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ARRETE n° 22 .771/2017
Fixant les programmes scolaires d‟ANGLAIS
des classes de Seconde, Premières A-C-D et
Terminales A-C-D

Vu la Constitution ;
Vu la Loi n°2004-004 du 26 juillet 2004, modifiée par la Loi n°2008-011 du 17 juillet 2008,
portant orientation générale du système d‟éducation, d‟enseignement et de formation de
Madagascar ;
Vu le Décret n°2009- 1172 du 25 septembre 2009 fixant les attributions du Ministre de
l‟Education Nationale, ainsi que l‟organisation générale de son Ministère ;
Vu le Décret n°2016-250 du 10 avril 2016 portant nomination du Premier Ministre, Chef du
Vu le Décret n°2016-265 du 15 avril 2016, modifié et complété par les décrets n°2016-460 du
11 mai 2016, n°2017-148 du 02 mars 2017, 2017-262 du 20 avril 2017 et 2017-590 du 25
aout 2017, portant nomination des membres du Gouvernement ;
Vu l‟Arrêté n°1617-96/MEN du 02 avril 1996 fixant les programmes scolaires des classes de
Onzième, Sixième, et Seconde ;
Vu l‟Arrêté n°5268-97/MinESEB du 10 juin 1997 fixant les programmes scolaires des classes
de Dixième, Cinquième et Premières A-C-D ;
Vu l‟Arrêté n°2532-98/MinESEB du 07 avril 1998 fixant les programmes scolaires des
classes de Neuvième, Quatrième et Terminales A-C-D ;

Article premier. – Les programmes d‟enseignement d‟Anglais des classes de Seconde,
Premières A-C-D et Terminales A-C-D sont fixés et seront appliqués à compter de l‟année
scolaire 2017-2018 suivant les dispositions portées en annexe du présent arrêté.
Article 2. – Toutes dispositions contraires antérieures à celles mentionnées dans le présent
arrêté sont et demeurent abrogées.
Article 3. – Le Secrétaire Général du Ministère de l‟Education Nationale, le Directeur
Général de l‟Enseignement Secondaire et de la Formation de Masse, le Directeur de
l‟Enseignement Secondaire, le Directeur des Etudes et des Recherches Pédagogiques, ainsi
que toutes les Services Techniques Déconcentrés du Ministère de l‟Education Nationale sont
chargés, chacun en ce qui le concerne, de l‟exécution du présent arrêté.
Article 4. – Le présent arrêté sera enregistré et communiqué où besoin sera.

Antananarivo le,


Ao anatin‟ny politikan‟ny teti-pivoaran‟ny fanabeazana ny Minisitera ankehitriny. Eo
anivon‟nylisea, ny fanatsarana ny kalitaon‟ny fampianarana sy ny fanabeazana no anisan‟ny
vaindohan-draharaha. Singa iray ao anatin‟izany ny fanatsarana ny kirakiram-pampianarana.

Mba hanatrarana izany tanjona izany dia miroso amin‟ny fanavaozana ny fandaharam-
pianarana ny Minisitera.

Tsikaritra fa na dia mahazo salan‟isa tsara aza ny mpianatra dia vitsy no tena mahay
maneho ny heviny amin‟ny fiteny vahiny izay ianarany. Koa anisan‟ny vina voafaritra ny
ahazoan‟ny zaza Malagasy mahafehy ny teny vahiny sy mahay maneho hevitra amin‟izany
fiteny izany. Iarahantsika rehetra manaiky ny filana ny fahaizana ny teny Anglisy amin‟ny
fanohizana ny fianarana eny amin‟ny Oniversité, na amin‟ny fidirana amin‟ny tontolon‟ny

Ny taom-pianarana 2017-2018 no anapariahana sy ampiharana ny fandaharam-

pianarana vaovao ho an‟ny taranja anglisy manerana ny nosy. Andalam-panatontosana ny
taranja hafa kosa ny Minisitera ankehitriny.

Ny traikefantsika mpampianatra no andry iankinan‟ny fanatsarana mba tena ho lova

tsara indrindra ho an‟ny zaza Malagasy tokoa ny fianarana. Koa mampahery ny mpanabe
tsirairay amin‟ny fanatanterahana ny adidy lehibe sy masina izay iandraiketantsika.

Ny Minisitry ny Fanabeazam-pirenena

RABARYAndrianiaina Paul



UNIT SUMMARY……………………………………………………………..1
UNIT 1: FAMILY LIFE (THREE WEEKS) ................................................... 3
UNIT 2: SCHOOL LIFE (THREE WEEKS)................................................... 6
UNIT 3: SPORTS AND LEISURE (TWO WEEKS) .................................... 11
UNIT 4: WORLD OF WORK (THREE WEEKS) ........................................ 14
UNIT 5: WISHES AND REGRETS (TWO WEEKS)................................... 18
UNIT 6: TOURISM IN MADAGASCAR (TWO WEEKS) ......................... 22
UNIT 7: TECHNOLOGY (TWO WEEKS) ................................................... 26
UNIT 8: IN THE NEWS (TWO WEEKS)...................................................... 30
UNIT 10: POLITICAL LEADERSHIP(TWO WEEKS) .............................. 36

TEACHER‟S GUIDE ....................................................................................... 38

UNIT 1: FAMILY LIFE (THREE WEEKS) ................................................. 39

UNIT 2: SCHOOL LIFE (THREE WEEKS)................................................. 46
UNIT 3: SPORTS AND LEISURE (TWO WEEKS) .................................... 58
UNIT 4: WORLD OF WORK (THREE WEEKS) ........................................ 64
UNIT 5: WISHES AND REGRETS (TWO WEEKS)................................... 72
UNIT 6: TOURISM IN MADAGASCAR (TWO WEEKS) ......................... 78
UNIT 7: TECHNOLOGY (TWO WEEKS) ................................................... 83
UNIT 8: IN THE NEWS (TWO WEEKS)..................................................... 90
(TWO WEEKS) ................................................................................................. 93
UNIT 10: POLITICAL LEADERSHIP (TWO WEEKS)............................ 95




Teaching English in Malagasy schools aims at providing students with tools

To communicate orally and in writing
To give and express their opinions
To be aware of other countries‟ cultures
To know worldwide news

Objectives of English teaching in lycées:

After their lycée studies, students will be able to:
Express themselves in basic conversations and in different situations
Understand spoken and written English

Exit profiles for Terminales students:

At the end of Terminales class, the students will be able to
Communicate in various real life situations related to what they have learnt
Give feed-back in listening and reading activities (listening and reading)
Express their viewpoint in oral activities and discussion classes related to the units
of the curriculum
Produce writing paragraph about description, narration, advice or letters in English

Weekly teaching hour:

Terminales A: 4 hours
Terminales C/D: 2 hours


Terminales Curriculum Content

Unit 3: Sports and Leisure Unit 5: Wishes and Regrets

Unit 1: Family Life (3wks Unit 2 : School Life (3wks) Unit 4: World of Work (3wks
(2wks) (2wks)

Language function: Language functions: Language function: Language function: Language function:
Describing one‟s family and Expressing opinions Explaining why one likes Describing work conditions Expressing wishes
family types about school participating in leisure Grammar: Grammar:
Grammar: Grammar: activities Adjectives following the verb “to Wish statements: (I wish I
Questions with “who” Grammar: make + an object” (review): My had a car.)
Superlative (review) boss makes me nervous.
(review) To be keen on/to be fond of Expressions of quantity
Expressions followed by - Causative verbs: Make, Have (review and expanded)
Ordinal numbers ing + noun/gerund
- X makes Y do something ___________________
(review) Verb: “to get” + past Modal: Can (review) (no Language function:
The superlative (review) participle/adjective Participial adjectives: “-ed” - choice) X has Y do Expressing regrets with wish
Using “of” in Adjective clause vs. “–ing” (bored vs. boring) something (request) statements
____________________ Passive causatives: Grammar:
expressions of quantity: pronouns: “who”, “that
Language function: - I had/got my Using “wish” to express
One/Some of my friends _______________________
Expressing how one/it feels - house cleaned. regrets: (I wish I had told the
is/are… Language function:
___________________ Comparing and contrasting practicing a certain sport _______________________ truth.)
Language functions: school subjects Grammar: Language function : Verb: regret + gerund
Complaining about Grammar: Linking verb “to feel”+ Discussing worker‟s rights
family issues Expressions of adjective: “I feel good.” Grammar :
comparison/contrast It +to be + adjective + Verbs : non-progressive
Offering support and passive + prepositions
(review and expanded) Infinitives: “It is difficult to
_____________________ Verb/Noun combinations : (to
play chess.”
Language function: bribe – bribery)
Gerunds as subjects:
Stating the time of a schedule
Grammar: Grammar:
“Playing chess is difficult.”
Negative future to ____________________
Preposition with time
complain: She won‟t let me... Language function:
Making weekend plans
“always”, “never” in _______________________
Language function: Grammar:
complaints: He always/ never
Present progressive expressing
talks to me… Expressing consequences of
future: “What are you doing
Verbs: to keep/to stop + -ing good and bad behavior
Grammar: this weekend?”
Expression “to make” + an Let‟s + base form of verb to
If/when clauses (review)
object + adjective make suggestions: “Let‟s play
Should/shouldn‟t (review) tennis.”
Could/Ought (review) Why don‟t we + base form of
Verb: “need” + infinitive verb to make suggestions:
“Why don‟t we play chess?”

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Terminales Curriculum Content
Unit 6: Tourism in Unit 7: Technology (2 wks) Unit 8: In The News (2wks) Unit 9: International Unit 10: Political Leadership
Madagascar (2wks Organizations (2wks) (2wks)
Language function: Language functions: Language function : Language functions : Language functions:
Writing and stating causes and Writing with parallel structure Telling and writing about a Stating solutions for social Expressing promises
effects Punctuating correctly news story problems Stating intentions
Grammar: Pausing appropriately Grammar: Grammar : Grammar:
Expressions introducing while speaking Information questions (review) Expressing purpose:“so that…”/“in Passive (review): to be elected,
Causes:-If/when clauses (review) Grammar: Past tense (review) order to…” (review) etc.
- Because + adverb clauses Coordinating ____________________ _______________________ “Will” and “be going to” to
- (review) Conjunctions and, or, but Language function: Language functions: express future events
- Because of + noun Using commas in writing Reporting what someone said Describing roles of “Must” expressing necessity
- Due to + Pausing appropriately from an interview International organizations (review)
- noun When speaking Grammar: Grammar: “Mustn‟t” expressing
Expressions introducing effects: _______________________ Reported speech Acronyms prohibition (review)
- as a result Language function: Past tense(review) Adjective clauses used as a subject: Expressing purpose; “in order
- therefore Describing advantages Information questions (review) “that” (review), to…”, “so that…”
- consequently And disadvantages of “Which” (review)
- that is why Using technology Adverb clause of condition:
- for this reason Grammar: “unless”, “only if…”
- this leads to + noun Showing direct contrast:
Adverb clauses expressing
contrast : even though, although
Transitions expressing contrast:
nevertheless, nonetheless
Prepositions expressing contrast:
despite, in spite of


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Terminales Curriculum Content

Unit 1: FAMILY LIFE (Three weeks)

General objective:
Students will be able to discuss family life

Specific objectives:
Students will be able to:
Describe their families
Complain about family issues
Offer support and suggestions

Language Grammar Vocabulary Suggested Activities and Assessment

Questions with “who” Family Types: Question/Answer:
Describing one‟s (review) -nuclear/extended/large/ 1. The teacher asks simple yes/no questions about
family and family Ordinal numbers (review) adoptive/single parent family.
types The comparative (review) “Who in this class is the oldest child in the
Defining and describing: family?”
Using “of” in expressions
-to consist of… (This type of “Who is the second (third, fourth, etc.) child of
of quantity: family consists of parents and
-One of my friends is… the family?”
their biological children.)
-Some of my friends are… 2. Students respond by raising their hands.
-to include (The extended
family includes relatives like 3. The teacher draws a family tree on the board.
grandparents, etc.) He/she uses it to review and introduce family
-to refer to… (An adoptive vocabulary. Students reveal what they already
family refers to one where the know by answering the teacher‟s questions.
child was born of another Example: “If this is the grandmother, who is
parent.) this?”(points to the grandfather image)
Expressions of quantity Writing/Speaking:
-three of them/the majority 1. After drawing and labeling their own family

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Terminales Curriculum Content
of/all of/each of/several of/etc. tree (or that of a famous family, an ideal
family, etc.), students write sentences like the
“My family consists of seven people; a
mother, a father and three brothers and two
-orphan “I am the second child after my older
-only child brother”.
-best friend
-an acquaintance 2. Using their family trees, students describe the
-single/engaged/married/ family to group mates.
-to have a girl(boy)friend/

-open minded≠narrow
-conservative, old

Using the negative future to Complaining: Dialogue practice:

Complaining about complain:She won‟t let
-What‟s the matter? 1. Students read the beginning of short dialogues
family issues me.../won‟t listen…etc. about a friend complaining about a family

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Terminales Curriculum Content
Offering support and Using “always”, “never” in -I am having family problems. member. Then students select the best solution
suggestions complaints: He always from options or offer a better solution.
-I had an argument/a row Example:
criticizes me…/She never
lets me… -to argue/to quarrel A: What‟s wrong?
Verb: “to keep” + -ing -to be upset B: My brother makes me so mad.
Verb: “to stop” + ing
-to bother someone A: Why?
Expression “to make” + an
object + adjective -to keep bothering, teasing, B: He keeps calling me stupid.
Should/shouldn‟t (review)
-to stop bothering, etc. A: I‟m sorry to hear that. You should ….
Could (review)
Ought (review) -to make someone mad
Verb: “need” + infinitive -to get along with someone
-to be on good/bad terms with Possible solutions:
…show him your report card with excellent
-to make a mistake marks.
…tell him to stop bothering you.
-I‟m sorry to hear that. …your response.
Role play:
-I understand (completely), but
1. The teacher assigns groups a family problem,
-Why don‟t you…? i.e., staying out too late/wanting to stay in
-How about…? school when the parent wants to pull him/her out
to work in the rice paddies. (See Teacher‟s
-Maybe you should/could… Guide.)
-You need to … 2. Students create a dialogue that consists of the
complaint and suggestion.

