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REPORT II — UPDATED NOVEMBER, 2000

REPORT ON RESTORATION OF METEOROLOGICAL


NETWORK - TIMOR LORO SAE

Prepared By: Glenard Donald KEEFER

53 pratten St. CORINDA 4075 Qld.

Phone 07 3379 6068


FAX 07 3379 2375
EMAIL glenardk@hotmail.com
November, 2000

To Fulfill Contract No. AET/067 with UNTAET Dili


United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor

Report on Restoration of Meteorological Network - Timor Loro Sae


INDEX
Index i
List Tables iii
List Figures iii
List Appendix IV
Executive Summary V

1. Introduction 1
2. Terras of Reference 2
3. Availability of Historical Data 2
4. Climate Timor Loro Sae 7
4.1 Factors Determining Rainfall Patterns 7
4.2 General Climate Features 9
4.3 Climate Classifications 10
5. Agro climatic Zones of East Timor 11
5.1 Rainfall Patterns in East Timor 11
5.2 Influence of Altitude 11
5.3 Micro-climate Effects 13
5.4 ARPAPET Agro climatic Classification 14
6. Agricultural Implications of Agro climatic Zones 16
6.1 Fitting Crops/ Enterprises to Agro climatic Zones 16
6.2 Present Agricultura) Enterprises 17
6.3 Future Agricultura) Opportunities 18
6.4 Seed and Cultivar Supply and Sourceing 20
6.5 Agro climatic Requirements of Specific Crops 21
6.6 Agronomic Support 21
6.7 Factors in Decision Making 22
7. Survey of Meteorological Stations 23
8. Recommendations Climate Network - Number of Sites & Location 24
8.1 Number & Locations 24
8.2 Selection of Sites 28
8.3 Security Fencing 29
8.4 Guidelines for Negotiating Site Tenure & Observers 29
9. Basic Rain Gauge Installation 3
9.1 Location by District and Recording 30
9.2 Importance of Maintaining Central Climate Data Base 33
10. Equipment and Budget for Restoration Program 33
10.1 Measurement of Rainfall or Precipitation 33
10.2 Equipment 35
10.3 Budget for Restoration Program 36
10.4 Budget and Program Assumptions 37
11. Recommendations Staffing, Operation, Training 38
11.1 Long Term Forecasting 38
11.2 Staffing 38
12. Participative Workshop 40
13. References 41

List of Tables
Table 1. Portuguese Stations which Measured Climatic Elements
(Either Pre or Post 1950) in Addition to Rainfall 4
Table 2. Portuguese Stations Recording only Rainfall 6
Table 3. Examples of Oldeman (1975) Climatic Classification for East Timor 11
Table 4. Summary of Mean Temperature Ranges - Three Altitudes 13
Table 5. Areas (ha) of Agro climatic Zones in each District 16
Table 6. Suitability of Main Crops/ Enterprises 17
Table 7. Recommended Locations Future Stations - Northern Agro-climate Zones 27
Table 8. Recommended Locations Future Stations - Southern Agro-climate Zones 28
Table 9. Locations 50 Rain Gauges – Nov. 2000 31
Table 10. Locations to Consider in Second Tier Rainfall Recording Network 41

List of Figures
Figure 1. Diagrams Illustrating N-S Wind & Equatorial Trough Movements 7
Figure 2. Altitudinal Differences in Mean Temperature 10
Figure 3. Maliana/ Monomodal & Lolotoi/ Bimodal Rain Patterns 11
Figure 4. Agro-ecological Zones for Vegetable Production - Java 14
Figure 5. Agro climatic Zones of East Timor 14
Figure 6. Map Showing Location of Portuguese Stations 24

Appendix

Appendix I. Inventory of Available Historical Data


Appendix II. Report on Portugese/ Indonesian Stations
Appendix III. Road Distances and Travei Times
Appendix IV. Specifications Security Fencing and Automatic Climate Equipment
Appendix V. Job Descriptions
Appendix VI. Participative Workshop
Appendix VII. Long-term Monthly Rain and Temperature Averages
Appendix VIII. Miscelianeous Memos and Documents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Timor Lorosae is located in an area subject to the Southern Oscillation and 'El Nino'
weather patterns which can produce severe droughts as well as flooding. Monitoring local
rainfall is critically important for cropping advice to farmers, for the establishment of an early
warning system for food security issues and for disaster relief planning. Demands for historical
and current climate/ rainfall data will also come from industries involved in solar and wind
turbine power plant design and from engineers involved in road, bridge and irrigation
development.
Reestablishment of an adequate climate recording network can be justified as a priority
for the following reasons:

(i)Climate and rainfall data from all districts of East Timor is required to make crop
productivity forecasts on a monthly basis as the crop seasons unfold.
(ii)Comparing current rain data with long-term means from each recording site will
enable food security in each district to be monitored.
(iii)Current rain data and evaporation estimates are needed for Tactical scheduling of
irrigation requirements for rice and other crops using FAO computer programs or programs
developed locally.
(iv)Current and historical rain and climate data on a central data base will be available
for Strategic planning for new and existing crops, environmental catchments management
programs and engineering design for roads, bridges and solar/ wind turbine power generation.

