8
billion miles) from the Sun. Pioneer 10 did not pass close to the planet, however, because Uranus was nearly halfway around
its orbit on the other side of the Sun, 8.1 billion kilometers (5.4 billion miles) from Pioneer 10. The spacecraft, heading in
the general direction of the star Aldebaran in the constellation Taurus, will reach the orbit of Pluto in 1990.

As the encounter period for Pioneer 11 approached, a


precession maneuver was necessary to orient the spacecraft
correctly. One of a pair of attitude thrusters malfunctioned.
Controllers issued commands to switch to backup thrusters
and the maneuver was completed successfully.

The two-month Saturn encounter period started on August 2,


1979, when the Pioneer spacecraft was 1.5 billion kilometers
(932 million miles) from Earth. Ten-hour daily tracking
began with two 64-meter (210-foot) antennas in Spain and
Australia. At the time, the spacecraft was hurtling toward
Saturn at 30,600 km/hr (19,000 mph).

Four days later, tracking was increased to cover 18 hours


each day and the large antenna at Goldstone in California
joined the team of tracking stations. Then the various
scientific instruments were exercised to ensure that they were
functioning correctly for the encounter. They all were after
an epic journey of 6.5 years over a distance of 3.2 billion
kilometers (2 billion miles).

Even the solar wind instrument, which had stopped providing


data after the Jupiter encounter, had been revived despite
earlier attempts that were unsuccessful. Virtually every
command possible was sent to the instrument but it did not
respond. An analysis indicated that the malfunction was
Figure 5-24. After its voyage across the Solar System (a),
probably in the digital logic section of the instrument and had Pioneer 11 flew past Saturn along a balanced flyby trajectory (b).
been caused by exposure to radiation at Jupiter followed by The spacecraft crossed the plane of the rings once inbound and
the low temperature reached when the instrument was turned once outbound, both at the same distance from Saturn. Closest
off later during a power shutdown on the spacecraft to approach to Saturn took place below the plane of the rings in the
southern hemisphere of Saturn.
88 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

identify an intermittent fault. The instrument was left inoperable until late in October 1977. Then a series of power-on,
power-off, and other commands was sent to the instrument. Success came when the instrument was thermally shocked by
allowing it to cool down to a very low temperature, followed by a command to put maximum voltage on the instrument and
to instruct it to operate in its fastest mode. This jolted the instrument. Nothing happened immediately, but by December 3,
1977, the instrument began to operate normally and continued to do so for the rest of the mission.

An improved PICS was developed to produce colored images of Saturn quickly during the encounter. During the earlier
encounters with Jupiter, the colored photographs of the images had not been available until several hours after the data were
received at Earth. During the Saturn encounter, as at Jupiter, the PICS converted the digital signal from the spacecraft to a
picture, added a green image to produce acceptable color, and stored the video signal on a disk. However, during the Saturn
encounter, the signal was then transferred from the disk to a color camera system, designed and developed by Dunn
Instruments, which transformed the video images into photographic color prints. This color camera reproduced the image of
the planet on 8-by-10-inch Polaroid instant film and simultaneously recorded it on 35 mm and 120 size color transparency
film. As with earlier encounters, the system displayed the colored pictures on TV screens within only a few minutes of their
reception at Earth.

The first spin scan test images successfully showed the disk of the planet with the rings visible as faint outlines around it. At
a distance of 1.6 billion kilometers (1 billion miles) from Earth, Pioneer 11’s spin axis had to be turned slightly on August 15.
The spin axis had been kept pointing toward Earth so that the large antenna on the spacecraft would also point toward Earth.
But to allow the UV photometer to view Saturn during the approach, the spin axis had to be moved. Controllers at Ames
Research Center issued commands to fire two one-second burns of Pioneer’s thrusters, moving the spacecraft’s axis 1.2° to
the left. This maneuver allowed the ultraviolet instrument to begin observing Saturn for 4 days, searching for evidence of the
amounts of atmospheric hydrogen and helium, and gathering other data about the planet and its ring and satellite systems. On
August 16, the coverage by the tracking stations was extended to 24 hours/day. Pioneer was 12.7 million kilometers (8 million
miles) from Saturn.

Activity intensified on August 20. The thrusters were again fired to bring the antenna back to point within 0.5° of Earth. The
spin scan imaging photopolarimeter began taking its series of pictures of the planet. On August 25, simultaneous tracking by
two Deep Space Network stations began so that information could be transferred at a higher bit rate from the spacecraft to Earth.

On August 27, the orbit of Phoebe, the most distant of Saturn’s known satellites, was crossed. Pioneer 11 was then in the
Saturnian system. But despite the spacecraft’s tremendous speed of 33,100 km/hr (20,500 mph), which was increasing under
the influence of Saturn’s enormous gravity, it would take another 5 days to reach its point of closest approach. However, by
this time, preliminary scientific findings were already being made.

Some of the most spectacular pictures from any space mission were returned to Earth when Pioneer obtained pictures of the
side of Saturn’s ring system on which sunlight was not shining directly. These pictures provided information that could never
be obtained by observations from Earth. Those rings, which normally seem bright when observed from Earth, appeared dark
in the Pioneer pictures, and the dark gaps in the rings seen from Earth appeared as bright rings in the pictures from the
spacecraft (Figure 5-25).

The images revealed roughly equal quantities of ring material in the region of Cassini’s division between the two brightest
rings and in the faint inner ring known as the crepe or C ring. This discovery was possible because Pioneer had a vantage
point denied to Earth-based astronomers. The spacecraft was high above the plane of the rings and was looking at their
shadowed side, unilluminated by the Sun. The spacecraft saw light through gaps in the rings scattered by particles there. The
reverse images showed the normally bright rings as dark areas and the dark gaps between the rings as light areas. But there
were some unexpected results. There was no immediate evidence from the Pioneer data for an inner D ring believed to be
present between the C ring and the cloud tops, nor for a faint E ring that observers from Earth had claimed as being present
outside the A ring.

The B ring appeared quite dark, but some light filtered through it in its inner regions. The outer region of the ring was,
however, completely opaque even at the highest gain of the imaging system. Experimenters were surprised to find so much
light scattered through Cassini’s division, an effect that implied many more particles in the division than had been expected.

On August 30, there were still no signs in the telemetered data that Pioneer 11 had crossed through the bow shock of Saturn,
an event that would have confirmed that Saturn had a magnetic field. But by this time the images showed dark polar regions
and some faint markings on the disk. It was becoming quite clear, however, as suspected from Earth-based observations, that
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 89

the features on the clouds of Saturn are much less clearly defined than those on Jupiter, perhaps because of the lower
temperature of Saturn, which allows a high altitude haze of ammonia to form and mask the details in the atmosphere at lower
altitudes. Generally, the planet appeared free of red spots or white ovals of the type seen on Jupiter.

(b)
(a)

Figure 5-25. The faces of Saturn and its rings. (a) A high-quality
contemporary Earth-based view of the planet photographed at
the Catalina Observatory, University of Arizona. (b) A drawing
identifying the main rings and Cassini’s division. (c) A picture
from Pioneer 11 from a distance of 2.5 million kilometers which
shows the rings illuminated from behind to reveal completely new
structural details.

By the time the spacecraft was ready for its close encounter
with Saturn, controllers had sent some 11,000 commands to
it in a one-month period. Six key retirees from the project
returned for the encounter so that there would be a sufficient
number of experienced CMOs (Chief of Mission Operations)
for the 24-hour watches. These men, affectionately referred (c)
to as the “over the hill gang,” were Joseph L. Frank, Robert
U. Hofstetter, Ralph W. Holtzclaw, George C. James, Norman J. Martin, and J. Richard Spahr.

All was nearly ready for the big event. However, 25% of the telemetered data was being lost because of solar activity. In
fact, three solar-related activities, in process when Pioneer 11 reached Saturn, were significant to the Pioneer mission. First,
a strong interplanetary solar wind was buffeting the planet’s magnetosphere and pushing it inward toward Saturn. Second, an
energetic particle event on the Sun about a week before Pioneer arrived at Saturn was affecting the distribution of particles
inside the planet’s magnetosphere and masking any energetic particles that might be emanating from it. Third, signals from
Pioneer had to pass near the Sun at a time of maximum solar activity. The interplanetary electron density and the degree to
which magnetic fields were chaotic were both high at this time, thereby adversely affecting passage of data by radio from the
spacecraft to Earth.

As a result of the third solar activity, project engineers decided to lower the telemetry rate from 1,024 bits/sec to 512 bits/sec
for the spacecraft’s passage through the ring plane. Although this would not affect most of the data being sampled by the
spacecraft, it would limit the scanning fields of the imaging photopolarimeter and the infrared radiometer. No data were lost
at the 512 bits/sec rate during the encounter. Scientists were actually obtaining more information from Saturn than had been
expected when Pioneer left Jupiter. At that time it was expected that a maximum bit rate of only 256 bits/sec could be
obtained over the distance from Saturn to Earth. However, improvements to the Deep Space Network allowed a rate of 512
bits/sec and sometimes 1,024 bits/sec during the encounter with Saturn.

The data from the spacecraft traveled at 300,000 km/sec (186,000 mps) – the speed of light – over the 1.6 billion kilometers
(1 billion miles) to Earth. At a bit rate of 1,024 bits/sec, this meant that at any given time there were 5.5 million bits of data
strung through space like digital beads on an invisible thread between the spacecraft and Earth. Each bit was separated on
either side by a distance of 293 km (182 miles).
90 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

At 6:00 a.m. PDT on August 31, Pioneer crossed Saturn’s bow shock at a distance of 1.45 million kilometers (898,500 miles),
much closer than the 4.7 million kilometers (3.5 million miles) that had been speculated, and showed that Saturn has a
magnetic field – a major discovery by Pioneer. The magnetosphere of Saturn appeared to be about 1,000 times stronger than
Earth’s, but only 1/20 that of Jupiter. The magnetic field was about 1/5 that predicted. The spacecraft stayed inside the bow
shock for about a half hour and then the solar wind pushed the shock in beyond the spacecraft. Several passages through the
shock were subsequently recorded.

Later, as the spacecraft penetrated closer to Saturn, several radiation belts were detected, with a complete cutoff of all energetic
particles at the distance of the outermost ring. The rings appeared to absorb the charged particles from the radiation belts,
thereby creating an environment that is one of the best shielded regions of our Solar System. Even in the radiation belts, the
intensity of charged particles was much lower than in the belts of Jupiter. Pioneer had discovered that Saturn does not present
a radiation hazard to close flying spacecraft.

Figure 5-26. Artist’s conception of Pioneer 11 at its closest approach to Saturn, speeding along beneath the magnificent ring system. Pictures
could not be obtained at this time because of the high speed of the spacecraft and its closeness to both the planet and its ring system,

The spacecraft continued to plunge toward Saturn and, at 7:36 a.m. PDT on September 1, it crossed the plane of the rings for
the first time, at a speed of 112,000 km/hr (70,000 mph). But scientists and project engineers had to wait 86 minutes, until
9:02 a.m. PDT, for the signals to reach Earth, informing them that the crossing had been successful and the spacecraft was not
damaged. Before the crossing there had been speculation that particles outside the A ring might have been sufficiently
numerous to silence Pioneer. The meteoroid detector registered two hits on the way in, another close to periapsis, and two
more when the spacecraft was flying below the rings behind the planet, thereby confirming the presence of some particles,
with diameters of 10 µm or larger, near the ring plane. The survival of the spacecraft itself in its passage through the ring
plane provided the most convincing evidence of the absence of a dangerous concentration of dust in this region.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 91

Next, Pioneer skimmed along near the rings, below their illuminated side (Figure 5-26), moving too fast to obtain images of
the rings. This was disappointing, but the geometry was unsuitable; in the time available, the spacecraft could not be
commanded to roll the amount needed to obtain images during this close passage. At 9:31 a.m., Pioneer hurtled through its
closest approach to Saturn at 114,150 km/hr (70,900 mph) at a distance of only 20,930 km (13,000 miles) above the cloud
tops. This was an incredible feat of navigation. After a 6.5-year flight of some 3.2 billion kilometers (2 billion miles) across
the Solar System, and after its close approach to Jupiter, the tiny spacecraft had reached a precise target in space and time
some 1.6 billion kilometers (1 billion miles) from its launch site in Florida.

One minute after Pioneer’s closest approach to Saturn, the telemetry was cut off as the spacecraft passed behind the planet.
This radio blackout ended at 10:50 a.m. A short while later, at 11:35 a.m., the spacecraft again crossed the plane of the rings.
Because these events could not be confirmed on Earth until the radio signals reached the Deep Space Network antennas some
86 minutes after leaving the spacecraft, project engineers did not know until 1:01 p.m. PDT that the Saturn flyby, with its
second crossing of the ring plane, had been completely successful and that the spacecraft had survived for a flyby of Titan and
an extended mission in search of the heliopause.

The close encounter had produced some exciting new results. Several additional satellites of Saturn were discovered from
absorptions of charged particles – the first time the presence of previously unknown satellites had been inferred from
experiments with particles and fields. It is probable that a new satellite discovered by the imaging experiment is the same
satellite as one of those that produced the particle effects. The images also showed a narrow faint ring beyond the boundary
of the bright A ring. An outer invisible ring was also inferred from the pattern of absorption of energetic particles. The
magnetic field of Saturn was calculated and found to be 0.2 gauss at the equator and about 0.6 gauss at the poles. Moreover,
the Pioneer 11 data revealed that this field was almost exactly aligned with the axis of rotation of the planet, unlike the fields
of Earth and Jupiter.

The temperature of Saturn established that the planet is still hot inside and that it emits more heat than it absorbs from the Sun.
A tenuous cloud of particles was discovered above Saturn’s atmosphere, possibly a halo of atomic hydrogen excited by
interactions between charged particles, the zings, and the inner satellites.

A. Thomas Young, at that time Deputy Director of Ames Research Center, said: “We welcome Saturn into our books of
knowledge with a lot of pride that we did it. We can report to Voyager: ‘Come on through, the rings are clear.’”

At 11:04 a.m. September 2, Pioneer made its closest approach to the giant Saturnian satellite, Titan, at a distance of 353,945
km (219,950miles). The telemetry bit rate had been increased to 1,024 bits/sec for this encounter, even though interference
from the Sun was increasing. There was some confusion about the time the infrared scientific data should be returned to Earth
because tracking data had to be analyzed to ascertain how the encounter with Saturn had modified the outbound trajectory,
and whether radio transmissions from a Soviet satellite in Earth orbit had interfered with the telemetry from the distant
Pioneer. The Soviets had cooperated to avoid such interference at critical times of the Pioneer mission and had ceased
transmissions from three of their satellites during requested periods. Fortunately, the data had not been lost but came back
slightly later and were recovered from the telemetry record when a more precise trajectory had been determined for the
spacecraft during its encounter with Titan. The data showed that Titan behaves as a body in equilibrium with the solar
radiation and as one without internal heat sources.

Five pictures of Titan, which is larger than Mercury and perhaps the largest satellite in the Solar System, showed a fuzzy ball
with a slightly orange tint and with a suggestion of blue around its edge caused by its thick atmosphere. Before computer
processing and enhancement, the images showed little detail but were expected to make it possible to determine the diameter
of the satellite to an accuracy better than 50 km (30 miles).

By September 3, Pioneer was rapidly moving away from the ringed planet at a speed of 36,210 km/hr (22,500 mph), and was
then two million kilometers (1.3 million miles) from Saturn. The spacecraft passed from the magnetosphere into the
magnetosheath at 2:00 a.m. PDT and stayed there for 5 hours before moving back into the magnetosphere as solar wind
pressure changed. Again, many passages were recorded. The imaging photopolarimeter team obtained measurements of the
light of Saturn, Titan, Dione, and Tethys, and the instrument continued to obtain pictures of Saturn as a half illuminated disk
with the rings still backlighted as on the approach trajectory.

The spacecraft continued to operate quite well as it approached the Sun line where it would pass behind the Sun as viewed
from Earth. At that point, solar radio noise was increasing rapidly. Even at 512 bits/sec, 25% of the data was being lost. It
was expected that the data rate would have to be reduced to 256 bits/sec soon. The following day, the bit rate was decreased
92 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

to 128, then to 64, and finally to 32 bits/sec on September 6 when Pioneer moved into a grazing passage over the top of the
Sun as seen from Earth. The spacecraft was still crossing the bow shock of Saturn intermittently out to a distance of 102
Saturn radii. During the encounter, the spacecraft had responded to some 15,000 commands from Earth. Commented Charles
F. Hall, as the encounter officially ended: “This is another first encounter in which the country can take pride. It epitomizes
the pioneering spirit of our nation.”

The U.S. Postal Service had issued a commemorative stamp (Figure 5-27) depicting the initial flyby of Jupiter.

Truly, Pioneer had “blazed the trail” to the outer giants of our Solar System, opening these distant regions of space to
exploration by larger spacecraft in following years.

Figure 5-27. A commemorative stamp was issued by the U.S.


Postal Service after Pioneer’s successful flyby of Jupiter.

Figure 5-28 (right). After their planetary encounters, the two


Pioneers had a further mission. An important task was to seek
the heliopause, the region where the solar wind holds the
interstellar wind away from the Solar System. Pioneer 11 has the
better opportunity to reach this region because it is traveling
toward the bow shock of the Solar System.

Following their encounters with Jupiter and Saturn, the two Pioneer spacecraft still had further missions to complete (Figure
5-28). Each headed out from the Solar System in approximately opposite directions. Each continued to gather information
about the environment of space and the solar wind. Scientists hoped that one or the other would reach the heliopause (the
boundary of the heliosphere), where the influence of the solar wind ends and interstellar space begins, while we are still able
to receive spacecraft telemetry data. Both spacecraft had a reserve of gas for maneuvering so that their dish antennas could
be pointed toward Earth. And both had electrical power to operate instruments and transmit data. Pioneer 10 had an
inefficient star sensor because of radiation damage at Jupiter and was expected to experience difficulties in achieving a correct
alignment. It had to rely on its Sun sensor, but as the spacecraft moves farther from the Sun, the intensity of sunlight falls
below the sensitivity threshold of the Sun’s sensor. Pioneer 11, with a better star sensor, did not have this problem.

The capabilities of the Deep Space Network stations to receive faint radio signals had been improved at a rate that exceeded
the diminution of the signals from the Pioneers with increasing distance. Consequently, the possible communication distance
of the spacecraft was very much greater than had been anticipated when they were launched. The radioisotope thermoelectric
generators also were better than expected, and their rate of degradation had lessened. At the conclusion of the Saturn
encounter, scientists were optimistic that both Pioneers would continue to return data from much greater distances, out toward
the boundary of the Solar System, to more than 40 AU (~6 billion kilometers or 3.7 billion miles). At such distances, signals
from the spacecraft will take 5.5 hours to reach Earth.

The two Pioneer spacecraft will continue toward the beckoning stars, mankind’s first emissaries into interstellar space.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 93

6
Results at the New Frontiers
On its way to the first encounter of a spacecraft with Jupiter, Pioneer 10 made several scientific investigations in the
previously unexplored space beyond the orbit of Mars. After the encounter, Pioneer 10 continued its observations beyond the
orbit of Uranus; it is expected to make interplanetary observations until at least the late 1980s when it will approach the orbit
of Pluto. Moreover, the information returned by Pioneer 10 will be supplemented by Pioneer 11, the second spacecraft to
reach Jupiter and the first to reach Saturn. Pioneer 11 also became the first spacecraft to explore interplanetary space high
above the plane of the ecliptic during its voyage from Jupiter to Saturn. It, too, continues to transmit information from far
beyond the orbit of Saturn.

By contrast with exploration of the inner Solar System, these new scientific frontiers were probed more slowly because of the
vast distances involved. Decades may pass before all the scientific information is fully evaluated. But already our
understanding of the Solar System beyond Mars has increased greatly from the data gathered by these pioneering spacecraft.
This new information describes the interplanetary medium far beyond the orbit of Mars and to a height of 160 million
kilometers (100 million miles) above the plane of the ecliptic (the plane of Earth’s orbit); the asteroid belt; the magnetospheres
of Jupiter and Saturn; the ring system of Saturn; and, with greater accuracy than previously known, the physical details of
Jupiter and Saturn and their large satellites.

Interplanetary Medium Beyond the Orbit of Mars

Theoretically, the solar wind, streaming through the interplanetary medium, is expected to expand radially from the Sun in a
symmetrical fashion so as to expand and cool adiabatically, that is, without exchanging heat with its surroundings. In such a
theoretical model, the temperature of the solar wind would decrease with distance according to a 4/3 power law. At the
distance of Earth from the Sun, observations showed that this law is not quite valid. The solar wind behaves somewhat
differently, and it seems that non-uniformities in the solar wind arise from hot spots in the solar corona. Since the temperature
of the solar corona determines the speed of the solar wind, such hot spots are expected to give rise to solar wind streams of
different speeds. Moreover, because the Sun rotates on its axis, a fast-moving stream of the solar wind can catch up with a
slow-moving stream that begins earlier from a cooler part of the corona.

When a fast stream catches up with a slow stream, it tries to penetrate it, but is prevented from doing so by magnetic fields
carried by these streams. These fields are carried along because the energy density of the solar wind is many times greater
than that of the interplanetary field.

The solar wind streams produce steep magnetic gradients when they collide. This magnetic interface becomes a scattering
region for cosmic rays coming into the Solar System from the Galaxy (Figure 6-1).

Because of these scattering centers, no low-energy cosmic rays are able to penetrate into the inner Solar System. The question
is: How far into the Solar System do the low-energy galactic cosmic rays penetrate? This is an important question because
this radiation carries information about the composition of the stars.

It is predicted from the Pioneer observations that the scattering regions will not damp down until perhaps 40 to 50 times
Earth’s distance from the Sun. (The average distance between Earth and the Sun is 150 million kilometers, or 93 million miles
– an astronomical unit, AU.) Pioneer 10 will reach this distance in the 1980s, and Pioneer 11 will reach such distances about
a decade later. Pioneer 11 is moving in the same direction as our Solar System with respect to the local stars in the direction
of a hypothetical bow shock of the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Pioneer 10 is traveling in almost the opposite
direction. The heliopause, or boundary of the heliosphere, is expected to be nearer the Sun along the trajectory of Pioneer 11.
The question is: Will the spacecraft be able to return information from so far away? The ability of the Deep Space Network
to receive data from the spacecraft has been improved year by year to keep pace with the vast distances traveled by the
Pioneers. The other basic question is whether or not the spacecraft will continue to gather and transmit data. Until now, the
spacecraft have experienced no major problems. The survival of the two Pioneers to the vast distances beyond Jupiter and
94 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 6-1. Fast streams of solar wind catch slow streams and produce scattering regions that prevent low energy cosmic rays from
penetrating the Solar System. The average velocity of the solar wind changes imperceptibly out to the Jovian orbit but, as shown in
the lower diagram, the range of fluctuations is remarkably diminished at this distance. Pioneers 10 and 11 might reach the boundary
of this scattering, where galactic cosmic rays are expected to increase in number.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 95

Saturn is very important in checking on the changes to the solar wind in the outer Solar System. Even as the output of power
from the radioisotope thermoelectric generators falls due to an expected decreased output from the power converting
thermocouples, alternate experiments can be cycled shut off and then later turned on again to reduce the average power
required, thereby making it possible to gather data to the limits of communications distance, possibly out to 6 billion
kilometers (3.8 billion miles) from Earth.

Cosmic Ray Intensity Gradients

One of the continuing analyses of the Pioneer data concerns


the measurement of the radial and latitudinal intensity
gradients of cosmic ray protons, helium, and heavier
elements entering the Solar System from the interstellar
medium of the Galaxy. Measurements of such gradients
enable scientists to test directly the predictions of models of
the solar modulation (the solar control of the cosmic ray
intensity observed within the Solar System). Small positive
gradients continue to be found (intensity increasing with
increasing distance from the Sun) for all nuclear species,
although the gradients vary from time to time. The data show
that the boundary between the region of solar modulation and
the interstellar medium is far beyond 20 AU, at a much
greater distance than was thought before the two Pioneers
explored these regions of the outer Solar System (Figure 6-2).
A search for this boundary requires that the Pioneers be
tracked outward as far as possible.

The analysis of cosmic ray gradients continues as data are


received. Since it now appears that data will be received
from the Pioneer spacecraft at radial distances up to at least
40 AU, scientists hope, with continued tracking of the two Figure 6-2. The data on cosmic rays entering the Solar System
spacecraft, to explore a major part of the modulation region. suggest that the boundary between the region where solar events
modulate the cosmic rays and the interstellar region is well
beyond 20 AU.
Modulation of Cosmic Rays

The two Pioneer spacecraft in the outer heliosphere have provided an opportunity to observe how increasing levels of solar
activity affect the propagation of galactic cosmic rays into the inner heliosphere. As an example, during 1978, several large
solar wind blasts were observed at Pioneer 11 and Pioneer 10, where the blasts had formed a single high-speed stream,
continuous for at least two solar rotations. Shock waves associated with those streams produced a large decrease in the cosmic
ray intensity, beginning at about Earth’s orbit and extending progressively outward to about 16 AU; at about 16 AU, a stepwise
intensity decrease occurred for the low-energy helium (Figure 6-3) as well as for the galactic cosmic rays. At low energies,
this decrease persisted for at least 2 years and radically changed the helium spectra.

Many cases of local acceleration of particles by the outward moving blast waves were seen by both Pioneers 10 and 11 – the
first evidence for such accelerations in the outer heliosphere.

In addition to the large scale modulation effects, strong 27-day variations in the intensities of both galactic cosmic rays and
the anomalous helium persisted for many months and were associated with recurrent high-speed solar wind streams. These
variations, often by a factor of two in amplitude, were most pronounced in the anomalous helium. They may serve to help
man unravel the physical processes that control the solar modulation of cosmic rays.

The period from March 1, 1977 to June 15, 1977 was marked by the almost complete absence of either solar or corotating
particle events in the data reported from the two Pioneers. The flux of protons and alpha particles for this period at average
distances from the Sun of 12.8, 5.1, and 1.0 AU had peaks of alpha particles between 15 and 20 MeV per nucleon. The proton
spectra for Pioneer 11 displayed a broad plateau between 15 and 30 MeV.
96 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The rate of change of cosmic ray intensity with radial distance


(about 2%/AU) was much less than had been predicted. In
addition, the very large increase observed in low-energy helium
(alpha particles) is not understood. Pioneer 10 also observed
large increases in low-energy oxygen and nitrogen nuclei.

The presence of the anomalous components of cosmic rays poses


significant difficulties for the conventional cosmic ray modulation
theory. One suggestion is that the low-energy portions of the
helium and oxygen spectra result from the flow of neutral
interstellar atoms into the heliosphere. In the heliosphere these
particles are ionized by both solar ultraviolet radiation and by solar
wind particles through charge exchange, and it is postulated that a
certain fraction of the particles is accelerated in the interplanetary
medium. The resulting singly ionized nuclei have much higher
rigidities at a given kinetic energy per nucleon than do protons, and
hence can more readily penetrate back into the inner heliosphere.

Interplanetary Acceleration Processes

Corotating streams of protons, helium nuclei, and possibly


heavier ions are the dominant type of low-energy events
observed at Earth’s distance from the Sun. They occur in
association with high-speed streams in the solar wind and show
little correlation with solar flares or radio emission. They
typically last for 4 to 10 days, thereby suggesting widths of 60°
to 120° at Earth’s orbit. Originally, scientists expected that these
corotating streams would diminish rapidly with radial distance
from the Sun as a result of both adiabatic energy loss and spatial
effects. However, Pioneer 10 and 11 studies show that the
intensity of these events increases by a factor of 10 or 20 out to
distances of 3 or 4 AU. As observed at large distances away
from Earth’s orbit, there are two main characteristics of this class
of energetic particles. First, although there is a positive radial
gradient of some 220% each 100 million kilometers (62 million
miles) between 0.3 and 1.0 AU, and an average gradient of 62%
between 1 and 4 AU, there is a negative gradient of 25 to 62%
per 100 million kilometers (62 million miles) from 4 to 6 AU.
The second characteristic is a close association of energetic
particles events with corotating interactive regions formed
between high- and low-speed solar wind streams.

The discovery of the positive radial gradient between 1 and 4 AU


led to the suggestion that interplanetary acceleration was the most
plausible explanation for the events, and that the suprathermal
component of the solar wind was a possible source of the
particles. Detailed studies of the association between corotating
particle streams and corotating interactive regions (which develop
forward shocks and reverse shocks beyond about 1.5 AU) have
concluded that the corotating interactive regions and their shocks
can also accelerate particles. The possibility that there may be
Figure 6-3. Shock waves associated with high-speed streams
two types of acceleration processes superimposed on each other – of solar wind markedly decreased the intensity of cosmic rays,
one associated with shocks and the other associated with turbulent beginning at Earth’s orbit and seen progressively outward to
regions – has been suggested. However, the question of whether 16 AU, where a stepwise intensity decrease occurred for both
or not the two processes do occur, as well as the crucial question the galactic cosmic rays and the low energy helium.
of the origin of the preaccelerated particles, remains unresolved,
even though new light has been thrown on the subject by the findings from the two Pioneers.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 97

Propagation of Particles from Solar Flares

The propagation of energetic particles accelerated by solar flares from the Sun to the outer regions of the heliosphere has been
studied in detail. The variation of the radial diffusion coefficient with distance from the Sun has been obtained. At large
heliocentric distances, very long times from onset to maximum are observed, often of several weeks’ duration.

One surprising aspect of solar flare propagation was observed on Pioneer beyond 15 AU: The proton flux rose very slowly to
a maximum and then often remained there for several solar rotations. Since Earth-based data show that there is no continual
high flux of protons from the Sun, it appears that the entire heliosphere, near the ecliptic plane at least, is filled with this
elevated proton flux. Analysis of flare events in the region beyond the orbit of Saturn is expected to yield important new
results over the next few years.