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Terminales Curriculum Content

Unit 2: SCHOOL LIFE (Three weeks)

General objective:
Students will be able to talk about various aspects of school life

Specific objectives:
Students will be able to:
Express opinions about school subjects and teachers
Compare and contrast school subjects
State and note the times of a class schedule
Explain the consequences of good/bad school behavior

Language Grammar Vocabulary Suggested Activities and Assessment

Superlative (review) Subjects (review): Drill:
Expressing opinions Expressions followed by -
-math/science/history 1. The teacher shows flashcards with the names of
about school ing
(Review) courses students have taken or are currently
Verb: “to get” + past Adjectives: taking. Students respond by saying whether the
like or dislike the course.
Expression “to make” + an -interesting
object + adjective (review) -useful Math Art English
Adjective clause pronouns: -useless Science History Etc.
“who”, “that” -easy Example: “I like history.”
-hard (difficult) “I don‟t like French.”
-boring “I hate math.”
-fun “I love art.”
-etc. Writing:
Expressions followed by -
ing: 1. Students complete statements like the following:
-I have fun/a good time My strictest teacher is Mrs. Jones.
studying physics, etc. My hardest class is…

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Terminales Curriculum Content
-I have trouble/difficulty The best thing about my school is…
concentrating in English, 2. Students complete statements like the following:
-I have a hard time/difficult I have fun studying English.
time understanding my I have __ understanding __.
I have __ doing my __ homework.
teacher, etc.
3. Students complete sentences with frequency
-I spend a lot of time
adverbs, adjectives and school subjects:
daydreaming in history class.
-We waste a lot of time I often get sleepy in my math class.
taking notes. 4. Students complete sentences such as the
Adjectives with “to get”/”to following:
be”: I like teachers who…
I prefer classes that…
5. Students share ideas with classmates.
Comparing and Expressions of Expressions of comparison: Writing/Speaking:
contrasting school comparison/contrast -and… (review)
-also… (review) 1. The teacher gives examples of comparing and
subjects (review and expanded)
-as well (review) contrasting school subjects.
-both…and… Example:
-like… “History is as interesting as science.”
-likewise… “Both math and English are difficult.”
Expressions of contrast: “French is useful. Likewise, English will help me get
-whereas… (review) a good job.” , etc.
-but… (review) 2. Then students draw from a bag two (or more)
-on the other hand… flash cards with the names of school subjects.
-unlike… (See examples from the drill activity above.)
3. The students write sentences of their own
comparing and/or contrasting the two (or more)
subjects drawn from the bag.
4. Now the teacher has individuals draw two
cards from the bag. The students state three


Terminales Curriculum Content
comparisons and/or contrasts based on the
two subjects drawn.

English is more interesting than math.
Math is important whereas English is
I like English, but math is more useful.
Stating the time of a Preposition with time Prepositions: Drill:/Writing/Speaking:
schedule expressions
-My class starts at 2:00. 1. The teacher shows flashcards and has students
-You must be on time. call out the time.
-The class will start in ten 8:00 8:15 8:30
8:45 8:55 9:00

2. Students write their school schedule:

8:00 - 8:45 Math
8:55 – 9:40 History
9:50 – 10:25 English

3. The teacher or other students ask questions like

the following:
-What time is English?
-When will your history class begin?
The students respond:
-English starts at 9:50 and ends at 10:25.

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Terminales Curriculum Content
-My history class begins at 8:55. Or My history class
begins in one hour.
1. The students listen and write down the time for
the following classes (See Teacher‟s Guide):
Study Hall*
*Study Hall is usually a quiet period when students
have time to study. This may take place in a
classroom, in the school library, or in the school
cafeteria before or after lunch.
2. The teacher asks how this schedule differs from
their own school schedule.
In groups, students ask each other questions like:
What time did you get up this morning?
What time did you go to bed last night?

Expressing If/when clauses (review) Verbs: Writing:

consequences of Apologizing to friends -to take English, French,
etc. 1. Students write complete answers to the following
good/bad behavior Apologizing to teachers
-to sit for/to take an exam questions: What happens if/when…
-to pass/fail an exam you skip school?
-to graduate (from) you are late to class?
-to drop out you fail an exam?
-to get good/average/bad you get perfect marks in all your subjects?

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Terminales Curriculum Content
marks, grades you cheat on an exam?
-to be late you fight with another students?
-to be absent you don‟t study? Or …you do study?
-to skip school you do/don‟t respect your teachers?
-to plagiarize/cheat
2. In groups, students ask and answer the questions
-to be punished
-to be expelled
I am sorry for . . . In small groups discuss what causes conflict between
I am sorry that . . . classmates. Discuss also what causes conflict
I am sorry about . . between teachers and students. How is this handled?
I hope you can forgive me What is the best way to handle this?
for . . .

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Terminales Curriculum Content

Unit 3: SPORTS AND LEISURE (Two weeks)

General objective:
Students will be able to talk about sports and leisure activities

Specific objectives:
Students will be able to:
Explain why they participate in sports and leisure activities
Write a paragraph about their favorite sport or leisure activity
Make weekend plans

Language Grammar Vocabulary Sample production and assessment

Explaining why one To be keen on + Leisure activities/hobbies: Speaking/Writing:
likes participating in noun/gerund 1. In groups, students brainstorm a list of hobbies (in
-taking photos/watching video
leisure activities To be fond of + English or in Malagasy). They then call out their ideas
noun/gerund to the teacher.
(See Teacher‟s Guide.)
Modal: Can (review) Adjectives: 2. The teacher translates and/or writes the list on the
Participial -creative/dull/ healthy/ board.
adjectives: rewarding/ etc. (See Teacher‟s 3. Now the teacher asks students to brainstorm a list of
“-ed” vs. “–ing” Guide.) adjectives describing hobbies/leisure activities and
(bored vs. boring) Participial adjectives “-ed” vs. writes their ideas on the board. (See Teacher‟s Guide)
“-ing” 4. Using the two brainstormed lists of words and
-excited vs. exciting expressions, students write sentences describing
-interested vs. interesting hobbies, leisure activities, etc. Students share their ideas
-tired vs. tiring with group mates.
-satisfied vs. satisfying Examples:
-bored vs. boring
-relaxed vs. relaxing Taking photos is interesting.
-energized vs. energizing Hiking is fun.
Expressions with can: Analyzing:

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Terminales Curriculum Content
-I can do it alone/by myself 1. The teacher provides a list of examples containing
-I can do it with my friends participial adjectives ending in “-ed” and “-ing.”
-I can do it anytime This book is interesting. vs. I am interested in this story.
-I can do it anywhere The game is exciting. vs. I am excited to be here at the
2. The teacher asks student to explain when to use one and
when to use the other
3. Students circle the correct adjective in sentences.
Example: Rugby is excited/exciting.
1. Students put a (√) next to activities they like doing and
an (X) next to the ones they dislike doing. Students add
activities they like if not listed.
___reading novels
___playing chess
2. Students write sentences explaining why they like or
dislike the activities chosen.
I‟m keen on reading novels because I can do it alone
and it is relaxing.
I am fond of camping because I can be outdoors and
I can be with my friends.
I am not keen on playing chess because it is so

Expressing how Linking verb “to Names of sports: Writing:

one/it feels feel”+ adjective: “I
-soccer/basketball/rugby/ 1. Students complete sentences with adjectives.
practicing a certain feel good.”
sport or leisure It +to be + adjective
volleyball/ track and It‟s ____ to play soccer.

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Terminales Curriculum Content
activity + Infinitives: “It is field/tennis/table tennis/handball It‟s ____ to swim in the ocean.
difficult to play swimming/etc. 2. Students convert the sentences above using gerunds as
chess.” subjects:
Categories of sports::
Gerunds as subjects: Playing soccer is….
“Playing chess is -individual/team/indoor/ Swimming in the ocean is…
difficult.” outdoor/competitive/seasonal/aq 3. Students explain how they feel when they do certain
uatic activities.
Adjectives with “to feel”: I feel great when I swim.
-healthy ≠ unhealthy
I feel bored when I play chess.
-fit ≠ out of shape
-strong ≠ weak Listening/Speaking:
Verbs: 1. Students fill out interview forms for themselves (See
-to practice/ to play/to go in for Teacher‟s Guide)
+ a sport 2. Students ask members of their group the questions on
-to get into shape the interview card. Students complete the card with
-to gain/lose weight their responses.
-to run
3. Students report one or two interesting things they found
-to wrestle
out about one or two of their classmates to the whole
-to kick
-to score a goal class.
-to win Writing:
-to lose Students use the sentence structures and vocabulary of the
-to bet on something unit to write a paragraph on one of the following topics;
-to compete
-to throw  My Favorite Leisure Activity
-to catch  My Favorite Sport
Present progressive Expressions indicating future: Dialogue Practice:
Making weekend expressing future:
-this afternoon/evening Students listen to and repeat a series of short dialogues
plans with others “What are you doing
this weekend?” where two students are making weekend plans. (See
-tomorrow morning/afternoon/
Let‟s + base form of night Teacher‟s Guide.)
verb to make -tonight

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Terminales Curriculum Content
suggestions: “Let‟s -next week/month/Monday, etc. Writing/Speaking:
play tennis.”
1. Students write answers to questions using the present
Why don‟t we + base
progressive to express weekend plans.
form of verb to make
suggestions: “Why What are you doing this weekend?
don‟t we play chess?” What are you doing Friday after class?
What are you doing Sunday?
2. Pairs or small groups of students ask and answer the
questions. Or Students write and perform their own
dialogues about making plans for the weekend.


Unit 4: WORLD OF WORK (three weeks)

General objective:
Students will be able to talk about issues related to work

Specific objectives:
Students will be able to:

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Terminales Curriculum Content
Describe work conditions
Discuss workers‟ rights

Grammar Vocabulary Suggested Activities and Assessment

Describing work Adjectives following Types of jobs (review and expanded): Writing/Speaking:
conditions the verb “to make + -an accountant
1. Students complete sentences with
an object” (review): -an engineer
- My boss makes me -a veterinarian adjectives describing ideal and bad work
nervous. -a psychologist conditions.
- The long hours make -an actor/actress Ideal:
me tired. -charcoal seller My job makes me …
- The toxic fumes make -street vendor My boss makes me …
me sick. Adjectives “ed” and “ing” endings (review) My colleagues make me…
Causal verbs: -amazed/amazing My work environment makes me…
Something/one causes -annoyed/annoying Not ideal:
something to happen -confused/confusing My job makes me…
- My teacher makes me -embarrassed/embarrassing
My boss makes me…
work hard. -frustrated/frustrating
-motivated/motivating My colleagues make me…
- She has me do
-tired/tiring My work environment makes me…
homework every day.
- -satisfied/satisfying
Possible adjectives used after “to be”, “to 2. Students share ideas with group mates.
Passive causal
structure: feel”: Listing/Writing/Speaking
Subject + have/get + 1. The teacher gives examples:
-comfortable/uncomfortable Teachers make/have students…
object + past participle -successful
(I got my hair cut.) …read
-productive …write
-nervous …do homework, etc.
-afraid 2. The teacher then encourages students to
-stressed add other things (verbs) to the list.
-worried 3. Students then create sentences from the

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Terminales Curriculum Content
-sick/ill listed information.
-happy/unhappy 3. The teacher offers other prompts: My
-Etc. parents make/have me…/Bosses make/have
their workers…/etc.
Prepositions and Job locations: 4. As a whole class, in small groups or in
pairs, students add to the lists. They then
-In/at an office/a university/ a compare their ideas by stating and/or writing
hospital/a clinic/an airport complete sentences.
on a movie set/on an airplane Dialogue:
1.On the board, the teacher lists questions a
newcomer to town may ask a local resident.
Where can I get/have my hair cut?
Where can I get/have my teeth fixed?
Where can I get/have my eyes checked?
Where can I get/have my car repaired?
Where can I get/have my clothes
2. After a few minutes of formulating as
many answers as they can, students come to
the front of the class and play the part of a
newcomer asking the questions and residents
Discussing Expressions with “to Expressions : Writing/Speaking:
worker‟s rights be + passive + -to be concerned about… 1. Teachers ask students to list a few things
prepositions” -to be worried about… they are “concerned about”, “worried
Verb/Noun -to be discriminated against… about”‟ exhausted from”, scared of”,”
combinations : -to be exhausted from… annoyed with”, “bored by”
(to bribe – bribery) -to be protected from… 2. Students share answers with group mates.
-to be frightened, scared, Example:
terrified of/by… A: I am worried about failing my test.
-to be annoyed with/by… What are you worried about?
-to be bored with/by… B: I am worried about my little brother.

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He is very sick.
Verb/Noun Combinations:
-to bribe/bribery
-to corrupt/corruption 1. As a pre-reading task, the teacher asks
-to exploit/exploitation students to complete the following
-to humiliate/humiliation sentences.
-to embarrass/embarrassment Workers should have the right to
-to discriminate/discrimination (have) ___, ___, ___ and ___.
-to treat/treatment
Workers should be protected from ___,
-to promote/promotion
___, ___ and ___.
2. Students read the descriptions of work-
related issues and compare their ideas
with the text. (See Teacher‟s Guide.)


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Unit 5: WISHES AND REGRETS (two weeks)

General objective:
Students will be able to express wishes and regrets

Specific objectives:
Students will be able to:
Convert present and past tense sentences into wish statements
Express orally and in written form their wishes about what they would like to have, be, and do
Express orally and in written form regrets about things they did or didn‟t do in the past

Grammar Vocabulary and Expressions Suggested Activities and Assessment
Expressing Wish statements: (I Expressions of quantity: Introduction:
wishes wish I had a car.) -many/much - enough 1.The teacher presents a few sample statements
-some - any expressing his or her reality that he/she wants to
Expressions of change.
quantity (review and -so I don‟t have a car.
expanded) -too I have to walk to work.
Adjectives describing physical I can‟t play the drums.
characteristics: I am tired.
-tall 2.The teacher then uses the statements above to
-short explain how to express wishes.
-attractive I wish (that) I had a car.
I wish (that) I didn‟t have to walk to work.
-pretty/beautiful I wish (that) I could play the drums.
-handsome I wish (that) I weren‟t tired.
-clumsy 3.After presenting several examples the teacher asks
-well-coordinated the students what the grammatical rules are for
-athletic converting a reality statement into a wish.
-strong Writing:
Adjectives describing personality:
The students use the given information to complete the

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-smart/intelligent sentences. Example:
-self-confident I have a cold. → I wish (that) I didn‟t have a
-shy cold.
-quiet I don‟t live in a big house. →I wish (that) I lived
-outgoing in a big house.
-talkative Analysis/Writing:
-funny (humorous/witty) 1. Students observe expressions of quantity presented
-serious in both present tense sentences and accompanying
-generous wish statements.(See Teacher‟s Guide.)
-stingy 2. Students convert present tense “reality” statements
-mean into wish statements changing the expressions of
-kind/nice quantity as needed.
-jealous Writing/Speaking:
Students write 5 to 10 wish statements that reflect
what they would like to have, be, do, etc. They then
share their ideas with group mates. In turn, listeners
respond orally with the “reality” statements.