For those given the responsibility of planning and supporting agricultural/ forestry/
livestock production a climate/ rain recording network is an essential tool - not a luxury. With
training the data collected together with soils data will give those concerned a much better
understanding of the systems with whic h they are working. They will then be in a better position
to make environmentally sustainable changes to those systems for the economic and social
benefit of particular agricultural communities and villages.

Historical Data
Forty two Portugese stations measuring rainfall/ climate data were in operation for
varying periods from 1914 to 1941. Stations were reestablished in 1952-53 and fifty four stations
were in operation for varying periods up to Indonesian occupation in 1975.

The data recovered in Dili to date includes daily and monthly summaries for 31 of the
stations operating in the 1914-41 period but many of these records are incomplete. Journals
containing daily data for 33 of the stations operating during the 1952-74 period have also been
recovered and appear to be fairly complete.
The number of stations operating during Indonesian control from 1975 to 1998 is unclear
and very few data have been recovered. It is anticipated that approaches to institutes in Portugal
and Indonesia will recover further useful data.
A quick assessment of historical data indicates that (if further data is recovered) more
than 50 years data should be available for some fifteen to twenty locations and there should be
up to forty stations with more than 25 to 50 years data particularly rainfall.

Climatic Features and Agro climatic Zones of East Timor

The report outlines the factors determining rainfall patterns and general climatic features
of East Timor. An analysis of historical rainfall and temperature data (ARPAPET, 1996)
produced a simple but effective agro-climatic classification of East Timor. The six Agro climatic
Zones are based on historical rainfall totais and distribution within different altitude limits (0 -
100 m; 100 - 500 m; > 500 m). These altitudinal boundaries reflect important temperature
differences which dictate crop selection. There are three Agro climatic Zones North and South of
the main mountain chain - each with a different rainfall pattern. The three Northern Zones
experience a Mono- modal rainfall pattern with a peak in the December - January period and
decreasing monthly rain totais to April. In the North there is a 5 - 8 month dry season. The three
Southern Zones experience a Bi- modal rainfall pattern with a second rainfall peak in the May-
June period. The Southern zones experience a 3 - 5 month dry season.
Within each of the six zones, soils play an important role in determining crop suitability
and crop productivity and the report stresses the need for training in the simple assessment of
important soil properties.
At some time in the future when more complete climate and soils data have been entered
on the agro-climatology data base it should be possible to develop a more detailed agro climatic
classification of East Timor using GIS mapping techniques. These maps will only be useful if
the basic data used to develop them is confirmed with field transects and field surveys. In the
mean time, the six agro-climatic zones defined by the ARPAPET project provide a very good
conceptual framework for discussing agricultural problems and opportunities.

Agro climatic Implications of Agro climatic Zones

The first step is to detail crop/ tree/ livestock specifications and then to allocate
enterprises which are suitable to each agro-climatic zone. These specifications include climate
related factors (radiation response, optimum & critical temperatures for growth, temperature and
day length development response, Plant Available Water response) as well as soil related factors
(non limiting & potential root depth, texture, drainage, pH, salinity response). In a rain- grown
agriculture Plant Available Water requirements can be expressed in terms of annual water
requirements and in terms of wet months (> 100 mm) and dry months (< 100 mm).
Based on the climate related factors crops/ enterprises can be allocated to the Agro
climatic zones. Soil specifications can then indicate the locations in each zone which are suitable
for specific enterprises. The report lists in Table 6 a range of crops/ enterprises and tabulates
their suitability for different zones. Current Agricultural enterprises are outlined for each zone
and future agricultural opportunities are discussed.

Survey of Meteorological Stations


Over a period of seven weeks surveys were conducted in ten of the thirteen districts of
East Timor. Planned visits to Covalima and Bobonaro were postponed because of security
concerns and transport difficulties. Oecussi was given a lower priority after inspections in the
other districts found no operational equipment. Subsequent reports from the District Agricultural
officer indicate that no equipment has been located. A planned visit by boat to Atauro did not
eventuate.
In summary, no worthwhile functional equipment was located. The survey did provide an
opportunity to assess accessibility of some Portugese locations, to ascertain their proximity to
agricultural enterprises and to assess their suitability for inclusion in the primary network.