Solar Magnetic Field

Pioneer experiments have shown that, as far as 3 billion kilometers (1.8 billion miles) from the Sun, the strength of the solar
magnetic field declines as the inverse first power of distance from the Sun, and the density of the solar wind declines as the
inverse second power – both as expected. As it moves outward, the solar wind stream becomes less variable and its gases
cool less rapidly; the high-speed streams are converted into random thermal motions of particles, as shown in the lower
diagram in Figure 6-1.

Experimenters also found that beyond Saturn the Sun’s magnetic field, which guides high-energy particles out from the Sun,
was wound tightly, almost like the groove of a phonograph record. However, even beyond Saturn, the solar wind still showed
the effects of events on the Sun.

As noted in chapter 5, Pioneer 11 on its voyage from Jupiter to Saturn made a significant discovery about the magnetic field
of the Sun: At the time of the spacecraft’s passage above the ecliptic plane, it was found that the rotation of the Sun produced
a warped current sheet separating the north and south solar magnetic fields. Consequently, this current sheet appears to move
up and down as seen from Earth and other planets.

Interstellar Material

The experimenters also found that the uncharged hydrogen atoms of an interstellar wind – the gas between the stars – stream
into the Solar System along the plane of Earth’s orbit. Mysteriously, this direction is 60° from the direction of travel of the
Solar System through interstellar space and hence 60° away from the direction from which the particles would be expected to
come. The Pioneer spacecraft also found helium atoms in space for the first time. Experimenters believe that these, too, are
from interstellar space.

The Pioneer spacecraft also measured changes in the ratios of helium, oxygen, and nitrogen to carbon among the low-energy
cosmic ray particles. These changes were attributed to differences in the ionization potential of these elements by solar
ultraviolet radiation. As neutral atoms of oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen enter the heliosphere from interstellar space, they lose
electrons at different rates. Atoms of helium, oxygen, and nitrogen penetrate most deeply and, after an atom loses an electron,
the atom is accelerated by solar wind turbulence to become a low-energy cosmic ray.

Zodiacal Light and Gegenschein

Pioneer 10 provided new information about the zodiacal light, the faint glowing band of light along the zodiac, believed to be
sunlight reflected from particles in interplanetary space. The slight enhancement of the glow exactly opposite the Sun in the
sky – the Gegenschein, or counterglow – could be caused by distant particles illuminated like miniature full moons opposite
the Sun, or by a stream of particles extending like a comet’s tail from Earth.

The imaging photopolarimeter was turned on March 10, 1972, 7 days after Pioneer 10’s launch. During the first few weeks
of the mission, when the Sun was about 26° from the spin axis of the spacecraft, only that part of the sky more than 60° from
the Sun line could be inspected by the imaging photopolarimeter. So observations concentrated on the counterglow. It quickly
became apparent that the counterglow could not be associated with Earth even though the spacecraft had not moved much
farther from the Sun, it had moved ahead of Earth (Figure 6-4). Although the direction of the counterglow was directly away
from the Sun as seen from the spacecraft, this direction was by this time different from the direction to the counterglow seen
98 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

from Earth. So the antisolar glow was confirmed as being


associated with light reflected from particles spread around
the Solar System, not from particles associated with Earth
itself. Experimenters later measured the faint glow of the
Gegenschein to near the Martian orbit, again confirming its
interplanetary nature.

A few weeks after leaving Earth, Pioneer 10 began to map


the entire sky in observing the zodiacal light. Scientists
found that zodiacal light decreases in brightness as the square
of distance from the Sun. The rate of decrease slowed within
the asteroid belt, thereby indicating that particles responsible
for zodiacal light, although concentrated in the inner Solar
System, also increase in number within the asteroid belt
itself. But beyond 3.5 AU, the zodiacal light is negligible,
and experimenters were able to record for the first time the
integrated starlight from our Galaxy, free of zodiacal light.
Since the brightness of zodiacal light at 2.41 AU is less than
1/10 that at Earth’s orbit, experimenters concluded that the
asteroid belt beyond that distance does not contribute
significantly to the zodiacal light seen from Earth. The
brightness of zodiacal light fades almost completely at a
distance of 3.3 AU, where particles would have to circle the
Sun in orbits having a period half that of Jupiter. Jupiter’s
gravity appears to sweep the Solar System clear of such
Figure 6-4. The Gegenschein, or counterglow, cannot be
associated with Earth because, when seen from Pioneer, it was in particles beyond this resonance orbit. Thus, there is virtually
a different direction in space than when seen from Earth at the no zodiacal light nor counterglow beyond the asteroid belt.
same time. That is, it is always seen 180° from the solar direction,
regardless of from where in space it is viewed.

Meteoroids and the Asteroid Belt

Pioneer 10 provided some surprising data even before it reached the orbit of Mars. At one time it had been speculated that
the reason Soviet and American spacecraft had encountered trouble on their way to Mars when the spacecraft were about 175
million kilometers (110 million miles) from the Sun was a band of dust or a concentration of asteroids inside the orbit of Mars.
Pioneer 10 showed the speculation to be unfounded and provided data to suggest that Mars might even be sweeping its orbit
clean of particles.

The 280-million-kilometer (175-million-mile)-wide asteroid belt did not prove as hazardous as some speculation had suggested
before Pioneer 10’s epic voyage. Astronomers, who had observed the large number of minor planets in the asteroid belt, had
postulated that these small bodies might be colliding with each other. Consequently, over the billions of years since our Solar
System was formed, these collisions might have populated the zone of the asteroids with innumerable particles, ranging in size
from the major asteroids to grains of dust. A myriad of such particles could present a serious hazard to spacecraft.

By June of 1972, just before the Pioneer 10 spacecraft entered the asteroid belt, its detector cells (which counted particles by
the number of cells penetrated) had recorded 41 cell puncturing impacts. These occurred at a fairly steady rate from launch
in March of that year. By October, when Pioneer was halfway through the belt, the counting rate remained much the same
and another 42 impacts had been recorded. This rate continued relatively unchanged all the way through the belt.

By mid-February 1973, Pioneer 10 had cleared the asteroid belt safely. There was no indication of swarms of tiny bodies
capable of damaging spacecraft in these regions of space. The increase in the mass concentration of larger particles measured
by the asteroid meteoroid detector was less than a factor of four. Thus, from a hazardous particle point of view, there was no
asteroid belt. Fine particles seemed to be fairly evenly distributed between the planets. These results were consistent with
observations of the zodiacal light and counterglow and showed that the asteroid belt is not a serious hazard to spacecraft
traversing it. Pioneer 11 confirmed these results when it, too, passed safely through the asteroid belt.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 99

Also, very small particles of interplanetary dust seem to be swept from space by Mars and Earth to produce a gap at distances
from 1.14 to 1.34 AU. The indications are that Earth and Mars sweep millimeter-sized particles out of their orbits. Small
particles appeared to be concentrated near Jupiter by Jupiter’s gravity, as indicated by a Pioneer 10 detection rate of tiny dust
particles that was 300 times greater than it had measured in any region of interplanetary space since leaving Earth. However,
such a concentration around Jupiter is not a significant hazard to spacecraft flying by the planet.

The increase in the number of meteoroid-sized particles hitting Pioneer 10’s detectors as it flew by Jupiter suggested a
hundredfold increase in dust density over that in interplanetary space. The number of particle hits recorded depends, of
course, on the density of particles and on the relative velocity between the particles and the spacecraft. The difference between
the increase in density (a factor of 100) and the increase in impacts (factor of 300) mentioned previously was caused by the
difference in the relative velocity. The relative velocity increased over the interplanetary value when the spacecraft was near
Jupiter.

The Pioneer 11 detector because its design was less sensitive to small particles detected fewer particles during its flyby. But
the number of particles detected in the steeply inclined and retrograde trajectory of Pioneer 11 appeared to be consistent with
the gravitational collection of particles from interplanetary space by the mass of Jupiter.

During the long flight of Pioneer 11 between Jupiter and Saturn, which carried the spacecraft high above the plane of the
ecliptic, further impacts were recorded. Data obtained by Pioneer 11 during about 14 months after encounter with Jupiter,
when the spacecraft was traveling from about 5 to 3.7 AU, showed that the meteoroids in that region of space cannot be
moving primarily in ecliptic planar orbits. Instead, they must have random inclinations to the plane of the ecliptic and may
be in highly eccentric orbits. Because of the orientation of the spacecraft relative to its trajectory, it was impossible for
meteoroids in direct circular orbits near the plane of the ecliptic to strike the meteoroid detectors during most of that part of
the mission, yet the penetration flux remained essentially constant at the value observed throughout interplanetary space.

Figure 6-5. Pioneer 10 provided specific information on the physical characteristics of the Jovian satellites.

At Saturn, Pioneer 11 measured an increase in particle flux (described later). This increase was attributed to particles
associated with the rings of Saturn and not to interplanetary meteoroids concentrated near Saturn by its gravitational force.

Encounter with Jupiter

The paths of the two Pioneer spacecraft through the Jovian system, observed by tracking them from Earth, revealed that the
system Jupiter plus its satellites is heavier, by about half the mass of Earth’s Moon (which is 1/81 of Earth’s mass), than had
been previously calculated. Jupiter itself is about one-quarter of a Moon mass heavier than previously calculated; its mass is
317.83 times that of Earth.
100 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 6-6. This close in spin scan image of Ganymede shows Figure 6-7. Europa was too far away for the Pioneer spacecraft to
tantalizing markings on this huge satellite’s surface. Earlier obtain detailed images, although some surface markings were
observations from Earth of the change in temperature during apparent (see chapter 9).
passages of Ganymede in and out of Jupiter’s shadow indicated
that Ganymede has a highly porous surface, the upper layer of
which might be composed of loose, fine-grained rock.

The close approach by Pioneer 11 to approximately 1.6 Jovian radii from the center of the planet (the radius of Jupiter being
about 71,400 km) provided additional details of the gravitational field and confirmed the results derived from the Pioneer 10
flyby. Analysis of its gravity field shows that Jupiter is internally a very symmetrical planet with much weaker gravitational
anomalies than the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars). This situation is best modeled by a planet almost
entirely liquid.

A new measurement of the diameter of Jupiter and of the planet’s polar flattening was made. The flattening of Jupiter was
revealed by Pioneer to be slightly greater than that derived from the best Earth-based measurements. The diameter of the
planet was measured at a pressure of 800 millibars near the cloud tops (a bar is roughly equal to the pressure of one atmosphere
of Earth). Its polar diameter is 133,540 km (82,980 miles) and its equatorial diameter is 142,796 kilometers (88,732 miles).
These new values were established by the timing of the occultation of the spacecraft by Jupiter. Thus. Jupiter is nearly 20
times more flattened than Earth, principally because of its fluid state and its higher rate of rotation. The average density of
Jupiter, calculated from its mass and volume, was confirmed as 1.33 gm/cm3 (the density of water is 1).

Jupiter’s Galilean Satellites

The Pioneer spacecraft provided new information about the physical characteristics of the large Jovian satellites (Figure 6-5).
In terms of the mass of Earth’s Moon, the masses of the Galilean satellites in order of distance from Jupiter were found to be:
Io, 1.21; Europa, 0.65; Ganymede, 2.02; and Callisto, 1.46. The mass of Io was 23% greater than that estimated before the
Pioneer odyssey. The density of the satellites decreases with increasing distance from Jupiter and was refined as a result of
Pioneer’s observations. Io’s density is 3.52; Europa’s, 3.28; Ganymede’s, 1.95; and Callisto’s, 1.63 gm/cm3. The two inner
Galilean satellites thus seem to be rocky bodies, for Io’s density is indeed greater than that of the Moon. The outer satellites,
because of their low density, could consist largely of water ice. All four satellites were found to have average daylight surface
temperatures of about 140° C (220° F).

These satellites were probably formed in such a way that lighter elements were depleted neat Jupiter, or that water did not
condense on Io and Europa because, being nearer to Jupiter, their higher temperatures, either during the time they condensed
from the original nebula or as a result of subsequent heating of Jupiter, prevented the condensation of water.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 101

Although a spurious command prevented Pioneer 10 from obtaining a spin scan image of Io, the spacecraft did obtain images
of Europa and Ganymede. The Ganymede picture, with features resolved to about 400 km (250 miles), showed a south polar
dark circular region and a central dark region, each about 800 km (500 miles) in diameter, and a bright north polar region
(Figure 6-6). Five years later, more detailed pictures from the Voyager spacecraft confirmed the presence of large dark circular
patterns and showed that they are of ancient cratered terrain; bright areas appear to be regions in which fresh ice has been
exposed by more recent meteoric impacts.

A less detailed spin scan image by Pioneer 10 of the smallest Galilean satellite, Europa, presented an appearance somewhat
similar to that of Ganymede. The satellite, however, was too far away from the spacecraft for a satisfactory picture (Figure
6-7), although bright and dark regions are distinguishable on the image. Later imaging by Voyager showed that Europa, when
seen at high resolution, has quite a different detailed surface from that of Ganymede.

Pioneer 11 also obtained spin scan images of several of the Galilean satellites (see chapter 9) which revealed gross surface
markings that are very difficult to observe from Earth.

The satellite Io appeared to be quite different from the other Jovian satellites. Io is almost as large as Mercury, orange in color,
and one of the most reflective objects in our Solar System. Dark polar areas were also seen. The phenomenal brilliance of
Io was thought to result from an extensive crystalline layer, possibly like the salt flats in the American West. Sodium vapor
emissions from Io, detected by observations from Earth, were shown to be from a sodium vapor cloud extending 16,000 km
(10,000 miles) from Io’s surface. It was thought that the sodium was being removed from sodium salts on Io’s surface by the
action of high-energy particles trapped in the magnetosphere of Jupiter and intercepted by Io in its orbit around the giant
planet. Again it was necessary to await detailed pictures from the Voyager spacecraft to show that Io is a world of active
volcanoes and that the orange, black, and white regions are probably the result of this volcanic activity spreading sulfur rich
materials over the surface.

The timing of the encounter with Jupiter was arranged so that Pioneer 10 was occulted by Io; as a result, the spacecraft’s radio
signals passed through the satellite’s atmosphere on their way to Earth. During this occultation, the radio waves underwent
minute amounts of refraction, showing that Io has an ionosphere. At the time of the Pioneer 10 flyby, the ionosphere extended
700 km (435 miles) above the day side of the small satellite. Io was thus revealed as a unique satellite in that it possesses an
ionosphere while immersed in the magnetic field of its planet.

Figure 6-8. The bow shock and the magnetosphere of Jupiter were mapped by Pioneers 10 and 11; the magnetosphere was shown
to be vastly more extensive than that of Earth. The bow shock and the magnetosphere also vary in distance from Jupiter under the
influence of the solar wind to an extent much greater proportionately than do those of Earth.
102 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The density of the ionosphere varied from 60,000 electrons/cm3 on the day side to 9,000 on the night side. Although the
density of Io’s atmosphere was too low to produce a measurable effect on the radio signals, the observed ionosphere suggests
that Io has a very tenuous atmosphere with a pressure at the surface some 100 million times less than that at Earth’s surface.
This atmosphere is now thought to consist of sulfur dioxide gas released from Io’s volcanic vents.

Pioneer 10 also found that Io was embedded in a cloud of hydrogen extending a third of the way around its orbit. This finding
was quite unexpected. About 161,000 km (100,000 miles) wide and high, the cloud was 805,000 km (500,000 miles) long.
Its shape resembled that of a third of a doughnut moving in orbit around Jupiter 402,000 km (250,000 miles) from the planet.
Possible atomic oxygen and hydrogen clouds for Europa, of smaller size (about 110,000 km), were also detected. These
atomic clouds were produced through the dissociation of water ice on the surface of Europa, probably by impact of particles.

Jupiter’s Magnetosphere

Like Earth, Jupiter has a bow shock that is produced when the high-speed solar wind, carrying a magnetic field, interacts with
the magnetic field of Jupiter (Figure 6-8). The solar wind is abruptly slowed so that its effective temperature is increased
tenfold. The magnetic field surrounding Jupiter, as with the Earth, protects the planet from the solar wind; the solar wind
cannot penetrate the magnetosphere. Between the magnetosphere and the bow shock is a turbulent region, the magnetosheath,
in which the solar wind is deflected around the magnetosphere. These phenomena are experienced around Jupiter on a scale
vastly greater than around Earth.

The diameter of Jupiter’s magnetosphere is such that, if it could be seen visually from Earth, it would be more than twice the
angular diameter of the Moon or the Sun as they appear in Earth’s sky. Pioneer 10’s crossings of Jupiter’s bow shock showed
that the bow shock was over 26 million km (16 million miles) “wide” in the ecliptic plane, or about 80% of the distance
between the orbits of Earth and Venus. The Jovian system was shown to be on a truly gigantic scale by earthly standards.

Pioneer 11 discovered that the


magnetosphere is blunt on the sunward
side and, vertically above and below the
planet, it extends at least 80 Jupiter radii.
Jupiter’s magnetosphere was found to be
rotating at several hundred thousand miles
per hour at its periphery and to consist of
several distinct regions. An inner region
is shaped like a doughnut with Jupiter in
the hole. Outside the doughnut is a disk-
like region caused by ionized gas probably
from the planet’s atmosphere and
satellites. An extremely unstable
outermost region is very much affected by
the changing pressures of the solar wind.

The magnetosphere might also be


described as spongy since it responds
elastically to the varying pressure of the
solar wind and is often compressed by a
factor as great as two. Pioneer 10 crossed
the sharply defined boundary of the
magnetosphere at 6.8 million kilometers
Figure 6-9. Jupiter’s magnetosphere was found to be shaped differently from that of (4.2 million miles) from Jupiter. Then, as
Earth and to have three clearly defined regions. the magnetosphere changed size,
Pioneer’s instruments again sensed
leaving the magnetosphere and entering it again later, all this happening while the spacecraft continued its journey toward the
planet. Pioneer 10 crossed the constantly moving bow shock 17 times on the post encounter trajectory from Jupiter. Pioneer
11 recorded three crossings of the bow shock on the inward trajectory and three more outbound. Again, the multiple crossings
of the bow shock and the magnetopause during the Pioneer 11 flyby implied that there is a very dynamic interaction between
the solar wind and the Jovian magnetosphere.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 103

Figure 6-10. Low-energy electrons were discovered escaping from Jupiter. The flux decreased with distance from Jupiter.

The three distinct regions of the Jovian magnetosphere revealed by the Pioneers are illustrated in Figure 6-9. Under average
conditions, representative dimensions are: an inner magnetosphere within about 20 Jupiter radii where the magnetic field of
the planet dominates; a middle magnetosphere from 20 to 60 Jupiter radii where the magnetic field of the planet is severely
distorted by trapped plasma; and an outer magnetosphere, beyond 60 Jupiter radii, which exhibits significant irregularities in
both the magnitude and direction of the planetary magnetic field.

In the middle magnetosphere, ionized particles form a sheet of electric current around Jupiter. In turn, the current flowing in
this sheet produces a magnetic field which, at large distances from Jupiter, is stronger than the magnetic field of the planet.
In the inner magnetosphere, the planetary magnetic field is similar to that of a magnetic dipole or a short bar magnet; in the
middle magnetosphere, the magnetic field is much distorted.

Several days before Pioneer 10’s encounter with Jupiter, bursts of low-energy electrons were observed to have escaped from
the planet. Further analysis of data from Pioneer and other spacecraft showed that these electrons have been detected far from
Jupiter, both inward to the orbit of Mercury and outward to distances of at least 11 AU. The flux of these electrons was shown
to fall off with increasing distance from Jupiter (Figure 6-10).

The propagation of these electrons from Jupiter has been shown to follow a diffusion equation in interplanetary space;
however, whenever a region of interaction between solar wind streams is located between the observer and Jupiter, the electron
flux is cut off; these regions act as barriers. Puzzling variations in the electron flux observed by the Pioneer spacecraft can
be explained by this cutoff. For many years an effect has been observed at Earth of low electron fluxes, called “quiet-time
electron events.” These events are now understood as being of Jovian origin. As a result of the Pioneer observations,
scientists have shown that Jovian electrons are the dominant electron component in the inner Solar System, except during
periods of large solar flares.
104 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

When Pioneer 11 was at high solar latitudes on its way from Jupiter to Saturn, it passed through a region well connected to
Jupiter along the spiral magnetic field. This provided an opportunity to examine Jovian electron propagation not only along
and perpendicular to the average magnetic field direction both in the solar equatorial plane but also in a direction perpendicular
to the equatorial plane; observations in the latter direction had not been possible before. Analysis of the profile of the electron
events recorded during 1976 and 1977 showed that the diffusion coefficient perpendicular to the equatorial plane is about five
times less than the coefficient perpendicular to the field but in the equatorial plane, and 500 times less than the coefficient
parallel to the field.

Jupiter’s magnetic field at the cloud tops was found to be more than 10 times stronger than Earth’s field at its surface, with
the total energy of the field external to the planet being some 260,000 times that in Earth’s external field. (The magnetic
moment is 19,000 times that of Earth.)

The closer and more highly-inclined trajectory of Pioneer 11 produced a more precise and detailed definition of the magnetic
field of Jupiter. It was found to be 5% greater than that estimated from the Pioneer 10 measurements. The estimated strength
of the magnetic field at the visible cloud tops is 4.2 gauss on the planet’s equator.

Jupiter’s equivalent dipole is tilted about 11° to the planet’s axis of rotation, and the center of the field does not coincide with
the center of Jupiter. Instead, it is offset from the spin axis proportionately twice as much as Earth’s field is offset. Because
of this offset, the strength of the field emerging from the Jovian cloud tops was quite variable, from 14 to 11 gauss in the north
and south polar regions, respectively, compared with Earth’s polar field of 0.6 gauss. The polarity of Jupiter’s field is reversed
relative to that of Earth; a north-seeking compass would point south on Jupiter.

The field was found to be distorted by the external ring current and by the influence of the solar wind. Experimenters
suggested that this distortion affects the motion of trapped particles forming the radiation belts and may be the cause of the
periodic release of relativistic electrons from Jupiter into interplanetary space. The primary source of decametric radiation
from Jupiter might be sporadic precipitation of particles into the northern hemisphere along the flux tube through Io.

Closer to the planet than about three Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is more complex than a simple dipole field. The
magnetometer results fitted a model in which the quadrupole and octupole moments were at least 20% of the dipole moment
compared with only about 11% for Earth. The somewhat larger quadrupole and octupole moments discovered in the magnetic
field of Jupiter have significant implications for models of the interior of the planet, assuming that the field is generated by
an internal dynamo, a model generally accepted today for the generation of planetary magnetic fields. The complexities are
thought to arise from complex circulation patterns within the metallic hydrogen bulk of the planet. The higher field strength
relative to that of Earth would imply that the large, dynamo producing core of Jupiter, that is, the metallic hydrogen, must be
responsible for the field, rather than a small core of metals and silicates. To produce the measured quadrupole and octupole
effects, the internal core would have to be proportionately larger for Jupiter than for Earth.

Energetic particles trapped in the magnetosphere of Jupiter constitute radiation belts (Figure 6-11) just as they do at Earth.
The presence of these radiation belts had been known since 1959 because of the decimetric radio waves generated by trapped
electrons and received at Earth. Such radiation belts require that a planet have a magnetic field to constrain them. In fact,
their presence led scientists to estimate the strength of Jupiter’s magnetic field an estimate that proved to be in order of
magnitude agreement with the direct measurements of Pioneers 10 and 11.

Figure 6-11. Radiation belts consist of particles trapped in the Jovian magnetic field; the satellites sweep up many of these charged particles.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 105

Because of Jupiter’s tilted magnetic field, the radiation belts are also tilted and they wobble up and down in the surrounding
space as Jupiter rotates on its axis. Consequently, a spacecraft passing the planet moves in and out of the belts. The inner
belt, consisting of electrons and protons having a wide spectrum of energies, forms the doughnut-shaped region of energetic
particles around the planet, corresponding generally with the classical dipole magnetic field shape and extending to about 10
Jupiter radii. Before the Pioneer observations, these trapped particles were generally assumed to be captured from the solar
wind. However, from data collected by Pioneer 11, scientists concluded that the particles throughout the magnetosphere may
originate from Jupiter’s atmosphere and its satellites rather than from the solar wind.

Peak intensities of electrons in the belts, as measured by Pioneer 10, were 10,000 times greater than Earth’s maximum;
protons were several thousand times more intense than in Earth’s belts. The inner radiation belts of Jupiter, as measured by
Pioneer 10, had the highest natural radiation intensity so far measured, comparable to the intensities following the explosion
of a large nuclear bomb in Earth’s upper atmosphere.

Figure 6-12. Comparison of the number of electron events observed by Pioneers 10 and 11 during Pioneer 10’s encounter with Jupiter.

Pioneer 11 confirmed these high intensities and also found that there is a greater flux of energetic particles at high Jovian
latitudes than would have been expected from the measurements made by Pioneer 10.

As mentioned earlier, an important discovery by Pioneer 10 was that Jupiter releases bursts of energetic electrons into
interplanetary space. Pioneer 11 also detected these electrons and discovered that the bursts were in phase, relative to the
rotation of the planet, with those observed previously by Pioneer 10. Two days before Pioneer 11 entered the magnetosphere
of Jupiter, the spacecraft’s instruments began to detect bursts of low-energy protons.

Jupiter was thus found to be an additional source of energetic particles which scientists can use to study the propagation of
particles and magnetic fields in interplanetary space. Figure 6-12 shows the increasing rate of energetic electron events derived
from the charged particle instrument’s results as Pioneer 10 approached Jupiter; Pioneer 11, still far from the planet, saw many
fewer electron events. These events were observed when the interplanetary magnetic field provided a good connection between
Jupiter and the spacecraft. Large amplitude waves in the magnetic field were found associated with the electrons in interplanetary
space. They were probably generated by the electrons. Figure 6-13 shows diagrammatically the relation of the spacecraft,
106 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Jupiter, the interplanetary magnetic field,


and the magnetic waves during a Jovian
interplanetary electron event. Since cosmic
rays are probably confined to the Galaxy by
similar self-generated waves, this
observation by the Pioneer spacecraft has
significance for galactic physics as well as
planetary physics.

In addition to 10-hour variations in the


electron intensity and spectrum observed
inside Jupiter’s magnetosphere, similar
variations were observed as far as 150
million kilometers (93 million miles) from
the planet. These external variations were
in phase with those inside Jupiter’s
magnetosphere (Figure 6-14). Both inside
and outside the magnetosphere, the
variations appeared to be locked in phase;
Figure 6-13. Relationship of the Pioneer spacecraft, Jupiiter and its magnetosphere,
the interplanetary magnetic field, and magnetic waves during a Jovian interplanetary
that is, they occurred regularly every 10
electron event. hours at about the same time, irrespective
of distance from the planet.

Figure 6-14. Both inside and outside Jupiter’s magnetosphere, the 10-hour modulation of electron intensity appeared to be in phase,
as shown in these data from the University of Chicago experiment (BS refers to bow shock and MP refers to magnetopause).

The timing of the 10-hour intensity and spectral variations observed in the energetic electron flux in Jupiter’s magnetosphere
and in interplanetary space caused scientists to reexamine the idea that the variations might be caused by the flapping of the
outer magnetosphere and the equatorial current sheet during Jupiter’s rotation. Instead, the data suggested that the variations
took place simultaneously in the whole outer magnetosphere, so that Jupiter resembled a blinking beacon more than a twirling
floppy hat, as had been originally suggested when the Pioneer 10 data were interpreted. The full resolution of these alternative
interpretations has not yet been achieved.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 107

The results from Pioneer 11 suggest that the


model of Jupiter’s trapped radiation in the
middle and outer magnetospheres is best
represented by a disk with the magnetic
field lines near the magnetic equator being
much distended but closed and hence
capable of trapping charged particles out to
a distance of 100 Jupiter radii.

It also became clear that the


magnetosphere was quite blunted on the
sunward side of the planet. No
information was available from either
Pioneer 10 or 11 on the shape of the
magnetosphere at large distances on the
side of Jupiter opposite the Sun. This will
require a Jupiter orbiter mission, such as
Project Galileo.

A significant finding from the Pioneer 11


observations was that both electrons and
protons stream toward and away from the
planet along high-latitude field lines. The Figure 6-15. Energetic particles appeared to circulate in the magnetosphere, from
energies of these electrons were greater which they were ultimately ejected from high latitudes into interplanetary space,
thereby making Jupiter a second source of energetic particles that spray across the
than 40 keV and less than 560 keV; proton Solar System.
energies were between 0.61 and 3.41 MeV.

A recirculation of energetic particles within the Jovian magnetosphere thus emerged as a possible feature of this giant planet.
This hypothesis also suggests the emission of energetic particles into interplanetary space, as observed by Pioneers 10 and 11,
from the poles and other high latitudes rather than exclusively from the equatorial regions of the magnetosphere.

Particles in the outer magnetosphere, which were diffusing inward toward Jupiter, appeared to be eventually squeezed into a
pancake shaped magnetodisk in the magnetosphere nearer the planet. Apparently, the particles interact with plasma waves
generated inside the magnetosphere, which causes them to escape from the magnetodisk and to reach even lower altitudes. At
these lower altitudes, they can be transported to high latitudes without significant energy changes. The particles are thereby
injected onto high-latitude field lines and provide the outward streaming high-latitude flux of particles observed by Pioneer
11 (Figure 6-15). This dynamic recirculation may explain the otherwise baffling problem of the presence of particles with
megavolt energies in the region of the outer magnetosphere, including its boundary.