Expressing Using “wish” to Verbs: Introduction:

regrets with wish express regrets: (I -to yell (at)
-to hit 1. The teacher writes sentences on the board
statements wish I had told the
-to fight expressing things he/she did or didn‟t do in the past
-to smoke that he/she regrets now.
Verb: regret + gerund
-to steal Example:
-to cheat I didn‟t correct your exams.
-to tease/to make fun of I stayed up too late.
-to lie/to tell a lie
-to tell the truth 2. The teacher then expresses regret by converting the
-to spend all of one‟s money above statements into “wish” statements in the past.
-to insult Example:

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-to hurt (physically and/or I wish (that) I had corrected your exams.
one‟s feelings) I wish (that) I hadn‟t stayed up so late.
-to sleep/get up late 3. The teacher again asks students to state the
-to get caught cheating, grammatical rule upon observing the examples.
smoking, drinking, etc. Writing:
-to drop 1. Students convert reality statements into wish
-to break statements.
-to pay attention Example:
I yelled at my mom last night. → I wish (that) I
Expressions of emotions following “to hadn‟t yelled at my mom last night.
be” (review): I didn‟t do my homework. →I wish (that) I had done
my homework.
-angry 2. Students now convert the above statements using
-happy “regret”.
-sad Example:
-confused I regret yelling at my mom.
-embarrassed I regret not doing my homework.
-Etc. Writing/Speaking:
1. The teacher assigns to groups of students a list of
“regrettable” situations classmates may find
themselves in. Students write what the unfortunate
students may be thinking or saying.
As Kevin was walking to school, he was sending a
text message to his girlfriend. He fell down and
broke his glasses. What is Kevin wishing
”regretting” right now?

Possible responses:
He wishes (that) he had paid more attention.
He wishes wish (that) he had called his girlfriend

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He wishes(that) he hadn‟t worn his glasses, etc.
2. Students share responses with other groups.
1. Students (or groups of students) write several
statements expressing things they are not happy
they did or didn‟t do. They exchange their
statements with someone else. The recipient then
converts the statements into past wishes.
2. Students write a paragraph a) describing a
regrettable situation, b) expressing the regret and c)
explaining the consequence.
Complaining I wish you would + Expressions of complaint Speaking:
using wish infinitive ….
stop complaining Teacher gives students a negative situation and
turn down the music students role play using wish statements. Students can
arrive on time also provide their own situations of complaint about
be quiet someone.
go to sleep
stop talking so much
study harder
find a job

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Unit 6: TOURISM IN MADAGASCAR (two weeks)

General objective:
Students will be able to develop awareness of tourism in Madagascar and the causes and effects it has on the country

Specific objectives:
Students will be able to:
Identify the main idea and details in cause and effect paragraphs
Write a cause and/or effect paragraph based on tourism in Madagascar
Use Website for information regarding tourism in Madagascar.

Language Grammar Vocabulary Suggested Activities and Assessment

Stating causes and Expressions introducing causes: Mass tourism: Listing Activity:
effects of the - If/when clauses (review)
-hotel/restaurant chains 1. Teacher writes on board tourist attractions,
tourism industry - Because + adverb clauses
-shopping centers or general points of interest in the area of the
-tour companies specific Lycee. Students brainstorm tourist
- Because of + noun
-large scale development attractions they are familiar with in
- Due to + noun
-(limited contact) with Madagascar. See Appendix B: Tourism
Expressions introducing effects: local
- as a result Resources.
culture Listing/Writing:
- therefore -individually/foreign
- consequently owned 1. The teacher writes the following sentence on
- that is why Ecotourism: the board:
- for this reason
-local hotels/restaurants/ Because of (noun), tourists like to visit

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products/craftspeople/ Madagascar.
-locally 2. The teacher gives one or two reasons tourists
owned/managed/run/ like to visit Madagascar. (the wildlife, the
produced beaches, the friendly people, etc)
-homestay 3. The teacher asks students to list more
Verbal expressions: reasons (nouns).
-to be at risk 4. The teacher repeats the task with other
-to be/become/get involved prompts.
-to prevent Examples: Because of (noun), I like my
-to broaden one‟s town/city/country
understanding 5. In pairs or in small groups, students
-to employ large numbers complete the sentence with their own ideas.
of They then compare their ideas with other
people, etc. pairs/groups. (Alternate the prompts with “due
-to make/generate money to…”)
Additional expressions: Reading:
1. In groups, students list the answers to the
-volunteering/volunteer question,”What attracts foreign visitors to
work Madagascar?”
-economic benefits 2. Students read descriptions of different types
-Etc. of tourism and answer the accompanying
questions. (See Teacher‟s Guide.)
Listening/Speaking (Dictagloss):
1. Teacher reads a paragraph twice. (See
Teacher‟s Guide)
2. Students listen and first write down the main
idea then listen again and write down details.
Students compare notes with a partner.
3. Pairs report back to the teacher, the group or

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the class.
1. The teacher dictates sentences referring to
issues related to tourism in Madagascar.
Students write the sentences. (See Teacher‟s
2. Students use the dictated “causes” from
above to complete sentences introducing
effects.(See Teacher‟s Guide)
Example: “Madagascar has a rich cultural
heritage. →Therefore, we must protect it”.
Sentence completion:
1. Students complete sentences introduced by
“if/when” clauses.
If the tour companies build large tourist
hotels near our national parks, ___.
When natural areas are destroyed,
___.(suggestions: agriculture is affected,
the community suffers, it takes a long time
to restore)
Sentence completion:
1. In pairs or small groups, students complete
the following statements with adverb clauses
- I want/don‟t want tourists to come to my
country/town/etc. because they bring money
and jobs./they cause problems/they don‟t
respect our customs, etc.

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1. Students read a paragraph about Eco tourism
then circle cause and effect expressions. (See
Teacher‟s Guide.)
2. Students list causes and effects based on the
Causes Effects

Students write a cause and/or effect paragraph
about tourism in Madagascar. See Teacher‟s
Guide for paragraph outline exercise.

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Unit 7: TECHNOLOGY (two weeks)

General objective:
Students will be able to communicate about the use of technology

Specific objectives:
Students will be able to:
Write sentences using parallel structure and punctuation accordingly
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of technology

Language Grammar Vocabulary and Suggested Activities and Assessment

functions Expressions
Coordinating Technology Reading:
Writing with conjunctions and,or, -radio
1. The teacher asks students to list the ways one can use a
parallel structure but -calculator
computer or to list the technology they are familiar
Punctuating Using commas in -remote control
correctly writing -video games
2. The teacher presents a reading called The Internet and
Pausing Pausing appropriately -TV
the World Wide Web. The students read the paragraphs
appropriately when speaking -digital camera
to check if their ideas from the above task match those
while speaking Uses of computers:
presented in the text.
-to write stories 3. Students continue to explore the text by answering
-to create art questions relating to vocabulary. (See Teacher‟s
-to keep in touch with people Guide.)
-to send an email Writing :
-to practice English
-to write reports Students complete sentences maintaining parallel structure.
-to play games (See Teacher‟s Guide.)
-to read the news
-to take pictures

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1. The teacher dictates sentences pausing at the commas:

My favorite fruits are mangoes, papaya, and bananas.
Do you prefer soccer, rugby, or volleyball?
The students write emails, send text messages, and
communicate via SKYPE.
2. When checking the answers, the teacher explains the use
of punctuation.
3. The students read the sentences out loud pausing where
there is a comma.
4. Students create their own sentences with parallel structure
and dictate them to their classmates.
Expressions of comparison: Writing:
-and… (review)
Expressions -also… (review) 1. Students complete sentences like the following with an
introducing contrasts: -as well (review) appropriate response:
-while -both…and…(review) Some people write emails, while others prefer to…
-even though -like…(review) While some people get their news from the internet,
-although -likewise…(review) others get it from…
Describing -nevertheless -similarly… 2. Combine the sentences with either “although” or “even
advantages and -nonetheless Expressions of contrast: though”:
disadvantages of -despite -whereas… (review) It is not good to sit for a long time. Some people
using technology -in spite of -but… (review) spend hours at their desk using the internet. → Even
OR -on the other hand…(review) though it is not good to sit for a long time, some people
-unlike…(review) spend hours at their desk using the internet.
-however…(review) She was tired. She continued to watch movies on the
-on the contrary… internet. → Although she was tired, she continued to
-in contrast… watch movies on the internet.
-on the other hand… 3. Students complete the following sentences with a

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-while contrasting idea.

-although/even though… Bob‟s eyes burn (sting) when he looks at his computer
-nevertheless… screen. Nevertheless, he…
-in spite of… Her neck hurts after hours of working on the computer.
-despite… Nonetheless, she…
4. Students arrange the words to form a correct sentence.
Answer: Despite his illness, he came to school. Or He
came to school despite his illness.
[the/in spite of/she/video games/hour/played/late]
Expressions Answer: In spite of the late hour, she played video games.
introducing contrasts Or She played video games in spite of the late hour.
(review and expanded) Listening/Writing (Dictagloss):
1. Students listen to the teacher read a paragraph about
“Smart Phones”
2. The students write a) the main idea after the first
reading and b) the details after the second reading.
3. In pairs or small groups, student write brief summaries
based on what they heard. (See Teacher‟s Guide.)
1. In groups, students write the advantages and
disadvantages of the internet (or other forms of
technology) on a graphic organizer such as the one

The internet has changed the way we find information.

Good changes: Bad changes:

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The internet has changed the way we communicate.

Good changes: Bad changes:

How TV affects my life

Advantages: Disadvantages:

How radio effects my life

Advantages: Disadvantages:

How cell phones affect my life

Advantages: Disadvantages:

2. Students share their thoughts with the whole class. The

teacher writes their collective ideas on the board.
Students write a comparative/contrast paragraph based on
the advantages/disadvantages of a chosen or assigned
technological device.

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Unit 8: IN THE NEWS (two weeks)

General objective:
Students will be able to talk about the news

Specific objectives:
Students will be able to:
Orally report news events and current events
Write a short paragraph about a news event
Report in written form statements made in the news, by the teacher and/or by the students

Grammar Vocabulary Suggested Activities and Assessment
Expressions: Speaking:
-Have you heard…? 1. The teacher assigns a news topic to pairs or small groups of
-According to.. students.
-I read that… Example:
-I heard that… a robbery
Telling about a Information -Did you hear/read the news
questions (review) a marriage
news story about…?
Past tense (review) -Did you hear/read what a tragedy
Writing about a
news story happened? 2. For homework the students prepare a story based on his/her
given topic.
Additional vocabulary:
News survey/headlines/ Sample guideline:
news Article

Types of news:

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breaking/world/local/ A robbery
ss/gossip/miscellaneos Who?
News Stories: What happened?
a crime/a suicide/a new
discovery/a tragedy/a Why?
scandal/a marriage/a death/a How Much/Many?
birth Results?
3. In the following class students tell their story to their group
-good news mates. Group mates ask additional questions.
-bad news
-sad news Writing:
-disturbing news
-important news In an informal letter, students respond to a British friend‟s
-shocking news question, “What‟s new in Madagascar these days?”
-to inform
-learn about
-to hear from
-to tell about
-to read about
-to broadcast
Additional expressions:
-there was an accident/
a robbery/a murder/
a flood/etc.

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Reporting what Reported speech Expressions of reporting: Listening/Writing/Speaking:

someone said from Past tense(review)
-to say 1) The teacher collects in advance and/or invents statements
an interview
-to report made by public figures, etc.in recent news. Then he/she
-to mention uses the statements as a dictation. Examples:
-to shout I promise to repair all the roads in Madagascar (a
-to cry public figure).
-to whisper
I didn‟t steal the money. (a suspect in a robbery)
-to announce
2) After writing and checking the statements for accuracy,
students work individually, in pairs or in small groups to
convert the statements into reported speech.
(Name of public figure) said that she/he promised to
repair all the roads in Madagascar.
The suspect said that she/he hadn‟t stolen the money.
3) Alternatively, teachers and/or students can write a dialogue
between two real or imaginary newsworthy individuals and
have volunteers perform it while the class reports in written
form what was said.

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General objective:
Students will be able to communicate about the role of international organizations in Madagascar

Specific objectives:
Students will be able to:
State solutions for social problems
Report on the aims of international organizations in Madagascar

Language Grammar Vocabulary Suggested Activities and Assessment

Stating a purpose: Verbal Expressions: Speaking/Writing:
-“so that…”
-to provide support to/ 1. The teacher asks students what they think are
-“in order to…”
assistance in… Madagascar‟s biggest social problems and lists their
-to contribute to ideas on the right side of the board.
-to help to 2. The teacher then asks students what they think are
-to expand some solutions to Madagascar‟s social problems and
Stating solutions -to develop
for social problems lists their ideas on the far left of the board.
-to improve
3. In the center the teacher writes the expression “is/are
-to work to do something
needed most” followed by new verbs related to the
-to rehabilitate
-to end unit.
-to combat 4. Once the board is filled with ideas and new
-to prevent vocabulary, the students write solutions for problems
-to promote cultural heritage/ and then state them orally. (See the Teacher‟s Guide)

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-to safeguard #2 Possible #3 action #1 Social
-to alleviate poverty solutions verbs issues
-to eradicate poverty
-to implement Stricter
-to contribute to laws…
…to …unemploy
-to empower
to strengthen Proper prevent… ment
Additional vocabulary: healthcare
needed …to …the poor.
-sanitation …
-exploitation most …poverty.
-minorities …to
sanitation …famine.
-the weak/vulnerable eradicate…
-the poor …
-childcare/healthcare …to
-biodiversity empower.. …personal
-social programs Education safety
…to help…

Education is needed most to help the poor.
Jobs are needed most to end unemployment
Acronyms International Organizations: Spelling out acronyms
Adjective clauses -USAID: United States Agency
for International Development 1. The teacher gives students a list of International
Describing roles of used as a subject:
organization acronyms. In groups, they try to write out
international “that” (review), -UNICEF: United Nations
Children‟s Emergency Fund the acronyms based on their previous knowledge.
organizations “which”
-UNESCO: United Nations 2. The teacher then asks students to read the full names
Educational, Scientific, and of the International organizations. The teacher
Cultural Organization corrects as needed.
-ILO: International Labor Writing:

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Organization 1. Students create sentences based on cues: Example

-NATO: North Atlantic Treaty One of the organizations + which/that + verbal
Organization expression + is + Acronym (One of the organizations
-UNDP: United Nations for which works to alleviate poverty is ILO.)
Development Project 2. Students complete sentences such as the following:
-World Bank
The organization(s) that/which do(es) the most to
-WHO: World Health
empower women is/are ___.
-SADC: Southern African Group research work:
Development Community 1. Groups of students are assigned an international
-UNPF: United Nations organization.
Population Fund 2. Each group researches the organization and creates a
-WFP: World Food Program
poster (or PPT) that explains the goals and missions of
the organization.
3. Groups use the poster (or PPT) as they give an oral
report to the whole class.