Recommendations New Climate Network


The number of restored sites should be within future East Timor budget and staffing
limitations but at the same time should provide sufficient information for reliable food security
and crop productivity predictions in the main cropping areas.
It is recommended that 10 fully automated solar powered climate stations be installed at
representative locations which already have some historical data other than rainfall. The first aim
was to locate one climate station in each of the six Agro-climatic Zones previously outlined. The
locations selected as being representative of these zones are Dili, Dare, Maubisse, Ainaro, Same
and Betano.
Fuiloro was selected as being representative of the Lautem plateau and it is
recommended that a further three stations will be installed at the airports of Baucau, Suai and
Oecussi to serve both agriculture and Civil Aviation services. The recommendation was that a
further 30 locations be supplied with manual rain gauges but this number was increased to 35
following the participative workshop. The workshop identified a number of areas which were
not adequately covered by the proposed network. Two of the extra rain recording locations
(Lissadila and Cribas) were not part of the Portugese or Indonesian network. The tables below
summarise the recommendations. The villages of Uato-Lari and Laclu were moved closer to the
coast during the Indonesian era - the new altitudes are given with the altitude of the old location
in brackets.
If Civil aviation gets funds from another source for Replacing Automatic Stations )at Dili,
Baucau, Suai ) the funds allocated in the Agro – climatology proposal can be diverted to
Automatic Stations in rhe other strategic agro-ecological zones.
At each location, sites need to be selected to give correct exposure of the instruments.
Instruments should be sited where the observations are representative of a wide area that is
similar to the cropping or forest areas where the data will be used. Frequently it is not convenient
to locate climate stations or rain gauges in the middle of a cropping area and some compromise
is necessary so that the instruments will be reasonably accessible to the observer - this is
particularly important for manual rather than automatic equipment.
Measured rainfall will not be representative if the gauge is placed under a tree or beside a
post or wall - the obstruction will exclude rain that should have fallen into the gauge or perhaps
add rain that should not have fallen into the gauge. Another bad exposure is at a site where there
is a local disturbance to wind, such as on top of a roof, on a fence or near an embankment or
escarpment. In such positions wind blowing up or strongly across the gauge will deflect the
raindrops. The effects of bad exposure can easily amount to 10 percent and may be much higher.
OBSTRUCTIONS SHOULD BE DISTANT FROM GAUGES OR AUTOMATIC CLIMATE
STATIONS BY AT LEAST FOUR TIMES THEIR HEIGHT. Some compromises have to be made
and with the gauges mounted at 1.2 metres TWICE the HEIGHT of the OBSTRUCTION is
reasonable.

Specifications have been drawn up for security fencing for the 10 Automatic Climate
Stations and quotations sought for inclusion in the budget. It is recommended that fencing of the
remaining rainfall sites be carried out by the local communities using local materials and a small
allowance has been made for this in the budget. Guidelines for negotiating site tenure and
observers are provided in Section 8.4 of the report.

Basic Rain Gauge Installation

The Participative Workshop requested that some rain gauges be distributed before this
wet season. From 1 – 25 November 50 rain gauges were distributed throughout East Timor
including three in Oecussi and one on Atauro. Considering road conditions and the remoteness
of some locations this was a great achievement only made possible through excellent
cooperation from two East Timor counterparts, who trained the recorders at each site.
The gauges were funded by Aus AID at a total cost of A$ 1638 including freight and
insurance. While these gauges are not as robust as the gauges included in the budgeted proposal,
they are accurate and should provide adequate data for immediate purposes - mainly agricultural
monitoring and planning. It may be possible to extend the rain recording network to more remote
communities if these gauges are shown to be durable.
The rain records are to be collected at the end of each month by District Agricultura)
Officers and forwarded to the Agriculture Division in Dili. The job description of one of the
recently appointed staff will need to be modified to include data entry and maintenance of a
central data bank. Average monthly rain records are available for 58 locations including most of
those where the gauges have been located. A simple comparison of long-term averages with
current averages will enable seasonal conditions in each district to be monitored. Once long-term
averages have been verified against all available historical data, more sophisticated predictive
techniques can be developed.

Importance of Maintaining Central Climate Data Base

Projects installing climate measuring equipment should consider its long term use and
maintenance. It is critically important that any such equipment becomes part of a National Agro-
climatological/ Meteorological Network and that copy of any data collected are supplied to a
central Climate Data Base on a monthly basis. As Agriculture will be one of the prime users of
Historical and Current climate data it is logical that the Agro-climatology Unit in the Division of
Agricultural Affairs will become the coordinating authority for a cent ral data base. This will also
mean that this Unit will be responsible for supplying data to other interested users.

Equipment and Budget for Restoration Program


The factors to consider in the measurement of rainfall are discussed in the report in
relation to the type of rain gauges best suited to East Timor conditions. These factors will be
taken into account when purchasing the manual rain gauges. In the Indonesian and Portugese
periods the rain gauges were mounted on a post at 1.2 metres and it is recommended that this
practice be continued so that future observations will be comparable with historical data. There
would also be advantages for observation and maintenance to mount the gauges at 1.2 metres.
Detailed specifications for the automatic solar powered climate and rainfall recording
equipment are provided for tender process. The equipment should record rainfall intensity and
totais, temperature, humidity, radiation and wind speed and direction as well as having a spare
channel for the use of other sensors. Software modules are provided which calculate evaporation
from the other data and store the data in a database which allows the observer to graph and
tabulate the data collected. Automatic equipment has been in use in many parts of the world for
the past 25 years and has proved to be reliable and to require minimal service. Data only needs
to be downloaded every 4 - 6 weeks and indirect methods for downloading are available.