Also, this process may explain why the 10-hour periodicity occurs rather than the 5-hour periodicity that would be expected
if the energetic particles from Jupiter observed in interplanetary space were squirted from equatorial regions. The
interplanetary magnetic field at a particular point in space would be expected to connect to either the north or south polar
regions of Jupiter at any given time. Energetic particles originating from these regions by the circulation process would be
modulated by planetary rotation so as to show a 10-hour periodicity. Thus, a process of crossfield diffusion and escape of
particles from the polar regions could account for the 10-hour period observed by the Pioneer spacecraft in interplanetary
space. There is also a 10-hour period, or flapping effect, in the equatorial zone of the magnetosphere as well as the 10-hour
variation observed in interplanetary space.

The dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere with its charged particles appear to differ in at least four important ways from
those of Earth. First, the presence of substantial intensities of electrons with energies greater than 20 MeV in the outer
magnetosphere cannot be explained by a trapping of particles from the solar wind. Such solar wind particles could only reach
energies of about 1 keV. Second, the corotation of energetic particles with Jupiter persists out to the magnetopause, near the
outer limits of the magnetosphere, whereas for Earth corotation terminates at the outer boundary of the plasmasphere, far
inside the magnetosphere. Third, the inner four satellites of Jupiter Amalthea, Io, Europa, and Ganymede are deep within the
planet’s magnetosphere and produce a fluctuating and complex structure of energetic particles. By contrast, the Earth’s Moon
is far outside Earth’s magnetosphere, although it traverses the distant magnetotail each month. Fourth, it seems likely that the
capture of solar wind particles may be a relatively minor feature of the dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere, whereas the
108 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

acceleration of particles internally available within the magnetosphere may be the dominant process, again quite different from
Earth. Nevertheless, whether or not some solar wind particles are captured within the Jovian system, the solar wind is
essential to establishing the physical conditions under which transfer of rotational energy from Jupiter to the charged particles
can take place. The flow of the solar wind past Jupiter generates the axially asymmetric and nonrotating situation essential to
develop the Jovian magnetosphere.

The presence of major satellites within the Jovian magnetosphere leads to interesting effects. The satellites sweep particles
from the belts and remove high-energy particles, thereby reducing the total radiation near Jupiter by as much as 100 times.
This was an important Pioneer discovery, for if the satellites did not absorb so many of the damaging particles spacecraft could
not be flown safely close to Jupiter. That would mean that the sling-shot effect of Jupiter’s gravity and orbital motion could
not be used to propel spacecraft to the planets beyond Jupiter.

Figure 6-16. After the Sun, Jupiter is the strongest radio source in the sky. Enormous radio bursts come from the electric current that
flows along the flux tube to Jupiter when Io, in effect, closes the switch. By its motion through the Jovian magnetic field, Io generates
an electrical potential of 400 kV across the satellite. When Io reaches the right position, current flows along magnetic field lines down
to Jupiter’s electrically conductive ionosphere and back to Io. The circuit is completed through the ionosphere of the satellite. Pioneer
11 measured the current flow along the flux tube.

By far the largest number of particles is removed by the satellite Io. Additionally, Io is known to accelerate particles and to
induce the emission of decametric radio waves. Radio bursts occur every 21 hours, half the period of Io’s orbit. Pioneer
measured a flow of electrons along magnetic field lines linking Io to Jupiter lines referred to as the Io flux tube (Figure 6-16).
As mentioned earlier, the spacecraft also found that Io has an ionosphere. These two facts point to a theory that may explain
the modulation by Io of decametric radio waves from the Jovian system. Io’s conductive ionosphere could complete an
electrical circuit up and down the flux tube and through Jupiter’s ionosphere. The movement of Io through Jupiter’s magnetic
field could induce an electric potential of hundreds of kilovolts across the satellite. This could drive a current around the
circuit of the flux tube and the ionosphere of Jupiter, completing it through the ionosphere of Io. It has been calculated that
there may be a flow of 10,000 billion watts through this circuit, thereby generating the radio bursts that have been observed
at Earth for many years.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 109

As Pioneer 11 crossed the orbit of Io, it measured large reductions in electron flux for energies below 560 keV and a marked
reduction in proton flux for energies of about 1 MeV. Smaller effects were observed at the orbit of Amalthea, and only a slight
effect was seen at the orbit of Europa. However, near the orbit of Ganymede, Pioneer 11 detected strong transient anisotropic
bursts of 1 MeV protons. One sequence of 1 minute bursts continued for several hours. These particles appeared to be locally
accelerated.

Within Amalthea’s orbit, Pioneer 11 detected an extremely complex radiation environment with varying particle fluxes around
Jupiter. Several theories were put forward in an effort to explain this puzzling observation. It was generally thought that the
magnetic field models developed from the Pioneer 11 observations were somewhat incomplete due to limitations imposed by
the spacecraft’s trajectory, and that a more detailed model would eventually explain the data. The remote possibility that the
observed radiation belt features could have resulted from absorption effects caused by an undiscovered satellite or possibly
by a ring of particles, or both, was also suggested. This suggestion was based on detailed simulations conducted with existing
magnetic field models to map the trajectories of charged particles. It was found that, by placing a hypothetical absorber at
1.83 Jupiter radii, the observed features could be matched almost exactly. This position was suggested for the possible
location of a satellite, a ring, or both. The Voyager results have shown that both a ring and a satellite exist at this radial
distance, although most theories predict that such objects would have been destroyed long ago by tidal forces generated by
Jupiter’s powerful gravity and would have been precipitated into the Jovian atmosphere. Thus, Pioneer 11 may be credited
with providing evidence for Jupiter’s ring and its newly discovered satellite, although the interpretation of this evidence did
not appear altogether persuasive until the Voyager images were obtained.

The Pioneer 11 spacecraft discovered a high electron current flow at the orbit of Ganymede. Such an increase in electron flow
had not been observed daring the other passages of Pioneer through satellite orbits, except near the Io flux tube where Pioneer
11 detected an increase of about 10 times in the flux of electrons with energies above 0.46 MeV.

Although the configuration of the outer Jovian magnetosphere is still not completely understood, especially how the 10-hour
modulation originates, the picture of the Jovian system emerged as an enormous spinning magnetosphere continually stirred
and mixed by the Galilean satellites and by Amalthea (i.e., the five inner satellites), a magnetosphere in which processes are
at work very different from those in Earth’s magnetosphere. During the Pioneer 11 encounter, the total electron dosage was
less than that experienced by Pioneer 10 even though Pioneer 11 approached closer to Jupiter. This was because the trajectory
of Pioneer 11 was highly inclined relative to that of Pioneer 10. As a result, the Pioneer 11 mission established that spacecraft
trajectories could be planned so that the spacecraft would pass quickly and safely through the plane of intense radiation. The
practicality of an orbital mission to Jupiter and the need for such a mission have thus been demonstrated. Also, the practicality
of the gravity assist slingshot technique to explore the outermost reaches of the Solar System was demonstrated. Pioneer 11,
renamed Pioneer Saturn after its encounter with Jupiter, was on its way to the next outer gas giant with virtually no damage
to its electronics or scientific instruments.

The Planet Jupiter

The Pioneer spacecraft permitted close looks at Jupiter as well as the environment surrounding it. These close looks were
made possible by the spin scan imaging technique, infrared and ultraviolet experiments, and the radio occultation and celestial
mechanics experiments. As a result, astronomers were able to refine theories about the internal composition and the
meteorology and atmosphere of Jupiter. Although the spin scan images are discussed in detail in chapters 8 and 9, it is
appropriate here to summarize the current theories about Jupiter, which were strengthened by or were evolved from the
Pioneer results.

Jupiter appears to be almost entirely fluid, with possibly only a very small core of silicates and metals (Figure 6-17). Jupiter’s
center may have a temperature of 30,000° C (54,000° F), a result of heat from continued gravitational contraction and a reserve
of residual primordial heat. Since the temperature of the Jovian cloudtops is about 148° C (234° F), there is a wide range of
temperatures within the planet so that millions of cubic miles of the atmosphere could be at room temperature.

Atop the bulk of the planet is a turbulent region of atmosphere, possibly 970 km (600 miles) thick. The top regions of this
atmosphere produce clouds that are the visible surface of Jupiter as seen from Earth. A transparent atmosphere extends above
the visible clouds and ultimately leads to a multilayered ionosphere of highly rarefied, electrically charged gas.

Jupiter exhibits convective circulation patterns, but the rapid rotation of the planet and outward flow of internal energy makes
the weather patterns very different from those of Earth.
110 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

From changes to the paths of the Pioneers determined from


their radio signals, the density distributions within Jupiter
imply that the planet must be largely liquid, with no
concentrations of mass and no detectable crust or solid
surface. But Jupiter could still possess a small, liquid, rocky
core of a few Earth masses consisting of iron and silicates.
The composition of Jupiter is not precisely like that of the Sun
since there is a fivefold enhancement of heavy materials on
Jupiter, probably in the form of silicates and ices of ammonia,
methane, and water. Scientists cannot yet define how these
heavier materials are distributed throughout the planet.

Jupiter is probably 85% to 90% hydrogen; despite the high


internal pressures, the hydrogen is most likely liquid because
of Jupiter’s high internal temperatures. However, the pressure
within Jupiter at about 24,000 km (15,000 miles) below the
visible cloud tops is sufficient to convert liquid hydrogen into
a metallic form that more readily conducts heat and
electricity.

Temperatures and pressures are enormously high in the


interior of Jupiter. At 970 km (600 miles) below the cloud
tops, the temperature is probably about 2,000° C (3,600° F).
At 2,900 km (1,800 miles), the temperature is believed to be
6,000° C (11,000° F). At 24,000 km (15,000 miles), the
temperature may reach 11,000° C (20,000° F), and the
pressure may be 3 million Earth atmospheres.

Jupiter also contains 10% to 15% helium which might,


theoretically, be soluble in liquid hydrogen. It is speculated
that, if conditions are not just right, the helium might be
insoluble within the hydrogen and form a shell around the
central core of Jupiter on top of which the liquid metallic
hydrogen would float. There is no adequate theory yet on the
miscibility of metallic hydrogen and helium within a planet
such as Jupiter. There might be precipitation of helium in the
molecular hydrogen, which would be important to layering
and to convective processes within the planet. In turn, these
could affect the magnetic field. Additionally, there is the
question whether rocks might dissolve in a hydrogen / helium
mixture at high temperature. This could prevent the
formation of a discrete rocky core or could have dissolved
such a core that had already formed earlier in the history of
the planet.

The seething internal activity in the metallic hydrogen of


Jupiter is thought to be evidenced by the complex magnetic
field of the planet. Hydrogen moving up from the center of
Jupiter, like water coming to a boil in a saucepan, would
produce eddy currents that give rise to the magnetic field
through rotation of the planet.

Figure 6-17. The Pioneer data confirmed models of Jupiter’s Somewhere around 970 km (600 miles) below the cloud tops,
interior that suggest the planet is mostly liquid with a small rocky where the pressure is low enough for liquid hydrogen to
core and a deep hydrogen-rich atmosphere. become a gas, the atmosphere of Jupiter begins. It is unlikely,
however, that there is a sharp transition surface similar to the
surface of an ocean. Rather, there is probably a gradual
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 111

change through a mixture of gas and liquid. But the top 970 km (600 miles) of the planet, where hydrogen no longer exists
in liquid form, is defined as the Jovian atmosphere.

Jupiter’s atmosphere accounts for about 1% of the mass of the planet. It is predominantly hydrogen (about 85 to 90%) with
10 to 15% helium and less than 1% of other gases. These elements are found in the same proportions on the Sun. Although
helium was believed present in Jupiter, the gas was not positively identified until the Pioneer 10 flyby.

Jupiter’s atmosphere also contains small amounts of ammonia and methane, and traces of deuterium, acetylene, ethane, and
phosphine. In recent years, water vapor has been detected in small quantities as have carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide.
Several trace gases have been discovered, and more are being discovered, through the use of telescopes mounted on high
altitude aircraft that surmount some of the masking absorpdons of Earth’s atmosphere. In the atmosphere extending 32 km
(20 miles) or more above and below the visible cloud tops, solar heat and internal heat from the planet affect circulation and
modify the weather patterns. Jupiter’s clouds form in the atmosphere by condensation, as on Earth. But Jupiter’s clouds
appear to contain ammonia and ammonia compounds as well as water. The topmost clouds are thought to be of ammonia
crystals with water clouds confined to the lower levels.

Figure 6-18. The temperature profile in the Jovian atmosphere and the locations of the various cloud layers shown arc based on data
from the infrared radiometer experiment.

An inversion layer 35 km (22 miles) above the visible clouds is thought to be caused by a layer of aerosols and hydrocarbons
such as ethane and acetylene. In this layer, sunlight is absorbed and adds heat to the cooling atmosphere. Methane, too, would
absorb sunlight and contribute to this inversion layer.
112 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Pioneer 10’s occultation experiment at first produced results for the temperature structure of the Jovian atmosphere that were
in conflict with ground based observations and with the data from the infrared radiometer. Moreover, the data from Pioneer
11 were consistent with those from Pioneer 10. They were finally matched with the ground-based observations by taking into
account the great oblateness, or spin flattening, of Jupiter and its effects on the path of the radio waves through the Jovian
atmosphere. For three measurements – entry and exit of Pioneer 10 and exit of Pioneer 11 – the occultation data were quite
consistent. They showed a temperature inversion between the 10 and 100 millibar levels, with temperatures between 133°
and 113° C (207° and 171 ° F) at the 10 millibar level, and between 183° and 163° C (297° and 261° F) at 100 millibar. At
the 0.001 millibar level, the temperature of the Jovian atmosphere, determined from an occultation of the star Beta Scorpii as
observed from Earth, was about 103° C (153° F). At the cloud tops, however, the temperature as measured by Pioneer was
about 148° C (234° F) (Figure 6-18).

The Pioneer observations also showed that the poles and equatorial regions of Jupiter have effectively the same temperature;
the temperature is also the same on the northern and southern hemispheres and on the day and night sides. Also, because the
axis of Jupiter is inclined only a few degrees to the plane of its orbit, the planet does not have seasons like those on Earth.

Because the Sun’s radiation is more concentrated per unit area in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions, the equator
would be expected to be warmer than the poles, as on Earth and other planets; however, the temperatures do not differ. Two
theories were proposed to account for the even distribution of temperature as measured by infrared radiation from Jupiter. The
first holds that the circulation within the atmosphere should be very efficient in redistributing the solar heat; the second
suggests that the heat flux from inside Jupiter is sufficiently greater at the poles to balance the lesser solar input there. Since
no equator to pole atmospheric flow pattern is seen on Jupiter, the second theory seems more likely to fit conditions on the
planet. It is believed that convection is so effective over the entire planet that it eliminates any temperature differences due
to the solar input variations with latitude. Thus, at the poles, where the cloud temperatures would be expected to fall,
convection brings heat from the interior and keeps the temperature constant. At the equator, where the clouds are warmed
more by the Sun, convection is reduced accordingly. Thus, the planet ants as though controlled by a natural thermostat.

It has been speculated that the spots on Jupiter, including the Great Red Spot, are probably large, hurricane-type features
consisting of groups of persistent air masses that rise like gigantic thunderstorms (Figure 6-19). For reasons mentioned above,
it is no longer believed that the Great Red Spot is a column of gas anchored to some feature on a hypothetical surface of
Jupiter. The core of Jupiter is now believed to be much too small to produce effects that would extend to the visible surface
of the clouds. The Pioneer spacecraft revealed no noticeable density differences to suggest that the Great Red Spot extends
toward the core.

Fundamental questions remain unanswered: What causes the Great Red Spot? Why has it lasted so long? Speculative theories
are constantly being advanced as, for example, that the Great Red Spot is the Jovian equivalent of a hurricane but the validity
of these theories remains in doubt. Equations that describe the atmospheric flow on a rapidly rotating planet with an internal
heat source can be solved by powerful computers. Several scientists have developed mathematical models to explain the Great
Red Spot. Whether these new hydrodynamic solutions do, in fact, apply to the real Great Red Spot must await careful
comparison of the predictions of the spot’s behavior and characteristics. Time lapse motion pictures obtained with the Voyager
spacecraft later threw more light on the complex motions and their probable causes.

One of the most significant images from Pioneer 10 showed a similar red spot, though much smaller, in the northern
hemisphere at the same latitude as the Great Red Spot (Figure 6-20). Its shape and structure confirmed that these red spots
are meteorological features in the atmosphere. The Great Red Spot appeared to rotate counterclockwise as seen from above,
a motion clearly defined in the Voyager pictures. It is thus anticyclonic and behaves as an ascending mass of gas flowing out
at the level of its top which pokes several miles above the surrounding clouds.

By looking at sunlight reflected off a cloud, it is not possible to tell, even on Earth, what is under the cloud. But the nature
of this reflected light reveals much about the size, distribution, and refractive index of the droplets comprising the cloud.
There was no haze over the Great Red Spot as observed by the Pioneer near the limb. At the terminator, the Great Red Spot
showed a bluish tint where the sunlight was scattered into space. Scientists speculated that the red color of the spot may result
from phosphine being carried to great heights where it is broken down by solar ultraviolet to produce red phosphorus.

The views of the north polar regions of Jupiter (Figure 6-21) were unique in that such views are not possible from Earth.
Pioneer’s pictures showed that north of the North Temperate Belt, the dark belts and light zones characteristic of regions closer
to the equator became successively less organized. The band structure changed into oval and circular patterns within 30° of
the pole. The details were greater in the red images of the polar regions, thereby suggesting that the atmosphere is thicker
over the polar clouds than over the temperate and equatorial regions of the planet.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 113

(a) (b)

Figure 6-19. The Great Red Spot was shown to be an atmospheric feature resembling a great system of thunderstorms rising several
kilometers above the topmost clouds of Jupiter.

Figure 6-20. A northern red spot on Jupiter, recorded in new detail by Pioneer, supported the view that these red spots arc hurricane
like phenomena.
114 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

(a) (b)

Figure 6-21. Pioneer 11 obtained unique views of the polar regions of Jupiter, views impossible to obtain from Earth. These polar
atmospheric patterns are very different from those in the equatorial and temperate regions.

Photopolarimetry was also used to estimate the optical depth of the atmosphere above the cloud tops. It appeared to be three
times greater at latitudes above 60° than in the equatorial zone. But the effects may have been caused by a thin, high cloud
layer or an unknown absorber in the upper atmosphere.

The Pioneer observations of Jupiter added considerably to our basic knowledge of the atmospheric dynamics of cloudy planets
by providing information on very deep atmospheres in rapid rotation without any solid surface interactions with the
atmosphere. They also provided informa. tion about atmospheres driven mainly by heal from below rather than from the Sun.

Pioneer results seemed to confirm earlier theoretical deductions that the Great Red Spot and the light colored zones are regions
of well-developed clouds, swirling anticyclones, and rising air masses. The darker belts, by contrast, are cyclonic, sinking
masses of air leading to depressed clouds. The belts and zones of Jupiter reflect sunlight in very different ways. It is
speculated that the belts may appear dark because of dark aerosols suspended in the gaseous atmosphere there. On Jupiter,
the familiar cyclones and anticyclones of Earth are stretched into linear or hook-shaped features on this rapidly rotating planet,
with extremely turbulent areas separating adjacent bands of different velocities, areas in which there are many examples of
classical von Kármán vortices.

Whereas a storm system such as a hurricane on Earth may last for several days or weeks, storm systems on Jupiter last much
longer. The Great Red Spot has been observed for nearly three centuries, although at least twice it has virtually disappeared.
On Earth there are strong interactions between atmospheric systems and the land masses over which the systems travel. These
masses tend to break up an atmospheric system passing over them. In addition, Earth systems are powered by solar heat
concentrated in the tropics during daylight. Thus, they tend to break up when they move away from the tropics and into the
night hemisphere of Earth. However, Jupiter’s storms are powered mainly by internal heat flow that is more evenly distributed
planetwide and over the day and night hemispheres. It is not known why Joviun weather systems can last so long, although
it is clear that the huge mass of a swirling body of gas has immense rotational inertia and consequently has a long lifetime.

Some of the bright zones on Jupiter (Figure 6-22a) may be analogous to tropical convergences on Earth, which show up
plainly on satellite photographs (Figure 6-22b) as bands of thunderstorms, a few degrees north and south of the equator. On
Earth they are caused by the trade winds, blowing toward the equator, and moist air rising in the tropics. The consequent
thunderstorms spread their tops into cirrus clouds which then flow back toward the poles. Similarly, on Jupiter, rising air
masses may produce great anvil shaped masses of cumulus clouds, which appear as bright bands in the North Tropical and
South Tropical Zones (Figure 6-22c).
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 115

(b)

(a)

Figure 6-22. Some of the bright zones of Jupiter. (a) Some may
be analogous to tropical convergences of Earth. (b) Jupiter’s
zones appear to contain warm, moist, rising atmosphere and the
belts, cool, dry, falling Jovian air. (c) Masses of atmosphere from
the tops of the zones spread toward the equator and poles, but
coriolis forces cause the flow to turn 90°. Flow toward the poles
is forced east and flow toward the equator is turned west. Thus,
the atmosphere in Jupiter’s banded regions flows around the
planet, somewhat like Earth’s trade winds.
(c)

A problem still not resolved is why, when ammonia and water are both colorless when condensed, Jupiter displays bands of
colored clouds and red spots. Certain ammonia compounds, if sufficiently exposed to ultraviolet radiation, produce colors
like those on Jupiter. Sufficient solar radiation does penetrate to the cloud levels. Perhaps carbon compounds or traces of
sulfur and phosphorus all believed to be present in primordial material supply some of the color. Only traces would be needed
to react in sunlight and produce the colors seen on Jupiter. It could very well be that, because the gas of the Great Red Spot
rises so high, it is subjected to irradiation by solar ultraviolet which triggers a different set of photochemical reactions that
deepen the color.

However, since solar ultraviolet radiation penetrates to lower cloud levels, that is, to the belts, the Great Red Spot may result
from a different type of chemical reaction, from low temperature, or from longer exposure to the radiation because its gases
are less mixed than those of the belts.
116 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The presence of free radicals could also explain the colors on Jupiter. At very low temperatures, such as those experienced
in the higher cloud layers, chemical compounds can exist with some of their normal complement of atoms missing and still
be relatively stable these are called free radicals and they are generally highly colored.

Limb darkening on Jupiter shows that the clouds of the planet consist of a thin upper layer, which is semitransparent to red light,
above a more dense lower layer. The particles of Jupiter’s upper clouds are much smaller than particles in Earth’s clouds.

A precise modeling of the Jovian cloud layers was still continuing at the time of the Voyager encounters in 1979. Generally,
two cloud layers appeared to be present on the planet: a thick, low deck with a gaseous atmosphere above and a thin, high
layer topped by aerosols. The Jovian cloud particles were not spherical (unlike the sulfuric acid droplets of the Venusian
atmosphere). Instead, the Jovian particles seemed irregular and probably larger than the wavelength of light. Clouds seemed
to be lower at the poles. But, alternatively, the upper cloud layers might have been diffuse with many aerosols suspended in
the upper atmosphere.

The pictures of Jupiter revealed several surprises about the clouds. The detailed cloud structures in intermediate latitudes were
unexpected. The billows and whirls near the edges of belts and zones confirmed that the direction and speed of the winds
change rapidly there. Motions in latitude as well as in longitude seem to be evidenced by trends and slants in the North
Tropical Zone, for example. The plume in the Equatorial Zone was revealed in remarkable detail, which provided structural
information so important to understanding these common cloud forms of that zone.

Infrared observations of Jupiter have been made from the ground at wavelengths of 5 µm where there is a window of
transparency in the atmospheres of both Earth and Jupiter. Maps of Jupiter at this wavelength, made at the Hale Observatories,
reveal belts and zones very much the same as shown in photographs of Jupiter taken by visible light. But the dark visible belts
are light (hotter) in the infrared pictures, and the light visible zones are dark (cooler) (Figure 6-23). The infrared radiation
comes from deep within the atmosphere and shows that the dark visible belts are lower, or thinner, hotter clouds, while the
bright visible features are higher, or thicker, cooler clouds. There is also a close correlation between infrared maps of the dark,
bluish gray regions, which are interpreted as dark holes in the clouds. These show as regions of increased infrared radiation.
The 5-µm pictures also correlate well with the Pioneer pictures of visible features; the prominent plume and various cells and
wave features are clearly the same.

(a) (b)

Figure 6-23. Ground based infrared maps of Jupiter (a) show a correlation between infrared sources and the dark zones of the planet
seen on the Pioneer images (b). (Photograph J. A, Westphal, Hale Ohservatories)
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 117

The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft also made infrared maps of Jupiter, but at 20 and 40 µm where, although there is less detail
because of less penetration and less temperature contrast, the planet emits more infrared radiation than it does at 5 µm (Figure
6-24). These maps also confirm the high and low clouds and provide information on the general heat balance of the planet
namely, that Jupiter emits more heat than it absorbs from the Sun.

Despite the loss of some data about the northern hemisphere of


Jupiter because of radiation effects on the instrument, the
infrared radiometer onboard Pioneer 11 provided two infrared
spinscan images of the planet. A complete image was centered
at 41° south latitude and a partial image at 52° north latitude.
The ratio of total thermal energy to absorbed solar energy was
revised to 1.7 ±0.2; previous estimates were 2.5 ±0.5. The fact
that both Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 data yield this result
increases confidence in the new value. Thus Jupiter does not
appear to be emitting as much internal heat as was once
thought. The new value lends support to the idea that Jupiter
loses internal energy by cooling and contraction only, not by
separation of helium from hydrogen or other mechanisms.

Jupiter’s ionosphere rises 4000 km (2500 miles) above the


visible surface. It is 10 times thicker and 5 times hotter than
predicted. Also, the ionosphere has at least 5 sharply defined
layers of different density, similar to Earth’s ionospheric
layers that permit long range radio communications around
the bulge of Earth by returning certain radio frequencies to
the ground.
Figure 6-24. An infrared map of Jupiter from Pioneer 11 provides
Confirmation that Jupiter has a warm, extended, hydrogen- information about the heat balance which shows that Jupiter emits
rich atmosphere has important implications for further 1.7 times more heat than it receives from the Sun.
exploration of this giant planet.

Before the measurements by the Pioneer spacecraft, engineers generally considered that a probe into Jupiter’s atmosphere
could not withstand the intense heat at entry. Now, the new determinations of the Jovian atmosphere suggest that a probe can
be built to survive entry into the Jovian atmosphere and to directly measure its characteristics and constituents. Thus, the path
was cleared for NASA’s Project Galileo: a Jupiter probe and orbiter.

The Pioneers stimulated a great increase in theoretical and ground based planetary astronomy and confirmed or revealed
enough information about Jupiter to provide a basis for further missions. Pioneers 10 and 11 also demonstrated for the first
time that such exploration is within the capabilities of present day space technology.

There is now the opportunity to sample directly what may be the primordial material of our Solar System, moving back 4.5
billion years in time.

Encounter with Saturn

The Pioneer 11 spacecraft, after traveling more than 3.2 billion kilometers (2 billion miles) on a journey of nearly 6.5 years,
spent 10 days gathering a wealth of new information about Saturn and its ring system. Pioneer hurtled through the plane of
the rings twice, on inbound and outbound passages, at a distance of about 38,000 km (23,600 miles) from the outside edge of
the visible ring system. The outbound crossing was slightly nearer the planet than the inbound crossing. The trajectory
(Figure 6-25) carried the spacecraft 2,000 to 10,000 km (1,240 to 6,200 miles) below the rings. Closest approach to Saturn
occurred below the rings on September 1, 1979, 20,930 km (13,000 miles) above the cloud tops (Figure 6-26). The speed of
the Pioneer spacecraft at its closest approach to Saturn was 114,150 km/hr (70,900 mph). During the Saturn encounter,
Pioneer made important discoveries about the planet’s magnetosphere, magnetic field, and trapped radiation, as well as
Saturn’s satellites, rings, and the planet itself.
118 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 6-26 (above). The path of Pioneer 11 past Saturn showing


the two crossings of the ring plane and how the spacecraft
skimmed along just beneath the rings.

Figure 6-25. The trajectory of Pioneer 11 was inclined 6.55° to


Saturn’s equatorial plane solid line is north of the plane, the dotted
part of the trajectory, south of the plane. The curved arrows
represent the motions of the known satellites during the time
between Pioneer’s inbound and outbound crossings of their orbits.
Saturn’s Magnetosphere

The most fundamental discovery by Pioneer was that Saturn has a magnetic field and a magnetosphere. Although scientists
thought it likely that Saturn has a strong magnetic field because of the planet’s similarity to Jupiter, which has a strong field,
there had previously been no conclusive evidence of a magnetic field.

As the Pioneer spacecraft approached Saturn, a bow shock, where the solar wind is deflected by the planet’s magnetic field,
was detected on August 31, 1979, at a distance of 1,446,000 km (898,540 miles).

Figure 6-27. The magnetic field of Saturn is unique in that it is aligned closely with the spin axis of the planet, quite different from the
field of other planets.

Pioneer approached Saturn almost along the noon meridian and encountered the bow shock three times at 24.1, 23.1, and 20.0
Saturn radii; it then crossed the magnetopause at 17.3 planetary radii. Saturn was shown to have a detached bow shock and
magnetopause similar to those of Earth and Jupiter. High-resolution data from some of the instruments showed that the shock
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 119

was very turbulent; its precise position was difficult to


determine. Across the shock, the solar wind speed was
observed to change from 470 km/sec 1292 miles/sec) to less
than 140 km/sec (87 miles/sec). Its temperature increased
from 30,000º K to nearly 470,000º K. As Pioneer passed
inward through the magnetic field of Saturn, another
important discovery was made Saturn’s magnetic field was
unique in that its orientation corresponded almost exactly
with the axis of rotation of the planet, the magnetic axis being
tilted less than 1°. This contrasts markedly with the magnetic
fields of Earth, Jupiter, and Mercury, which are tilted 10° to
20° with respect to their axes of rotation (Figure 6-27). The
surprising lack of any appreciable tilt to Saturn’s magnetic
axis causes difficulties in explaining the field by some
dynamo theories of the generation of planetary fields. It also
prevents the accurate measurement of the period of rotation
of Saturn’s interior by of magnetic field observations.