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Unit 10: POLITICAL LEADERSHIP (two weeks)

General objective:
Students will be able to participate in the process of electing a candidate

Specific objectives:
Students will be able to:
Express promises and state intentions in a written campaign speech
Vote on a candidate of their choice after listening to a campaign speech

Grammar Vocabulary Suggested Activities and Assessment
Passive (review): to Political systems: Listening:
be elected, etc.
-monarchy 1. The teacher makes True/False statements about
“Will” and “be going
to” to express future
-republic Madagascar‟s political history.
-democracy 2. Students listen to each statement and write (T) or(F) on a
-dictatorship piece of paper accordingly.
“Must” expressing Political leadership:
necessity (review) 3. The whole class reviews the statements and decide on the
Expressing right answer.
promises “Mustn‟t” expressing -president
prohibition (review) -king Reading:
Stating intentions
Stating a purpose; “in -dictator
1. Pre-reading: The teacher provides the word “leader”
order to…”, “so -ruler
and asks students to come up with terms that carry the
that…” (review) -leader
-prime minister/etc. same meaning especially in the field of politics. This
Expressing a
Verbal expressions: can be done in either English, French or Malagasy. The
condition: “unless”,
“only if…” teacher can translate as a way of introducing new
-to rule/to be ruled vocabulary.
. -to lead/to be led
-to govern/to be governed

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-to reign Possible Answers:

-to campaign monarch
-to give a speech king
-to keep a promise queen
-to elect
-to vote
-to go to the polling president
station/voting booth dictator
-to cast one‟s ballot prime minister
-to win by a large (narrow) 2. During reading: Students read brief definitions of
victory several political systems and circle the various words
Nouns: that carry the meaning of leader.
-political party 3. Post reading: Students answer accompanying discussion
-candidate questions.
-campaign Writing/Speaking/Listening:
-intention 1. The teacher sets up the task by saying that we need a
-goal(s) new president/mayor, etc. for the country, our school,
Expressions for making our class, etc. The teacher either assigns or lets groups
promises and intentions: of students come up with a political party name.
-Unless we…/we don‟t, … 2. As a group, students create a campaign speech. (See
we will… Teacher‟s Guide for sample campaign statements.)
-Only if we…, will we… 3. The group selects their candidate who will run for the
-So that we can live in peace, I position (president, mayor, official, etc.)
promise to…we must…etc.
4. The selected candidate from each group then stands up
-If you elect me, …
and gives his/her speech.
-I promise to…
-I intend to… 5. As the whole class listens to each speech, classmates
-It is my intention to… decide who to vote for.
-I will… 6. Votes are then cast and counted. He or she who has the
majority of votes becomes the elected president, mayor,
official, etc.

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Unit 1: FAMILY LIFE (Three weeks)

 Grammar Part 1: Using “of” in expressions of quantity

Formation: expressions of quantity using of comes directly before the noun that it modifies
and is always followed by a specific plural count noun.

Using a specific number: Use specific noun:

three/four/five of. . .
Including everyone/thing:
all of. . . the/this/that/those/my/his/her/my
each of. . . sisters/our/seven/Anne‟s etc.
consists of…
Including some but not all:
some of. . .
several of. . .

My family consists of seven people.
Three of my brothers are older than me.
Two of Anne‟s brothers are attending university.
All of my brothers are living in Tana.
Each of us are planning on attending university.
Some of my friends are married and have children.
Only one of my grandparents is still alive.
All of my grandparents are still alive.
The majority of families in Madagascar are large!
Several of our families live close by.
Some of the people in class have very large families.

You can also use these words with just a noun (but do not use of)
Three/four/fiv all each some several
Three brothers are older than me. (but not three of brothers…)
All my brothers are living in Tana. (but not all of brothers…)
Each are planning on attending university (but not each of are planning…)
Several families live close by. (but not several of families live close by)
Some people in Canada also have very large families (but not some of people)

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Terminales teacher‟s guide

Compare all… and all of…

All children are beautiful. (all children in general)
All of my children are beautiful. (a particular group of children)

 Practice 1
Students answer the following questions:
What do all of you do at night?
What do some of you do in the morning?
What do several of you have in common? (age, gender, hometown)

 Practice 2
Activity to be completed as a whole class using flip chart or board
How many of you have brothers?
How many of you have sisters?
Do some or all of you have step brothers or sisters?
How many have extended family members living with them?
How many siblings are married or single?
How many are an only child?
What do the majority of you have in common?
Is there one of you that has something that no one else has?
What do several of you have in common?
What do some of you have in common? Explain.

Small Group Discussion Questions:

1. How would you describe your parents?
strict/permissive narrow-minded/open-minded liberal/conservative

2. How would you describe your behavior as a child?

obedient/disobedient respectful/disrespectful

 Grammar Point 2: Using the negative future tense “won‟t” to complain.

You can use won‟t to say that someone refuses to do something. Won‟t is a contraction of
will not –but when used to complain it takes on a present tense meaning.

She won‟t let me go to the party (she refuses to let me go)
He won‟t listen to me. (he ignores me)

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Terminales teacher‟s guide

 Practice
What do your parents refuse to do? They won‟t buy me a car. (They refuse to buy me a car.)

 Grammar Point 3: Using “always, “never” in complaints

Formation: always/never + “verb”
She always yells at me.
They never listen to me.
You always criticize me.
Note: The stress is on „always‟ and „never‟ –they are pronounced louder than the other
words in the sentence.
 Practice:
What always happens to you that annoys you? (makes you angry)
She always arrives late.
What is something that someone never does that annoys you?
She is never on time.

 Grammar Point 4: Verb “to stop”

Formation: “to stop” + verb-ing
Used to express and action that you or someone else wants to end

I want her to stop gossiping about me.
They want me to stop arguing so much.
He told me to stop complaining.
 Practice If you had one wish to make someone stop doing something what would it
Example: I want my parents to stop treating me like a baby.

 Grammar Point 5: Verb “to keep”

Formation: to keep + verb-ing
Meaning to continue doing something negative/won‟t stop doing something negative
My mother keeps bothering/bugging/nagging me to get better marks.
He keeps teasing me about my hair.
 Practice:What is something that someone keeps doing to you that makes you mad?

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Terminales teacher‟s guide

 Grammar Point 6:
Formation: “to make” + an object + adjective
He made me mad/angry/upset/ –caused you to be mad/angry/upset/happy/ etc.
 Practice:How does someone or something make you feel?
Example: The film I watched last night made me sad

 Grammar Point 7: Review Should/Could/Ought.

Formation: should/could/ought + base form of the verb.

Practice dialogue
A: He keeps bothering me in class.
B: You should tell him to stop.
A: I tried but he won‟t stop.
B: You could tell the teacher, maybe she can help.
A: No, that would just make it worse.
B: Well, maybe you should talk to him privately.
A: Ya, I might try that.
B: Well, good luck!
A: Thanks!

 Grammar Point 8: “need”

Formation: to need + infinitive
Meaning: to suggest a change that will bring positive results.
You need to stop complaining/arguing with him/talking so loud/etc.
They need to start doing their homework/complaining!/exercising/etc.

 Practice: What do you need to do? What does your friend/sister/brother/ need to do, to
improve his marks/get in shape/lose weight/earn some money/etc.?
Example: I need to do more exercises to improve my school results

 Practice: Divide students into small groups and give group one of the problems
below. Students create a dialogue that consists of complaint and suggestions.

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Money Housework Curfew your idea
adultery/unfaithfulness Divorce parent who dictate
and don‟t explain
lack of democratic process lack of discussion having boy/girl
in decision making that on family issues friends
affects the whole family
power cuts “tavy” slash and bush fires pollution from cars
polluted water Garbage Recycling Your idea

 Reading Activity: Students read the following and answer comprehension

A family is a group of people that have a common ancestor. They usually live together in
the same house. Although it is a fact that not all families are the same, they can be categorized
into different types.
A nuclear family consists of parents and their children living together. In many
countries in Europe and North American this is the most common form of family. There are
three types of nuclear families. In the first type the father works and the mother cares for the
children. In the second type, the mother works and the father says at home with the children.
In the third type of family, both parents work. This last type of family is the most common in
the USA and Canada.
In an extended family, different family members such as grandparents, aunts, uncles
and cousins live together. In many areas of the world, such as Asia, the Middle East, Africa,
Latin America, and Southern Europe, this type of family is common.
Recently in some countries, couples are choosing to have only one child. These types
of families are called single child families. Some people believe that children raised in these
kinds of families are spoilt, selfish and lonely. But research doesn‟t support this.
Some families have no children at all. The couples that make up these families sometimes
make the choice not to have children because they want to have more free time. Some couples
choose not to have children for financial reasons.
Families with only one parent are called single parent families. There are several
causes of these types of families. The first reason is divorce. Another reason is that the one of
the parent dies, leaving the surviving parent widowed. Additionally, some parents never get
married in the first place.

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When the husband or wife in a marriage brings children with them from a past
marriage, this is called a blended or reconstituted family. This type of family has become
more common due to the increase in divorces. For some children this kind of family can be
good because there have four parents, instead of two! But there can also be some difficulties
as the two new families try to become one.
As the basis of all societies, families of all types are very important. This is true now
and will be true in the future as well.

Comprehension questions:
1. What is a nuclear family?
2. In what countries are nuclear families most common?
3. Does research support the idea that single child families are spoilt and lonely? What is
your opinion?
4. Why do some families choose not to have children?
5. What are two causes of single parent families?
6. What does the term “blended family” mean?
7. Who are the members of an “extended family”? Do you have an “extended family”? If so
who are they?
8. What is the most important thing about your family?

 Reading Activity: Match each description of a family with a type of family below.
1. Two years ago, Darrell and Tanya got married. Before they got married Darrel had three
sons and Tanya had a daughter. Now they all live together.
2. Hiroshi's wife died several years ago of cancer. He now raises his two sons Tomo and
Taiki by himself.
3. Jose and Maria live with their 3 children. They also live with their parents, an uncle and
an aunt.
4. Husband and wife Dalee and Meegung have been married for two years. They are both
very successful business people and don't have any children.
5. Harry and his wife Jane have been married for six years. They have one daughter named
6. Jack and Betty, who have been married for over 15 years, have two children named
Daniel and Christine

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Family type:
1. Childless family
2. Nuclear family
3. Single parent family
4. Extended family
5. Single child family
6. Blended family
Vocabulary Activity: Match the descriptions
1. family reunion 1. son of your sister or brother
2. cousins 2. daughter of your sister or brother
3. stepmother 3. family that lived a very long time ago
4. in-laws 4. children of your uncle or aunt
5. great grandfather 5. husband of your sister
6. niece 6. daughter of your children
7. ancestors 7. get-together of an extended family
8. brother-in-law 8. father of your grandparents
9. nephew 9. parents of your husband or wife
10. granddaughter 10. your father‟s wife

Writing Activity:
1. Students write two or three paragraphs about their family.
2. Students write two or three paragraphs about family habits and traditions.
(A tradition is something that is done repeatedly; for examples, families spending Sunday
afternoon in the open air/picnicking; another example is what you do during holidays)
My lovely family
My name is Ana. I am eight years old and I am from the USA. I‟m going to introduce you to
my lovely family. We are a big and very happy family. My mother‟s name is Laura and my
father‟s name is Peter. My mother has blond hair and she is very beautiful. My father is tall
and slim and he is a funny person.
I have two brothers. Tim is my five years younger and he is a sweet boy who loves playing
and being with me all the time. He is only three years old so he attends kindergarten. My
youngest brother, David, is a seven-month baby but he is full of personality. He likes being in
my father‟s lap and he always carries around Eddy, his teddy bear.
My father has a sister. Her name is Olivia and she is my aunt. My mother has two brothers.
Their names are Richard and William and they are my uncles. I also have grandparents and
three cousins Jacob, Kevin and Chloe. We have a pet called Pirate, he is my favourite dog.
I love my family!

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Unit 2: SCHOOL LIFE (three weeks)

 Grammar Review: Superlatives

 Practice review: Remind students that superlatives are adjectives that describe the
degree of description. For example: Not only is she beautiful but she is the most
beautiful girl in the world!

1. Superlative spelling: one syllable adjectives

ending in two
Hard Hardest
Smart Smartest
Ask students to tell you the rule.
How do you form the opposite?

ending in
vowel +
Big Biggest
Thin Thinnest
Ask students to tell you the rule.
How do you form the opposite?

2. Superlative spelling: two syllable adjectives

Useful most useful
Careful most careful
ending in „y‟
Easy Easiest
Funny Funniest
ending in
“ow” or “le”
Narrow Narrowest
Gentle Gentlest
Ask students to tell you the rule.
How do you form the opposite?

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3. Superlative spelling: three or more syllable adjectives

ending in two
Intelligent most
Important most
Interesting most
Ask students to tell you the rule.
How do you form the opposite?

4. Superlative spelling: irregular adjectives

Good Best
Bad Worse
Little Least
Many Most

 Practice 1:
Read the following to students and ask them to write down all the superlatives they hear.
After they are done ask them to write out the sentences they heard.
Allow them to improvise if they can‟t remember the exact sentence.
After the exercise is done the team with the most correctly spelled and most captured
superlatives wins.

Madagascar fable or fable theme.

One day the wisest man in the world asked the most beautiful woman in Madagascar
to be his wife. But because she was the biggest star in Madagascar she refused. She
wanted to marry the richest man in Madagascar not the wisest. However, this was the
worst decision she could have made because all the wealthiest men in Madagascar
were also the busiest, and didn‟t have time for marriage. So the most beautiful woman
in the world ended up being the loneliest woman in Madagascar.

 Practice 2: Spelling bee

Break class into teams and using the superlatives have students write down the correct
spelling. When finished teams exchange papers and score. The teacher can assign two or three
students who are given the correct spelling to double check team scores.

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Activity : Course offerings:

The following is a general list of courses that could be offered at an average American high
school. This can vary to some degree or another from one school system to another Ask
students to circle the courses they have already studied and are currently studying.
Example: Malagasy
Art Computers English Family and Health
Drawing/paintig Data processing English Language Consumer Science and
Fiber and crafts Computer and Composition Food preparation Physical
Sculpture programming English Literature Family care Educati
Ceramics and Composition on
Creative Writing
English as a
Second language
(for non-native
Math Music Science Social Studies Foreign
General Chamber Orchestra Physical and Earth World History Languag
Algebra Choir Science Current Events e
Geometry Band Biology American History Spanish
Money Math Music Theory Chemistry Government French
(personal financial Physics Sociology German
planning) Environmental Geography Latin
Calculus Science

Engineering and Science Technology, Manufacturing Technology and Transportation

Automotive Technology
Construction Technology
Electronic Technology
Principles of Engineering
Environmental Engineering

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 Practice:
Step 1: Have students list courses that they have had that are not listed above.
Step 2: Using the expression of comparing and contrasting, write 5 sentences comparing
the Malagasy and American school subjects.