The following Budget Amounts have been allocated for purchase and installation of the
equipment and for staff training and capacity
building.

It is assumed that the East Timor Administration will be responsible for recurrent/
operating costs and that staff will be available to collect, store and use data on a continuing basis.
Vehicles should be provided for the supervising staff to inspect recording sites and cropping
areas so that they can monitor food security and other aspects of agricultural production in the
field.
The technician to supervise installation of equipment and training of local staff in its
operation and use will be nominated by the firm contracting to supply the automatic climate
stations. The Job descriptions for the two International Training consultants are provided.

Recommendations Staffing, Operation and Training - Agro climatology Unit


The main objectives of the climate network are:
To provide data for agricultural strategic and tactical planning
To provide data for sound environmental catchments management
To provide data for engineering design of roads, bridges, dams and wind and solar
powered electricity generation.

At the same time, staff of the Agro-climatology unit should liaise with agro
climatologists in Australia who are making long range forecasts based on the Southern
Oscillation Index and other indices relevant to locations affected by 'El Nino' weather patterns.
Ideally, a Supervisor, two Agro-climatology Agronomists and a clerical officer with
computer skills would be required to maximize the effectiveness of the Agro-climatology work
which should be an integral part of the agricultural, livestock and forestry work of the division.
Job descriptions are available for these positions but in the immediate future, it is unlikely that
there will be sufficient resources to support a service of this calibre. It is likely that only one or
two of these positions will be filled. The job descriptions of one of the recently appointed local
staff can be changed to handle the immediate needs for data collection and entry on the computer.
A candidate of the right calibre should receive overseas training and candidates with
suitable qualifications are being encouraged to apply for an Aus AID Scholarship so that they
could complete a basic degree and obtain vocational training in Agro-climatology. There is a
Commonwealth/ State Institute at Toowoomba (in Queensland) which specializes in all aspects
of crop and weather forecasting – Agricultura) Production System Research Unit (APSRU).
Also in Toowoomba is the Queensland Centre for Climate Applications (QCCA) which has
conducted considerable research, development and extension aimed at improving farm
management of climate variability. Both institutes have developed a range of computer based
decision support systems to better „manage climate risks and opportunities. In Canberra there is
CSIRO and. CRES with links to the Australian National University (ANU). It is impo an that a
liaison be developed with these institutes so that best use can be made of the climate/ rain data
being collected as well as the historical data already available. Some long- mid range seasonal
predictions for East Timor can be developed by combining rain probabilities with SOI
information.
There are compelling arguments for using Australian expertise in the establishment and
application of an agro-climatic network in East Timor. Both countries agricultural activities are
conducted under extreme climate variability.

For something like 50 years Australian Researchers have been at the fore- front of:
Weather forecasting in the Southern Hemisphere
Simulation Modeling of Agricultural and Ecological Systems
Studies of Long-range Forecasts related to SOI and El Nino
Manufacture of Meteorological Equipment.

The outputs from their research are now widely used in agricultural and eco-system
management and decision support in many parts of the world.
With overseas training, a candidate of the right calibre could supervise the operation of
an Agro-climatic unit within East Timor Agricultural Affairs Division. The service could be
expanded as resources become available and staffs are trained locally to use agro climatic data as
part of their normal agricultural activities.

The agro-climatology section would be responsible for:


(i) Monitoring food security in the districts as the seasons unfolds.
(ii) Predicting yield potential of new and existing crops on different soils in the agro-climatic
zones.
(iii) Predicting yield potential and water requirements of irrigated rice.
(iv) Providing an irrigation scheduling service for a range of crops and locations.
(v) Monitoring the development stages of crops from different sowing dates and preparing crop
specifications for existing and new crops and enterprises.
(vi) Providing training to other agronomists and field staff in. Monitoring crop development and
crop water balance techniques.
(vii) Supplying climate data summaries to other interested parties

Participative Workshop

The main objectives of the participative workshop held on the 25 September were:
(i)To reach consensus on the number and location of stations
(ii)To gain a better understanding of the importance of climatic data
(iii)To introduce the concept of defining soil and climate specifications for agricultural
enterprises and their allocation to agro-climatic zones and soils

The first morning session explained the ARPAPET Agro-climatic zones and their
implications. Session two outlined some of the main points relating to the terms of reference and
the logic for selection of locations. The workshop divided into two discussion groups to consider
the suitability of the locations and other issues raised.
As a result of these discussions, it was agreed that a further five rainfall stations be
included in the first tier main climate network. The logic for the selection of these stations is
outlined in Section 8.1 of this report.
Concern was expressed at the meeting that donor finance for the new equipment may not
become available until early in the 2001 - 2002 financial year. Hence the request for basic rain
gauges already referred to. When the standard equipment for the proposed new network becomes
available, these gauges could usefully be deployed to more remote agricultural communities
which have not been included in the first tier primary climate and rainfall recording network.