The magnetic moment of Saturn is 540 times stronger than


Earth’s, and 35 times weaker than Jupiter’s. The strength of
the field at the equatorial cloud tops of Saturn is about 0.20
gauss – Earth’s field at the surface is 0.31 gauss. Polar fields of
Saturn are 0.63 gauss (north) and 0.48 gauss south). The center
of Saturn’s field is displaced northward some 2400 km (1490
miles) along the axis of the planet. Like the field of Jupiter, the
polarity of Saturn’s field is opposite to that of Earth.
Figure 6-28. Interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere
of Saturn showing how the wind is deflected by the bow shock and
Because there is only a relatively small quadipole component
flows around the planet in the magnetosheath. The sizes of the
in Saturn’s magnetic field, scentists believe this means that magnetosphere and the radiation belts change in response to the
the field must originate far below the visible surface and that external pressure of the solar wind.
Saturn must have a core of metallic hydrogen smaller than
Jupiter’s metallic hydrogen core.

Like Earth and Jupiter, Saturn has a detached, strong bow shock and a magnetopause. The magetosphere of Saturn (Figure
6-28) is very responvive to changes in the solar wind, but on a smaller scale than that of Jupiter. The observed dimensions of
the magnetosphere of Saturn were, however, perhaps half the average because of the markedly enhanced solar wind pressure
when Pioneer encountered the planet. The blunt sunward side of the magnetosphere, where the bow shock is located, moves
in and out as the pressure of the solar wind varies. The outbound leg of the trajectory, along the dawn meridian, carried
Pioneer across the magnetopause five times between 30 and 40 Saturn radii, and nine times across the bow shock between 49
and 102 Saturn radii (see Table 6-1).

Table 6-1. Crossings of the Bow Shock and the Magnetopause as Recorded by the Plasma Analyzer
120 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The magnetosphere has four distinct regions. An outer magnetosphere had, at Pioneer encounter, a corotating plasma in which
the flux of charged particles varied considerably with time. From 15 to 6 Saturn radii, the observed direction of 1 MeV proton
streaming is consistent with full corotation. On the outbound leg of its trajectory, Pioneer found that there may be a
magnetotail or a magnetodisk generated in the outer magnetosphere. The magnetic field in this outer magnetosphere was
compressed near noon and extended equatorially near dawn, probably because of the presence of a current sheet (Figure 6-
29) in or near the magnetic equator and possibly associated with formation of a magnetotail. There was, however, no evidence
for a magnetodisk in the planet’s dayside magnetosphere. But near dawn in Saturn’s magnetosphere, the field lines became
equatorial instead of north-south, thereby showing the presence of a current sheet.

Figure 6-29. A schematic of the magnetic field of Saturn along the


inbound and outbound trajectories. In the outer magnetosphere,
the dipole magnetic field is compressed near noon. Near the
dawn meridian, by contrast, it is swept back more or less parallel
to the equator and the magnetopause.
Figure 6-30. Absorption of charged particles by Mimas is shown
by these data.

Inside about 6 Saturn radii, the inner boundary of the first


region, the numbers of low energy protons dropped markedly.
This effect is believed to result from the sweeping effect of
the satellites Dione, Tethys, and Enceladus and by a thin ring
of dust (E ring). This second region has been called the “slot”
because of its reduced level of radiation.

Starting at 4 Saturn radii, the third region, the inner


magnetosphere, has a complex spectrum of very energetic
charged particles. Protons with energies greater than 80 MeV
were measured to a maximum flux of 2.5 x 104 per cm2/sec,
and electrons with energies greater than 0.56 MeV, to a flux
of 9 x 106 per cm2/sec.

There was a distinct region (Figure 6-30) associated with the


satellite Mimas where particle were depleted.

Analysis of particle fluxes, spectra, and distributions shows that:


(a) The low-energy (~1 MeV) protons in the outer
Figure 6-31. Diagram of Saturn’s inner magnetosphere and the magnetosphere come either from the solar wind or from solar
trapped radiation belts. Decreases in particle flux at the locations of energetic particle beams. (b) The electrons from 40 keV to
the orbits of Saturn’s satellites result from the sweeping effect of several MeV throughout the magnetosphere come from the solar
these satellites. The satellites absorb any particles that strike them. wind. (c) The very high-energy (>80 MeV) protons in the inner
Also, the rings effectively block particle flux at their outer edge; thus magnetosphere come from the decay of neutrons produced in the
the innermost region of the magnetosphere is radiation free.
atmosphere and rings of the planet by cosmic ray bombardment.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 121

Figure 6-32. The trapping boundary for energetic particles was


accurately coincident with the magnetopause as shown here for Figure 6-33. Any high-energy protons and electrons that collide
a general overview of 15-minute counting rates (BS, bow shock; with ring particles are absorbed completely, as shown in this plot
MP, magnetopause). along the inbound trajectory.

In the fourth region of the magnetosphere, internal to the outer edge of ring A, the rings have swept up nearly all trapped
radiation to create an environment almost free of radiation.

Thus, Pioneer discovered that Saturn, like Jupiter and Earth, has belts of trapped energetic particles, mainly protons and
electrons (Figure 6-31). The trapping boundary for energetic particles was observed to be accurately coincident with the
magnetopause on both inbound and outbound legs of the trajectory (Figure 6-32). The particles are present around Saturn in
quantities comparable to but greater than those in Earth’s radiation belts, but they extend over a much greater region because
Saturn’s magnetosphere is so much larger than that of Earth. Saturn’s radiation belts are some 10 times larger in linear
dimensions than Earth’s radiation belts. Even so, the total radiation dosage of electrons of energy greater than 0.56 MeV
experienced by Pioneer during its flyby of Saturn was 7 x 1010 electrons/cm2, which is about the same as that encountered
during only 5 minutes of the spacecraft’s passage through the most intense region of Jupiter’s inner radiation belt.

The radiation environment of Saturn is made much less intense by the presence of the rings, which have a marked effect on
the radiation belts of the planet. Particles in radiation belts oscillate up and down across the equatorial plane of the planet,
first toward one pole and then, as though reflected by a mirror, back toward the other. As particles gradually diffuse inward
toward the planet, they are absorbed by the rings. Any high-energy electrons and protons that collide with ring particles are
wiped out completely (Figure 6-33). From these observations the outer edge of the A ring is found to be at a radial distance
of 2.292 ±0.002 Saturn radii. Also, the general magnetic field of the planet reduces the level of high-energy cosmic radiation,
thereby making the region inward of the outermost edge of the rings perhaps the most radiation-free space within the Solar
System. However, a weak flux of high-energy electrons was discovered under the rings. It had an intensity 4 to 5 times the
interplanetary flux of such electrons during quiet periods of solar activity.

As Pioneer approached Saturn, the spacecraft’s instruments measured a maximum intensity of very energetic protons at 2.67
Saturn radii. Anomalies in the rate of increase, and some decreases in the number of particles inward toward the planet,
provided crucial information on the origin of these particles as summarized above.

Generally, the trapped radiation in the inner magnetosphere was spaced symmetrically around the planet, thereby showing that
Saturn’s magnetosphere is much more stable than Jupiter’s. The effects of satellites in sweeping energetic particles from the
radiation belts was more clearly defined at Saturn than at Jupiter because of the regular nature of Saturn’s magnetosphere.
122 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

A speculative possibility is the effect of Jupiter on Saturn’s magnetosphere. About every 20 years, Jupiter may shield Saturn
from the solar wind when Saturn becomes immersed transiently in an extended magnetotail of Jupiter. Then Saturn’s
magnetosphere might expand dramatically. Such a condition may be observed when Voyager 2 encounters Saturn in 1981.

Saturn’s Satellites

Just after Pioneer passed through the plane of the rings on its inward passage, the number of energetic particles decreased
abruptly to about 2% of the prevailing value for 10 seconds. The experimenters attributed the absorption of particles to a
previously unknown satellite-sized body. The satellite, designated 1979-S2, had to be at least 170 km (106 miles) in diameter to
account for the effects observed. It is the first satellite to be discovered from an analysis of energetic charged particles, apart from
the Pioneer 11 evidence for a ring or inner satellite of Jupiter noted earlier. Its orbit was within that of Mimas, about 14,500 km
(9,010 miles) from the outer edge of the visible rings at 2.53 Saturn radii from the center of the planet (Figure 6-34).

(a)
Figure 6-34. A new satellite of Saturn (1979-S1) was discovered
by analysis of absorptions of charged particles, the first such
discovery by this method. (a) Plots of average counting rates
show the absorption by Mimas and several others nearer the
planet, particularly one at about 2.52 Saturn radii. (b) More
details of this absorption at 2.53 to 2.52 Saturn radii and at an
enlarged scale (below).

On the previous day, the imaging photopolarimeter


discovered a new satellite. It showed up on two of the
computer generated pictures of Saturn as a small dot of light,
consisting of three pixels only, near the outer edge of the
rings (Figure 6-35). The small satellite was designated 1979-
S1 – 1979-S1 and 1979-S2 could be the same object detected
independently by two quite different techniques. Moreover,
the satellite may be one of those detected by ground-based
observations during the edge-on presentation of the ring
system in 1966. Pioneer also found that there was absorption (b)
of high energy electrons and protons by the satellites
Enceladus and Tethys. As a result of this absorption, low-energy charged particles are sputtered from the satellites’ surfaces
and create an oxygen-ion-rich plasma torus at the orbit of each satellite. Strong ultraviolet radiation from these oxygen ions
was detected by Pioneer’s ultraviolet photometer.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 123

Figure 6-35. This picture by Pioneer shows great detail in the ring system, and the newly discovered satellite 1979-S1. (a) Computer
enhanced picture taken August 31, 1979, at a distance of 943,000 km (585,950 miles) from Saturn. (b) The satellite and some ring
features; the satellite Tethys is also down.

There was no evidence of absorption of energetic particles by the suspected satellite Janus at or near a distance of 2.66 Saturn
radii, although there were clear absorptions that might be associated with previously unknown satellites at 2.34 and 2.82
Saturn radii.

The Pioneer observations indicate that the F ring and the G ring contain small satellites and that there may be small satellites
associated with the A and B rings. Formation of Saturn’s rings by tidal breakup of a single satellite now seems unlikely. It
is postulated that although near Jupiter the satellites Io and Europa formed, the lesser mass density of the solar nebula at the
distance of Saturn’s orbit resulted in the formation of a system of rings and small satellites.

The previously known large satellites did perturb Pioneer’s path through the system. From these effects, the masses of
Iapetus, Rhea, and Titan were determined more accurately; their mean densities were calculated as 1.8, 1.0, and 1.32 gm/cm3,
respectively. These satellites were confirmed as being low-density icy worlds. The particle absorption signature of Mimas
appeared unexpected because it suggests that Mimas has a diameter less than 180 km (112 miles) compared with the generally
accepted value of about 360 km (220 miles). If the smaller diameter is correct, the mean density of the satellite would be 5
gm/cm3 a surprisingly high value.

The photopolarimeter obtained polarization measurements of Titan’s atmosphere over a wide range of phase angles. Light
from Titan was found to be strongly polarized, and the data revealed the types of aerosols present in the Titan atmosphere.
The data appear to be consistent with a haze of methane particles extending high into the atmosphere. Infrared radiation at
45 µm from the clouds revealed a cloud top temperature of only 198° C (324° F), about as expected for a body in equilibrium
with solar radiation and one that generates no internal heat. There may be warmer regions below that are obscured by aerosols,
but nevertheless it appears that Titan does not have a significant internal heat source. A greenhouse effect, which would trap
solar radiation, was not ruled out; however, the results from Pioneer do not support the possibility that life or precursors of
life exist on Titan. The images of Titan obtained by the Pioneer spacecraft do not show any revealing detail.

Data sets at red and blue wavelengths recorded by the imaging photopolarimeter provided information to determine the radius
of Titan more precisely. These radii are 2,845 ±25 km and 2,880 ±22 km for red and blue wavelengths, respectively. The
difference may result from there being a thin haze of submicrometer particles above the nominal haze layer.

The linear polarization of the integrated disk of Titan in red and blue light at phase angles between 15° and 97° provided
information about the sizes of particles in the atmosphere of this large satellite. A polarization of 54% measured in blue light
at 90° phase angle implies that the particles near the top of Titan’s atmosphere must have radii smaller than about 0.09 µm if
they have a refractive index of 2.0. A smaller polarization in red light (41 %) implies that the optical thickness of the layers
of small aerosols is about 0.6 above an effective depolarizing surface. The shape of the polarization / phase curve in blue light
suggests increasing particle size with increasing depth in the atmosphere.

Pioneer’s ultraviolet instrument discovered a cloud of hydrogen atoms around Titan, extending at least 300,000 km (186,400
miles) along the orbit and about 180,000 km (112,000 miles) thick. This discovery suggests that the methane in Titan’s
atmosphere is being broken down into hydrogen and carbon by solar radiation. Hydrogen atoms would possess sufficient
124 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

energy to escape into space hence the observed hydrogen cloud. Since the heavier carbon atoms do not travel fast enough to
escape, they would be expected to remain in the atmosphere and possibly to produce aerosol clouds, the particles of which
ultimately fall to Titan’s surface.

The Rings of Saturn

The Pioneer missions provided valuable information on the magnificent ring system of Saturn. Discovered by Galileo in 1610, the
true nature of this ring system swarms of small orbiting bodies was not understood until the speculations of Huygens in 1659. This
ring system has divisions and gaps where the orbiting particles are fewer in number than in the visible rings. The most prominent
of these is Cassini’s division. Before the Pioneer encounter, the division was believed to be about 6,400 km (4,000 miles) wide, but
Pioneer refined the dimension to 4,200 km (2,600 miles). The division separates the two main bright rings, A and B.

Some of the most spectacular pictures from any of the space


missions were taken by Pioneer when it obtained images of
Saturn’s ring system illuminated from behind. These pictures
provided valuable new information that could never be
obtained from Earth. Those rings, which normally appear
bright when viewed from Earth, appear dark in the Pioneer
pictures, and the dark gaps in the rings as seen from Earth
appear as bright rings in the Pioneer pictures (Figure 6-36).
The gaps appear bright because they are not entirely free of
material and the particles within the gaps scatter the sunlight.
However, the particles within the bright rings are sufficient to
intercept most of the sunlight and permit only a small amount
of it to pass through. These new viewpoints based on light
transmitted through the rings allow scientists to assess much
more accurately the thickness of the ring material.

Several surprises came from Pioneer’s observations of the


ring system. No visual trace was found of an outermost E
ring (sometimes referred to as the D’ ring), first referred to by
Fournier when the rings were viewed edge-on in 1907. He
wrote of a faint, transparent, and luminous ring outside the
Figure 6-36. A general view of Saturn and its magnificent ring
system during the approach of Pioneer – rings are illuminated principal rings of Saturn. Other astronomers claimed they
from behind. had seen the E ring when the rings were again edge-on in
1952 through 1954; it was photographed by W.A. Feibelman
and G.P. Kuiper in the 1966 period. Some radar data appeared to support the presence of the E ring but in the imaging data
from Pioneer there was no trace of the ring. Nonetheless, the energetic particle measurements suggest confirmatory evidence
for a thin tenous E ring. Also, the dust detector provided evidence for the E ring and suggested a thickness of 1,800 km with
an optical depth (opacity) greater than 10-8.

The A ring, the bright outer ring seen from Earth, was found by Pioneer to transmit in part appreciable amounts of sunlight;
it appeared bright in the Pioneer pictures. Considerable structural details could be seen in the ring (Figure 6-37); the outer
25% was substantially darker than the rest of the ring, thereby showing that it contains more material. The inner parts showed
several regions that have a low particle density, but the innermost edge contains much material and is almost as opaque as the
B ring. This B ring, the brightest ring seen from Earth, is almost completely opaque to sunlight striking it on the side away
from the observer.

The composition and sizes of the particles comprising the rings have for many years been a matter of debate and speculation.
The celestial mechanics experiment showed that the total mass of the rings is less than 3 millionths that of Saturn itself. Where
the rings were illuminated by sunlight, Pioneer measured a temperature of 208° C (342° F). Where the planet’s shadow fell
on the rings, the temperature was 210° C (346° F). This small difference in temperature indicates that the rings receive energy
from the dark hemisphere of Saturn. The temperature of the unilluminated face of the rings was about 218° C (360° F). This
temperature indicates that considerable infrared radiation is transmitted through the rings, but the rings are thick enough to
insulate the dark side from the warmer sunlit side. The rings cannot be more than 4 km (2.5 miles) thick. The size of the ring
particles appeared to be in the centimeter range. However, Pioneer observations of the unilluminated side of the rings indicate
a distribution of much smaller particles also – ~100 µm in diameter. These may result from collisions between larger particles.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 125

(a) (b)

(c)

Figure 6-37. The unique vantage point of Pioneer revealed many new features in the rings. (a) One of the many images obtained by
Pioneer. (b) Features in the ring system. (c) Brightness of the rings on the unilluminated side in red light plotted versus distance from
Saturn in planetary radii.

The dark Cassini division between the A and B rings


appeared quite bright when seen from Pioneer (Figure 6-38)
because it contains particles, and these scatter light through
the division. A less bright region near the middle of the
division indicated a gap there.

The C ring or Crepe ring, discovered by Bond in 1850, is a


very faint dusky ring inside the B ring. The C ring was
clearly identified on the Pioneer pictures as a bright ring (see
Figure 6-38) since it also scatters light. Particles in this ring
were apparently as diffuse as in Cassini’s division.

Figure 6-38. The dark Cassini division between rings A and B


appeared quite bright from the Pioneer spacecraft. This closeup
shows the effect of back illumination in detailing the sing structure.
126 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Pioneer confirmed the existence of another ring division that


had been suggested by several French astronomers. Pioneer
pictures of the shadows of the rings on the clouds of Saturn
(Figure 6-39) clearly revealed a division between the B and
C rings. The division, about 3,600 km (2,200 miles) wide,
was called the French or Dollfus division.

Although no optical trace was found of the E ring (apparently


it is too faint to be detected by the imaging photopolari-
meter), a narrow ring appeared outside the A ring on the
Pioneer pictures (Figure 6-40). The Pioneer experimenters
called the new ring the F ring. It is quite narrow, less than
800 km (500 miles) wide, and it is separated from the outer
edge of the A ring by a gap of about 3,600 km (2,240 miles)
named the Pioneer division by the spacecraft team. Details
of the measurements of the ring system from Pioneer data are
Figure 6-39. The vantage point of Pioneer allowed pictures such given in Table 6-2.
as this, not only the back illuminated rings but their shadows on
the cloud tops of the planet.

Table 6-2. Dimensions of the Ring System of Saturn from Pioneer Data

a – Radius of Saturn taken as 60,000 km (37,280 miles).

Pioneer also discovered a substantial glow of atomic hydrogen


around the ring system, which was enhanced at the B ring. The
presence of hydrogen is attributed to the dissociation of water
molecules sputtered off the rings by sunlight.

The Planet Saturn

Measurements of the trajectory of Pioneer past Saturn


allowed the shape and gravity field of the planet to be
determined more precisely than ever before. Because of the
planet’s rapid rotation, Saturn’s polar diameter is about 10%
less than its equatorial diameter. The polar flattening was
determined more precisely from the spin scan imaging data.
Figure 6-40. Close-up of the ring system showing the new ring
By overlapping graphical predictions of geometric distortions discovered by Pioneer, the F ring.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 127

of spin scan images with raster scans of the raw data (both displayed on the same scale), the precise geometry of each data-
seeking sequence was established. The predictions are quite sensitive to the dimensions assumed for Saturn and its rings. As
a result, scientists concluded that the ratio of polar to equatorial radius is 0.912 ±0.006 and that the Encke gap in the rings is
133,500 km (82,960 miles) from Saturn’s center.

Figure 6-41. The interior of Saturn compared with those of Earth and our Moon: a small rocky core surrounded by a deep shell of
liquid metallic hydrogen, topped by a shell of liquid hydrogen and an atmosphere of hydrogen rich gas. The liquid metallic hydrogen
region is not as large proportionately in Saturn as in Jupiter.
128 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 6-42. Infrared radiometer image of Saturn and its rings in which brightness is related to temperature; temperature of the
brightest areas is about 173° C (280° F). The left image shows contrast in the colder region of the rings. The right image shows
contrast in the warmer region of the planet. The distortion in the images results from the high speed of the spacecraft and the time
required to gather the data for them. On the left, the warm infrared radiation from the planet is seen through the Cassini division
between the A and B rings. The brightness level on the right image implies that Saturn emits heat at a rate 2.8 times that at which it
absorbs energy from the Sun.

Analysis of the gravity field, coupled with a calculated temperature profile based on the infrared measurements of heat emitted
from the clouds in excess of that absorbed from the Sun, allowed the experimenters to develop a new view of the interior of
the planet (Figure 6-41). The planet’s core of about 18 Earth masses appears to have two distinct regions. An inner core,
about the size of Earth but with a mass about 3 times that of Earth, is a mixture of iron-rich rocky materials. An outer core,
of about 9 Earth masses, is thought to consist of ammonia, methane, and water. It probably extends from the center of the
planet to about 23% of the radius, that is, to about 13,800 km (8,575 miles). Above the core and extending to about 58% of
Saturn’s radius, there appears to be a region of liquid metallic hydrogen, a form of hydrogen at high temperature and under
great pressure so that it readily conducts electricity. The presence of this material was also indicated by the characteristics of
the planet’s magnetic field. The nature of this field implied that the metallic hydrogen dynamo region of Saturn must be
substantially smaller than that of Jupiter: 0.5 Saturn radii compared with 0.75 Jupiter radii, respectively.

The effective temperature of Saturn measured by the infrared experiment (Figure 6-42) was -177° C (-287° F), some 30° C
less than that of Jupiter. Saturn was found to radiate 2.8 ±0.9 times more heat than it absorbs from the Sun. Photometric data
lead, however, to a greater number. Analysis of photometric observations at large phase angles in red and blue light led to an
important conclusion. If Saturn scatters light similarly at other wavelengths, its bolometric geometric albedo together with
the effective temperature of 177° C (reported by the infrared experimenters) imply that Saturn radiates three times as much
energy as it receives from the Sun.

It is suggested that only about half the planet’s heat is generated by leftover heat of formation and by a continuing compression
of the planet’s core by the enormous weight of all layers of material above it. Additional heat is probably being evolved by
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 129

a separation of the planet’s two major constituents, hydrogen and helium. At Saturn’s temperature, which is lower than
Jupiter’s, helium does not remain mixed with hydrogen as it might be within Jupiter. The denser helium, gradually sinking to
Saturn’s core, is generating heat. Infrared and radio occultation data show that the outer atmosphere of Saturn is about 90%
hydrogen and 10% helium.

Saturn’s Atmosphere and Cloud Systems

The pictures of Saturn’s clouds showed surprisingly little contrast. The infrared data suggest that these clouds are thicker than
the Jovian clouds. The images showed some scalloping on the edges of belts and zones, as on Jupiter. Such scalloping is
caused by differences in velocities between adjacent air masses. There were subtle colors in the clouds away from the poles,
but at the poles there was a clearly blue green color. This was believed to result from Rayleigh scattering of light in the
atmosphere. Saturn’s cloud tops appeared lower at the poles than at the equator. Hence the planet’s gaseous atmosphere could
be seen above the clouds, ranging in color from dark blue to slightly green.

Saturn’s pastel colors changed to brownish belts at about 55°


latitude in both hemispheres. Near the terminator, the colors
darkened, indicating that light was being scattered by the
molecules of the atmospheric gases.

The polarization measurements of Saturn indicated an


atmosphere (Figure 6-43) of clear gas to a pressure of 2
atmospheres, then a region of small absorbing particles, then
an ammonia haze, with a topmost ammonia cloud deck. The
cloud tops appeared to be at a pressure of about 750 millibars.
The colored clouds may be deeper in the atmosphere of
Saturn than they are in the Jovian atmosphere, thereby
accounting for the lack of strong coloring on Saturn.
Generally, Saturn appeared to have more and narrower belts
and zones than Jupiter. There appeared to be features like jet
streams, one at about 70° north latitude and another near the
equator. A plume in the northern hemisphere, similar to that
seen on Jupiter by Pioneer, was also discovered. The jet
stream is much faster than that of Jupiter: 350 km/hr (217
mph) compared with 150 km/hr (93 mph).
Figure 6-43. Possible arrangement of the clouds within the
atmosphere of Saturn and temperatures at the various levels.
An ultraviolet glow, intensified at the polar regions, could be
caused by aurorae or it might be a limb brightening effect.

Infrared measurements of the globe of Saturn showed that


temperature dropped within 8° of the equator corresponding to
the high clouds of the equatorial yellow band. Also, the
temperature of the belts and zones differed by about 2.5° C
(4.5° F). The temperature of the upper atmospheric layers was
about 5° C (9° F) warmer than expected, thereby confirming
suggestions that substantial heat moves from inside the planet
outward, almost certainly by convective circulation.

Saturn’s ionosphere, as measured by the occultation experiment


near the terminator, extends much higher than that of Jupiter,
but the inferred temperature is about the same, of the order of
1,000º C (1,830° F). Two peaks of electrons were identified.
The highest, at about 1,800 km (1,100 miles) above the cloud
tops, has about 1.1 x 104 electrons/cm3. The other, at 1,200 km
(745 miles) has a peak electron density of 9 x 103 /cm3.
Figure 6-44. Temperature structure in the upper neutral
atmosphere of Saturn as determined from the radio occultation
experiment of Pioneer.
130 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The S-band radio signal also penetrated the neutral atmosphere of Saturn to the level of about 150 millibars (19% of Earth’s
atmospheric pressure at sea level). The temperature structure derived from these data matches the temperatures derived from
the infrared radiometer measurements for a compoposition of 90% hydrogen, 10% helium. The minimum temperature was
about -185° C (-301° F) at a level of about 100 millibars (Figure 6-44).

The mission of the two Pioneer spacecraft to explore the giant planets of our Solar System was remarkably successful. Many
questions had been answered and many discoveries made. Nonetheless, these giant planets, with their intriguing satellites,
ring systems, and complex magnetospheres, posed many new questions. Some of these are being answered by the Voyager
spacecraft, but others will remain for future missions to place orbiters around these giants and to dispatch probes deep into
their atmospheres. The Pioneer trailblazers opened the outer Solar System to mankind, but a full exploration of the many
planetary worlds there will take decades of human effort. This exploration will undoubtedly reveal surprises equally as great
as those of the Pioneers.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 131

7
Images from Jupiter and Saturn
The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft used small instruments called imaging photopolarimeters (IPPs) to form images of Jupiter
and Saturn. The IPPs measured the strength of sunlight scattered from the clouds of the planets and their satellites, and
converted this light intensity data into digital representations of different shades of red and blue that made up each image.
This digital information was then transmitted by radio to Earth where with the aid of computers scientists converted these
signals into patterns of light and dark on a photographic film. This chapter describes the complexities of this process and
discusses ways in which scientists overcame problems with this technique.

Bits and Pixels

Photographs in newspapers and magazines are reproduced by a technique known as the halftone process. If such pictures are
enlarged many times, they are seen to consist of thousands of small, regularly spaced, black dots of varying sizes – large dots
for dark areas and smaller dots for light areas. These dots are too small to be seen separately by the unaided eye; the viewer
sees a continuous distribution of changing gray levels that make the picture. Small dots give the impression of light gray and
large dots form the dark gray areas.

Instead of dots, a picture can consist of small contiguous areas called picture elements, or pixels, each with its own shade of
gray. Pixels are usually square or rectangular, and if there are enough shades of gray and if the pixels are small enough, the
eye fuses the array of little squares or rectangles into a continuous, smooth looking picture. The shades of gray (or gray levels,
as they are usually called) can also be divided into a limited number of different values a number, say 64, of evenly spaced
shades of gray is chosen, with black thus represented by 0, white by 63, and the intermediate shades by 1 through 62.

Figure 7-1a is a photograph originally consisting of pixels and gray levels instead of conventional dots, although it is
reproduced here by a dot process. A small portion of the picture (shown magnified in Figure 7-1b) reveals the pixels and gray
levels. The numbers on the right (Figure 7-1c) correspond to the gray levels seen in the enlarged portion of the picture.

To send pictures, or scenes, from one place to another, the original scene is scanned with an instrument that measures the
intensity of light gathered from each of many small areas in the scene. The intensity reading is converted, or coded, into a
binary number (a string of zeros and ones, somewhat like the dot-dash nature of the Morse code) and sent by radio or over
wires to a distant receiver. There the stream of impulses is converted back to appropriately positioned small gray areas on a
film, thus creating a facsimile of the original scene. Similar processes, known as facsimile systems, have been in use for many
decades to transmit newspaper photographs by wire.

Before the Pioneer missions to Jupiter and Saturn, however, such a system had not been used to obtain images of distant
planets, even though it had been proposed for this purpose in 1953 for a Mars orbiter. Instead, all imaging of planets from
spacecraft except of Earth from Earth satellites used television or conventional cameras. For reasons such as weight
limitations and power requirements, it was decided not to use a television system for the Pioneer spacecraft, but rather to apply
a well established alternative method using a spin scan telescope, a method already used by National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites to produce weather maps of Earth.