 Practice:
1. In small groups students will talk about the level of schooling they enjoyed the most:
2. Using expressions of comparing and contrasting, students will co-write a small paragraph
about their group.


3-5 Preschool/nursery/Kindergarten xxxxxxxxxxxx

06.10.16 Primary school CEPE

11-14 Secondary school (CEG) BEPC
15-18 Secondary/High secondary school Bac A1-A2-C-
(LYCEE) D/Techniques/Professionnal

-18 University/ Institute Licence/Master/Doctorate

Expressions followed by –ing

These are common expressions used to talk about experiences:
I have fun/a good time
 Practice: Ask your neighbor.
What do you have fun doing in school?
I have fun .

What do you have fun doing outside of school?

I have fun .

What do you have a hard time doing in school?

I have a hard time .
What would help to make this easier?

What do you have trouble or difficulty with in school.

I have trouble/difficulty .

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What do you spend a lot of time doing in school?

I spend a lot of time .
What don‟t you spend a lot of time doing in school?
I don‟t spend a lot of time .

 Grammar Point 2 – Adjectives with “to get” instead of “to be”

Function; We use “to get” to describe something that gives you a certain feeling.
In comparison we use the “to be” to state how we feel.

I get bored easily.
I have been sitting here for two hours. I am bored.

I am bored with school. –this is how you are feeling at this moment.
I get bored listening to him because he is always complaining. –this is how doing something
(like listening to him) makes you feel while you are doing it.

When using the phrase “ to get” the adjective is usually negative. –

Fill in the blanks:
I get bored
He gets nervous
What makes you feel: bored/confused/nervous/excited/sleepy/tired/hungry/thirsty/angry?

Sample dialogue: using a look up and say method.

A: Hey what happened to you –why did you fall asleep in class?
B: I got sleepy! I didn't sleep last night so I am sleepy today.

A: Every time I go to that store I smell the chicken cooking, and I hungry. ( to get)
B: Oh that is not good for your diet.
A: I know that is why I don‟t shop there anymore!

I only ate toast this morning, now I hungry. (to be)

A: How did you do in the song contest?

B: Horrible, I nervous and forgot all the words to the song. (to get)
A: Sorry to hear that –but don‟t worry there is always next time.
I am nervous because I singing next. (to be)

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A: What took you so long to get here?

B: Sorry, I took the wrong bus and then I confused and lost! (to get)

 Grammar Point 3:Subject + “to make” + object + adjective

Function: Use when describing how something makes you feel.

Sports make us healthy.
My brother makes me crazy/happy/ etc.
He made me mad.
That teacher makes me confused!
My friend made me mad, when she told everyone I failed the test.
Sad movies always make me sad!
When he heard he had not passed the test it made him depressed.

 Practice:
What (or who) makes you happy/sad/blue/nervous?

 Grammar point 4 : Adjective clauses pronouns: “who”, “that”

Adjective clauses describe a noun.
“who” is used to describe a person: I like teachers who are funny.
“that” is used to describe a thing: I like lessons that are easy.

 Practice: Complete the following sentences.

I prefer teachers . . . .
I hate classes . . . . .
I love books . . .
He doesn‟t like students . . .
Students don‟t like teachers . . . .

 Grammar point 5: Expressions of comparison

Used to show similarities between two things
-also … (review)
Math is hard and English is also hard.
Driving to Ihosy is a long trip and also tiring.
Daily exercise is good for your heart health and also helps to reduce stress..

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-both …and…
Both math and English are difficult.
Driving to Ihosy is both a long and tiring trip.
Daily exercise is good for both your body and mind.
Both Rakoto and Rasoa will be at the meeting.

 Grammar point 6:Expression of contrast

Used to show differences between things
but …
I would love to learn French but I just don‟t have enough time.
Neither ….. nor …… are . . . .
Neither music nor art are offered at my school.
Unlike . . . . /. . . is . . .
Unlike math, art is fun.

 Practice: Create card list of comparison and contrast, using subject matter such
as: country life/city life/ dating/having friends –playing video games/exercising –
one course students like and one they don’t -

 A. Practice: Students create a chart of their classes, the time of the classes and a
description of how they feel about the classes.
1 Class: 2nd Class: 3rd Class
Time: Time: Time:
Description: Description: Description:
I love this class because…
This is a really boring class.

4th Class: 5th class: 6th Class:

Time: Time: Time:
Description: Description: Description:

Extracurriculum Activities

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 B. Practice: Comparing classes -Fill in the blanks with accordingly.

1. Both ____ and ____ are interesting.
2. Neither ____ nor _____ are very useful.
3. I love ____. On the other hand, I _____.
4. My ____ teacher is _____. On the other hand, my ____ teacher is ____.
5. My ____ class is _____. Likewise, my ____ class is _____.
6. Unlike _____, _____ is great.
7. Write a few sentences with your own comparisons.

 C. Practice: Using the chart and the exercise above, students write a paragraph
describing a typical day at school. See Sally’s/Stanley’s monologue (below) as
an example.

Athletics could include the following:

Fall Winter Spring
Boys Cross country Bowling Baseball
Girls Cross Country Boys Basketball Softball
Boys Golf Girls Basketball Track and field
Girls Golf Swimming
Boys soccer Wrestling
Girls soccer
Football (American style)
Girls Volleyball

 Reading/Listening Activity: Complete the chart.

Teacher reads to students. 1st time students just listen, 2nd reading students fill in the chart, 3rd
reading students double check. When completed students fill out for Madagascar.

Educational system In Japan In the U.S Add information about

schools in Madagascar
School days 240 …(1)….
Number of daily school …(2)…. …(3)….
Curriculum …(4)….. Varied course requirements

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 Reading/Writing Activity: Students read the interview, and write a

paragraph for each of the comparison question:
1. To what extent is the Japanese educational system superior American educational system?
2. What do you think of the Japanese educational system? Write a paragraph expressing your
3. Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the Japanese education system to
Madagascar‟s education system.
Conversation: Terrel Bell,former US Secretary of Education describes his visit
to classroom in Japan
Reporter: How does the quality of education in Japan compared with that in the U.S?

Bell: The Japanese educational system is superior to ours, if you measure quality by academic
achievement in such area as literacy and command of mathematics and science.

Reporter: What was the atmosphere you found in Japanese schools?

Bell: There is much more emphasis on order and discipline. In both grade school and high
school, everyone wears a uniform. Even though it was summer when I visited, I was able to
attend classes, because Japanese children have 240 days of school, compared to 180 in the

The school day is longer, too-7 hours instead of 5½ or 6 hours here-and then the students
come back for a half day on Saturdays. I talked to several fourth graders with a good
command of English.

Then there is the single, national curriculum, instead of the varied course requirements we
have, and students move along in along at very fast tough pace. Teachers don‟t adjust
instruction to fit each student. By golly, the student complies or else. The result is that
students grow up learning to perform at the outer limit of their ability, which washes over into
the workplace after they graduate.

Reporter: How about the drawbacks of the Japanese system?

Bell: The intense pressure is the main thing. If students don‟t meet those very tough standards
and don‟t pass the national examination given after completing high school, it almost amounts
to family shame. I wouldn‟t want my 14-year-old son in that pressure cooker environment.
But there is much we can learn from Japanese, without going to the extremes that they follow.


Terminales teacher‟s guide

 Grammar point 6: Prepositions with time expressions

use “at” when talking about a specific time:
My workday starts at 9:00 am.
The plane leaves at 10:00 am.
Use “in” when talking about an amount of time:
I have to be there in 10 minutes.
My bus leaves in ½ hour
We use the expression “to be on time” when talking about having to be at a specific place
at a specific time.
You'd better be on time.
He is never on time, so don‟t start the meeting.
She is never on time, she is always late.
My classes start right on time.
 Practice:
Describe someone you know who is always on time.
Describe someone you know who is never on time. How does that make you feel?
 Practice:
School Schedule: Here is a sample schedule high school students may follow. Ask the
following questions:
How does this compare to your schedule?
Students have 6 minutes to get from one class to another. Do you think that is enough
time? How much time do you have between classes?
How much time is there for lunch? Do you think there is enough time?

Regular Bell Schedule*

1st period English 8:00 am – 8:40 am
2 period Math 8:46 am – 9:26 am
3 period History 9:32 am – 10:12 am
4 period Biology 10:18 am – 10:5 am
5th period (First lunch shift) 11:04 am – 11:4 am
6 period(second lunch shift) 11:50 am – 12:3 pm
7 period Study Hall 12:36 pm – 1:16 pm
Update* 1:16 pm – 1:28 pm
8 period Algebra 1:34pm – 2:14 pm
9 period Art 2:20 pm – 3:00 pm

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* A “Bell” schedule refers to the practice of sounding a bell to indicate to teachers and
students that it is time to change classes. Either students move to another classroom or the
teacher moves.
*”Update” refers to the time when the principal, the school secretary or selected students
make announcements relating to school events. This is done over the public announcement

Activity Listening: Students listen to the monologue below and fill in the missing
information in the grid.
To add a challenge ask them to design their own grid. Then choose the most organized
and clear schedule created.

Sally/Stanley‟s Monologue: A high school student at an American High school describes

part of her/his schedule.

8:00 am School starts

Phys Ed.

“Hi! I am a student at Lincoln Lake High School in Ohio. Even though I am very busy, I
love school. Classes begin at 8:00 sharp, but we have to be at school at least 15 minutes
before. My first class is Spanish and it begins at 8:15 and ends at 9:00. Our teacher, Mr.
Sanchez is really cool. He always brings in music and we sing a lot in class. Then I have
history at 9:06. Mr. Williams is old fashioned and I get bored in his class. I am relieved
when the bell rings at 9:50. Then it‟s off to third period Math which begins at 9:56. Miss
Adams is fantastic! She makes Math interesting. The time in her class flies by. I hate to
leave when the bell rings at 10:40. The worst part of my day is fourth period. Phys. Ed.!!
Ugh! At 10:46 we have to go directly to the locker room to change into our gym clothes.
Then our teacher makes us run for 30 minutes and …..

 Grammar Point 7: if/when clauses review

If or When?
Use if for something we think might happen:
If it rains on Friday night I will stay in and finish my homework.
I will stay in and finish my homework, if it rains Friday night.
(I might be doing my homework on Friday night –it might not rain)

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Use when to talk about things that you are certain about.
I will do my homework when I get home.
When I get home, I will do my homework.
(I will be doing my homework tonight when I get home)

Activity Writing: Write two paragraphs about what will happen if or when you . . .
/graduate/stop going to school/continue to go to school/accept a scholarship to study in the
US/get married/get pregnant/get a job


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Activity: Reference Syllabus

Describing hobbies
Sample sentences:
Window shopping is boring.
(Going) fishing is very relaxing.
Playing video games is fun.
Exercising is rewarding.
Hobbies Adjectives
window shopping fun
reading interesting
taking photos relaxing
knitting exciting
playing video games educational
doing puzzles creative
exercising dull/boring
going on a picnic rewarding
going fishing satisfying
going camping tiring
playing cards etc.
playing dominoes
going hunting

 Grammar point 1: to be keen on/ to be fond of

“to be keen on + noun = something that you are very interested in especially when you
have a choice between things:
What do you want/like to do? I am keen on sports/soccer/movies etc…
Would you like to watch the news or a movie? I am keen on the news/movie etc…
We also say I am keen on her/him –when you really like someone as in having a crush
on them.
“to be keen on” + gerund =something that you or someone is very interested in doing.
I am keen on playing soccer/going to the movie theatre etc…
“to be fond of + noun =something that you really like.
I am fond of chocolate/museums/national park.
We also say “I am fond of her/him” –when you really like someone especially as a

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“to be fond of + gerund =something we really like doing

I am fond of eating chocolate/watching movies/hiking at Ambalova!

 Grammar point 2 –Modal (Can) review

Formation: can + bare infinitive: can do/can play/can be outside
Can is a modal verb and it adds meaning to the main verb.
“Can do it with my friends” –means that you are able to do something with your friends.

 Grammar point 3: Participle adjectives: “ed” vs “-ing”

We use “ed” when describing how we or someone else feels about something:
I am interested/She is tired/I am bored
We use “ing” when describing how something makes us feel:
That book is interesting/Playing sports is exciting/Doing homework is boring!
Note these adjectives can also be used to describe nouns:
This is an interesting book/Soccer is an exciting sport.

 Practice 1:
Students circle the correct adjective:
1. Soccer is excited/exciting.
2. I am interested/interesting in this book.
3. Winning a soccer match is satisfying/satisfied.
4. I am boring/bored.
5. Drawing is so relaxing/relaxed
6. I am excited/exciting about running in a marathon.
7. Watching soccer is so interested/interesting..
8. I am satisfied/satisfying with my art show.
9. Cooking is so boring/bored.
10. Hiking in the woods is relaxed/relaxing.

 Practice 2:
Participial adjectives: “-ed” vs. “-ing”: Students look at the following examples and explain
when one uses adjectives with “-ed” endings and when one uses adjectives with “-ing”

I am bored with this game. –expresses how you feel
This game is boring. –expresses how you feel about something

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She is excited about going to Nosy Be.

Nosy Be is an exciting place to visit.

Raly is interested in wrestling.

He thinks wrestling is very interesting.

Sahondra is satisfied with her work.

Her work is satisfying.

The students ran four kilometers and they are tired.

Running is tiring.

 Practice 3: Circle the correct adjective.

1. American football is (interested/interesting), but I think soccer is more (excited/exciting).

2. John is (excited/exciting) about the fishing trip.
3. John‟s wife thinks fishing is (bored/boring).
4. She is (interested/ interesting) in more active activities like rugby.
5. For some people knitting is (interested/ interesting).

Note: Teachers can adjust the list according to the needs and interests of their particular

 Grammar point 4: Linking verb “to feel” +adjective

Describes the feeling someone or something causes.
I feel healthy when I exercise every day.
 Practice: How do you feel when you play sports/do homework/go to the gym/run
a marathon/lose or gain weight?
 Grammar point 5: It + to be + adjective + to verb
It is easy to run a marathon!
 Practice: Find the opposite of these adjectives: boring, hard, difficult. Now write
out sentences that describe an activity.
For example: It is difficult to play chess/It is easy to play checkers

 Grammar point 6: Gerunds as subjects:

Example: “Playing chess is difficult”

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 Practice:
Step 1: change all the sentences below to this form:
a. It is easy to run marathon
b. It is easy to play checkers
c. It is hard to study mathematics
d. It is simple to get good marks.