The workshop also agreed that it was important that the exact sites of the Climate
stations (10) and Rainfall stations (35) should be negotiated as soon as possible.

The afternoon sessions outlined the importance of climate and soil data. East Timor staff
of Agricultural Affairs had been selected to lead discussion on Soil and Climate Specifications
for selected Crops/ Enterprises in the four sections of Cash Crops, Food Crops, Livestock, and
Forestry. They then allocated those enterprises to the six agro-climatic zones.

Following the Workshop, a Note for a Future Cabinet Meeting was prepared for the
Director of Economic Affairs Department (Mr Mari Alkatiri). On the 27 October, a Proposal for
Restoration of the Agro-climatological/ Meteorological Network was submitted to the Donor
Coordination Unit.

Report on Restoration of Meteorological Network - Timor Loro Sae


1. Introduction

East Timor is located in an area subject to the Southern Oscillation and `El Nino' weather
patterns which can produce severe droughts as well as flooding. Monitoring local rainfall is
critically important for cropping advice to farmers, for the establishment of an early warning
system for food security issues and for disaster relief planning. Demands for historical and
current climate/ rainfall data will also come from industries involved in solar and wind turbine
power plant design and from engineers involved in road, bridge and irrigation development.
Prior to 1975 there was a network of some 67 rain/climate stations located throughout
Timor Lorosae? During the Indonesian occupation some stations were upgraded and others
became inoperative or were moved to other locations (WB - JAM Report, 1999). Most of the
equipment has been destroyed or lost during the traumatic events in late 1999.

Reestablishment of an adequate climate recording network can be justified as a priority:

(i) Climate and rainfall data from all districts of East Timor are required to make crop
productivity forecasts on a monthly basis as the crop seasons unfold.
(ii) Comparing current rain data with long term averages from each recording site will enable
food security in each district to be monitored.
(iii) Current rain data and evaporation estimates are needed for the Tactical scheduling of
irrigation requirements for rice and other crops using FAO computer programs or programs
developed locally.
(iv) Current and historical rain and climate data on a central data base will be available for
Strategic planning for new and existing crops, environmental catchments management
programs and engineering design for roads, bridges and solar/ wind turbine power generation.

For those given the responsibility of planning and supporting agricultural/ forestry/
livestock production this equipment is an essential tool - not a luxury. With training the data
collected together with soils data will give those concerned a much better understanding of the
systems (crop, livestock, forestry) and how those systems can be manipulated to give reliable
productivity and environmental sustainability.

2. Terms of Reference

2.1 Survey meteorological stations assessing damages

2.2 Submit comprehensive damage status report


2.3 Conduct one participatory workshop, involving ETAVFFA (East Timor Agricultural,
Veterinary, Forestry, Fishing Advisory Group) nationals and UNTAET, the outputs from
which would forro the basis for policy recommendations

2.4 Present draft policy guidelines to UNTAET, including recommendations in the following
areas:

•Number of weather stations in East Timor


•Urgent restoration or replacement of equipment, including costs
•Specific meteorological data recording required with current subsistence agricultural
farming systems in mind and data required for monitoring food security situation and
water reserves
•Establishment of a basic meteorological data network
•Feasibility study for an automatic data recording and transmitting network of agro-
climatology and agro meteorological stations including budget for equipment and supplies,
staffing and training needs.

3. Availability of Historical Data

A Portugese report (Servico Meteorologico Nacional, 1957) summarised the mean


monthly temperatures for 19 locations and rainfall for 38 locations up to 1955. Six of these
locations (Ainaro, Barique, Dili, Hatolia, Liquica, Manatuto) had recorded temperature for more
than 20 years and these stations together with the following seven stations had rain records for
more than 20 years (Baguia, Fatuberlieu, Ossu, Same, Uato-Lari, Venilale, Viqueque).

Table 1 sumarises information from a Portugese report O Clima de Portugal – Província de


Timor (Serviço Meteorológico Nacional, 1965).

Prior to 1950 (WW I 1914 - 1918; WW 1I 1939 - 1945) the first stations were started in
the 1914 -1916 period and at first rainfall only was measured. The table below gives the dates at
which temperature and in some cases humidity measurements were commenced at 42 locations.
Most recordings ceased around 1941 or earlier during WW II.
The table also lists 54 stations which were reestablished around 1952 -53 mostly as full
climate stations measuring rainfall, temperature and humidity. Stations which measured only
rainfall in the Post 1950 period were Aileu, Barique and Laclubar while Hatolia and Raimera
ceased to operate. Most of the climate stations took three observations per day (08.00, 14.00, and
16.00) until Dec 1962 and then reverted to one observation per day (08.00).