A more detailed technical description of the imaging photopolarimeter used on Pioneers 10 and 11 is given in appendix A;
only a basic description is given here. A small telescope collected light from a 0.028° square (i.e., the equivalent of a 1 cm
square seen at a distance of 20 meters, or a 1 inch square at 55 yards) located along the direction the telescope was pointing
the line of sight. Color filters separated red and blue components of the light, and the strength of these components was then
measured electronically.

As the spacecraft spun on its axis, the line of sight of the telescope swept out a large cone in space, which intersected the planet
being encountered. The instrument recorded the brightness of the reflected light from each small contiguous area as it scanned
the planet’s surface in narrow strips, as shown in Figure 7-2. The intensity of the red and blue light reflected from each
132 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

element of the scene was translated into a number from 0 to 63, and the number was telemetered to Earth. The sequential
string of numbers provided information on the different strengths of the red and blue components of each pixel along the scan
path of the photopolarimeter. On successive rolls of the spacecraft, the scan path was displaced sideways step by step, so that,
over a period of time, the planet’s disk was scanned and an image of it could be reconstructed.

Figure 7-1. This scan photograph from an Earth Resources


Technology Satellite (EATS) covers the southern part of the San
Francisco Bay area. (a) An overview of the area. (b) An enlarged
view of part of the area, including a runway at San Francisco
International Airport. The area covered is designated by the white
square outlined on picture (a). The enlargement shows how the
picture consists of discrete squares having different tones of gray.
(c) A computer listing of numbers on the right identifies the value
of the gray level of each square within the outlined portion of
picture (b). The photographic-type image is generated from such
numbers.

The basic way to displace the scan path was to change the
“look angle,” the angle between the axis of the telescope and
the spin axis of the spacecraft. The instrument could
automatically change the telescope’s look angle in commanded
increments (steps) between each roll of the spacecraft, thereby
allowing the required coverage of the planet.

The pixel scans in Figure 7-1 are straight, evenly spaced lines, but the Pioneer scans were quite different. Basically, the
Pioneer scan lines were curved because of the way in which the line-of-sight cone intersected the ellipsoidally shaped planets.
Additional distortions were caused by the spacecraft moving an appreciable distance along its curved path around the planet
during the time required to gather the many scans of data for a complete picture. Also, the planet was spinning sufficiently
fast to distort the geometry of the scan lines.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 133

Figure 7-2. Diagram of the imaging photopolarimetry system showing how it scanned across a planet, in this case, Jupiter.

Since project scientists had to know precisely where each piece of data came from to reconstruct an image, scan maps were
constructed (Figure 7-3). The intersections on the distorted grids are points that define the small areas from which the light
intensities were measured. The figure shows only every 25th roll and every 25th sector (group of pixels); to show all rolls and
sectors on the figure would require 625 times more lines and intersections.

The imaging photopolarimeter gathered data from only a small part of each 360° roll, either for 14° or for 28° as commanded.
The remainder of the roll was used to transmit data back to Earth. To tell the instrument where on the roll to take data,
controllers sent the spacecraft “spoke” commands that defined the part of the spacecraft’s roll in the same way that numbered
spokes might define part of the circumference of a wheel.

Many other commands were needed in these complex, preplanned sequences to obtain spin scan images of Jupiter and Saturn
and their major satellites. Figure 7-4 is one of many graphic aids used to formulate and assist the command process. Note
how the look angle of the instrument had to be changed as a function of time to obtain certain images of Jupiter and its
satellites during the Pioneer 10 encounter. The three lines in the shaded band labeled Jupiter represent the center and outer
edges of the planet’s disk viewed from the spacecraft. The curved lines labeled JI, JII, etc., show how the look angles of the
Galilean satellites (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto) changed. The two lines labeled SLAT are positions to which the
instrument could be rapidly sent. These positions were used to direct the instrument to start a sequence of operations and to
recover from any anomalous situation, such as a spurious command caused by radiation. The numbered irregular line shows
the actual position of the telescope as it gathered data over a 24-hour period.
134 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 7-3. Two typical scan maps of Jupiter showing how the line of sight of the scan telescope swept across the planet and built a
picture consisting of discrete areas of different shades of gray. (a) A distant picture produced a relatively undistorted grid. (b) As the
spacecraft neared Jupiter, the trajectory curved more. the spacecraft accelerated, and the imaging photopolarimeter took longer to
completely scan the larger disk of the planet: therefore, since Jupiter rotated more during the scanning process, the grid became
considerably distorted (as shown).

Commanding the Imaging Photopolarimeter

The basic command strategy was to take repeated scans of the disk of the planet being imaged, interrupted by rapid returns to
the starting look angle (SLA) for polarimetry measurements whenever one of the satellites crossed a starting look angle. For
example, from the left in Figure 7-4a, the imaging photopolarimeter was operating in its photopolarimeter mode at a starting
look angle on Jupiter’s satellite Europa, JII. To reach position 1, 21 commands had been issued, 12 of which were to overcome
unwanted gain changes that had begun early in the mission.

Between points 1 and 7 in the sequence, five additional gain control commands were sent at 30-minute intervals. At point 7,
the imaging photopolarimeter was commanded into its threshold mode (mode 3), where the instrument moved its telescope in
small increments continuously until the limb (edge of the visible disk) of Jupiter was detected. This point in the sequence
involved 17 contiguous commands.

At point 8, the instrument was commanded to the imaging mode (mode 4), and it changed its look angle a step at a time at the
imaging rate of 0.5 milliradians per revolution of the spacecraft. This point in the sequence involved six additional contiguous
commands, four of which were gain control (sensitivity) commands and two “spoke” commands.

Point 9 involved a single command to reverse the stepping direction of the telescope. Point 10 then involved 17 contiguous
commands, 16 of which were gain control commands. The sets of commands at points 9 and 10, consisting of 1 and then 17
commands, were repeated at every similar point in the sequence that followed. Step 14 involved 26 commands, 23 of which
were for gain control, which placed the instrument in the polarimetry mode at the starting look angle for the crossing of
Jupiter’s third Galilean satellite, Ganymede (JIII).

The commanding at point 15 was identical to that at point 7, and the commanding at point 16 was identical to that at point 8.
At point 19, three commands were sent, which resulted in switching back to mode 3 and stepping beyond SLA1.

The commanding at step 20 reversed the direction of the telescope’s turn to approach SLA1 from the correct side to position
the telescope so that it could observe Ganymede. It involved 32 contiguous commands. The rest of the sequence depicted on
the chart was constructed by repeating, at the appropriate time, a command sequence already described.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 135

Figure 7-4. A typical 24-hour observation chart used to command the imaging photopolarimeter and later to determine how the
instrument operated when pictures were taken. Such charts provided visual checks on the position of the look angle of the instrument
at the spacecraft. (a) A chart when Pioneer 10 was distant from Jupiter. (b) A chart when Pioneer 10 was nearest Jupiter. (The main
features of the charts are described in the accompanying text.)
136 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Similar sequences were executed for 8-hour each day beginning 30 days before closest approach and continuing until 30 days
after closest approach, but were extended to 24 hours each day during the period from 8 days before to 8 days after closest
approach. Similar sequences were used in the encounters of Pioneer 11 with Jupiter and Saturn.

As the Pioneer spacecraft approached their target planets and satellites, the rapid relative motions between the spacecraft and
each target resulted in rapidly changing look angles for the imaging photopolarimeter. Figure 7-4b shows a typical
observation chart for Pioneer 10’s closest approach to Jupiter. To position the telescope properly, some 14 to 20 contiguous,
time critical commands were required at each point where the telescope look angle curves changed abruptly.

Correcting Distortion in the Jovian Images

Gathering data for one of the larger spin scan images of Jupiter and Saturn took about 30 minutes. This created a problem
since, unlike taking a normal photograph in which all parts of the scene are viewed simultaneously and from a single point,
the planetary images were made from image strips obtained from a moving viewpoint of a rotating object. The problem was
how to display such an image.

One solution was to reposition the data so that


it appeared as though the picture was taken at
a particular instant in time, for example, at the
midpoint of the data-taking sequence. The
data were repositioned so that each pixel was
placed where it was at the chosen “snapshot”
time, not where it was on the planet when
actually imaged. This process, called
geometric rectification, creates a picture most
nearly like one taken with a camera.

However, certain artifacts arise from this


display method. They are a direct result of the
method of picture taking, that is, the picture is
built up over a period of time during which
parts of the object moved by different
amounts. In Figure 7-5a, points A and B have
the same longitude on Jupiter. They rotate
through the terminator (the shadow edge
between day and night) at exactly the same
time. A true snapshot, illustrated on the left,
would show this. However, with spin scan
imagery, point A might be imaged a few
minutes before sunrise, whereas point B,
imaged later, might be in sunlight. When
points A and B are positioned at their correct
places in the reconstruction, that is, at the same
longitude, the terminator appears bent (as
shown) – an unreal situation.

A similar problem (Figure 7-5b) arises at the


limb. In the spin scan image, portions of the
limb imaged before the equivalent “snapshot”
Figure 7-5. Distortion caused by the planet’s rotation during a spinscan image time are displaced in the direction of rotation.
sequence. (a) Points A and B at the same longitude were scanned at different There are no data to fill out the correct profile,
times so that A was in darkness when scanned and B was in daylight, although and the shape of the planet is distorted (as
both should have been either in darkness or daylight. As a result, the terminator shown). For close-in pictures, these problems
became distorted. (b) Similar effects occurred at the limb, with the result that the
are more serious, because it takes longer to
outline of the planet became distorted.
scan the disk and the effects of relative
motions are more pronounced.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 137

Figure 7-6. Three ways to display a spin scan image of a planet,


in this case, Jupiter. (a) A fully rectified image is almost
equivalent to a snapshot. Every small area is repositioned to
appear as it would had scans of all areas been made at the same
time from a fixed point in space. The picture contains the types
of distortions depicted in Figure 7-5. (b) No geometrical
corrections were made and the planet is grossly distorted. (c)
The shape of the planet is correct; there is little distortion of the
individual features, but this third display mode requires only a
small amount of computer processing compared with the more
complicated processing required for the first display shown at (a).

Figure 7-6 compares several ways to display a spin scan


image of Jupiter. Figure 7-6a is a geometrically rectified
image. But the image can be displayed in other ways that
require less computing time. One way is simply to disregard
the geometrical aspects and display the data exactly as
received from the spacecraft, but this results in gross
distortion such as that shown in Figure 7-6b.
(a)
Another method, the correct outline technique, is to display the data
so as to preserve the correct outline of the planet while accepting
some slight distortion of the area within the disk appropriately
called “rubber sheet” distortion. Details in any particular region are
accurately portrayed, but larger regions may not be spatially related
to each other as precisely as in the “snapshot” equivalent.

Normally, the difference between the two results is small.


Figure 7-6c uses this correct-outline technique to display the
same data as in (a) and (b). For technical reasons, it is easier
to preserve the fine detail in the pictures with the correct
outline technique; all pictures of Jupiter reproduced in the
following chapters were made by this technique.

Quality of Images
Apart from difficulties of presenting the pictures with the
correct geometry, other factors also determine the quality of
(b)
the images. For example, occasional data dropouts (loss of
data) resulted in parts of the pictures being lost. Such losses
ranged from a small section of one line of data, caused by a
missing frame of telemetry, to one or more continuous lines
of data. Replacing the missing parts with black fill, or simply
skipping over the dropped lines, results in pictures with
distracting features which, for scientific and esthetic reasons,
should be reduced or eliminated. These corrections can be
made by interpolating average values for the missing data
from surrounding “good” data. Such “cosmetic”
enhancement can be applied satisfactorily only when the
amount of missing data is small. Figure 7-7 shows a severe
case before and after “cosmetic” enhancement.

As some images were acquired, the sensitivity of the imaging


photopolarimeter would change, either intentionally by a
command or because of a malfunction arising from radiation
effects. The effect of this change was to darken or lighten
bands within the picture. The compensation for such changes (c)
in sensitivity was straightforward; Figure 7-8 shows typical
before and after images.
138 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 7-7. Before and after correction of dropped out frames of data from a spin scan image. The cosmetic enhancement was
achieved by computer processing to smooth over and insert areas of missing data.

A minor problem arose with some of the imaging data from Pioneer 10 the blue picture was too bright everywhere by a fixed
amount. This fault was corrected in the data processing. Two other problems occurred with imaging data from Pioneer 10.
Figure 7-9 shows a fine, ripple-like structure of low contrast over parts of the red image. It represents noise of unknown origin
and, because of its partially random nature, was difficult to eliminate from the images. This figure shows a particularly
noticeable example, although the effect is also apparent in several pictures in chapter 8. The other defect, which also occurred
in some Pioneer 11 images of Jupiter, is illustrated in Figure 7-10. The apparent flattening of portions of Jupiter’s limb was
caused by characteristics of the mechanism that changed the look angle of the telescope.

The intense radiation affected the imaging photopolarimeter of Pioneer 11 somewhat differently. After Pioneer passed
through the most intense part of the radiation belts, the telescope drive mechanism became quite erratic. Instead of stepping
uniformly across the planet, it would skip backward and forward in a somewhat random manner, sometimes not moving at all
for several rolls of the spacecraft. The effect of this was to create severely distorted images. Figure 7-11 shows an example
of the effects of this problem. Special computer programs had to be written before such data could be correctly assembled
into pictures. The figure shows a raw data dump of blue channel data for images D17 and D18 – image D17 is normal except
for a few dropped frames, whereas D18 (on the right) is marred as a result of erratic stepping.

Making Color Pictures

The imaging photopolarimeter gathered data using the red and blue components of light reflected from the planets. To make
color pictures, it was necessary, however, to have three colored components, such as red, green, and blue. Reconstructing with
red and blue only would have presented a purplish image. Scientists were able to make three-color composite images by
synthesizing a green image. This green image was derived from information contained in the blue and red channels and from
knowledge of the color balance and color content of images of Jupiter and Saturn obtained from ground-based observations.
The method worked well for Jupiter and Saturn since they have no known features observable only in green or purple light.
A photograph of Jupiter, for example, taken through a green filter closely resembles a composite of photographs taken through
red and blue filters. Figure 7-12 shows the real red and blue components, the synthetic green, and the color composite formed
by a photographic superposition of the three; the effect without a synthetic green channel is also shown.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 139

Figure 7-8. Before and after correction of sensitivity (gain) changes. The sensitivity of the imaging photopolarimeter was changed to
compensate for variations in the brightness of the planet as the instrument scanned different areas of the disk, resulting in the bands
on the spin scan image (a). Computer processing corrected the bands to produce image (b).

Color synthesis is often useful to scientists in their


interpretation of clouds and features; however, too much
emphasis should not be given to the exact hues and
saturations of colors in the Pioneer pictures of Jupiter and
Saturn because only two of the three color components are
real. Nevertheless, the colors and contrasts are about the
same as would be seen by an observer on the spacecraft, they
are not exaggerated. Since Earth-based observations had not
resolved color features on the satellites, there was no standard
for comparing the colors of these bodies.

Processing Pictures from Saturn


The requirements for processing Pioneer 11’s images of
Saturn were different from those for the two earlier Pioneer
encounters with Jupiter. Instead of raw data, edited images
had to be sent quickly from the University of Arizona to
Ames Research Center for display by the PICS. By contrast,
the Jupiter PICS displays were of unedited data. After the
Jupiter encounter, further editing had been a slow, card-
oriented, batch environment process that was satisfactory so
long as the defects in the raw data images were not extensive
and there was no need for corrected images to be quickly Figure 7-9. Noise of unknown origin affected the red channel
available. The Saturn encounter presented new problems that image of Pioneer 10; the resulting ripplelike effect was difficult to
correct because of its semirandom nature.
required a more powerful and versatile capability to correct
the raw data and produce quality images quickly.
140 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 7-10. A slight flattening of the limb in places was caused


by a design characteristic of the imaging photopolarimeter which
resulted in a slightly non-uniform stepping across the planet.

Three distinct sets of requirements defined the procedures and


equipment for handling the image data during the Saturn encounter.

First, during the encounter, defects were introduced into the


spin scan images by irregularities in the instrument’s
performance. Data were also lost because of the great
distance over which the data were transmitted. In addition,
the sensitivity of the instrument was changed by command.

Second, scientists felt that the instrument would produce


additional defects at Saturn encounter because of the
radiation it had been subjected to at Jupiter. Also, by the time
the spacecraft reached Saturn, the instrument had been
operating in space for many years.

Third, there were constraints on the time available to process a


picture before its display and release as hard copy for distribution.

When Pioneer 11 passed near Saturn, it was traveling at


nearly 100,000 km/hr (62,000 mph). Because it could take as
long as one hour to obtain a single image, the high speed of
the spacecraft distorted the picture. So an image produced
from raw data was shaped like a banana instead of a flattened
sphere. Another distortion was produced by the differential
rotation of the planet – its more rapid rotation at the equator
than at the poles. Although similar problems had been
experienced at Jupiter, Saturn was a special case because its
highly visible rings made it impractical to use the methods
appropriate for the Jupiter images. New techniques and
hardware and software had to be developed.

A new set of constraints was introduced into the processing


procedures, derived from an aroused interest by the public
and the media in the outer planets as a result of the images of
Jupiter returned by Voyager. Corrected images of Saturn
were in great demand. More importantly, these quickly
corrected images were needed to plan the Voyager encounters
with Saturn after the Pioneer encounter.

Because stepping problems and other anomalies with the


imaging photo polarimeter were anticipated, a more powerful
and versatile system was needed to process the data from
Saturn. The old system used at Jupiter could not process the
data in the short times needed to display the results at Ames
Research Center.

DIAL Image Processing Facilities

Geometrical correction of the images was significantly enhanced by the DIAL facilities at the University of Arizona. The
heart of these facilities for processing the images was a real-time image processing computer. The computer had several
powerful features, including three channels of random access refresh memory, three graphic overlay channels, three pipeline
processing channels, and a red-green-blue CRT screen on which images could be monitored. A programmable cursor allowed
individual pixels or subsections of an image to be located for selective processing.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 141

Figure 7-11. A raw data dump, or unprocessed picture, from Pioneer 11: On the right, an image severely distorted by a fault in the
telescope drive system generated by intense radiation; on the left, the image suffers from a few dropped frames of data.

Unprocessed images – typically with missing frames of data; shifted, repeated, or missing rolls; gain changes; and dropped
pixels – were taken directly from magnetic tape and stored in two of the refresh memory channels, one for red image data and
one for blue image data. The original six-bit data were resealed to eight bits for processing. Parallel operations could be
performed on the red and the blue channels to speed the processing.

Deliberate changes in the imaging photopolarimeter’s gain produced blocks of rolls with quite different mean densities. Red
and blue channels were processed separately until, by repeated trial, no noticeable intensity step remained at the boundary
between different areas of the picture.

Missing data were replaced by either linear interpolation or a process by which individual missing pixels could be literally
“painted in” from surrounding good data. In the latter case, the cursor was used to select a matrix of 10 by 10 pixels centered
in the region requiring data. Each pixel was magnified 10 times and the resulting 100 by 100 area was displayed on a blank
corner of the cathode ray tube (CRT) display screen. The cursor was then used in a painting mode to transfer selected pixels
to fill the gaps of missing data.

Stepping anomalies were corrected. During a first edit, the images were fine tuned by magnify ing a section of the planet’s
limb or the ring edge to check the registration of adjacent rolls where errors were most critical. Data were also corrected for
spoke changes during an image sequence. The crescent images include an example where the data acquisition window was
shifted in space several times during a complete scan. The images were edited by imposing appropriate horizontal shifts to
selected (cursor delimited) rolls. Another requirement for image registration arose for semicomplete images. Red and blue
were treated separately – one image was stored in refresh memory and one pipeline assigned to display it. The next image
was stored in another refresh memory and another pipeline used to display it. Since shifting data horizontally and vertically
in refresh memory was a relatively simple process, the two images could be mosaicked quite easily.
142 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Figure 7-12. Constructing colored pictures of Jupiter and Saturn from the red and blue data channels required that a green image be
constructed first, then combined with red and blue. This process is used here for a Pioneer 10 image of Jupiter showing the Great
Red Spot and the shadow of a Galilean satellite. The process produces a life-like image on which the color balance has been adjusted
to correspond with the best Earth-based observations of the planet. Mixing of only the red and blue images would give the planet an
objectionable purplish appearance.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 143

The first phase of rectifying an image consisted of carefully


modeling how the spacecraft should have been viewing
Saturn (Figure 7-13) – this required precise trajectory
information. Then the method was to ascertain where, in a
rectified picture, the selected points were located on the
distorted spin scan image referred to as control point
determination. The coordinates of the control points in the
two images defined the coefficients of two polynomial
transformations, which mapped any point in the rectified
image to its location on the distorted image. In a more
technical sense, geometrical rectification is a process by
which the spatial distortion of the received image is described
relative to the ideal or ground truth image – an ideal image
coordinate is mapped to an observed image coordinate by
using a mapping function. Generally, the correct image is
represented by a rectified, rectangular array of pixels.
Similarly, the observed warped image is recorded as another
rectangular array of pixels.

Corrective dewarping was done in two stages. First, for each


pixel coordinate of the ground truth image, the corresponding
coordinate of the warped image was determined (Figure 7-
14). The pixel amplitude of the warped image was then
estimated by interpolating from the surrounding pixels.
Next, a set of control points was defined by which the
(7-12e)
mapping functions could be determined by fitting optimized
surfaces to the control points (Figure 7-15). A polynomial was used to model spatial distortion. Coefficients for the
polynomial were chosen to minimize the mean square error between the desired locations of the control points and the
polynomial estimates of their locations.

Figure 7-13. The pictures from Saturn were processed somewhat Figure 7-14. The distortion model was used to estimate the
differently from the Jupiter images. Prototype control points transformation required between “observed” and “rectified”
(shown as crosses) were written into the graphics channel to spaces, given the control points of both spaces. A set of control
overlay the “raw” observed data. The cursor was used as a points in rectified space is shown.
ronsector position locator to determine the degree to which control
points and the image were offset.
144 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The method for selecting control points has the following


rationale. At any instant an observer or a camera on board the
Pioneer spacecraft would have an undistorted view of the
Saturnian system. The planet’s limb would describe an
ellipse in space centered on Saturn. Other ellipses, centered
on a line connecting the spacecraft with Saturn’s center and
congruent with the ellipse defining the limb, were used to
describe points around Saturn’s cloud tops, inside the limb.
Similarly, the ring edges constituted a set of ellipses in space.
The equations for these ellipses were determined for any
instant, based on the spacecraft’s trajectory and the
dimensions and orientation of the Saturnian system. Then
these ellipses were projected onto a rectified image plane
perpendicular to the vector from the spacecraft to Saturn.

The locations of the control points in the rectified image were


defined by selecting 12 points around each of eight such
Figure 7-15. Overlay illustrating the progression of a straight scan ellipses. Typically, the limb ellipse was used with three
line in rectified space as it searches for the appropriate data in the congruent interior ellipses, along with four ring edges. From
observed image, after transformation by the distortion polynomial. a judicious selection of coordinate systems in space, a very
Each curved line in observed space represents a straight line in
compact algebraic description of the loci of all points on these
the corrected image.
ellipses was effected in both planetary coordinates (pole along
z axis) and spacecraft coordinates (spin axis along z axis).

If the very small changes in the spacecraft’s latitude during a


scan for one image were ignored, the eccentricity of these
ellipses could be taken as constant; only their size changed.
The task was to determine the precise time at which a given
control point was in the 0.5 milliradian field of view of the
imaging photopolarimeter. The look and roll angles were
computed for each control point at all trajectory time entries
between and bounding the start and end times of a given
image sequence. By linear interpolation, the locations were
then predicted at all times during the picture taking sequence.
Similarly, from the fine encoder data, the approximate cone
angle (look angle) of the telescope was known since (after
editing) it was a simple linear function of time during each
sequence. To determine the angle precisely, the spin scan
image was examined to find the specific scan line tangent to
Figure 7-16. Rectified image with the relevant control points the limb. The point of tangency was a special control point
superimposed. The size of the final version was determined by which determined the precise look angle of the telescope and
the interpolation factor chosen. Since blue and red images were that sector number along the tangent roll closest to the tangent
rectified in parallel, the image was ready to be displayed at this point. The tangent point also provided a time reference for all
stage of processing.
other rolls. The look and roll coordinates of all other control
points were transformed to corresponding roll and sector
coordinates with the tangent point as a reference.

The control point routines were used to measure the oblateness of Saturn by choosing 48 points on the limb ellipse and on the
outer edge of the A ring and, from these points, smooth curves were generated that describe these loci in roll sector space. A
raster scan of the intensity data to the same scale as the plot was then overlaid to obtain a best fit.

The sequence of operations was as follows. The data entered the DIAL editor (where gain was equalized), missing data were
replaced, stepping anomalies were corrected, and registration was obtained. Spacecraft trajectory data were used to generate
control points, which were then used to compute a distortion model for image rectification. Rectification then took place so
that the image could be made available for display (Figure 7-16). Afterward, the images could be enhanced further if required.
The University of Arizona joined NASA’s extensive data communications network (NASCOM) to allow a more rapid
exchange of raw data and processed data.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 145

Hardware Involved

The extensive computer power required for image rectification and enhancement was provided by an ECLIPSE S/230
computer, with 250,000 words of central memory and over 1 trillion bits of on-line disk storage. A NOVA 3/12 computer was
used to operate the NASCOM lines and to edit the data on a MEGATEK vector graphics terminal.

Image data could be displayed in several ways. Photographic negatives were produced by a pictorial output device (POD)
controlled by the NOVA computer. Essentially, the POD consisted of a drum around which a sheet of film could be wrapped.
An exposing light beam made a track around the drum. This light was modulated by the computer to reproduce the pixels of
the image, thereby generating pictures for researchers and for press releases. To enable rapid display and release of images
at Ames Research Center, the PICS was used as described earlier. An image processing facility at the University of Arizona
supported the scientific interpretation of the images. This high-resolution system was used to enhance contrast, to study color
balance, and to statistically analyze the imaging data.

Software Involved

The software for the image processing included NASCOMIN and NASCOMOUT, two programs developed to control
communication of the data into and out of the system via the communication channels. Data lost during transmission, lines
going down, repeated data, and abnormal transmission had to be handled automatically. Data were transmitted through
NASCOM in blocks. When received at the University of Arizona, the imaging data were separated from data needed for
communications and routing and were then reformatted into a form easily used by the processing system. Information
gathered in different operating modes of the imaging photo polarimeter also had to be identified and separated by a program.
A special file contained the data that was ready for editing; editing was handled by the NOVA editor, which consisted of
several programs that did such things as look for dropped data and apply techniques to restore lost data.

The scheme for rectifying images was somewhat similar to those used for LANDSAT satellite image data, as explained earlier.
After the image had been rectified, its immediate disposition was through a program called TRANSOUT to format it for
communication, and then to NASCOMOUT to transmit it to Ames Research Center, where the data could be placed into PICS
immediately or stored on tape for later display. The photographic transparencies were then produced on the pictorial output
device with another program. The resultant negatives were used to produce black / white prints and to synthesize a color
transparency from two colors. Later, data were transported to the processing facility at the University of Arizona for more
extensive analysis.
146 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

8
First Encounter with the Giant
During November and December 1973, Pioneer 10, the first spacecraft to visit the giant Jupiter, sent back over 500 images of
the planet. Most were taken far from Jupiter and showed very little detail compared to pictures taken earlier with telescopes
from Earth. However, the pictures taken within 48 hours of Pioneer’s closest approach (periapsis) to Jupiter were
considerably better than any taken from Earth. Not only was the resolution greater, thereby revealing details of the complex
cloud systems of Jupiter never before seen, but Jupiter was seen from vantage points not available to observers on Earth.

Because Jupiter is many times more distant from the Sun than
is Earth, the angle between Earth and the Sun at Jupiter (the
phase angle) never exceeds 11.5°. So astronomers on Earth
can see Jupiter only as a fully illuminated disk; they cannot
see Jupiter illuminated from the side or from behind, as the
Moon can be seen in its crescent and half moon shapes.
Pioneer 10 viewed Jupiter for the first time under various
conditions of illumination.

Figure 8-1 shows the Pioneer trajectory 20 hours before and


after its closest approach to Jupiter. Pioneer 10 approached
the planet below the Jovian equatorial plane, later crossing
this plane again before departing from Jupiter north of the
plane. The lower part of Figure 8-1 shows schematically the
change in illumination of the Jovian disk, as seen from
Pioneer 10 as it moved along its trajectory.

Twenty hours before closest approach, the dark limb was at


the left of Jupiter. At 12 hours, it was under the planet as the
spacecraft approached below the equatorial plane. Just before
closest approach, the dark limb slipped around to the right side
of the planet, after which the terminator swept rapidly across
Pioneer’s view of Jupiter, until the entire disk was dark as the
spacecraft plunged into the planet’s shadow. When Pioneer
10 emerged from the shadow, a crescent Jupiter was revealed,
the beginning of a unique series of pictures.

On the following pages, the images taken within four days of


closest approach are coded such as A28 or B17 (“A” images
were obtained before closest approach, “B” images,
afterward). Appendix 2 gives a fuller explanation of the code
and lists significant information about each image. All dates
and times used here are Universal Time (UT), the same as
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). DOY stands for “day of
year” – January 1 is DOY 1, and December 31 is DOY 365.