- Step 2: Change all your sentences above to this form.

 Grammar point 7: Talking/Asking about future plans using the present

Present progressive form: “to be” + verb-ing + time adjective –I am doing my homework
To ask about someone‟s plans:
 Practice: ask your neighbor about their plans for tonight/tomorrow/Sunday/on the
Example: What are you doing this weekend/tonight/Sunday/after class?

Activity: Interview form

Interview some classmates

Names What their favorite Why they do the How often they do the
activity or sport is activity activity
Naly Soccer Fun/good exercise Every weekend
Zoely Rugby Exciting Once a week

 Grammar point 8: Making suggestions.

Form: Why don‟t we + base form of verb.
Example dialogue:
Why don‟t we go to a movie?
Sure! What movie?

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Practice: Ask your neighbor about their weekend plans. Make some suggestions.
A: What are you doing this coming Saturday?
B: I‟m swimming with my cousin.
A: Let‟s go swimming together?
B: That‟s a good idea!

Activity: Disappearing Dialogue Competition

Students reads dialogue (below) from board or flip chart. Teacher erases or blacks out single
words from dialogue after each practice. Continue until there are only a few words left.
Students then compete to act out the dialogue. The team that is able to remember all the
missing words wins.

Making Weekend Plans

A: What are you doing this weekend? A: What are you doing on Sunday?
B: Nothing. I‟m staying home. B: I am relaxing. It has been a difficult
A: Oh no! Let‟s go swimming. week.
A: Oh come on! Why don‟t we meet up
with Susan and Jack? They‟re going to the
B; Let me think about it.

A: Let‟s go for a walk in the park after A: Hi, Mike! Are you doing anything on
class. Saturday?
B; Oh, I can‟t. I‟m studying for a big test. B: I don‟t have any plans. Why don‟t we
A: When are you taking the test? do something?
B: Saturday. Let‟s meet Saturday night A: Let‟s play rugby with the guys.
after the test? B; Great idea!
A: Ok!


Paragraph writing:
Before writing have students brainstorm their ideas on paper. Then have them choose 3 or 4
word/ideas that are related. Using these ideas create an outline and then sentences using the
key words in the outline.

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Sample brainstorm: topic –leisure activity (swimming) :related words are bolded.

water exercise pool afterwards friends lessons

stronger energy and confidence cost

Sample Outline:
topic sentence: leisure activity (swimming)
idea word 1 relaxing
idea word 2 afterwards
idea word 3 stronger
idea word 4 energy and confidence
concluding sentence: leisure activity (swimming)

Sample Sentences Suggestions:

My favorite activity/sport, etc. is ___.
Doing this activity is ___ so I___.
I feel ___.
It makes me ___ too.
Also, I have, get, etc. ___
It is ___ to do this activity.

Sample Final Paragraph:

My favorite leisure activity is swimming. Being in the water is relaxing so I try to go to the
pool twice a week. I feel great afterwards. It makes me stronger too. Also, I have more
energy and self- confidence. I love swimming

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Unit 4: WORLD OF WORK (three weeks)

Activity: Job titles and descriptions
Matching (Concentration)
1. Concentration is a card game where all of the cards are shuffled and are laid face down
on a surface in orderly rows and columns, like so:

2. All of the cards must have a mate (pairs). In this case, the mates are [name of the job] +
[description of job] *see table below for suggestions
Alternative extension activity: To help students review jobs and related verbs assist
students create the cards themselves. Students draw squares on a large piece of paper and
write out the name of the job and the corresponding activity. The teacher can dictate the
information. They then cut the paper into squares (cards).
Instructions: A student takes a turn by flipping two cards over. If the cards do not match,
they are both turned back face down and the next player takes a turn. If the cards match, they
are left face up and the person who made the match keeps the cards. This goes on until all
matches are made. The person with the most cards wins.
Sample pairs of cards.
a farmer raises animals or grows produce*
a fisherman catches fish to sell
a tailor makes clothing/repairs clothing
a painter paints houses, buildings or pictures
a waiter/waitress serves coffee, tea, food, etc.
a hairdresser cuts hair, does hair, washes hair
a doctor prescribes medicine, helps sick people
a maid cleans a house or a room
an accountant prepares financial and tax report
an engineer designs and constructs buildings etc.
a veterinarian takes care of sick animals
a psychologist helps people with social or mental problems

an actor performs in plays or movies/TV shows

a chef cooks in restaurants or institutions
*produce –the noun form of the word. Pronounced: /prOduce/. Grows fresh fruits and vegetables for the market

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 Grammar Point: Causative verbs –„make‟, „have‟ an „get‟

Causative Verbs Explained

Causative verbs express the idea of someone causing something to take place. Causatives
place the stress on the fact that someone causes something to happen.There are three causative
verbs in English: make, have and get

 Grammar Point: Causative verb „make‟

Formation: subject + „make‟ + person + base form of verb
Usage: 'Make' as a causative verb expresses the idea that the person requires another person
to do something.
Peter made her do her homework.
The teacher made the students stay after class.
The supervisor made the workers continue working in order to meet the deadline.
 Practice: What do mothers/teachers/bosses make people (you or someone else) do?

NOTE:(*Compare with previous expression Point: Subject + “to make” + object +

Function: Use when describing how something makes you feel.
Example: My teacher makes me mad!)

 Grammar Point: Causative verb „have‟

Note: There are two forms of the causative verb 'have'

Formation 1: subject + „have‟ + person + base form of verb

Usage 1: 'Have' as a causative verb expresses the idea that the person wants something to be
done for them. This causative verb is often used when speaking about various services.
This form indicates that someone causes another person to take an action. Have someone do
something is often used to management and work relationships.

They had John arrive early.
She had her children cook dinner for her.
I had Peter pick up the evening newspaper.
 Practice: Think of examples of what other people do for you or others, or what
your boss/teacher has you (or others) do.

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Formation 2: subject + „have‟ + object + Past Participle

Usage 2: This form is used with services that are commonly paid for such as car washing,
house painting, dog grooming, etc.
I had my hair cut last Saturday.
She had the car washed at the weekend.
Mary had the dog groomed at the local pet store.
Practice: What are some common services that you (or others) use, where people do things for
you (or others) –dentist/doctor/delivery person/florist etc. Write two sentences about this.

 Grammar Point: Causative verb „get‟

Formation: subject + get + person + past Participle
Usage: 'Get' is used as a causative verb in a similar way as 'have' is used with the participle.
This expresses the idea that the person wants something to be done for them.
They got their house painted last week.
Tom got his car washed yesterday.
Alison got the painting appraised by an art dealer.


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 Practice: What are some things that you get others to do for you? OR Something
that you had done by someone else –see examples above.

This form is also used for difficult tasks we manage to complete.

I got the report finished last night.
She finally got her taxes done yesterday.
I got the lawn done before dinner.

Compare causative “have” and “get”

“have” and “get” have the same meaning when used to refer to paid services in the past.
I had my tires changed. = I got my tires changed
She had her carpet cleaned. = She got her carpet cleaned.

 Practice: Using the combinations below or list your own combinations, create
sentences using causative verbs:
blood pressure/check

At home: clean/fridge and iron/shirts
My mom makes me clean the fridge and iron my father’s shirts.
My mom had me clean the fridge and iron my father‟s shirts.

At the doctors: go for an xray.

My doctor made me go for an xray
The doctor insisted or required you to have an xray (no choice)

In class: present a project

My teacher made us present a project to the class.
My teacher had us present a project to the class

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Preposition Dictation Practice:

Step 1: Choose one preposition to fill in the blank. Some prepositions can be used more than
about against from by with
We are concerned about sexual discrimination on the job.(We are concerned about sexual
discrimination on the job.)
The waitress is worried about being fired.
In our company, we do not discriminate against people because of their race.
The women are exhausted from so much hard work.
Children should be protected from exploitation.
The children are terrified by the harsh treatment of their teachers.
I am annoyed with these mosquitos. They are everywhere!
The students are never bored by these exercises.

Step 2: Use completed sentences for class discussions or in small group debates.
Activity: Discussing workers‟ rights :
Students add their own endings. Randomly give each student one phrase to create a sentence
that expresses their idea. Share and discuss in small groups. If time allows students could hold
panel discussion about solutions/suggestions.
I am worried about… I am concerned about… I am exhausted from
my grades. failing my English class. all this homework.
my health. global warming doing my daily chores
my brother. my grand mother
I am scared of… I am annoyed with I am bored by
the dark my children my history class.
spiders my sister watching wrestling on TV.
my math teacher. etc. etc.

 Practice: Pre-reading:
1 Do you think workers need to be protected?
2 Have you ever felt that you were treated unfairly by a boss?
3 Are you treated fairly by your boss?
4 If you were an employee how much would you pay your employee?
5 What do you think a fair salary would be?
6 Would you offer other benefits?
7 If so, what would they be?
8 Do you think that workers need to be protected by law to make sure that they are
treated fairly?

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 Reading: Have the students read the descriptions of some of the issues reported by the
International Labor Organization (ILO).

Forced Labor/Child Labor: According to the International Labor Organization (ILO),

almost 21 million men, women and children are victims of forced labor. These people are
exploited by private individuals, enterprises, and state or rebel groups. About 4.5 million
are victims of forced sexual exploitation. Private individuals earn US 150 billion in illegal
profits per year. These forced workers are used in areas such as domestic work, agriculture,
construction, manufacturing and entertainment.
Adapted from Source ILO, 2015

Equality and discrimination: Hundreds of millions of people suffer from discrimination

in the world of work. This is a violation of a basic human right. Discrimination decreases
opportunities for individuals. It prevents humans from developing talent needed for
economic progress. It increases social tensions and inequalities. Fighting discrimination is
important for promoting decent work.
Adapted from Source ILO, 2015

Social protection: This is also called social security. It means that workers should receive
health care if they get sick, have an injury or in the case of women, are pregnant. This also
includes continued health care and financial protection after a worker retires.
Adapted from Source ILO, 2015

Working time (hours, rest periods, holidays): This refers to protecting people from
working long hours without breaks. Within a worker‟s schedule there should be adequate
time for rest and recuperation. This includes weekly rest and paid holidays.
Adapted from Source ILO, 2015

Occupational safety and health: Unsafe and unhealthy conditions in the work place can
contribute to the death or disease of a worker. According to the ILO, every 15 seconds, a
worker dies from a work-related accident or disease. Every 15 seconds, 153 workers have a
work-related accident.
Adapted from Source ILO, 2015

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Post Reading 1: Comprehension questions:

1. How are people exploited? Do you think this happens in Madagascar?
2. Why is fighting discrimination important? Or What are the effects of discrimination in
the work place?
3. What is social security? What forms of social security exist in Madagascar?
4. What do you think an employer should allow for adequate time for rest and
recuperation? In general, what is the work day hours in Madagascar?
5. Can you think of some unhealthy or unsafe working conditions?

Post Reading 2:Critical thinking questions

1. Have you ever experienced some of the issues you just read about?
2. Do you feel that as a worker you need to be protected from exploitation?
3. Is it possible to force employers to treat employees fairly?

Extension: Have students choose one of the issues above and role play a situation where a
worker‟s rights are being denied.

Supplemental Vocabulary: Work related expressions

- to be hired/fired
- to have a right to fair treatment, a safe environment, etc.)
- to go on strike/to have a sit in
- to stand up for workers/one‟s rights
- to take leave
- to call in sick
- to be laid off
- to ask for a (pay) raise
- to work overtime
- to retire/retirement

Other Expressions
- a well-paid job
- a full time job/a 9 to 5 job
- a part time job
- flexible hours
- (with) benefits
- good benefits
- (ethical/unethical) boss
- employer/employee

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- friendly/unfriendly co-workers/colleagues
- rights on the job
- nepotism/favoritism
- safe/safety
- canteen/cafeteria
- a (long) commute
- salary
- (pay) wage
- retirement
- pension plan
- dangerous conditions
- late hours
- long nights at the office, etc.


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Unit 5: WISHES AND REGRETS (Two weeks)

Expression of Quantity and Complaint: Read each of the following. Ask students to
tell you the rule for the expressions of quantity and the tense in the I wish statements
(teachers each expression of quantity changes in the I wish statement and the tense
changes to past)

I have too much housework to do. → I wish I didn‟t have so much house work to
do. OR I wish I had less housework to do.
I don‟t have any money. → I wish I had some money. OR I wish I had money.
I have (so) many problems. → I wish I didn‟t have so many problems.
I am too short. → I wish I wasn‟tso short. Or I wish I were taller.
I am so clumsy. → I wish I wasn‟tso clumsy. Or I wish I were more coordinated.
I am very jealous. → I wish I wasn‟tso jealous.
My brother doesn‟t help enough around the house. → I wish my brother helped
more around the house.

 Practice 1: Change the following into wish statements.Answers are in


1. Paul doesn‟t have any foreign friends. → (Paul wishes he had some foreign
2. Susan has too much homework. → (Susan wishes she didn‟t have so much
3. Raphael doesn‟t have any self-confidence. → (Raphael wishes he had some (more)
4. My dad is so mean. (I wish my dad wasn‟t so mean.)
5. Some of my teachers aren‟t very helpful. → (I wish teachers were (more) helpful.)
6. I don‟t have enough energy to do my homework. → (I wish I had more energy to
do my homework.)
7. Cindy doesn‟t have any time to take care of her little brother. (Cindy wishes she had
some (more) time to take care of her little brother.)
8. My teacher gives us too many assignments. → (I wish my teacher didn‟t give us so
many assignments.)

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 Practice 2: Teacher dictates and student transcribes wish statements of

complaint about another person or thing and students create the scenario
where this statement may be used. Possible scenarios in bracketed italics:
I wish you would go to sleep. (A young child will not go to sleep, instead he/she is
texting in bed)
I wish you would be quiet. (A student is trying to listen to the teacher and his
friend won‟t stop talking)
I wish you would turn down the music (A family is driving to Ampefy and the
teenager wants to listen to rock music on the radio.)

 Grammar point: Expressing regret using gerunds:

Reference syllabus for suggested activities:
Formation: „to regret‟ + gerund
Usage: to express regret for doing something that caused something negative to happen.
Example: I regret losing my temper with my boss.

 Practice:Regrettable situations: use vocabulary verbs from syllabus

Rephrase into regret statements using the above form or „to regret + gerund.
Ex: Lanto regrets eating so many sweets.
Rephrase as wish statements.
Ex: Lanto wishes he hadn‟t eaten so many sweets.