Fatu - Besi took one observation per day for the complete period of records. Evaporation
measurements with the Piche Evaporimeter commenced at Ainaro (Jan 1953), Fatu- Besi (April
1952) and Maubisse (Oct 1959). These are all areas associated with coffee production. The table
includes information on locations and dates when records of radiation (through measurement of
sunshine hours), wind speed and direction were commenced. Atmospheric pressure was
measured at Dili from September 1952, Fazenda Algarve from March 1953, Los Palos from
January 1955 and Zumalai from January 1955. The Portugese records ceased when Indonesia
took control in 1975.
Messrs Larsen and Simpson of the Aus AID BARDEP Project recovered some of the -
records collected by the ARPAPET and BARDEP projects from 1993 - 1999. An inventory of
this data is available in Appendix I.
The data recovered includes daily records for 33 stations over the 52 – 74 periods
(Table 1 - Appendix I). No records were recovered for Aileu, Barique and Laclubar which
measured only rainfall in the post 1952 Portugese period.
Monthly summaries by years are available for 61 stations for varying period’s post 1952
(Table 2 - Appendix I). There are further daily and monthly summaries available for 31 of the 42
stations in operation during the 1914 - 41 periods (Table 3 - Appendix I).
There are some discrepancies between the reported records from the 1965 report and
some of the data recovered eg. Aileu was reported as recording only rain from January 1953 but
Summaries recovered for the 55 - 74 period included some other elements. Additional stations
were also added after 1965 so that the total number of locations involved at some time in the
Portugese era was nearer 68. Stations not listed in Tables 1 & 2 include:
Ai Fu (Ermera), Man Coco (Atauro), Be Suco (Sth coast Manatuto), Caissake (S.A.B.H.),
Gleno (Ermera), Natarbora ( Sth coast Manatuto), Quiras ( Sth coast Manatuto), Ue Berec (Sth
coast Manufahi), Ue Laluho (Sth coast Manufahi). Most of these stations were in operation for
less than 6 - 8 years.
Some hourly temperature, humidity, rain, barometric pressure and wind speed &
direction data covering the 51 - 77 periods were recovered for the airports of Baucau, Dili,
Oecussi, and Viqueque (Table 4 - Appendix I).
Very little Indonesian daily data or summaries were recovered. The maximum period for
which records would be available is approximately 70 years (1916-41; 1953-75; 1975-98). A
quick assessment of the information collected during the Portugese and Indonesian eras,
suggests that more than 50 years data should be available for some fifteen to twenty locations.
There should be up to forty stations with more than 25 years data particularly rainfall.
Approaches are being made to obtain more complete records (including daily rain
records) from Indonesian and Portugese sources. Since the initial report was prepared, monthly
rainfall averages and yearly totais have been obtained for 58 locations (including those in the
previous tables) via the Bureau of Meteorology in Darwin (Appendix VII). This data differs
from the data in the RePPProT reports – its origin and years of record are yet to be confirmed.

4. Climate Timor Loro Sae

4.1 Factors Determining Rainfall Patterns

Boyce (1998) summarises the main factors determining the climate of Timor Lorosae and
presents some illustrative charts from Robequain (1955). Timor lies at 8 - 9 ° south of the
equator. During the Northern Hemisphere Winter (October to March) the suns rays are directed
south of the equator - Central Asia is a cold high pressure zone and the southern continent of
Australia is a hot low pressure zone. The low pressure zo nes are described in technical terms as
Inter Tropical Zones of Convergence (ITZC) or the Equatorial Trough. The Monsoon winds
generated by these pressure gradients flow from the North East towards the equator but become
the North West monsoon on crossing the equator. As they flow across Indonesia towards East
Timor they intercept winds blowing north from the southern ocean and heavy rainfall is
precipitated where this occurs (See Figure 1). Timor north of the main mountain block is in the
rain shadow of the islands of Flores, Solor, Alor and Wetar so that relatively more rain falis
south of the main mountain chain during the monsoon season.
During the April to September period, the sun's rays are directed north of the equator and
the reverse process occurs with the low pressure ITZC moving from the Southern to the
Northern Hemisphere. Winds from cold high pressure areas over Australia flow from the south
east accumulating moisture as they cross the Timor Sea and bring reliable rain to the arcas south
of the main range. Areas north of the mountains are again in a rain shadow and receive very little
precipitation during this period.
As well as the North - South Air-mass movements in tropical regions there is an East -
West Air- mass movement. As early as 1897, a meteorologist discovered an inverse relationship
between pressure anomalies at Buenos Aires and Sydney - when the pressure is above average in
Sydney it will be below average in Buenos Aires. This inverse pressure relationship is referred to
as the Southern Oscillation. It is now known that the Southern Oscillation is associated with a
very cold ocean current which flows along the South American Pacific coast towards the equator.
This cold ocean surface leads to a high pressure air mass which flows westward absorbing heat
as it travels over the warmer waters of the western Pacific, until it reaches the Indonesian region
where it rises to form vast clusters of thunderstorms producing heavy rain.
The strength of the Southern Oscillation is measured by the Southern Oscillation Index
(SOI). In theory, this is the difference in mean sea level barometric pressure between sites in the
South Pacific subtropical high-pressure region and the Australian-Indonesian low pressure
region. In practice, the index is calculated by subtracting the mean monthly pressure anomaly at
Tahiti from the mean monthly pressure anomaly at Darwin. Rainfall over Australia and the
islands to the north is strongly correlated to the siga (positive or negative) and the strength of
there anomalies. The pressure anomalies are persistent lasting for several months and tending to
reach maximums (- or +) from October to November and to break down from March to April.
With experience gained over the last ten years, the SOI has become a reasonably reliable method
of forecasting seasonal rainfall in Australia and the islands to the north. The SOI has a range of
plus or minus 30 units.
Closely related to the Southern Oscillation is the phenomenon of El Nino. The term
refers to a warm ocean current which flows south along the coasts of Ecuador and northern Peru
each year during summer when the south-east trades are at their weakest. It sets in just after
Christmas in most years and hence the narre El Nino - `the child'. Usually this very shallow
current of warm water travels to about 6 °S but in years when the south-east trades are
exceptionally strong the warm waters may extend as far south as 12 °S. A marked El Nino event
such as this corresponded to severe droughts in Australia and South-east Asia in 1982-83.