The series of blue channel pictures (Figures 8-2 and 8-3) was
Figure 8-1. Phases of Jupiter as seen from Pioneer 10 from 20
taken at two-day intervals, the first on DOY 321, 17 days
hours before to 20 hours after its closest approach. The numbers
before Pioneer 10’s closest approach to Jupiter. The on each disk represent the phase angle.
resolution of these pictures is not as good as could be
obtained from Earth. The few scan lines on each picture are
quite evident.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 147

The Great Red Spot and the


pattern of bands are clearly
(a)
visible even at these great
distances, from 16 to 7.5 (a)
million kilometers (10 to 4.7
million miles). The terminator
is on the west side of the
Jovian disk, displaced slightly
toward the south.
(b)
The detail, as seen by the
imaging photopolarimeter, is
approximately the same as that
(b)
which would have been seen
by the unaided human eye at
the same distance from Jupiter
(c) and, for Pioneer 11, from
Saturn also. All the pictures of
Jupiter and Saturn reproduced
here and in following chapters
show these giant planets as
they might have been seen by
an astronaut in a manned
(d) spacecraft flying by Jupiter (c)
and Saturn along the paths of
the two Pioneers.

Figures 8-2 and 8-3 are


reproduced to the same
angular scale. The relative
sizes are exactly as they would
(e)
have appeared to an observer
onboard the spacecraft as it
approached Jupiter. These
blue-channel images were
selected to show Jupiter at (d)
intervals of approximately one
day, starting six days before
(f) periapsis. The last image in
the series has a resolution
comparable with that
obtainable from Earth when
Figure 8-2 “seeing” conditions are good. Figure 8-3
Many of the pictures obtained
over this period show satellites in the field of view. However, these satellites were too distant from the spacecraft to be
resolved in detail, and were also nearly always too far from the planet’s disk to be included in the cropped pictures reproduced
here. One satellite appears in the last frame of the series, slightly below and to the left of the Jovian disk.
148 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

(a) (d)

(b) (e)

(c) (f)

Figure 8-4

This spectacular series of consecutive pictures


(Figures 8-4) was taken over a period of four hours,
between 44.5 and 40.5 hours before periapsis. The
Great Red Spot is prominent on each picture, and
the shadow of the Galilean satellite, Io, traverses
the disk of the planet. All these images were
“cosmetically” enhanced (as described in chaptcr
7), especially A49 (shown in chapter 7 before and
after enhancement).
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 149

The series of pictures A39 A35, A31, and A28


(Figure 8-5) on the following four pages shows one
complete rotation of Jupiter. The final picture in
the series was the last picture possible before the
planet overfilled the field of view. Because part of
the data used to create A35 is missing, the comb-
like truncation appears on the northwest limb. This
same effect occurs in several other pictures
reproduced elsewhere in this book.

The gross morphology of belts and zones, with patterns of turbulence and convective cells in the middle latitudes of the planet,
is clearly revealed in the pictures. The small white spots surrounded by dark rings, mainly in the southern hemisphere,
indicate regions of intense, vertical convection similar to thunder clouds. Where the clouds are bluish and relatively
featureless, the imaging photopolarimeter image provides a glimpse into the deepest, warmest parts of the atmosphere called
“blue festoons.”

Figure 8-5(a)
150 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 8-5(b)

Figure 8-5(c)
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 151

Figure 8-5(d)
152 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 8-6(a)

(b) Blue channel (c) Red channel

At the head of this bright plume, a cloud of warm particles rises from deep within the Jovian clouds. The tail extends to the
left because the atmosphere moves more slowly in the upper regions than in the lower regions. The southerly deflection of
the plume, and the scalloped edges of the belt above the plume, support the theory that a strong convective current circulates
between the lower and middle latitude belts and zones. A color picture is shown together with the black / white images of the
blue and red channels from which the color image was constructed (Figures 8-6).
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 153

Figure 8-7(a)

(b) Blue channel (c) Red channel

Before the Pioneer mission to Jupiter, red spots, in addition to the Great Red Spot, had been observed from Earth. Pioneer
10 provided the first close look at one of these smaller red spots. This red spot in the northern hemisphere is morphologically
similar to the well known and much studied Great Red Spot in the southern hemisphere (Figures 8-7). Ground-based
observations indicated that this small red spot was quite young – probably not more than 18 months old at the time of the
Pioneer 10 flyby. It was no longer visible a year later when Pioneer 11 flew by Jupiter.
154 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 8-8(a)

(b) Blue channel


(c) Red channel

These views of Jupiter provide the best coverage of an enormously turbulent region (Figures 8-8 and 8-9). The “hooks”
extend several thousands of kilometers. The belt structure is unstable at higher latitudes. At the top of the pictures, a belt
fragment, the darker elongated feature, appears in the transition zone between the belts and the relatively smooth-looking polar
region more fully explored by Pioneer 11.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 155

Figure 8-9(a)

(b) Blue channel (c) Red channel


156 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 8-10(a)

(b) Blue channel (c) Red channel

The fine detail revealed in these cloud photographs (Figures 8-10 and 8-11) helped scientists unravel the complex behavior of
the Jovian atmosphere. Gross differences between the red and blue images are apparent. The fine, repetitive, wave-like
structure discernible in the red channel image, which appears as a bluish ripple on the colored image, is not real and should
be ignored.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 157

Figure 8-11(a)

(b) Blue channel (c) Red channel


158 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 8-12(a)

(b) Blue channel (c) Red channel

The differences between images from the red and blue channels are not only intriguing but also important from the standpoint of
scientific analysis. This image (Figure 8-12) again shows the plume conspicuous in Figure 8-6. But the detail is much improved
in this picture, one of the best close encounter pictures from Pioneer 10. Features are seen in this picture that can only be
glimpsed from Earth. Unfortunately, Pioneer 10 flew by so quickly that cloud movements cannot be discerned from one picture
to another. Even so, the great detail enabled inferences to be drawn from the images concerning the dynamic properties of the
Jovian atmosphere.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 159

(c)

(a)

Figure 8-13

(d)

(b)

(e)

(f)

While moving away from Jupiter, Pioneer 10 viewed this giant planet as never before seen by man: sunrise on a crescent
shaped planet. This series of images (Figure 8-13) shows the red spot in the northern hemisphere, the Great Red Spot, and
portions of the large plume shown in Figure 8-6. The contrast is less in the crescent phase – because of the way in which
cloud particles scatter light. Irregularities in the profile of Jupiter resulted from a characteristic of the mechanism that drove
the imaging photopolarimeter’s telescope. The final picture is the last taken by Pioneer 10 – on New Year’s Eve, 1973.
160 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 161

9
Jupiter Revisited
Pioneer 11, the second spacecraft to fly by Jupiter, returned approximately 460 images of Jupiter and its Galilean satellites
during November 18 through December 9, 1974. The trajectory of Pioneer 11 past Jupiter was quite different from that of
Pioneer 10 – Pioneer 11 approached much closer to Jupiter’s cloud tops (0.6 Jovian radii compared with 1.86 for Pioneer 10),
inbound from south of Jupiter’s equator and outbound toward the north (Figure 9-1). This trajectory allowed the spacecraft
to obtain many unprecedented images of high latitudes of the planet. The views obtained on the incoming leg reached
latitudes near the south polar region. Also, because the plane of the trajectory was highly inclined (51.8°) to the Jovian equator
(Figure 9-2), several good images were obtained of the planet’s north pole.

To distinguish the Pioneer 11 images from those of Pioneer 10, the image numbers, sequentially arranged around periapsis,
were given a “C” and “D” notation – “C” images were obtained before periapsis, “D” images after periapsis. (Full details of
the images are given in Appendix 2.)

Two images (Figures 9-3 and 9-4) taken about a day before and after periapsis show the attitude of Jupiter during approach
and departure. Unlike those of Pioneer 10, the series of Pioneer 11 images did not show a rapidly changing position of the
terminator. In all “C” images, the terminator was positioned similar to Figure 9-2; in all “D” images it was positioned similar
to Figure 9-4.

(a) (b)

Figure 9-1. The path of Pioneer 11 past Jupiter shown (a) from
above the north pole of the planet and (b) from its equatorial plane.

Because of the closeness of the approach and the high relative velocity of the spacecraft over the cloud tops, good images
could not be obtained near periapsis; the data gathered would have been too sparse to be assembled later into a satisfactory
image. Four pictures on each side of closest approach (images C4 through D4) were taken in the step inhibit mode of
operation of the imaging photopolarimeter, in which the motion of the spacecraft provided the sweep of side by side scans
needed to build up the picture. At close range, only partial views of the planet could be obtained. Four pictures of this series
are shown in Figures 9-11 through 9-14.

About one day before periapsis, a malfunction caused by radiation affected the stepping function of the telescope; because of
this, a few images were partially lost before a workaround could be effected. Images C16 through C10 suffered from this
problem. As soon as the problem became known, the observing team from the University of Arizona worked to correct the
command sequences to ensure that no more images would be lost.
162 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The resolution of the images increased as Pioneer 11 approached Jupiter


(a) (Figures 9-5 through 9-8). Figure 9-6 is one of the better pictures of the Great
Red Spot; Figure 9-11 is an even closer view. When compared with Figure 8-
5b, these two pictures show graphically how the structure in the belt below the
spot changed considerably between the two Pioneer encounters. Figure 9-7
shows the large plume prominent in Figures 8-5d and 8-6 from the Pioneer 10
encounter. An unusual view of the plume is also shown in Figure 9-16.

(b)

Figure 9-2. View of Jupiter from Pioneer 11 for


(a) incoming and (b) outgoing paths.

Figures 9-3 (top) and 9-4 (right). Typical views of


Jupiter as Pioneer 11 approached (top) and departed
from (bottom) the planet.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 163

Figure 9-5
164 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 9-6
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 165

Figure 9-7
166 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 9-8. This image shows great detail in the belts and zones,
including many light and dark cells which indicate convective
activity in the south temperate zones. Note the small red spot in
the northern hemisphere.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 167

Figure 9-9. A computer processed color image compared with an image produced from unprocessed raw data (as shown on facing page).
168 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 9-10 is an image derived from data as they were Figure 9-10. A black / white picture made from the raw
received at Ames Research Center, without computer unprocessed data of C5 received at Ames Research Center,
processing of any kind. This is a blue channel image, and the without computer processing.
red channel image contained similar problems. Four
computer corrections were applied to the data (as described in
chapter 7) to produce the corrected image seen opposite in
Figure 9-9. The distorted shape of the planet was first
corrected, the distortion from the motion of the spacecraft and
the viewing geometry. Second, the three bands of varying
image intensity, a consequence of maximizing the scientific
value of the data for photometric analysis of the clouds, were
eliminated. Third, the black areas of missing data caused by
problems at the receiving station were filled in by
interpolating neighboring values. Fourth, two rolls of
unsynchronized data from the spacecraft, shown as diagonal
streaks, were correctly repositioned.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 169

Figure 9-11(a)
170 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 9-11(b) Figure 9-11(c)

For planetary astronomers, this image of the Great Red Spot of cross over near the center of the spot. This same feature also
Jupiter was one of Pioneer 11’s most exciting results. From appeared in the Pioneer 10 images. This image does not show
Pioneer 10, the highest-resolution image of the spot had been clear evidence of motions within the spot. The image does not
degraded by radiation problems, but Pioneer 11 obtained this show direct evidence of flow lines from any single region
unique image (Figure 9-11a). The area covered by the image on inside the spot, which could he interpreted as a source or a
the planet is shown in the line drawing insert (d) on this page. sink of red material.
Figure 9-11. Close-up view of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. (a) Color
The image, obtained 545,000 km (339,000 miles) above the composite, (b) blue channel image, (c) red channel image, and
cloud tops, contains more than 4,000 individual pixels (see (d) drawing showing location of image on the Jovian disk.
chapter 7) of measurable data in the red area of the spot a
wealth of detailed markings since each pixel represents an
area of approximately 237 km (147 miles) square. Scientists
will be able to compare this image with those obtained by
other spacecraft in later years to ascertain how the structure of
the Spot changes with time.

Planetary scientists have derived new interpretations of the Great


Red Spot from this image. Despite the relatively high resolution
obtained, there is much less fine structure visible in the spot than
in comparable areas at other latitudes (e.g., in Figure 9-12 and 9-
14). The Great Red Spot appears to lie in the most quiescent
zone of Jupiter, which may contribute to its stability.

The blue image has little internal detail (Figure 9-11b), the
main feature being the dark border on the periphery of the
spot. A break appears in the border in the northeast portion of
the spot, where some of the red material appears to intermix
with the South Tropical Zone.

The red image reveals much internal detail (Figure 9-11c),


perhaps the most significant being two circular outlines that
Figure 9-11(d)
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 171

Figure 9-12. First image taken after periapsis showing the north
pole of Jupiter (see line drawing).

This first image (D1) of the outward leg of Pioneer 11, taken
3.5 hours after periapsis, shows the first view of the Jovian
north pole. The location of the image boundaries on the
planet is shown on the line drawing. The image shows
evidence of great activity in the cloud forms at high latitudes,
but the banded structure of the tropics has changed to a
random pattern of cells and turbulence extending down to the
limits of resolution.
172 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 9-13. Area slightly farther from pole than Figure 9-11.

This image (D2), taken four hours after periapsis, is farther


from the pole than that in Figure 9 12, as shown in the inset
line drawing. It would have been contiguous with that in
Figure 9-12 except that the imaging photopolarimeter
instrument was reconfigured to guard against radiation
effects.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 173

Figure 9-14(a)
174 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 9-14(b) Figure 9-14(c)

Figure 9-14. Important Pioneer 11 image showing stretch from


north polar regions to equatorial regions. (a) Color composite, (b)
blue channel image, (c) red channel image, and (d) location chart.

This image (D4) was perhaps the most scientifically


important image of Jupiter obtained by Pioneer 11. It covers
an area of the planet from the equator to the north polar
regions as shown on the line drawing, and shows details of the
cloud features ranging from bands to polar cells. Figure 9-
14a is the computer processed color image. But the colors are
probably less authentic than those images obtained before
periapsis because of an apparent change in the instrument
after Pioneer 11 passed through the intense radiation belts.
Figures 9-14b and 9-14c show smaller versions of the blue
and red channel images, respectively. The large uniform area
on the red channel image was caused by detector saturation
which resulted in a loss of information the gain had been
deliberately set at a high level so that the darker regions near
the north pole could be imaged well. Since the corresponding
area in the colored image also lacks this information, the color
balance is affected.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 175

The series of images (D8, D10, D11, D12, D14, and D15) in Figure 9-15
Figures 9-15 through 9-20 show Jupiter as Pioneer 11 receded
from the giant planet and rose high above the ecliptic plane on
its way to Saturn. Because of an anomaly that affected the
rate at which the telescope of the imaging photopolarimeter
swept across the planet, the command sequence to obtain
these pictures had to be changed day by day. Nevertheless, no
images were lost, despite the fact that there was no time to
verify the command sequence by computer simulation before
the commands were implemented.
176 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 9-16

Figure 9-17
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 177

Figure 9-18
178 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 9-19

Figure 9-20
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 179

IO EUROPA GANYMEDE CALLISTO

Figure 9-21. Best images of the four Galilean satellites obtained by Pioneers 10 and 11.
180 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

With telescopes on Earth, astronomers are afforded only the barest hints of the markings on the Galilean satellites. Pioneers
10 and 11 recorded images of all four of these satellites, which provided a much better idea of the albedo and color variations
across their disks before larger spacecraft that followed the trail blazing Pioneers through the Jovian system later produced
detailed pictures of their surfaces. Although all colors could not be represented properly since only red and blue data were
recorded, it was certain that the yelloworange regions were redder than white regions.

Only one good image of Io was obtained D7 from Pioneer 11. Pioneer 10 did not obtain an image of Io because of the
radiation environment of Jupiter. The Pioneer 11 image was a view from over the north pole of Io. From Earth, previous
observations had suggested that the polar regions of Io are reddish colored. On this Pioneer image, there is orange coloration
at the polar region, as contrasted with the whitish equatorial region of the satellite. Io is strongly affected by the Jovian
radiation environment since its orbit is well within the radiation belts and the satellite sweeps up energetic particles from these
belts. Also, its presence in the radiation belts affects the decametric radio emission of Jupiter. Although there was no
indication of it in this Pioneer image, Io is the only Galilean satellite known to have an atmosphere, although it is much less
dense than those of Earth and Mars.

The single image of Europa recorded by Pioneer 10 (A4) has little color variation, but there is a broad dark region with some
gross detail. Europa is one of the most reflective satellites and is thought to have a crust of mainly water ice.

Two excellent images of Ganymede were recorded by the Pioneer spacecraft. These images show very little color variation, but
there are substantial albedo differences over the disk of this largest Galilean satellite. Ganymede’s low density may result from
the presence of a high percentage of ices with some silicates from primordial material and from material impacting from space.

Several good images of Callisto showed only small color differences and small albedo variations. The darkest of the Galilean
satellites, Callisto, has a low density that requires a high percentage of ices in its bulk structure. Two different views one a half
moon shape (reproduced in Figure 9-21) and the other a gibbous shape show the same prominent light region near the terminator.

Figure 9-21 shows the best images of the four Galilean satellites obtained by Pioneers 10 and 11. Each column is for an
individual satellite. The top image in each column is the color composite: the next image shows this same color image further
enhanced by computer processing. Below this is the blue channel image followed by the red channel image. Finally, at the
bottom of each column, a line drawing identifies the viewing aspect of each satellite.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 181

10
Saturn Encounter
The encounter of Pioneer 11 with Saturn produced unusual views of this ringed planet, views that cannot be obtained from
Earth. As it approached Saturn, Pioneer 11 obtained full-disk images of the planet and its rings somewhat like those obtained
by Earth-based instruments but with the rings presenting their shadowed face toward the spacecraft. On August 30, 1979,
when Pioneer 11 was approximately two million kilometers (1.3 million miles) from Saturn, the field of view of the instrument
was no longer sufficient to obtain images of the planet and the rings together.

Two hours before closest approach to Saturn, the imaging photopolarimeter on Pioneer 11 obtained its most detailed pictures,
with resolved cloud features of 80-100 km (50-60 miles). When beneath the rings, Pioneer 11 was moving too fast and was
too close to the rings and the planet to obtain high-resolution images. A low resolution image was, however, obtained from
polarization data. On the outward leg of its trajectory, the spacecraft’s view of Saturn was of a partially illuminated disk, about
1/2 to 1/3 of which was sunlit. Again, the unilluminated face of the rings was presented to Pioneer 11.

On September 2, 1979, Pioneer 11 made its closest approach to the large satellite Titan and obtained several images. But Pioneer
11 was too far away and the resolution was insufficient to reveal any details in Titan’s clouds and hazes, if there were any. The
image coverages and presentations of the planet and ring system during the encounter sequence are shown in Figure 10-1.

As Pioneer 11 approached Saturn on August 26, 1979, details of the planet’s belts and its rings became visible. The resolution
began to approach that achieved with the best Earth-based telescopes. Figures 10-2 through 10-4 show a sequence of
increasing resolution in color with black / white renditions of the blue and red channels. The range is almost 5.5 million
kilometers (3.4 million miles) and the Encke gap is clearly apparent in the outer ring. The belted structure of the planet is
beginning to emerge.

Subsequent images showed only parts of the planet and its ring system as Pioneer 11 hurtled toward its closest encounter.
Figure 10-5 is a high-resolution image of Saturn and its ring system, showing the major features of the rings and planetary
cloud belts in great detail. In Figure 10-6, the southern hemisphere of Saturn, although similar to the northern hemisphere,
shows subtle differences in belt structure and color. The darker belt near the south pole separates the temperate region from
the pole which has been in darkness for a decade (tilted away from our Sun). The irregular edges of the rings and of their
shadows result from uneven stepping of the imaging photopolarimeter and by the size of its aperture.

Figure 10-7 is the “discovery” picture that revealed the F ring and a new satellite of Saturn. The F ring and the satellite have
been enhanced in this picture to improve the reproduction in this book. Satellite 1979-S1, another possible discovery by
Pioneer 11, appears in the lower right of the picture. The bright satellite above the ring is Tethys. Remarkable detail in ring
A and in the Cassini division is shown.

Taken at 850,000 km (528,000 miles), the image in Figure 10-8 shows part of the Saturnian disk. Figure 10-9, taken
September 1 at 672,000 km (417,500 miles), is a close up view of the southern hemisphere showing the remarkable regularity
of the belt system of Saturn, which suggests a highly stable and uniform system of atmospheric dynamics. Unlike Jovian
cloud systems, most structure in Saturn’s atmosphere is linear, with few plumes or spots. There is little detail because the
atmosphere is covered by a deep haze layer.

Silhouetted against the planet, the rings in Figure 10-10 appear jet black, except where light from the planet passes through
the ring divisions. The Encke gap is barely visible. The Cassini division extends out from the globe of the planet. Subtle
differences in color and form are apparent in the northern and southern cloud structures. The bright spot near the left limb of
the planet the satellite Mimas casts its shadow near the right edge of the image.

Taken at only 395,000 km (245,500 miles), a close up view of the north equatorial region of Saturn is reproduced in Figure
10-11. The delicate linear cloud structure and a few irregular cloud features suggest minor local instabilities. Remarkable
detail in the C ring is revealed, and the division between rings B and C is quite prominent against the background of Saturn.
182 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 10-1. The trajectory of Pioneer 11 past Saturn (a) from


above the north pole of the planet and in a side view. (b) Position
of Pioneer 11 from 72 hours before periapsis to just beyond Titan’s
orbit, with views of Saturn from the spacecraft at various times.

The high resolution image (Figure 10-12) covers the northern


equatorial and temperate regions of Saturn, from latitude 31°
north (upper left) to the equator (bottom). Numerous
lowcontrast cloud features are revealed.

Figure 10-13 is the highest-resolution preperiapsis image of


the Saturn encounter. The aperture size projected onto the
planet (Figure 10-13d) is about 250 km. The remarkable lack
of detail at this resolution demonstrates the dramatic
difference between the atmospheric dynamics of Jupiter and
Saturn. The mottled structure of the image results from noise
in the data at the high gain setting used.

After periapsis, the images of Saturn presented another new view. On the outward leg of its flight, Pioneer 11 obtained the
first view ever of Saturn in the crescent phase (Figure 10-14). There is no belt structure because of the forward scattering of
sunlight by a very thin, high level haze. The ring system crosses the top of the image; the Encke gap and the Cassini division
appear as two parallel lines near the top of the image. Since the data were taken by exposing four separate and partial images,
it took the imaging photopolarimeter about 30 minutes to scan them. These partial images were combined to make the single
image shown here. The irregularity of the left edge of the image is a result of the data being acquired in groups.

As the phase angle decreased because of Pioneer’s motion along its outbound trajectory, the belt structure of Saturn became
more apparent (Figures 10-15 and 10-16). At a phase angle of 114°, the belts became marginally visible. The Encke gap and
Cassini division in the rings appear against the background of the planet. The decreasing width of the ring shadow on Saturn
results from a change in scale as Pioneer 11 moved away from the planet. Contrast these pictures with the crescent images
of Jupiter shown in Figure 8-13. On the crescent images of Jupiter the contrast in belt structure was also much reduced.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 183

As Pioneer moved farther away from Saturn, the cloud features became less visible. In Figure 10-17, gain changes were not
corrected to improve the visibility of the rings. To obtain the best image data to overcome the effect of low data transmission
rate (necessitated by the Sun’s direction and the spacecraft’s antenna axis being essentially coincident), the sampling rate was
halved by recording every other sector. This caused the rope-like appearance of Saturn’s rings and their shadows and the
“blocky” edge of the planet. A scattered light image is visible on either side of the planet, which may be an optical effect
within the imaging photopolarimeter.

Leaving Saturn behind, Pioneer 11 passed Titan and obtained five images from which the one shown in Figure 10-18a was
constructed the best rendition of Titan. Since Titan has never before been seen from this aspect and range, there is no standard
by which to judge its color. The image was color processed using the color appearance of Saturn as a guide. The polar
orientation is shown in the accompanying line drawing (Figure 10-18b). No surface details are apparent because of the distance
of the spacecraft from Saturn. Titan appears to be covered by clouds of which no specific structure or patterns are visible.

Figure 10-2

Figure 10-3. Satellite Rhea appears at four o’clock relative to


Saturn. This image is enhanced to show cloud belts on the planet
and to improve the visibility of the rings. (a) Color. (b) Blue
channel. (c) Red channel.
184 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Data from two images taken by the imaging photopolarimeter on September 1, 1979, were used to show the transmission of
red light through the rings. A radial intensity profile was made consisting of five pixel azimuthal averages for each point
plotted (see Figure 6-37c). This intensity profile was then swept over a photographic film in an arc to produce the synthetic
image of the ring system shown in Figure 10-19a. Naturally, no azimuthal variation that may have been present can be shown
on this synthetic figure. However, it does show clearly the various rings, divisions, and gaps identified in Figure 10-19b.

The image shown in Figure 10-20a was received on September 1 as mode 3 (polarization) data when the range was decreasing
through 148,000 km (91,970 miles), at the midtime, to the radial distance of the A ring, when the image ended. The latitude
was slightly southerly, 0.7º to 1.5° south, so the sunlit side of the rings progressively veiled Saturn as the data were obtained
at fixed viewing (from left to right). The rapidly passing rings were distorted in this view, which approximately rectifies the
limb of Saturn. The ring features are identified in the line diagram in Figure 10 20b. This unique view of Saturn through the
veiling rings can be rectified for either background and foreground, but not for both simultaneously. This view rectifies
Saturn’s limb, but the ring features remain distorted, as though they were not in orbit about Saturn.

Figure 10-4. A computer generated mosaic of two separate


images. It provides the highest resolution global view of Saturn
during encounter. Near the center, the isolated white spot with a
dark halo around it is a convection feature. The irregular edge of
the the ring in front of the planet is caused by stepping anomalies
of the imaging photopolarimeter that could not be fully
compensated.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 185

Figure 10-5(a) Color

(b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.


186 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 10-6
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 187

Figure 10-7
188 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 10-8(a) Color

(b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.


PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 189

Figure 10-9(a) Color

(b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.


190 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 10-10

Figure 10-11(a) Color.


PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 191

(b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.

Figure 10-12(a) Color.


192 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

(b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.

Figure 10-13(a) Color (b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.


PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 193

Figure 10-14(a) Color (b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.


194 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 10-15(a) Color.

(b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.


PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 195

Figure 10-16(a) Color.

(b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.


196 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 10-17(a) Color.

(b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.


PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 197

(b) Blue channel. (c) Red channel.

Figure 10-18. Best image of Titan.

Figure 10-19. An intensity synthesis of two images, F-6 and F-12, as viewed from above the north pole of Saturn on September 1, 1979.
198 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Figure 10-20. The only image showing the bright side of the rings
near periapsis. However, it was made from polarization data,
which accounts for the low resolution.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 199

Its, mission to Saturn a success, Pioneer 11 completed the first phase of mankind’s exploration of the Solar System,
investigating at close hand all the planets known to the ancients. Beyond Saturn, the planets discovered in relatively modern
times are still waiting to be explored. In giving us the first close view of the spectacular ringed planet Saturn and its system
of satellites, Pioneer 11 is helping to unravel some of the mystery that has surrounded Saturn since Galileo first saw its strange
appendages in 1610.

• Pioneer discovered that Saturn has a magnetic field, trapped radiation belts, and a complex magnetosphere.
• Pioneer discovered that several of the Saturnian satellites absorb particles from the radiation belts. A previously unknown
satellite was discovered through this absorption effect.
• Pioneer discovered that the rings also absorb particles to produce a nearly radiation-free environment close to the planet.
A cloud of hydrogen around the rings was found.
• A new ring of Saturn was discovered beyond the A ring.
• The temperatures of Saturn’s atmosphere, rings, and its largest satellite, Titan, were measured.
• Pioneer confirmed that Saturn emits more energy than it absorbs from the Sun.
• The equatorial yellow band on Saturn was found to be colder than other parts of the planet, implying that, like the zones
of Jupiter, it is probably a region of high clouds.
• An extensive ionosphere of Saturn was discovered.

As Pioneer 11 left Saturn behind, it joined Pioneer 10 in exploring interplanetary space toward the outermost reaches of our
Solar System.
200 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Epilog
Beyond the Outer Giants
At the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., a Pioneer spacecraft hangs
between the Wright Brothers’ airplane and Lindbergh’s Spirit of St. Louis. This spacecraft was the third built for the Jupiter
/ Saturn mission. Identical to Pioneers 10 and 11, it was never flown but served as a backup. As Pioneers 10 and 11 move
into interstellar space, this third Pioneer spacecraft is a perpetual reminder of the first pioneering missions to the giant outer
planets of the Solar System. Beyond Jupiter and Saturn, the two active spacecraft continue on their extended missions,
gathering important data about the outer reaches of the Solar System to and beyond the orbits of Pluto and Neptune.

The spacecraft continue to function and have reserve power to last for many years. Throughout the Pioneer missions, the
capabilities of the ground receiving system have been improved faster than the strength of signals from the Pioneer spacecraft
has decreased as they move away from Earth. The Pioneers can be commanded to tremendous distances, and by use of the
large, 1,000-foot-diameter radio telescope at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, data could be received from the spacecraft up to a distance
of at least 88 times Earth’s distance from the Sun – 13.2 billion kilometers (8.2 billion miles).

Traveling at about 440 million kilometers (275 million miles) per year, the spacecraft will search for the boundary between
the interstellar medium and solar system space within which the solar wind modulates incoming galactic cosmic rays (as
discussed in chapter 6). They will also look for evidence of a heliopause where the solar wind effectively stops and where
there is perhaps a shock wave between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium.