1. Lanto has a terrible toothache. What is he regretting right now?

2. Marie failed her French exam. What is she regretting?
3. Thomas was expelled from school because he started a fight. What is he regretting?
4. Mavo got caught stealing money from her teacher. What is she regretting now?
5. Denis is in trouble with his parents for drinking alcohol. What is he regretting now?
6. Serge got caught cheating on his English exam. What is he regretting now?
7. Voahirana went horseback riding for two days, and pulled her back muscles. What is
she regretting now?

Writing prompt:
1. Describe the situation
2. Express your regret(s) and
3. Explain the consequences

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Some suggestions –encourage students to think of their own situations.

Someone stealing your phone from your car because you had the window down.
Using a cell phone use while driving and causing an accident.
Not working hard at studies and failing.
Wearing jewelry in Tana–becoming a target for theft
Environmental –charcoal/slash and burn/-deforestation –We regret using charcoal,
because it has ruined our forests.
Corruption –for higher level students, a suggestion might be: He regrets bribing his
boss. She regrets blaming her co-worker for her mistake.
Political leadership –lack of leadership lack of democracy. I regret voting for him. I
regret not voting!

Example: Last summer my English teacher invited me and some of my classmates to her
house for dinner. She wanted to congratulate us for doing so well in her class. We also
wanted to thank our teacher for all of her hard work and belief in us. My classmates and I
chipped in (donated money) and bought her a beautiful and expensive cake from the
Chocolaterie Robert. As we were walking to her house, my girlfriend passed by on her
bicycle. When I raised my hand and waved to her, I accidently dropped the cake on the
sidewalk. I wish I had been more careful because later I had to explain to my teacher what
happened. Luckily, she was not angry.

Supplemental Language and Activity to express regrets and wishes.

 Grammar: Should have + past participle
Step 1:The teacher makes statements such as the following:
I lied to my brother. Now he is upset with me. What should I have done?
I hurt my sister‟s feelings. I insulted her. What should I have done?

Step 2: In pairs or in small groups, students write responses such as the following:
You should have told the truth. I shouldn‟t have lied. You should have apologized.
You should have been more understanding. You shouldn‟t have been so mean. You
shouldn‟t have insulted her.

Step 3:The teacher repeats the statements one more time and the students reveal/compare
their responses.

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 Practice: ‘wish statements’ vocabulary development

Unwanted situations in the present: Students write a few sentences in each box expressing
unwanted realities. They then convert them into wish statements.

I have… I don‟t have… I am…

Example: Examples: Examples:
I have a headache I don‟t have new shoes. I am too short.
I have problems in math. I don‟t have good grades. I am so clumsy.
I have to iron all the I don‟t have a cell phone. I am tired.
clothes. Etc. Etc.

I am not… I can‟t… Other verbs

Example: Examples: Examples:
I am not good at sports. I can‟t sing. I talk too much.
I am not very generous. I can‟t swim. I eat too much sugar.
I am not happy right now. I can‟t play the piano. I don‟t study enough.
Etc. I don‟t help my Mom
enough at home.

Diagloss: Suggested activities

Reviews of expressions of likes and dislikes/ making suggestions
Wishes and regrets
Drama performance to get students speak (in the form of a contest to see the best
For writing (students write a similar dialogue, a shorter one, about another topic:
choosing the colour of a room, eating out, buying a car, deciding about the number of
children to have…)

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I wish I had …

Fred: Where shall we go for our holiday this year, Elsie?

Elsie: I don‟t know Fred.
Fred: How about the seaside?
Elsie: I hate swimming; you know that.
Fred: You don‟t have to swim. You can go walking on the beach.
Elsie: I hate walking.
Fred: But you used to love walking
Elsie: Not any more
Fred: How about the South of France?
Elsie: That‟s too far.
Fred: But we could fly.
Elsie: I hate flying
Fred: You‟ve never tried.
Elsie: I know I‟d hate it
Fred: Your sister always said she‟d hate flying.
Elsie: So what?
Fred: And then she enjoyed it.
Elsie: Perhaps she did, but I hate flying.
Fred: How about the mountains?
Elsie: What for?
Fred: We could go climbing up there
Elsie: What do you think I am? A goat?
Fred: No. But you used to love climbing mountains.
Elsie: No, not now. I can‟t bear climbing. I‟m frightened of heights.
Fred: But you used to love them
Elsie: Not any more.
Fred: Let‟s stay with my mum then?
Elsie: No, thanks.
Fred: But you used to love going to see her.
Elsie: Not any more. I can‟t bear listening to her complaints.
Fred: Her complaints?
Elsie: Yes. She complains all the time.
Fred: But you used to love listening to her.
Elsie: Not any more.
Fred: How about staying here then?
Elsie: What? Staying here?

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Fred: Yes, if you don‟t want to go anywhere, we‟re staying here.

Elsie: What do you mean? Do you think I like sitting in this room all day long?
Fred: Well …
Elsie: Do you think I love looking at you all day long?
Fred: Well …
Elsie: Do you think I enjoy watching you eating your breakfast day in and day out?
Fred: Well …
Elsie: Do you think I‟m keen on listening to you singing in your bath every morning?
Fred: Well …
Elsie: I hate sitting in this room all day long. I dislike looking at you all day long. I can‟t bear
watching you eating your breakfast day in and day out; and I can‟t stand listening to you
singing in your bath every morning.
Fred: (mumbling to himself) I wish I had married her sister. If I had married her, I would
have been happier. I know what I‟m going to do) Elsie …
Elsie: Yes
Fred: Come and have a look at this
Elsie: What is it?
Fred: Come and have a look through the window. You want to get out of the house for a bit?
Elsie: Yes I do.
Fred: Ok (Pushing her out of the window)or alternate ending could be that he could tell
her to jump and they both start laughing

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For information on tourism in your area this site is a good place to start:

 Reading: Students read and in small groups answer the thinking questions. Teacher
takes a poll of student answers on a flip chart or on the blackboard.
Types of tourism and their descriptions: (Teacher find names of local tourist sites that you
think your students would be familiar with. This will help to prompt students

Eco-tourism – It refers to responsible travel to unique and often unprotected areas. The
goal is to educate the traveler about the environment, heritage and culture of the host
country. This type of tourism also contributes to the income of the local people. Tourists
buy local products, eat local food, stay with a family, etc.
Thinking Questions:
How has Madagascar developed this type of tourism? (Provide prompts of local parks if

Educational tourism: When a person comes to a country or another area, to learn a

language, to do research, to study culture or to develop a special skill outside the classroom
environment, this is called educational tourism.
Thinking Questions:
What is an example of this type of tourism? (For example; voyage d‟ etude, or a student
exchange program to the US, or YALI)

Medical tourism: People travel to other countries for medical reasons. Perhaps medical
costs are too high or the type of medical treatment doesn‟t exist in the visitor‟s native
Thinking Questions:
Can you think of a reason why you might travel to another country to visit a doctor? Do
people leave Madagascar to seek medical treatment elsewhere? Do people come to
Madagascar for special medical treatment?

Culinary or food tourism: Some people travel with the purpose of exploring the local
food of a country or a place.

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Thinking Questions:
What unique food does Madagascar have to offer? What are some good restaurants in your

Sexual tourism: People who travel to other countries to take advantage of relaxed or non-
existent laws concerning prostitution.
Thinking Question:
Can you think of ways to prevent this from happening here?
How can education help to solve this problem?

Wildlife tourism: Some tour companies are designed to take tourists to areas where
unique wildlife exists. The purpose is to learn about the animals and plant life in a natural
environment. Usually visitors only take notes, photos and memories back with them.
Buying handicrafts made from animal fur, teeth, bones, etc. is strictly prohibited.
Thinking Questions:
What are the names of places that offer this type of tourism?
What types of tours are offered in Madagascar?
Why do you think buying handicrafts made from animal fur, teeth, bones, etc. prohibited?
(Possible answer is that the animals (both endangered and not endangered) risk being
killed just to make handicrafts)

Mass tourism or resort tourism: Often people come simply to enjoy themselves at a
resort area often near a beach or a famous national park. These areas have many large
hotels, restaurants and shopping centers. Tourists relax, go on excursions, or participate in
some kind of leisure activity.

Thinking Questions:
What are some famous resort areas in Madagascar?
Why do people come to these places?

Listening/Speaking Dictagloss:
Step 1: The teacher reads a paragraph twice. The first time students listen for the main
idea. The second time students write down as many details as they understand.

Step 2: Students now work in pairs or small groups to fill in the gaps of understanding by
sharing what each wrote for details.

Step 3: Selected students retell what they heard in the oral reading.

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Reading Example:
“As a result of transportation such as planes, ships, trains, bus and the automobile, large
numbers of people can travel very quickly to many places of interest all over the world.
This is often referred to as mass tourism. Due to so many visitors, it may be necessary to
build large tourist hotels with nearby shopping centers and chain restaurants. This could
lead to the destruction of the environment. Also, when tourists stay within these resort
areas, their contact with the local people and customs may be limited.”

Listening/Writing (Dictation + Sentence Completion):

Step 1: The teacher first dictates the “causes”.
Step 2. The students write what they hear.
Step 3. The teacher and students check that the sentences are written correctly.
Step 4. The students now complete the “effect” statements with their own ideas, choosing
an „effect‟ introductory statement and a „completion‟ clause.
Dictation (Causes) Effects Completion
Madagascar has a rich As a result, we must …
cultural heritage.

There are many endangered Therefore, …

animals in our national
parks. it is necessary …
Consequently, …
Tour companies bring
thousands of foreign visitors we should …
to our country. For this reason, …

Madagascar has unique flora

and fauna. That is why …

Our country has beautiful


Our country has beautiful beaches. That is why many people travel to Madagascar.
Tour companies bring thousands of foreign visitors to our country. As a result, we must build
more hotels.
There are many endangered animals in our national parks. Therefore, it is necessary to
protect them.

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Reading/Analyzing text: Students circle the expressions that indicate “causes” and “effects.”
They then write the “causes” and “effects” in the chart below.

When mass tourism increases, more fragile and unprotected areas of a country are being
destroyed. This has led to the development of ecotourism where travelers come to learn about
the unique flora, fauna and culture of a country. As a result, governments have created
national parks and reserves to protect the unique plant and animal life a country may possess.
Ecotourism has also improved the economy at a local level. For example, an option for
travelers is a homestay where they stay with a family in a village. Consequently, the hosts
earn money and the guests learn firsthand about the local cuisine and local customs. In
addition, local people can increase their income and improve their standard of living if they
work as guides and create tourist-oriented businesses.

Possible solutions below:

Causes Effects
Mass tourism increases -Fragile and unprotected environments are being

Development of ecotourism -Travelers are educated about ecology

Creation of national parks -Protect plant and animals

Homestay -Locals earn money
-Travelers learn first-hand about the culture
Creation of employment -Improve local incomes
Creation of tourism business -Improve local economy
(restaurants, gift shops etc. . . )

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 Practice writing: Students think of a topic from the unit and write a paragraph.

Some ideas for suggested topics.

Protecting the environment/flora/fauna
Learning languages to host people from other countries
Intercultural exchanges
Tourism and the economy
Why people should visit Madagascar
Homestays -when you have guests in your house –your house is always cleaner!

Paragraph Outline: Have students brainstorm and create an outline. Below is a suggested
topic sentence: (what the paragraph is about) tourism and environment
idea word 1 -protect environment
idea word 2 -national parks
idea work 3 -develop local economy
idea word 4 -develop regional economy
concluding sentence: (what the paragraph was about and a comment) tourism and

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Unit 7: TECHNOLOGY (two weeks)

 Reading Activity
Step 1: List the ways people can use a computer/laptop/smart phone
Possible answers:
Listen to music
Take pictures
Find information (travel, research,
Send texts messages/emails/emoticons/
Save data/files/
Study languages/math/science
Socializing/networking –facebook, tweeter, social networks, instagram
Step 2: Read the paragraph and see if what you listed is mentioned.
 Reading: The Internet and the World Wide Web
One of the most useful components of computers is the internet. The Internet connects us to
massive amounts of information and general data. This connection occurs through telephone
lines, cable lines and satellites. It links computers all over the world. The World Wide Web
or more commonly known as the Web is a feature within the internet which allows billions of
computers to exchange huge amounts of data. You can read text, watch videos, look at
graphics, view animation and listen to sound. It is possible to search for information in many
encyclopedias, listen to music, get the latest news and learn about people, places and things
from all around the world. You can communicate with your friends in your own town, in
your country and even around the world. For people who don‟t have computers, they can
access the Internet at a school computer lab, at libraries or at internet cafes in most major
cities and towns.
Post reading:
1. Were your ideas on how people use the computer mentioned in the reading? If so,
circle them.
2. Look for the word “massive” in the first paragraph. Now look for another word that has
a similar meaning. (Huge)
3. What is the noun form of the verb to connect? (connection)
4. What is another word for „connects‟? (links)
5. What are other words that have similar meanings as graphics? (images, pictures)
6. What do “watch”, “look at” “view” have in common? (all verbs related to ways of
seeing information)
7. What is another way of saying” all over the world”? (all around the world)

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Writing Point -Parallel Structure:

Parallel structure in writing is very important in writing when you are listing, comparing or
contrasting items or ideas. Each item or idea listed must follow the same grammatical pattern.

Example 1 nouns:
If the first item is a noun write all the following items as nouns.
Today people use cell phones, laptops, and Ipads to communicate with others.

Example 2 –ing words

If the first item is an –ing word write all the following items as –ing words.
Today phone are used for texting, chatting or emailing.

Example 3 –If the first item is a verb phrase write all the following items as verb
Today people use their phones to read the news, take pictures and *surf the net!
“surf the net” means spending time on the internet browsing/looking for things.

 Practice 1: Parallel Structure

A. Identify the part of speech of the bold faced words. What word connects them?
Part of Speech Connecting
The Internetconnects electronically to massive (noun) (and)
amounts of information and general data.
This connection occurs through telephone lines, (noun) (and)
cable lines and satellites
You can read text, watch videos, look at graphics, (verbs) (and)
view animation and listen to sound.
They can access the Internet at a school computer (prepositional (or)
lab, at libraries or at internet cafes. phrases)
The teacher speaks English quickly but clearly. (adverbs) (but)

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 Practice 2: Parallel Structure

Writing practice:
Complete the sentences. Make sure you maintain parallel structure.
Add answers.
1. My classmates are kind and ___.
2. My teacher is strict but ___.
3. My best friend is tall and ___.
4. We can go to the movies, ____ or ___.
5. I like to eat, ___ and ___.
6. Should I want to go out with my boyfriend or ___?
7. Should I spend time with my girlfriend or ___?
8. I like my school but ___.
9. My favorite subjects are ___, ___ and ___.
10. My students are hardworking, responsible and ___.
11. In order to be healthy, we should ___, ___ and ___.
12. Three things we enjoy in class are ___, ___ and ___.
13. Three things we don‟t enjoy about school are ___, ___ and ___.
14. In my free time, I like to ___, ___ and ____.