4.2 General Climatic Features


Rainfall is not equably distributed even in wet months and intensity varies considerably.
Twenty- four hour rainfall totais of up to 458 mm have been recorded on lowland sites in West
Timor and twenty-four hour totais of up to 800 mm or 50% of the annual rainfall may occur
unrecorded in mountainous areas of Timor (Crippen International, 1980).
Appendix VII lists twenty-four hour rain totais exceeding 250 mm for 14 locations. Most
of these events occurred in the December — March period particularly in Northern locations but
Dili recorded 275 mm in May. In the Southern locations, many of the high daily rain totais were
recorded in the May — August period. The two highest twenty- four totais were 604 mm at Oe-
Silo (Oecussi) in December and 509 mm at Soba (Laga) in February.

The information on rainfall intensity and reliability needs to be verified but some generalizations
can be made.
Rainfall intensity is usually greatest during the North West Monsoon (December - March)
period.
In the southern areas, the rain during the South East Monsoon (May - July) period is
usually less intense but more reliable than in the December - March period.

Rainfall is generally more reliable at the higher elevations above 500 metres but even
here dry periods occur which can stress coffee and reduce yields of coffee and other crops.

Rainfall is least reliable in the dry northern areas where dry periods can cause crop stress
and even crop failures.

Tropical cyclones occasionally develop from semi-permanent troughs of low pressure in


the Arafura and Banda seas and move in a southwesterly direction, especially during April and
May (Monk et al, 1997). No tropical cyclones have been recorded in East Timor over the last
decade but during late January 1993; over 400 houses were damaged or destroyed in East Timor
by very strong winds (Jakarta Post 29 January 1993).
The Bureau of Meteorology in Darwin has provided maps showing the individual tracks
of three cyclones which could have affected East Timor. While none of these cyclones actually
crossed the Timor coast there is an area of gales surrounding a cyclone which could have
affected the coastline. In April 1991 Cyclone Marian moved in a south westerly direction some
distance off the Timor coast; in December 1983 Cyclone Esther moved in a southerly direction
off the eastern end of the island; in April 1973 an unnamed cyclone moved south westerly
between Sulawesi and the islands of Wetar, Alor and Solor and then turned south to cross the
middle of Flores – it is reported that 1500 people perished and many boats and buildings were
destroyed.
Diurnal temperatures reach a maximum between noon and 3 PM and decrease slowly
after sunset to reach minimums just prior to sunrise. The largest variation in diurnal temperature
(up to 13 ° C in East Timor) occurs during the South-east Monsoon season with relatively dry
winds and clear skies. The smallest diurnal temperature fluctuations (7 – 9 ° C in East Timor)
occur during the North-west Monsoon season which brings moist winds and increased cloud
cover (Fenco Consultants, 1981).
In contrast to diurnal fluctuations, the maximum, minimum and mean monthly
temperatures at any one site may vary by only 1 - 3 ° C throughout the year (RePPProT, 1989b).
Minimum temperatures usually occur during July or August and maximum temperatures during
October and November. Laga at 120 metres above sea level has recorded some of the highest
mean monthly Maximum temperatures (35 ° C) while the lowest mean monthly Minimum
temperatures are recorded at higher elevations : 13.4 ° C at Ainaro (809 m asl) and 14.4 ° C at
Ermera (1160 m asl). Altitudinal differences in mean temperatures in East Timor are illustrated
in Figure 2 - mean January temperatures may va ry between sites from 20 ° C to 31 ° C and mean
July temperatures from 17 ° C to 25 ° C. Crippen International (1980 c) recorded the absolute
maximum temperature of 37.8 ° C at Naibonat in West Timor. The absolute minimum
temperatures were 2 – 5 ° C at Hatu – Builico (1900 msl) and 3.8 ° C at Gleno (770 msl). Some
long term temperature averages are also included in Appendix VII.