The spacecraft may be able to detect any large planets beyond Neptune and search for evidence of gravity waves. The gravity
wave radiation may be detected when the spacecraft are at opposition relative to the Sun. Then the “noise” on the doppler
signals will be at a minimum. Also, nonsymmetrical events such as the collapse of very massive stellar objects, occurring
perhaps about once per week, might be detected by the Pioneer spacecraft. Because they are leaving our Solar System in
opposite directions, the Pioneers can sensitively search for the gravitational effects of previously unknown outer planets. If
such bodies exist, they cannot be detected from Earth with present observational techniques. But in the outer reaches of the
Solar System, where the spacecraft are relatively free of gravitational perturbations from the inner planets and far from the
known outer planets, minute changes in gravitational fields might be detected as changes to the motion of the spacecraft. The
precision with which such changes can be detected by analysis of the radio signals from the spacecraft has increased
dramatically in recent years.

The imaging photopolarimeter can be used to record the light from the galaxy free from the scattering of particles in the inner
Solar System.

Galactic cosmic rays with energies less than several hundred million electron volts per nucleon reveal significant information
on their acceleration, injection, and propagation through interstellar space. For example, ionization energy losses in the
interstellar medium should produce systematic changes in the low energy spectra of various nuclear species. Also, it is in this
energy range that isotopes can be resolved observationally, thus allowing the lifetimes of cosmic ray particles to be determined
from measurements of isotopes such as beryllium 10 and aluminum 26. The isotopic composition of cosmic rays should also
provide information on how atomic nucleii are synthesized in the regions of space where the particles originate. An
appreciable fraction of the total cosmic ray energy could be contained in the low energy component.

This energy region, which contains such a wealth of cosmic ray information, is also the region most severely affected by solar
modulation (as discussed in chapter 6). As cosmic rays penetrate the heliosphere, they encounter magnetic irregularities
moving outward in the solar wind. The resulting processes of particle diffusion, convection, and adiabatic energy loss in the
expanding solar wind result in significant modulation of cosmic rays with energies below 500 MeV per nucleon.

The only feasible direct approach to the study of low-energy cosmic rays is to make measurements at great distances from the
Sun where residual modulation effects may be small. The Pioneer 10 and 11 missions provide the first opportunity for such
a study. At the time of writing, data were available from Pioneer 10 out to 20 times Earth’s distance from the Sun, while
Pioneer 11 at half that distance provided an intermediate observation point. The Pioneer spacecraft will continue out to much
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 201

larger radial distances. As the two Pioneers move out of our Solar System in opposite directions, they will continue with this
important work of gaining a better understanding of the galactic cosmic rays. The extended mission provides scientists with
an opportunity to continue to explore the outer Solar System, with particular emphasis on two major solar effects: the
interaction of the solar wind with the interstellar medium and the influence of changing solar activity on the structure and
dynamics of the interplanetary medium.

With increasing distance from the Sun, the solar wind is probably affected by inward pressure exerted by the interstellar
plasma and magnetic fields. The solar wind is expected to undergo a deceleration, heating, and deviation from a mainly radial
outflow so that it can turn and slide along a boundary the heliopause that separates the solar wind from interstellar plasmas
and fields. There are major uncertainties in the size and shape of the heliosphere, the volume occupied by the solar wind
plasma, as well as in the distance at which heating and deflection of the solar wind occur. Some scientists have speculated
that the properties of the solar wind will change abruptly at a thin shock surface within the heliosphere. One objective of the
extended missions of Pioneers 10 and 11 is to seek evidence of such a shock or, alternatively, a thick transition region caused
by the interstellar interaction. If such a change occurs, it should be readily observable in the data returned from the magnetic
field and plasma instruments onboard the spacecraft.

It is also possible that, before a terminal shock or transition region is reached, other effects of the interstellar gas will be
detected. As the neutral interstellar gas enters the Solar System and becomes ionized, it will probably exert a drag force on
the solar wind which will lead to significant heating and presumably to the production of waves and other irregularities in the
interplanetary field. If the heliopause is at great distances from the Sun, such drag effects may be the first indication of the
heliopause observed by the Pioneer spacecraft.

The interplanetary structure was observed by the two Pioneers under circumstances especially favorable for effects associated
with corotating solar features such as the equatorial current sheet and the interaction regions between fast and slow streams
of the solar wind. The observations were made during the recent minimum in solar activity when the Sun was dominated by
coronal holes and other structures that evolve slowly. However, during the extended mission, solar conditions will change
drastically to those associated with maximum solar activity.

Several aspects of this enhanced solar activity are expected to affect the structures of the interplanetary field at great distances
from the Sun. Solar features will most probably evolve more rapidly and the interplanetary structure throughout the
heliosphere will be dominated by transient, rather than corotating, phenomena. For example, solar flares can be expected to
give rise to numerous plasma outbursts, accompanied by shocks, which will propagate into the outer Solar System. Since
propagation delays are long for flare generated plasma to reach the outer Solar System, the structure of the distant field and
solar wind may be very different from that observed during the earlier parts of the mission. In this regard it will be very
helpful to be able to compare the results from the two Pioneer spacecraft in the outer Solar System with those from ISEE 3
and Pioneer Venus Orbiter, in the inner Solar System, and the two Voyagers that are following the Pioneers.

It will also be important to study the changes that take place in the interplanetary current sheet during and after the maximum
in solar activity. The fields above and below the current sheet appear to be intimately related to the fields observed in the
polar cap of the Sun. These are known to reverse polarity a year or two after solar maximum; when this reversal occurs, there
should be a restructuring of the heliospheric field on a grand scale. The interplanetary current sheet also must reverse its
polarity. One way it might do this is by the sheet rotating through 180° over the poles of the Sun. Another way might be by
the current sheet becoming fragmented or filamentary and then reestablishing itself with opposite polarity. The extended
mission should provide data to show which of these or other processes actually takes place.

During the mission beyond Jupiter and Saturn, the ultraviolet photometers onboard the spacecraft will provide a relatively
complete sky survey of ultraviolet emissions from B-type or earlier stars, yielding data on both the observed stars and the
interstellar extinction coefficient. Also, these instruments can measure the physical parameters of the interplanetary hydrogen
and helium gases, such as their density and temperature, at large solar distances. Heliosphere boundary data, including
observations of ultraviolet emissions from neutral hydrogen and helium and emissions from the hot plasma at the heliosphere
boundary can be used to determine the physical conditions at the boundary.

The correlation of results to establish the shape of the heliosphere is greatly enhanced by combining the results of different
spacecraft that are following quite different trajectories out of the Solar System. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft leaves the Solar
System in the downwind direction while both Pioneer 11 and Voyager will leave in the upwind direction. Thus, the combined
ultraviolet observations on the shape and extent of the heliosphere will provide significant results on the galactic pressure
(magnetic and particle). Since all spacecraft occasionally view the same ultraviolet stars, a cross calibration is available to
202 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

assure the reliability of the data. This same ability to view ultraviolet stars will also provide continuing roll attitude data for
Pioneer 10 which the spacecraft system cannot provide much beyond 22 AU.

Continued Pioneer 10 and 11 photometer observations at great distances will allow scientists to determine the radial
dependence of the “fast” hydrogen density and hence to locate the heliosphere boundary, the depth and location of the
transition region, and the plasma densities outside the heliosphere.

When signals from the two Pioneers can no longer be received at Earth, they will have another mission as they continue into
interstellar space. This final mission began when, in a high vacuum, Pioneer 10 gleamed under the harsh lights of an artificial
sun in the space simulator at TRW Systems, California. The final test was underway before the spacecraft was to be shipped
to Kennedy Space Center. A group of science correspondents from the national press were at TRW Systems for a briefing on
Pioneer and had been invited to see the spacecraft under test.

Looking at Pioneer through the port holes of the simulator, one of the correspondents, Eric Burgess, then with The Christian
Science Monitor, visualized Pioneer 10 as mankind’s first emissary beyond our Solar System. This spacecraft should carry a
special message from mankind, he thought, a message that would tell any finder of the spacecraft a million or even a billion years
hence that planet Earth had evolved an intelligent species that could think beyond its own time and beyond its own Solar System.

He mentioned this idea to Richard Hoagland, a freelance writer, and to Don Bane, then with the Los Angeles Herald Examiner,
and they enthusiastically agreed. The result was that Burgess and Hoagland approached Dr. Carl Sagan, Director of the
Laboratory of Planetary Studies, Cornell University, who was then visiting the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, in
connection with Mariner 9’s mission to Mars. A short while earlier, Dr. Sagan had been involved in a conference in the
Crimea devoted to the problems of communicating with extraterrestrial intelligences and, together with Dr. Frank Drake,
Director of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, Cornell University, had designed one type of message that might
be used to communicate with an alien intelligence.

Dr. Sagan was enthusiastic about the idea of a message on the


Pioneer spacecraft. He and Dr. Drake designed a plaque, and
Linda Salzman Sagan prepared the artwork. The design was
presented to the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration; they accepted it for this first Pioneer from
our Solar System into the Galaxy.

The plaque design was etched into a gold-anodized aluminum


plate 15.25 by 22.8 cm (6 by 9 inches) and 0.127 cm (0.05
inches) thick. This plate was attached to the antenna support
struts of the spacecraft in a position where it would be
shielded from erosion by interstellar dust (Figure Ep-1).

When Pioneer 10 flew by Jupiter, the spacecraft acquired


sufficient kinetic energy to carry it completely out of our
Solar System. In about 100,000 years, it will have coasted to
the distance of the nearest star, in the direction of the
constellation Taurus. Sometime, perhaps many billions of
years from now, it may pass through the planetary system of
a remote stellar neighbor, one of whose planets may have
evolved intelligent life.

If that life possesses sufficient capability to detect the


Pioneer spacecraft – needing a higher technology than
Figure Ep-1. Plaque mounted on the Pioneer spacecraft. mankind possesses today – it may also have the curiosity and
the technical ability to pick up the spacecraft and take it into
a laboratory to inspect it. Then the plaque with its message
from Earth should be found and possibly deciphered.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 203

Hyperfine Transition of Silhouette of Binary Equivalent


Neutral Hydrogen Spacecraft of Decimal 8

Position of Sun Relative to 14 Planets of Solar System and


Pulsars and the Center of the Galaxy Binary Relative Distances
Figure Ep-2. Line drawing of the plaque (meanings of the etchings are described in the text).

Pioneer 11 carried an identical plaque. After that spacecraft’s encounter with Saturn, it, too, possessed sufficient velocity to
escape from our Solar System, but in almost the opposite direction to Pioneer 10. Pioneer 11 headed out of our Solar System
in the general direction our Solar System is moving through space.

The plaques on the two spacecraft tell of Man, where and when the species lived, and its biological form. At top left of the
plaque (Figure Ep-2), a schematic of the hyperfine transition of neutral atomic hydrogen a universal “yardstick” provides a
basic unit of both time and physical length throughout the physical universe. As a further size check, the binary equivalent
of the decimal number 8 is shown between the tote marks indicating the height of the two human figures to be compared with
the scale of the spacecraft itself, which is also shown in line silhouette on the plaque.

The hydrogen wavelength – 21.11 cm (8.3 inches) – multiplied by the binary number representing 8 alongside the woman,
gives her height, namely, 169 cm (66 inches).

The radial pattern to the left of center of the plaque represents the position of our Sun relative to 14 pulsars and to the center
of our Galaxy. The latter direction is indicated by the long horizontal line with no binary digits on it. The binary digits on
the other lines denote time. This can be deduced because they represent precision to 10 decimal digits, which is unlikely for
distances to stellar objects but quite feasible for measurements of time. And from the unit of time established from the
hydrogen atom, the extraterrestrial intelligence should be able to deduce that all the times are about 0.1 second – the typical
period of pulsars.
204 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Since the periods of pulsars run down at well-established rates, they act as galactic clocks. An advanced civilization would
be able to search its galactic records and identify the star system from which the Pioneer spacecraft originated, even if each
spacecraft is not intercepted for several billions of years.

Below the orientation diagram, as a further aid to identification of the spacecraft’s origin should it be intercepted while our
Solar System is still in the galactic records, another diagram shows the relative distances of the solar planets and identifies the
bright ringed planet Saturn and the planet from which the spacecraft originated. After accelerating past the largest planet as
shown by a track, the spacecraft is depicted with its antenna pointing back to its origin on the third planet.

Finally, the plaque depicts a man and a woman. The man is depicted in what to humans is a characteristic gesture of
friendliness, also showing how limbs can be moved and displaying the important four fingers and opposing thumb. The
figures and physiognomy were carefully chosen and drawn for ethnic neutrality, and no attempt was made to explain to an
alien intelligence what may to such an intelligence be mysterious differences between the two physical types shown on the
plaque man and woman.

As an epilog to the Pioneer mission to these giant planets of our Solar System, the plaque is more than a cold message to an
alien life form in the most distant future. It signifies an attribute of mankind that, in an era when troubles of war, pollution,
clashing ideologies, and serious social and supply problems plague them, mankind can still think beyond themselves and have
the vision to send a message through space and time to contact intelligence in a star system that perhaps has not yet condensed
from a galactic nebula.

The plaque represents at least one intellectual cave painting, a mark of Man, that might survive not only all the caves of Earth,
but also the Solar System itself. It is an interstellar stela that shows mankind possesses a spiritual insight that transcends the
material problems of the age of human emergence into space.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 205

Appendix 1
The Imaging Photopolarimeter
The entire complex of scientific instruments carried onboard each Pioneer spacecraft was needed to provide the first close up
investigations of Jupiter and Saturn and their environments. The imaging photopolarimeter (IPP) returned the data from which
the colored images of the cloud covers of Jupiter and Saturn and of the magnificent rings of Saturn were constructed to reveal
details never before seen. This appendix provides further technical details of this instrument.

The IPP consisted basically of a positionable optics detector assembly and an electronic equipment housing, supported on a
central mounting frame. Special optical materials were selected to retain their transparency even after being subjected to
radiation effects from trapped energetic protons and electrons in the radiation belts of Jupiter and Saturn.

The optical system shown diagrammatically in Figure A-1 consisted of a 2.54-cm (1-inch)-diameter Maksutov type telescope,
a calcite Wollaston prism polarization analyzer, multilayer filters to separate red and blue components of the reflected light
from Jupiter and Saturn, relay optics, and two dual channel multiplier detectors, each designed to sense two polarization
components in one of two colors (a total of four channels). The field of view of the instrument could be varied by use of three
apertures on a carrier that also carried polarization processing elements (depolarizes and half wave retardation plate) and an
internal calibration lamp.

Analog signals from the detectors were digitized, buffered in the spacecraft’s data storage unit, and transmitted together with
instrument status information in either of two telemetry formats.

After a command into the data-taking mode had been received, the electronic logic processor automatically provided all
internal commands required to sequence a complete measurement operation with the IPP and then return the instrument to
standby. Additional commands were available to adjust power supply voltages, thereby controlling the gain of the instrument,
to alter sampling rates, to inhibit functions, to change the direction in which the telescope stepped, and so on.

Figure A-1. The 1PP optical system and its major components.
206 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

The field of view of 0.028° square was employed in the imaging mode of the IPP. This field of view was moved slightly in
steps every roll of the spacecraft, unless inhibited by command. Step direction could be selected by command. A six-bit
telemetry format provided 64 shades of gray for imaging. In that mode only two of the four detector channels were used, and
the light was depolarized before detection. Sampling took place on the dark sky, and the resultant output was used to
compensate for zero level shifts and background caused by the radiation belt environment. Detector output was measured,
alternating colors, each 0.015° of spacecraft roll, or 0.03° if the low sampling rate had been commanded. The spacecraft
buffer stored imaging data collected over 14° of each roll or 28° in the low sampling rate.

The manner in which the IPP scanned to produce an image is shown in the diagram in Figure A-2. Scan lines, analogous to
the horizontal lines on a television screen, were produced by the instrument looking in a fixed direction with respect to the
spacecraft as the spacecraft spun on its axis. The start of each scan was controlled by a series of “spoke” commands that
related the start to the spin position. An alternate mode, the “start data at threshold” mode, allowed the scan to be started
automatically by the telescope receiving light from the limb of the planet.

The equivalent of television vertical scanning was achieved either by mechanically stepping the instrument’s telescope 0.5
milliradians with respect to the spin axis between each rotation of the spacecraft or, during closest approach to a planet, by
holding the telescope fixed and letting the relative motion of the spacecraft and the planet produce the scanning steps.
However, if the latter technique were used, during the close approach sequence, the scan lines could overlap or have gaps
between them, depending on whether the relative motion of spacecraft and planet was too slow or too fast, respectively.

In the imaging mode, the data were converted to 64 levels of intensities and stored in a 6,144-bit buffer on board the
spacecraft. The instrument overwrote the buffer as it started each “vertical” scan with each rotation of the spacecraft. The
memory read-in time was approximately 0.5 seconds and the rotation period of Pioneer 10 was approximately 12.5 seconds,
which meant that approximately 12 seconds were available for reading out the data from the memory. To read out the 6,144
bits in the 12 seconds available required a data rate of 512 bits/sec. The IPP instrument received 50% service rate on the
spacecraft’s telemetry downlink. Thus a 1,024 bit/sec telemetry downlink to Earth was the minimum data rate at which all
the IPP data taken could be returned to Earth. During the encounter with Saturn, when the data rate had to be reduced because
of interference from the Sun, the area of coverage, but not the resolution, of some of the IPP images had to be restricted so
that the data could be returned at the low bit rates permissible.

Figure A-2. How the IPP imaging system scanned a planet to


produce an image.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 207

Appendix 2
Technical Details of Planetary Images
The tables on the following pages list the important parameters regarding the significant planetary images taken by Pioneers
10 and 11 during their encounters with the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn.

The first column in each table gives the sequence of the images, or image number, numbering down to periapsis and up
afterward (e.g., in the first table for the Pioneer 10 encounter with Jupiter, “A” images are before periapsis, “B” images are
after periapsis). Missing numbers (e.g., A4 and A24) refer to images of satellites not listed in this table. The mid time is the
time at which the data forming the central line of each image was received on Earth (expressed in day of year (DOY), hours
and minutes of Universal Time (UT)). The other columns refer to the position of the spacecraft when the data were taken.
Range, measured from the spacecraft to the center of the planet, and pixel size are given (in km). The pixel size can be used
to assess the resolution limit of an image. The phase angle is the angle between the direction from the planet to the Sun and
the direction from the planet to the spacecraft. When the phase angle is zero, a fully illuminated disk is seen. As the angle
increases, the terminator is shifted across the face of the visible disk until at 90° there is a half-disk image. Above the phase
angle of 90°, the illuminated part appears as an increasingly narrow crescent as the angle approaches its maximum of 180°
when the Sun would be directly behind the planet as viewed from the spacecraft. The visual effect of changing phase angle
is illustrated in Figure 8-1 for Pioneer 10.

The latitude and longitude of the center of the disk as seen from the spacecraft are also given; negative latitude values refer
to the southern hemisphere. Jupiter and Saturn each rotate at slightly different rates, depending on latitude; two systems are
commonly used to express longitude for Jupiter. The longitude in systems I and II is provided in the last two columns of the
table, respectively, only for the Pioneer 10 encounter. System II is used for the Pioneer 11 encounter with Jupiter.

The following table lists the important parameters of the Jovian images taken by Pioneer 10 during the period of four days on
either side of closest approach (“A” images are before, “B” images after periapsis).

Image No. Mid time Range, Pixel Size, Phase Angle, Lat. Longitude
Seq. DOY hr min km km Degrees LCM1 LCM2
A104 334:02:34 4800000 2364 32.8 -6.5 275 233
A103 334:03:01 4782000 2355 32.8 -6.5 291 249
A102 334:03:41 4755000 2342 32.8 -6.5 315 273
A101 334:06:00 4662000 2296 32.6 -6.6 40 357
A100 334:06:23 4647000 2288 32.6 -6.6 54 11
A99 334:07:03 4620000 2275 32.6 -6.6 78 35
A98 334:07:27 4604000 2267 32.5 -6.6 93 50
A97 334:08:05 4578000 2254 32.5 -6.6 116 73
A96 334:08:31 4561000 2245 32.5 -6.6 132 88
A95 334:09:08 4537000 2233 32.4 -6.6 154 110
A94 334:09:35 4518000 2224 32.4 -6.6 171 127
A93 334:10:10 4495000 2212 32.4 -6.6 192 148
A92 334:10:39 4475000 2202 32.3 -6.6 210 165
A91 334:11:13 4452000 2191 32.3 -6.6 231 186
A90 334:11:41 4433000 2181 32.3 -6.6 247 203
A89 334:12:16 4410000 2169 32.2 -6.7 269 224
A88 334:17:31 4195000 2062 31.9 -6.7 101 54
A87 334:18:05 4172000 2051 31.8 -6.8 121 74
A86 334:18:28 4156000 2043 31.8 -6.8 135 88
A85 334:19:04 4131000 2030 31.7 -6.8 157 110
A84 334:19:28 4115000 2022 31.7 -6.8 172 124
A83 335:02:39 3817000 1873 31.1 -6.9 74 24
208 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Image No. Mid time Range, Pixel Size, Phase Angle, Lat. Longitude
Seq. DOY hr min km km Degrees LCM1 LCM2
A82 335:03:01 3802000 1866 31.1 -6.9 87 37
A81 335:03:38 3776000 1853 31.0 -6.9 109 59
A80 335:04:01 3760000 1844 31.0 -7.0 124 74
A79 335:04:38 3734000 1832 30.9 -7.0 146 96
A78 335:05:01 3718000 1824 30.9 -7.0 160 109
A77 335:05:37 3693000 1811 30.8 -7.0 182 131
A76 335:06:00 3676000 1803 30.8 -7.0 196 145
A75 335:09:43 3519000 1724 30.4 -7.1 331 280
A74 335:10:15 3496000 1712 30.3 -7.1 351 299
A73 335:10:45 3475000 1702 30.3 -7.1 9 317
A72 335:11:17 3452000 1690 30.2 -7.1 28 336
A71 335:11:48 3430000 1679 30.2 -7.1 47 355
A70 335:12:19 3407000 1668 30.1 -7.2 66 14
A69 335:12:53 3383000 1656 30.0 -7.2 87 34
A68 335:14:35 3310000 1620 29.8 -7.2 149 95
A67 335:15:16 3280000 1605 29.7 -7.2 174 120
A66 335:15:42 3261000 1595 29.7 -7.3 190 136
A65 335:16:22 3232000 1581 29.6 -7.3 214 160
A64 335:16:50 3212000 1571 29.5 -7.3 231 177
A63 335:17:29 3184000 1556 29.5 -7.3 255 200
A59 335:22:02 2984000 1456 28.8 -7.5 60 5
A58 335:22:27 2965000 1447 28.7 -7.5 76 20
A57 335:23:05 2937000 1433 28.7 -7.5 99 43
A56 335:23:34 2916000 1422 28.6 -7.5 116 60
A55 336:00:14 2886000 1408 28.5 -7.5 140 84
A54 336:00:41 2866000 1397 28.4 -7.5 157 100
A53 336:01:21 2836000 1383 28.3 -7.6 181 124
A51 336:06:55 2584000 1257 27.3 -7.8 23 325
A50 336:07:31 2557000 1243 27.2 -7.8 45 346
A49 336:08:11 2525000 1227 27.0 -7.9 69 10
A48 336:08:48 2497000 1213 26.9 -7.9 92 33
A47 336:09:30 2465000 1197 26.7 -7.9 117 58
A46 336:10:07 2436000 1183 26.6 -8.0 139 80
A45 336:10:48 2404000 1166 26.4 -8.0 165 105
A44 336:11:25 2375000 1152 26.3 -8.0 187 127
A43 336:12:06 2343000 1136 26.1 -8.1 211 151
A39 336:14:33 2227000 1078 25.5 -8.2 301 240
A38 336:15:10 2198000 1064 25.4 -8.2 323 262
A37 336:15:55 2161000 1045 25.1 -8.3 350 289
A36 336:16:33 2131000 1030 25.0 -8.3 13 312
A35 336:17:21 2092000 1011 24.7 -8.4 42 340
A34 336:17:59 2061000 995 24.5 -8.4 65 3
A33 336:18:49 2021000 975 24.3 -8.5 95 33
A32 336:19:29 1989000 959 24.1 -8.5 119 57
A31 336:20:18 1948000 939 23.8 -8.6 149 86
A30 336:20:58 1915000 922 23.6 -8.6 173 110
A29 336:21:50 1872000 901 23.3 -8.7 204 141
A28 336:22:31 1837000 883 23.0 -8.8 229 166
A27 337:02:05 1656000 793 21.5 -9.1 358 293
A26 337:02:36 1630000 779 21.3 -9.1 16 311
A23 337:08:32 1313000 621 18.0 -9.9 229 162
A22 337:08:52 1295000 612 17.8 -9.9 241 174
A21 337:09:26 1264000 596 17.4 -10.0 261 194
A20 337:09:42 1248000 589 17.2 -10.0 271. 204
A19 337:10:14 1218000 574 16.9 -10.1 290 223
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 209

Image No. Mid time Range, Pixel Size, Phase Angle, Lat. Longitude
Seq. DOY hr min km km Degrees LCM1 LCM2
A18 337:10:33 1201000 565 16.6 -10.2 301 233
A17 337:11:05 1170000 550 16.2 -10.3 320 252
A16 337:11:23 1153000 541 16.0 -10.3 330 263
A15 337:11:56 1122000 526 15.6 -10.4 350 282
A14 337:12:14 1104000 517 15.4 -10.5 1 293
A13 337:12:46 1073000 501 15.0 -10.6 20 312
A12 337:13:05 1055000 492 14.7 -10.7 31 323
A11 337:13:36 1025000 477 14.3 -10.8 48 340
A10 337:13:58 1003000 466 14.0 -10.9 61 353
A9 337:14:47 954000 442 13.4 -11.1 90 22
A8 337:15:17 924000 427 13.1 -11.2 107 39
A7 337:16:19 861000 395 12.4 -11.4 143 74
A6 337:17:05 814000 372 12.1 -11.7 169 100
A5 337:18:28 726000 328 12.2 -12.1 216 147
A2 338:01:46 245000 87 66.7 -11.1 58 346
A1 338:03:08 203000 66 109.5 -2.4 64 352
B1 338:08:38 504000 217 146.7 13.8 165 91
B6 338:16:40 1015000 472 124.4 12.5 75 358
B7 338:17:20 1053000 491 123.5 12.4 98 21
B8 338:22:26 1341000 635 118.2 11.8 279 200
B9 338:23:08 1379000 654 117.6 11.7 304 225
B10 338:23:56 1423000 676 117.0 11.6 333 253
B11 339:00:50 1472000 700 116.4 11.6 5 286
B12 339:01:45 1620000 725 115.8 11.5 38 318
B13 339:02:44 1572000 750 115.2 11.4 73 353
B14 339:03:23 1606000 767 114.8 11.3 96 16
B15 339:03:48 1627000 778 114.6 11.3 111 31
B16 339:04:31 1664000 797 114.2 11.2 137 57
B17 339:04:54 1684000 807 114.0 11.2 151 70
B18 339:05:37 1720000 825 113.6 11.2 177 96
B19 339:05:57 1738000 833 113.4 11.1 189 108
B20 339:06:40 1774000 852 113.1 11.1 215 134
B21 339:07:12 1801000 865 112.9 11.0 234 153
B22 339:07:49 1833000 881 112.6 11.0 256 175
B23 339:08:09 1849000 889 112.4 11.0 268 186
B24 339:09:10 1900000 914 112.0 10.9 305 223
B25 339:09:29 1915000 922 111.9 10.9 316 234
B26 339:10:15 1953000 941 111.6 10.9 344 262
B27 339:10:32 1968000 948 111.5 10.8 355 272
B28 339:11:14 2001000 965 111.2 10.8 19 297
B29 339:12:03 2041000 985 110.9 10.8 49 326
B30 339:12:43 2074000 1002 110.7 10.7 74 350
B37 339:20:30 2444000 1187 108.4 10.4 356 270
B38 339:20:58 2466000 1197 108.3 10.3 13 287
B39 339:21:25 2487000 1208 108.2 10.3 29 303
B40 339:22:26 2533000 1231 108.0 10.3 66 340
B41 339:23:24 2578000 1253 107.8 10.2 101 14
B42 339:23:49 2597000 1263 107.7 10.2 116 29
B43 340:05:28 2853000 1391 106.6 10.0 322 233
B44 340:05:52 2871000 1400 106.5 10.0 336 248
B45 340:07:35 2947000 1438 106.2 10.0 39 310
B46 340:09:12 3019000 1474 105.9 9.9 97 8
B47 340:09:31 3033000 1481 105.9 9.9 109 19
B48 340:09:57 3052000 1491 105.8 9.9 125 35
B53 341:05:37 3893000 1911 103.4 9.5 121 25
210 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Image No. Mid time Range, Pixel Size, Phase Angle, Lat. Longitude
Seq. DOY hr min km km Degrees LCM1 LCM2
B54 341:05:58 3908000 1918 103.4 9.5 135 38
B55 341:06:20 3923000 1926 103.4 9.5 148 52
B56 341:06:56 3948000 1938 103.3 9.5 170 73
B57 341:07:14 3960000 1945 103.3 9.4 181 84
B58 341:07:50 3985000 1957 103.2 9.4 203 106
B59 341:08:09 3998000 1964 103.2 9.4 214 117
B60 341:08:43 4022000 1975 103.1 9.4 235 138
B61 341:09:30 4054000 1992 103.1 9.4 263 166
B62 341:09:55 4071000 2000 103.0 9.4 279 181
B63 341:10:19 4088000 2009 103.0 9.4 293 196
B66 341:16:00 4321000 2125 102.6 9.3 141 41
B67 341:16:20 4335000 2132 102.5 9.3 153 53
B68 341:16:47 4353000 2141 102.5 9.3 169 69
B69 341:17:08 4367000 2148 102.5 9.3 182 82
B70 341:17:36 4386000 2158 102.4 9.3 199 99
B71 341:17:55 4399000 2164 102.4 9.3 210 110
B72 341:18:24 4419000 2174 102.4 9.3 228 128
B73 341:19:25 4459000 2194 102.3 9.3 265 164
B74 341:19:44 4473000 2201 102.3 9.3 277 176
B75 341:20:06 4488000 2208 102.3 9.3 290 190
B76 341:23:45 4635000 2282 102.0 9.2 64 322

The following table lists the important parameters regarding the images of Jupiter taken by Pioneer 11 in the period three days
either side of closest approach (“C” images are before, “D” images after periapsis). Longitudes are given in system II only
(LCM2).