Parallel Structure: Using commas correctly

Study the following examples.
When only two parts of a parallel structure are connected by and, no comma is needed.
→ Marie and Voahirana are great singers.
Use commas to separate items in a series. They can be nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs,
or even short phrases or clauses.
- Vola , Noro, and Poopy are great singers.
-My puppy was tired, wet, and cold when she was found.
-My little brother is so cute! He walks, skips, and jumps to school!
-I want to learn Malagasy, visit Tamatave, and go horseback riding.
Note: Commas help silent readers understand text more clearly and oral readers pause

Commas can change the meaning of a sentence! Compare the two statements. How does
the comma change the meaning!
1. Let’s eat Grandma!
2. Let’s eat, Grandma.

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1. I would like to thank my parents, the Pope and Mother Theresa! (my parents are the
Pope and Mother Theresa!)
2. I would like to thank my parents, the Pope, and Mother Theresa.

 Practice 3 Listening/Speaking: Parallel Structure

Listen, punctuate, and pronounce: Listen to the teacher read the following sentences. Put in
commas accordingly. Remember, there are times where the comma is optional. You decide
whether to write one in or not. After your work has been checked, read each sentence out loud
remembering to pause accordingly.
1. The Internet helps you communicate with your friends, in your own town, in your
country, and even around the world.
2. I use the internet to keep in touch with family, to watch movies, and to listen to music.
3. Narindra, Mialy, Voahirana, and Niaina use the Internet for watching sports.
4. My teacher uses the Internet to take classes, connect with other teachers, and develop
her teaching skills.
5. We need more computers, textbooks,and DVD players in our school.

 Practice: Create your own sentences and dictate to your classmates.

Things you use your smartphone for?
The social networks you belong to?
Technology that you use in your life/or you know?
Things you admire the most in your friend.
Things you would do if you had a 1,000,000AR.
Three of the most useful inventions.
Your favorite activities in school, on trips, at home etc.
 Practice group work: How has technology over the last 50 years? Students to use
expressions of contrast to describe changes.

50 years ago today

typewriters computers
rotary dial phones cell phones
black and white TV 3d movies
record players/gramophones flat hd color
radios iphones
cassette players cd digital players/mp3/mp4
film camera digital camera
people spy drones
wires/telephone/radio/tv wireless

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 Practice 4: Parallel Structure

 Reading/Writing
Play the role of teacher and correct the errors in the following sentences.
1. Some people complain that teenagers spend too much time on the Internet watching
videos, playing online games and they look at social networking sites. (looking)
2. The Internet has helped people to connect more easily and communicating more
effectively. (communicate)
3. Students can use the computer in two important ways they can get information and
connectingwith others. (connect)

 Practice 5: Parallel Structure: Listening/Writing Dictagloss:

Step 1:The teacher reads a short paragraph twice.
Smart phones text
(text to be read out loud by the teacher) note check for accuracy
„Often I hear people talk about smart phones. They either have one already, want to buy one
or in my case, want to know what one is. So, I asked my friend, Mike, who is a tech geek*.
He said it‟s like a mobile phone except that it can do a lot of the things a computer does. Not
only can you make and receive calls but you can also connect to the Internet. That means you
can read the news, search for all kinds of information, play computer games, and even watch
movies. He especially likes his smart phone because he can save music by creating a play
list. So, while he is riding on a bus, walking to school or just relaxing at home, he can listen
to his favorite songs.‟
*tech geek is someone who really loves technology
Step 2: After the first reading, the students write the main idea.

Step 3: After the second reading, the students list as many details as they can understand.

Main Idea: Smart Phones

like a computer
call people or receive calls
read the news
search for information
play games
store music
listen to music everywhere
watch movies
connect to the internet

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Step 4: Now students work in pairs or in small groups and together combine the details they
were able to understand.
Step 5: Together they write a brief summary of what they heard keeping in mind, parallel
Note: when using lists we rarely use more than three items in a sentence:
For example: Ducks, geese, birds, bats and bees all fly.
Ducks, geese, and birds fly.

Sample prompts:
A smart phone is a device that can ___, ___, and___.
With a smart phone you can ___, ___ and ___.

Additional Writing Topics:

Video Games
Positive : Negative :

Cell Phones
Positive effects Negative effects

Good changes: Bad changes:

 Practice: Vocabulary
Index cards with vocabulary that students use in a sentence.
-to download pictures/movies/videos
-design websites
-a pull down menu

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-the tool bar

-the scroll bar
-the cursor
-the keyboard
-the mouse
-to click on an icon
-to scroll up/down
-to open a file
-to save a file
-to print a file
-to cut text
-to copy text
-to paste text
-to select/highlight a text
-to have a virus
Computer theft
-to hack into
-to steal
-to cyberbully
Nouns –vocabulary development. Use with vocabulary builder.
-a laptop/a desktop/an earphone/a GPS/a DVD player/a flash drive/a digital
camera/headphones/a (an LCD) projector/an MP3 player/a camcorder/speakers
Practice objective: Talking about using technology
Class activity:
Students design, create and conduct a survey about how classmates use the
On board, create these four columns, and records student response to the questions below.

Name Technology uses frequency

1. What types of technology do you use?

2. What do you use them for?
3. How often do you use them?
4. What is your favorite website? Can you access this on your smartphone?
5. What is your favorite app? Why?
6. What is the best translator app? Do you think that all translators are accurate?
7. What app did you try but didn‟t like?
Extension activity:
Students present on their favorite site, game, or application.

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Unit 8: IN THE NEWS (two weeks)

 Reported Speech: Practice 1
A. Students study the list of quotes and the corresponding reported speech. Students then
state the rule.
Quoted Speech Reported Speech
“I listen to the radio every day.” He said he listened to the radio every day.
“I am listening to the radio.” He said he was listening to the radio.
“I have listened the radio”. He said he had listened to the radio.
“I listened to the radio.” He said he had listened to the radio.
“I will listen to the radio.” He said he would listen to the radio.
“I am going to listen to the radio.” He said he was going to listen to the radio.
“I can listen to the radio.” He said he could listen to the radio.
“I may listen to the radio.” He said he might listen to the radio.
“I must listen to the radio.” He said he had to listen to the radio.
“I have to listen to the radio”. He said he had to listen to the radio.
“I should listen to the radio.” He said he should listen to the radio.
“I ought to listen to the radio.” He said he ought to listen to the radio.
“I might listen to the radio.” He said he might listen to the radio.
WH Questions
“Where were you yesterday? The teacher asked where I was/had been the day before.
“What are you doing ? She asked me what I was doing.
Who are you going to the party with. She asked who I was going to the party with.
Yes/No Questions
Do you like your classes? He asked me if I liked my classes.
Did you lock the door ? He asked me if I had locked the door.
Go to the office. The teacher told me to go to the office.
Don‟t ever start smoking. She warned me to never start smoking.

B. Following the examples in the chart above, students convert the following quotes into
reported speech.
“I have a headache.” - She said ___.
“I saw Sally yesterday.” - She said ___.
“I heard some disturbing news last night.” - She said ___.
“I am going to tell you a secret.” She said ____.
“I must go.” – She said ___.
“I can run faster than bill.” – She said ___.

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Direct Speech: Repeats the speakers exact words:

Following the examples in the chart above, students convert reported speech into direct
He said he ate six bananas every morning. –He said, “I eat six bananas every
She said she had drunk too much coffee yesterday. – She said: “I drank too much
coffee yesterday.”
He said he couldn‟t go to the movie. –He said: “I can‟t go to the movie.”
She said she would come to Tana next week. – They said: “We will be coming to Tana
on Monday.”

 Practice 2: Reported Speech:

A. The teacher chooses a well-known fairy tale such as Cinderella/Sleeping Beauty. You
can also use a Malagasy film (such as Malokila) or TV show (such as Safelika) or a
radio show (Tantara).
B. He/she explains that it is now five years after the traditional story ended and that
groups will create interview questions to find out how the characters‟ lives have
C. The class is divided into groups corresponding to the main characters in the story.
the Cinderella group
the prince group
the fairy godmother group
the wicked stepmother group
the wicked stepsister(s) group
D. Each group writes interview questions for their character.

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The Cinderella group:
a. How do you feel about the prince now?
The prince group:
b. Do you still love Cinderella?
c. The teacher selects students (or individuals volunteer) to play the role of the
characters. They are brought to the front of the class.

1. In press conference fashion, the groups call out their questions to each of the characters.
2. The characters answer the questions ad lib.
3. Group mates take notes. After the questioning is over the notes are converted into reported

The prince said he didn‟t love Cinderella anymore.
Cinderella said she had two children.

 Practice 3:information gap

The teacher tells a story (perhaps a familiar fairy tale) to one half of the class. The other half
of the class leaves the room. Then the group who heard the story retells it to their partners
who were waiting outside the class.

 Practice 4: free write

Each student has to write a sentence about themselves or someone or something. Feel free to
be silly! Collect student sentences and put in a hat and have students pick one and using
reported speech tell the class what the sentence says and who said it. They invent who said it
–can use any name, for example: a famous person, politician, classmate etc. . . .

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MADAGASCAR (two weeks)

Activity A: Template for chalkboard or flip chart brainstorming activity with possible
Possible solutions Intro. to Action Social issues (1st task))
(2nd task) verbs (3rd task)
Stricter laws… …unemployment
Proper healthcare… …the poor.
Proper sanitation… …to prevent… …poverty.
Food… …to alleviate… …famine.
Education… …to eradicate… …early pregnancy.
Money… …is/are needed …to empower… …women.
The government… most… …to help… …the young.
NGO‟s… …to improve… …the old.
Foreign experts… …to combat… …corruption.
Local experts… …to end… …sanitation problems.
Volunteers… …etc… …disease.
Jobs… …ignorance.
Etc. …the weak.

Sample sentences:
1. Education is needed most to prevent early pregnancies.
2. Money is needed most to help the poor.
3. Jobs are needed most to end unemployment.
4. Encourage students to write additional solutions to other problems/using the vocabulary
in the syllabus to prompt responses. Then add the vocabulary from the syllabus and
students create sentences for small discussions.

Activity 2: Unit Project: In small groups students create an advertisement poster presentation
on one of the International Organizations from the syllabus. Use the template for suggested
contents on the poster

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Name of the Agency:

Mission or aims of the agency:
How the agency helps Madagascar:
Notes: Encourage students to add the logo or any other
appropriate graphics related to the agency
What projects has the organization completed/created.
Student ideas

On completion students set up organizational booths and have an exhibition session. Students
go from exhibit to exhibit to learn about the various international organizations.

Assessment 1: Teachers form questions that the exhibits answer (three or four questions)
which will become an assessment for the project. The assessment questions will be based on
the content of the student exhibits.
Example questions that the teacher may ask on an assessment are:
What is one project that USAID has done in Madagascar?
What is the purpose of the International Labour Organization in Madagascar?

Peer Assessment: Students vote on first, second or third most interesting exhibit.

Extension Activity: Debate/discussion topic. What needs to be done to decrease our

dependence on NGO‟s.

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Introduction: True/False Statements:

King Ralambo –taught Malagasy people to eat Zebu!
Kings marry several women in order to extend the kingdom.
Queen Ranavalona 1 persecuted Christians to preserve Malagasy religion/beliefs of
ancestralin the afterlife.
Formal education began in Madagascar by King Radama 1st.
Madagascar gained independence in 1940.
Madagascar is the 5th largest island in the world.

Political Systems: Pre-reading activity from syllabus

Read the brief descriptions and circle the words that have the meaning of “leader.”

Monarchy: In a monarchy, the country is ruled by member of a royal family such as a

king or queen. This position is inherited and usually lasts for the entire life of the
monarch. His or her power can vary from supreme ruler to figure head. In some
countries such as Great Britain, the monarch has more of a ceremonial role and the
country is governed by a parliament elected by the people. This is called a constitutional
monarchy. Other titles for monarchs include emperor, empress, shah, sultan, etc.

Dictatorship: In a dictatorship, the dictator has absolute control over the country.

Democracy: In a democracy, the citizens elect the officials who will govern their
country. In addition, the people vote on how they want the government to manage taxes,
health care, etc. In theory, the government is ruled by a majority voice of the people.

Republic: In a republic the country is governed by a president, a council, a parliament or

a combination of these. Although this form of government is of the people, it is ruled in
theory, according to its constitution.

 Practice: Answer the following questions

What monarchs do you know?
Where do/did they reign?
Find the countries on a map.
What is/was his/her role?
Supreme ruler or figure head?

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Possible answers:
Elizabeth ll/England/figure head
Cleopatra/Egypt/supreme ruler
Mohamed 6/Morocco/Supreme ruler
King Andrianampoinimerina –Madagascar 1710/Supreme Ruler

 Practice:Answer the following questions

1. What countries do you know that are run by a dictator?
Possible answers:
Saudi/Morocco/Fidel Castro-Cuba/Kim Yong –North Korea

2. What type of governmental system does Madagascar have? Is the country run by a
president, prime minister, etc.?
Possible answers:
President republic –democracy –two chambers (lots of parties)

3. Is the president elected by the people or by some other government officials?

Possible answers:
By the people

Sample campaign statements

As you know, today we have problems with …
We also have problems with …
It is time to make positive changes in our ….
As a class, (as a nation, etc.), we must….
We mustn‟t let…
That is why you should vote for me to be your president, mayor, etc.
If you elect me president, I promise to…
I also promise to …
I will…
I will also…
I will not
Once again, you should elect me president, etc. because….

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Supplemental Vocabulary:
Political crisis
-to impoverish/poverty/poor/misery
-to be indebted
-to borrow/to lend
-to starve/starvation
-to die of hunger/to be undernourished
-to go bankrupt
-to overthrow/to take over
Political crimes
-to abuse one‟s power
-to steal/to rob/robber
-to embezzle/embezzlement
-to be corrupt
-to exploit/exploitation
-to smuggle/smuggler
-money laundering
-illicit (human) trafficking
The senate/parliament/Ministries of (Education; Foreign Affairs; Interior; Civil Service)
Political affiliation
-left (right) wing
Political protest
-to go on strike
-to demonstrate
-to fight for one‟s rights
-to riot
-to stage an uprising
Supplementary Activity ideas
Brainstorm causes of political crisis in Madagascar/other African countries and relate
the impact on the economy, social situation and the environment
Writing: Students write what they think about the following statement: “African
countries are responsible for their own poverty”

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