Image No. Mid time Range, Pixel Size, Phase Angle, Lat. Longitude
Seq. DOY hr min km km Degrees LCM2
C70 334:06:48 3891294 1910 45.1 -9.1 138
C69 334:07:18 3869879 1900 45.1 -9.1 156
C68 334:07:51 3845604 1887 45.1 -9.1 176
C67 334:08:12 3830848 1880 45.2 -9.1 188
C66 334:08:52 3802162 1866 45.2 -9.2 213
C65 334:11:01 3708544 1819 45.4 -9.3 291
C64 334:11:52 3672093 1801 45.4 -9.4 321
C63 334:12:28 3645599 1787 45.5 -9.4 343
C62 334:13:12 3613628 1771 45.5 -9.5 10
C61 334:13:37 3595509 1762 65.5 -9.5 25
C60 334:14:11 3570454 1750 45.6 -9.5 46
C53 334:17:59 3403095 1666 45.9 -9.8 184
C50 334:19:38 3329933 1630 46.0 -9.9 243
C49 334:20:14 3302553 1616 46.0 -10.0 266
C48 334:20:41 3282693 1606 46.1 -10.0 282
C47 334:21:37 3240991 1585 46.2 -10.1 316
C46 334:22:09 3217310 1573 46.2 -10.1 335
C41 335:00:55 3092460 1511 46.5 -10.4 75
C40 335:02:00 3043031 1486 46.6 -10.5 115
C39 335:02:32 3018510 1474 46.6 -10.5 135
C38 335:03:10 2989867 1460 46.7 -10.6 157
C37 335:04:14 2940750 1435 46.8 -10.7 196
C36 335:04:49 2914046 1422 46.9 -10.8 217
C33 335:07:52 2773412 1351 47.2 -11.1 328
C32 335:08:30 2743633 1336 47.3 -11.2 351
C31 335:09:06 2715618 1322 47.4 -11.2 13
C27 335:16:30 2363325 1146 48.4 -12.3 282
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 211

Image No. Mid time Range, Pixel Size, Phase Angle, Lat. Longitude
Seq. DOY hr min km km Degrees LCM2
C26 335:17:16 2325740 1127 48.5 -12.4 310
C25 335:17:48 2299710 1114 48.6 -12.5 330
C24 335:19:02 2239619 1084 48.9 -12.7 14
C23 335:19:44 2204919 1067 49.0 -12.8 40
C22 335:21:00 2141985 1036 49.2 -13.0 86
C21 335:21:43 2106195 1018 49.4 -13.2 112
C20 335:22:25 2071027 1000 49.5 -13.3 138
C18 336:00:41 1956270 943 50.0 -13.8 220
C17 336:04:12 1774242 852 51.0 -14.7 348
C16 336:05:20 1714067 822 51.3 -15.0 30
C15 336:05:36 1700113 815 51.4 -15.1 39
C14 336:07:11 1615214 772 51.9 -15.6 97
C13 336:08:15 1556648 743 52.3 -16.0 137
C11 336:10:49 1414575 672 53.4 -17.0 231
C9 336:13:57 1235003 582 55.1 -18.5 345
C8 336:15:29 1144376 537 56.1 -19.4 42
C7 336:17:14 1037836 483 57.5 -20.7 106
C6 336:18:51 935956 433 59.1 -22.1 166
C5 336:21:26 764812 347 62.6 -25.1 263
C4 336:22:58 657366 293 65.6 -27.6 321
C3 337:00:30 545294 237 69.8 -31.0 21
C2 337:01:54 434832 182 75.7 -39.5 78
C1 337:02:37 376886 153 80.0 -38.6 108
D1 337:09:27 375496 152 64.1 51.8 232
D2 337:10:10 434690 182 59.8 51.2 266
D3 337:10:39 473362 201 57.6 50.6 288
D4 337:12:27 610393 270 51.7 48.5 3
D5 337:14:32 756879 343 47.7 46.5 85
D6 337:16:34 893309 411 45.0 44.9 164
D8 337:19:31 1079206 504 42.4 43.1 275
D9 337:21:55 1222778 576 40.9 42.0 4
D10 337:23:25 1309664 619 40.1 41.4 59
D11 338:03:29 1538654 734 38.5 40.0 210
D12 338:04:21 1585645 757 38.2 39.8 241
D14 338:07:57 1777382 853 37.3 38.9 13
D15 338:09:16 1846692 888 37.0 38.7 62
D16 338:10:20 1901617 915 36.7 38.4 100
D17 338:13:57 2085307 1007 36.1 37.8 233
D18 338:16:34 2215675 1072 35.7 37.4 328
D19 338:17:20 2253495 1091 35.5 37.3 356
D21 338:20:49 2422939 1176 35.1 36.8 123
D22 338:21:32 2457420 1193 35.0 36.7 149
D23 338:22:23 2498412 1214 34.9 36.6 180
D24 338:23:08 2533882 1232 34.8 36.6 207
D25 339:00:08 2581602 1255 34.7 36.5 244
D28 339:04:03 2765661 1347 34.4 36.1 27
D29 339:06:57 2899829 1414 34.1 35.8 132
D30 339:07:29 2924294 1427 34.1 35.7 151
D31 339:08:12 2957037 1443 34.0 35.7 177
D32 339:09:08 3000238 1465 34.0 35.6 212
D33 339:09:40 3024145 1477 33.9 35.6 231
D34 339:10:24 3057503 1493 33.9 35.5 257
D35 339:10:48 3075892 1503 33.8 35.5 272
D36 339:13:23 3193034 1561 33.7 35.3 6
D37 339:13:52 3214703 1572 33.6 35.2 24
212 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Image No. Mid time Range, Pixel Size, Phase Angle, Lat. Longitude
Seq. DOY hr min km km Degrees LCM2
D38 339:17:59 3398493 1664 33.4 35.0 174
D39 339:18:34 3423783 1676 33.4 34.9 194
D40 339:19:21 3458503 1694 33.3 34.9 223
D41 339:19:57 3484746 1707 33.3 34.8 244
D42 339:21:06 3535636 1732 33.2 34.8 286
D43 339:21:42 3562414 1746 33.2 34.7 309
D44 339:22:29 3596173 1763 33.2 34.7 337
D45 339:23:08 3625028 1777 33.1 34.7 1
D49 340:02:41 3779177 1854 33.0 34.5 129
D50 340:03:35 3818033 1874 32.9 34.4 162
D51 340:04:14 3846085 1888 32.9 34.4 186

The following table lists the important parameters regarding the images of Saturn taken by Pioneer 11 in the period 4 days
before and 4 days after closest approach (“F” images are before, “G” images after periapsis).

Image No. Mid time Range, Pixel Size, Phase Angle, Lat. Long. Not Displ-
Seq. DOY hr min km km Degrees LCM ayed Code
F71 239:02:25 5144000 2542 17.4 5.5 143.6 2
F70 239:03:06 5121000 2531 17.4 5.5 168.1 2
F69 239:06:10 5019000 2480 17.4 5.5 275.5 2
F68 239:06:55 4995000 2468 17.3 5.5 301.3 2
F67 239:07:41 4969000 2455 17.3 5.5 328.5 2
F66 239:08:26 4944000 2442 17.3 5.5 354.5 2
F65 239:09:27 4910000 2425 17.3 5.5 30.4 2
F64 239:10:10 4887000 2414 17.3 5.5 55.2 2
F63 239:11:27 4844000 2392 17.3 5.4 100.7 3
F62 239:12:08 4821000 2381 17.3 5.4 124.6 3
F61 239:13:00 4793000 2367 17.2 5.4 154.4 3
F60 239:13:38 4772000 2356 17.2 5.4 176.8 3
F59 239:14:26 4745000 2343 17.2 5.4 204.9 —
F58 239:15:11 4720000 2330 17.2 5.4 231.4 3
F57 239:16:16 4684000 2312 17.2 5.4 269.1 3
F56 239:17:01 4659000 2300 17.2 5.4 295.6 3
F55 239:23:35 4439000 2190 17.0 5.4 165.7 3
F54 240:00:17 4416000 2178 17.0 5.4 190.2 3
F53 240:01:03 4390000 2165 17.0 5.4 216.7 1
F52 240:01:48 4365000 2153 17.0 5.4 243.0 3
F51 240:02:37 4338000 2139 17.0 5.4 271.5 3
F50 240:03:17 4315000 2128 16.9 5.4 294.9 3
F49 240:05:45 4254000 2097 16.9 5.4 358.2 3
F48 240:05:52 4228000 2084 16.9 5.4 25.7 —
F47 241:03:38 3488000 1714 16.2 5.4 68.4 1
F46 241:04:38 3458000 1699 16.2 5.4 98.6 1
F45 241:05:53 3411000 1676 16.2 5.4 146.9 1
F44 241:06:45 3381000 1661 16.1 5.4 177.3 1
F43 241:07:46 3346000 1643 16.1 5.4 212.9 3
F42 241:08:35 3318000 1629 16.1 5.4 241.6 3
F41 241:09:48 3276000 1608 16.0 5.4 283.8 1
F40 241:10:33 3250000 1595 16.0 5.3 310.1 1
F39 241:11:37 3213000 1577 15.9 5.3 347.7 1
F38 241:12:27 3184000 1562 15.9 5.3 16.6 1
F37 241:22:07 2846000 1393 15.4 5.3 355.0 —
F36A 241:22:57 2817000 1379 15.4 5.3 24.3 3
F36B 242:00:41 2756000 1348 15.3 5.3 84.8 3
F35A 242:01:53 2713000 1327 15.2 5.3 127.1 —
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 213

Image No. Mid time Range, Pixel Size, Phase Angle, Lat. Long. Not Displ-
Seq. DOY hr min km km Degrees LCM ayed Code
F35B 242:02:40 2685000 1313 15.2 5.3 154.7 3
F34 242:03:41 2649000 1295 15.1 5.3 190.0 —
F33 242:05:43 2577000 1259 14.9 5.3 261.0 —
F32 242:07:17 2521000 1231 14.8 5.3 315.7 —
F31 242:09:04 2457000 1199 14.7 5.2 18.1 2
F30 242:09:34 2438000 1189 14.7 5.2 35.9 2
F29 242:10:23 2409000 1175 14.6 5.2 64.5 —
F28 242:13:25 2299000 1120 14.4 5.2 170.6 2
F27 242:13:53 2283000 1112 14.3 5.2 186.5 2
F26 242:15:32 2222000 1081 14.2 5.2 244.8 1
F25 242:17:31 2150000 1045 14.0 5.2 313.6 1
F24 242:19:24 2081000 1011 13.8 5.2 19.3 1
F23 242:21:32 2002000 971 13.6 5.2 94.2 1
F22 242:23:24 1933000 937 13.4 5.1 159.1 1
F21 243:04:54 1725000 833 12.7 5.1 351.5 1
F20 243:07:53 1611000 776 12.2 5.0 95.5 —
F19 243:09:21 1555000 748 12.0 5.0 146.5 —
F18 243:12:50 1418000 679 11.4 5.0 267.8 1
F17 243:15:16 1322000 631 10.8 4.9 352.4 3
F16 243:16:57 1254000 597 10.5 4.9 50.9 —
F15 243:19:01 1170000 555 9.9 4.8 122.7 1
F14 243:21:08 1082000 511 9.4 4.7 196.2 1
F13 243:23:00 1004000 472 8.8 4.7 260.7 —
F12A 244:00:03 960000 450 8.5 4.6 296.4 3
F12B 244:00:29 941000 441 8.4 4.6 311.7 —
F11 244:02:49 839000 390 7.8 4.5 31.8 —
F10 244:05:13 731000 336 7.4 4.3 114.1 1
F9 244:06:21 678000 309 7.4 4.2 152.8 —
F8 244:08:05 597000 269 7.9 4.0 210.8 1
F7 244:09:58 505000 223 9.7 3.7 273.7 —
F6 244:12:02 398000 169 13.8 3.2 340.6 —
F5 244:13:35 313000 127 19.7 2.5 28.7 —
F4 244:14:40 251000 96 26.5 1.7 59.1 —
G3 244:20:07 183000 62 135.1 .5 51.7 —
G4 244:22:43 335000 138 113.2 3.0 120.8 —
G5 245:02:28 531000 236 102.2 4.0 241.4 3
G6 245:05:08 659000 300 98.2 4.4 330.5 1
G7 245:07:51 783000 362 95.5 4.6 63.1 1
G8 245:09:31 858000 399 94.2 4.7 120.2 —
G10 245:14:05 1053000 497 91.6 4.9 277.5 —
G11 245:14:39 1077000 509 91.3 4.9 297.1 3
G12 245:15:10 1099000 520 91.1 4.9 315.1 3
G13 245:16:30 1154000 547 90.5 5.0 1.6 3
G17 246:11:45 1904000 922 86.1 5.3 311.7 1
G18 246:12:59 1950000 945 85.9 5.3 355.0 1
G19 246:14:16 1998000 969 85.7 5.3 39.8 1
G20 246:15:31 2044000 992 85.6 5.3 83.2 3
G21 246:18:19 2147000 1044 85.3 5.4 181.0 —
G22 246:19:16 2182000 1061 85.2 5.4 214.2 3
G23 246:22:01 2282000 1111 84.9 5.4 310.2 3
G24 246:22:53 2313000 1127 84.8 5.4 340.6 2
G25 247:00:09 2359000 1150 84.7 5.4 25.0 2
G26 247:03:01 2463000 1202 84.4 5.4 125.4 2
G27 247:04:31 2516000 1228 84.3 5.4 177.8 2
G28 247:05:09 2539000 1240 84.3 5.4 200.3 2
214 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Image No. Mid time Range, Pixel Size, Phase Angle, Lat. Long. Not Displ-
Seq. DOY hr min km km Degrees LCM ayed Code
G32 247:20:42 3087000 1514 83.3 5.5 24.1 2
G33 247:21:24 3112000 1526 83.3 5.5 48.6 2
G34 247:22:09 3138000 1539 83.3 5.5 75.1 2
G35 248:01:17 3247000 1594 83.1 5.5 184.6 2
G36 248:02:05 3275000 1608 83.1 5.5 212.8 2
G37 248:02:54 3302000 1621 83.0 5.5 241.1 2
G38 248:03:35 3326000 1633 83.0 5.5 265.2 2
G39 248:04:45 3366000 1653 83.0 5.5 305.9 2
G40 248:05:29 3392000 1666 82.9 5.5 331.6 2
G41 248:06:15 3418000 1679 82.9 5.5 358.6 2
G42 248:06:55 3441000 1691 82.9 5.5 21.9 2
G14 245:18:48 360000 179 23.0 19.3 94.0 —

Not displayed code:


1. Poor data quality due to IPP stepping anomalies, dropped frames, RE interference of transmitted signal between
spacecraft and Earth, “comb” interference from other experimenter’s data, etc.
2. Poor resolution.
3. Redundant information. Similar to nearby images in time of receipt.
4. To be displayed after May 1, 1980.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 215

Appendix 3
Pioneer Team
PIONEER PROJECT MANAGEMENT

NASA Headquarters
Office of Space Science Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition

Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field, California Lewis Research Center, NASA, Cleveland, Ohio
Pioneer Project Staff

Kennedy Space Center, NASA, Florida AEC Space Nuclear Systems Division

TRW Systems Group

EXPERIMENTS AND INVESTIGATORS

Magnetic Fields Experiment

Principal Investigator: Edward J. Smith, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California


Coinvestigators: Palmer Dyal, Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field, California
Davis S. Colburn, Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field, California
Charles P. Sonett, University of Arizona
Douglas E. Jones, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah
Paul J. Coleman, Jr., University of California at Los Angeles
Leverett Davis, Jr., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

Fluxgate Magnetometer Experiment


Principal Investigator: Mario H. Acuna, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland
Coinvestigator: Norman F. Ness, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA

Plasma Analyzer Experiment

Principal Investigator: (Jupiter / Saturn) John H. Wolfe, Ames Research Center, NASA
(Beyond Saturn) Aaron Barnes, Ames Research Center, NASA
Coinvestigators: Louis A. Frank, University of Iowa, Iowa City
John Mihalov, Ames Research Center, NASA
H. Collard, Ames Research Center, NASA
D.D. McKibbin, Ames Research Center, NASA
Reimar Lust, Max Planck Institute fur Physik and Astrophysik Garching, Germany
Devrie Intriligator, University of Southern California
William C. Feldman, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, New Mexico

Charged Particle Composition Experiment


Principal Investigator: John A. Simpson, University of Chicago
Coinvestigators: Joseph J. O’Gallagher, University of Maryland, College Park
Anthony J. Tuzzolino, University of Chicago
R. Bruce McKibben, University of Chicago
216 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Cosmic Ray Energy Spectra Experiment

Principal Investigator: Frank B.McDonald, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland
Coinvestigators: Kenneth G. McCracken, Minerals Research Laboratory, North Ryde, Australia
William R. Webber, University of New Hampshire, Durham
Edmond C. Roelof, University of New Hampshire, Durham
Bonnard J. Teegarden, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA
James H. Trainor, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA

Jovian Charged Particles Experiment

Principal Investigator: James A. Van Allen, University of Iowa, Iowa City


Collaborators: Daniel N. Baker, University of Iowa
Bruce A. Randall, University of Iowa
Michelle F. Thomsen, University of Iowa
Roger F. Randall, University of Iowa
Christopher K. Goertz, University of Iowa
Davis D. Sentman, University of Iowa
Mark E. Pesses, University of Iowa

Jovian Trapped Radiation Experiment

Principal Investigator: R. Walker Fillius, University of California at San Diego


Coinvestigator: Carl E. McIlwain, University of California at San Diego

Asteroid-Meteoroid Astronomy Experiment

Principal Investigator: Robert K. Soberman, General Electric Company, Drexel University, Philadelphia
Coinvestigator: Herbert A. Zook, Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston, Texas

Meteoroid Detection Experiment

Principal Investigator: William H. Kinard, Langley Research Center, NASA, Hampton, Virginia
Coinvestigators: Jose M. Alvarez, Langley Research Center, NASA
Donald H. Humes, Langley Research Center, NASA
Robert L. O’Neal, Langley Research Center, NASA
Richard E. Turner, Langley Research Center, NASA

Celestial Mechanics Experiment

Principal Investigator: John D. Anderson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory


Coinvestigators: George W. Null, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
William B. Hubbard, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

Ultraviolet Photometry Experiment

Principal Investigator: Darrell L. Judge, University of Southern California, Los Angeles


Coinvestigator: Robert W. Carlson, University of Southern California

Imaging Photopolarimetry Experiment

Principal Investigator: Tom Gehrels, University of Arizona, Tucson


Coinvestigators: (Jupiter) Charles Blenman, Jr., University of Arizona
Arthur Clements, University of Arizona
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 217

Jyrki Hameen-Antilla, University of Arizona


Charles E. KenKnight, University of Arizona
William Swindell, University of Arizona
Martin C. Tomasko, University of Arizona
David L. Coffeen, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City
Robert F. Hummer, Santa Barbara Research Center, California
Coinvestigators: (Zodiacal Light) Jerry Weinberg, Space Astronomy Laboratory,
State University of New York, Albany
Martha Harmer, Space Astronomy Laboratory, State University of New York, Albany
Coinvestigators: (Saturn) Charles Blenman, Jr., University of Arizona, Tucson
James J. Burke, University of Arizona, Tucson
Lyn R. Doose, University of Arizona, Tucson
Charles E. KenKnight, University of Arizona, Tucson
Martin C. Tomasko, University of Arizona, Tucson
David L. Coffeen, Goddard Institute for Space Studies

Jovian Infrared Thermal Structural Experiment

Principal Investigator: (Jupiter) Guido Munch, California Institute of Technology


Principal Investigator: (Saturn) Andrew P. Ingersoll, California Institute of Technology
Coinvestigators: Gerry Neugebauer, California Institute of Technology
Stillman C. Chase, Santa Barbara Research Center
Laurence M. Trafton, University of Texas, Austin, Texas
Glen S. Orton, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

S-Band Occultation Experiment

Principal Investigator: Arvydas J. Kliore, Jet Propulsion Laboratory


Coinvestigators: Dan L. Cain, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Gunnar Fjeldbo Lindal, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Boris L. Seidel, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
S. Ichtiaque Rasool, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.

PIONEER CONTRACTORS

Contractor Item
Allen Design, Burbank, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propellant Valves
Amelco Semiconductor, Mountain View, California . . . . . . . . Integrated Circuits
Analog Technology Corporation, Pasadena, California . . . . . . Ultraviolet Photometry
Bendix Corporation,Columbia, Maryland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mission Operations and Software
Bendix Mosaic, Fabrication Division,
Sturbridge, Massachusetts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fiber Optics
Computer Communications Inc., Inglewood, California . . . . . Communication Stations
Data Products Corp., Woodland Hills, California . . . . . . . . . . ADP Line Printer
Edcliff Instrument Division. Systron Donner,
Monrovia, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Despin Sensor Assembly
Electra Midland Corp., Cermatrik Division,
San Diego, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Limiters
Electronic Memories Division of Electronic Memories
and Magnetics Corporation, Hawthorne, California . . . . . . . Memory Storage Units
EMR Telemetry Division, Weston Instruments Inc. . . . . . . . . Telemetry Decommutation,
Sarasota, Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Display Equipment
Frequency Electronics Inc., New Hyde Park, N.Y. . . . . . . . . . Oscillator (TCXO)
General Dynamics, Convair Division, San Diego, California . Launch Vehicle First and Second Stages
General Electric Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania . . . . . . Asteroid / Meteoroid Detector
218 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

Contractor Item
Holex Inc., Hollister, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explosive Cartridge
Honeywell, Inc., Radiation Center, Lexington, Massachusetts Sun Sensor Assemblies
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California . . . . . . . . . . . Helium Vector Magnetometer
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory,
Los Alamos, New Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RTG Fuel Discs
McDonnell Douglas Corp., Astronautics Company,
Huntington Beach, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Launch Vehicle Third Stage Motor
Mound Laboratories, Miamisburg, Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radioisotope Heater Unit Capsules, RTG Fuel and Capsules
Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Company,
East Hartford, Connecticut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Launch Vehicle Second Stage Motor
Pressure Systems Inc., Los Angeles, California . . . . . . . . . . . Propellant Tanks
Rockwell International, Rocketdyne Division,
Canoga Park, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Launch Vehicle First Stage Motor
Santa Barbara Research Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Imaging Photopolarimeter and
Santa Barbara, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infrared Radiometer
Siliconix Inc., Santa Clara, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integrated Circuits
Teledyne Isotopes, Germantown, Maryland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs)
Teledyne Microwave, Sunnyvale, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RF Transfer Switch
Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integrated Circuits
Thiokol Chemical Company, Elkton, Maryland . . . . . . . . . . . Launch Vehicle Third Stage Motor
Time Zero Corporation, Torrance, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plasma Analyzer and Magnetometer, Electronics
TRW Systems Group, TRW Inc.,
Redondo Beach, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spacecraft
United Detector Technology Inc., Santa Monica, California . . Silicon Photo Detectors
University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California . Trapped Radiation Detector
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charged Particle Instrument
University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geiger Tube Telescope
Watkins Johnson Company, Palo Alto, California . . . . . . . . . . Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier
Wavecom Inc., Chatsworth, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diplexer Assemblies
Xerox Data Systems, El Segundo, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer Systems
Yardney Electric Corporation, Pawcatuck, Connecticut . . . . . . Silver Cadmium Battery Cells
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 219

Appendix 4
Pioneer Award Recipients
DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL
Charles F. Hall

EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE MEDALS


Jupiter Encounter: Saturn Encounter:
Richard O. Fimmel Fred D. Kochendorfer Arthur C. Bouck
John V. Foster Joseph E. Lepetich John W. Dyer
Robert U. Hofstetter Norman J. Martin Robert P. Hogan
Ralph W. Holtzclaw Edwin T. Muckley Robert E. Ryan
Harold Jaffe Robert R. Nunamaker
James W. Johnson Alfred J. Siegmeth
Eldon W. Kaiser William E. Kirhofer
Arthur C. Wilbur

EXCEPTIONAL SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENT MEDALS


John D. Anderson William H. Kinard
R. Walker Filius Guido Munch
Tom Gehrels James H. Trainor
Darrell L. Judge James A. Van Allen

PUBLIC SERVICE AWARD PUBLIC SERVICE MEDALS


(Saturn Encounter)
William J. Dixon L. Ralph Baker
Herbert A. Lassen Charles Blenman, Jr.
Walter L. Natzic Lyn R. Doose
Bernard J. O’Brien Martin C. Tomasko
William F. Sheehan
Louis A. Watts

PUBLIC SERVICE GROUP ACHIEVEMENT AWARDS


Pioneer 10 Team, TRW System Group
Pioneer 10 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Contractor Team
Pioneer 10 Team, Bendix Field Engineering Corporation
Pioneer 10 Scientific Instrument Team
Pioneer Saturn Mission Operations Support Team
Bendix Field Engineering Corporation
220 PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond

GROUP ACHIEVEMENT AWARDS


Ames Pioneer 10 Scientific Instruments Team
Ames Pioneer 10 Spacecraft Team
Ames Pioneer 10 Mission Analysis and Launch Operations Team
Ames Pioneer 10 Mission Operations Team
Ames Pioneer 10 Project Management Team
Ames Pioneer 10 Contracts Team
Ames Research Center Support Groups
Pioneer 10 Mission Analysis Team, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Pioneer 10 Ground Data System Team, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Pioneer 10 RTG Team, Atomic Energy Commission
Pioneer 10 Radio Science Team
Pioneer 10 Headquarters Staff Support Group
Pioneer Saturn Mission Navigation Team, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Pioneer Saturn Deep Space Network Team, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Arvydas J. Kliore, Edward J. Smith, and John H. Wolfe were also nominated for the Exceptional Scientific Achievement
Award. However, since NASA makes only one such award to an individual, these principal investigators did not receive the
award again for their work on Pioneer 10. John A. Simpson was nominated for his work in connection with both Pioneer 10
and Mariner 10 and elected to accept the award for Mariner.
PIONEER – First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond 221

The Authors
Richard O. Fimmel
Currently Project Manager for all the Pioneer missions at Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field,
California, Richard Fimmel was earlier responsible for encounter planning for the Pioneer missions to
Jupiter and Saturn. Also, as Science Chief for the Pioneer Project, he planned for and operated the science
instruments on both spacecraft during the encounters, for which he was awarded the NASA Exceptional
Service Medal. Earlier he was responsible for the development of the Pioneer Telemetry Tape Processing
Station and was consultant for the development of the Ground Data System for Pioneers 6 and 7.
Richard Fimmel is a research scientist at Ames Research Center with over 25 years of experience in
research, design, development, and management of instrumentation, computers, and data systems. He was
project manager for the MOBIDIC computer development at the Signal Corps Research and Development
Laboratory, and manager of the Computer Products Department in Ampex International Operations.
He received a BSEE in 1949 from Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, and, in 1954, an
MSEE. A Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Richard Fimmel has authored
several papers on spacecraft data management systems and has participated on panels, working groups, and
committees to develop design and systems criteria for such systems.

James A. Van Allen


As a member of the Lunar and Planetary Missions Board of NASA (1967-1971) and as chairman of its
Jupiter Panel, James Van Allen helped develop the plans for the first missions to Jupiter and Saturn. In 1969
he was selected as the principal investigator for one of the energetic particle instruments on both Pioneer
10 and Pioneer 11. He and his colleagues and students at the University of Iowa have been active
participants in these missions for over a decade and have published a series of major papers on the
magnetosphere of Jupiter, on the discovery and survey of the magnetosphere of Saturn, and on energetic
particle phenomena in interplanetary space. He has been active in planning and conducting high-altitude
and space investigations by balloon, rocket, and spacecraft techniques since 1945, and has been principal
investigator on 24 Earth-orbiting and planetary missions. In 1958, Dr. Van Allen discovered the radiation
belts of Earth with a radiation detector on Explorer 1, the first successful American satellite. He is head of
the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Iowa, from which he received a Ph.D. in
nuclear physics in 1939.

Eric Burgess
Freelance consultant. author, lecturer. and journalist, Eric Burgess has written about the Pioneer space
missions since the first Air Force lunar probes in 1957. Author of many of the earliest books and technical
and popular articles on upper atmosphere physics, guided missiles, rocket propulsion, and spaceflight, Eric
Burgess’ by-line has appeared internationally in newspapers and magazines for over 40 years. He aided the
formation of the British Interplanetary Society in the 1930s and the International Astronautical Federation
in the 1950s. He wrote the first detailed technical paper on unmanned communication satellites in
synchronous orbits (1947) and the first technical paper on a scan imaging planetary probe spacecraft (1951).
In the 1940s, he researched and wrote the most comprehensive declassified survey of World War II rocket
and missile development and had a prize essay published on the future of large ballistic missiles.
He is a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, Fellow of the British Interplanetary Society, Associate
Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Member of the National Association
of Science Writers. He has held management and technical positions in companies ranging from textiles to
advanced computing and electronic systems. He managed documentation of the Navy’s Transit satellite
system. was a management consultant to the Federal Aviation Administration, and was a consultant on
surveillance and early warning satellite systems of the Air Force.