4.3 Climate Classifications

There are larger between-year variations in annual rainfall in the Seasonal or Dry Tropics
than there are in the Humid Tropics (Monk et al, 1997). The distribution of rainfall within the
year has a greater influence on vegetation and crop production than the total amount of rain
received. Various authors have tried to characterize the climate zones of Indonia and East Timor
based on wet and dry months. The most commonly used Indonesian climate classification is that
devised by Oldeman et al (1980) who classified climates according to the number of dry months
(average less than 100 mm per month) and the number of wet months (average more than 200
mm per month). Not all locations can be classified clearly by this method. The Oldeman
approach classifies on average monthly rainfall alone. Locations with quite different rainfall
patterns can often be in the same Oldeman classification eg Maliana with Los Palos and Liquica
with Natarbora.
Also, the Oldeman scheme does not take into account the lower temperatures and
humidity with increasing altitude. Temperature and humidity are important considerations in
matching crops to optimum growing conditions. Examples of the Oldeman climatic
classifications for some East Timor rainfall stations are shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Examples of Oldeman (1975) Climate Classification for East Timor

5. Agro-climatic Zones of East Timor

5.1 Rainfall Patterns in East Timor


There are two distinct rainfall patterns which have an important impact on crop suitability and
cropping patterns:
Northern Monomodal Rainfall Pattern: The main feature is a 4 - 6 month wet season with
one peak usually in the December to February period. This is the pattern at most locations on the
northern side of the mountain divide which traverses the island from west to east tapering off to
an extensive plateau in the east in Lautem district.

Southern Bimodal Rainfall Pattern: This is characterized by a 7 - 9 month wet season


with two peaks in rainfall - the first in the December to February period and the second in the
May to June period. This pattern is typical of the southern side of the divide where rain bearing
clouds from the south and south east drop most of their rain on the southern slopes of East Timor.
The Monomodal and Bimodal rainfall patterns are illustrated in Figure 3 which gives the mean
monthly rainfall graphs for Maliana and Lolotoi (Opa). These two locations are only a short
distance apart but Maliana is on the Northern side of the range and Lolotoi on the Southern side.

5.2 Influence of Altitude

The general results of an increase in altitude are:


(i) An increase in low cloud, rainfall and wind velocity.
(ii) A decrease in direct radiation due to cloud
(iii) A decrease in temperature (maximum temperature more so than minimum temperature) and
hence lowering in ambient temperature
Generally, rainfall increases with increasing altitude in most locations in Timor Lorosae,
especially on the northern side of the mountain divide. In the south, the wettest locations appear
to be between 500 - 1000 m in altitude (eg. Lolotoe and same) but their locations relative to
nearby mountains and valleys may also influence their rainfall. In some locations above 1000 m
where mist and light drizzle contribute to the rainfall total, annual rainfall actually decreases
slightly.
In mountainous areas, the direction the slopes face (aspect) influences rainfall. In the
north, places situated on northerly and westerly facing slopes are likely to receive more rain than
places on southerly or easterly facing slopes. In the south the opposite applies with the southerly
and easterly slopes being likely to receive more rainfall. Some places such as Aileu are in a "rain
shadow" with water- laden clouds being intercepted by surrounding mountains which receive the
largest part of the precipitation.
Average temperatures also decrease with increasing altitude. At the equator, air
temperature drops at a lapse rate of 5.2 ° c per 1000 metres increase in height over undisturbed
oceans (Oldemann & Frere, 1982). Over land, the decrease in temperature shows more variation
due to diurnal heating and cooling of the land surface and seasonal differences at higher latitudes.
Boerma (1946) found a monthly variation in lapse rate of 6.1 to 6.4 ° C for maximum
temperature and 5.1 to 5.5 ° C for minimum temperature for a number of Indonesian centres. For
the island of Lombok in Eastern Indonesia, the Lombok Island Groundwater Investigation
Report (ELC, 1987) suggested a lapse rate of 5.7 ° C per 1000 metres for mean temperature
which is not at variance with Boerma's analysis. The equations of Boerma can confidently be
used to calculate changes in temperature with elevation at elevations above 200 m but at lower
elevations results are erratic. Crippen International (1975b) studied altitudinal changes in
temperature in Lombok and found a 5.7 ° C per 1000 m lapse rate up to 700 m and 5.5 ° C lapse
rate above 700 m. For New Guinea McAlpine and Keig (1983) found the following lapse rates:

Maximum Temp. 5.3 ° C (Max = 32.77 - 0.0053 X Elevn.)


Minimum Temp. 5.1 ° C (Min = 22.054 - 0.0051 X Elevn.)
Mean Temperature 5.2 ° C (Mean = 27.37 - 0.0052 X Elevn.)

So firstly, there is an average mean temperature lapse rate of about 5.5 ° C per 1000 m
increase in altitude. Secondly, there is usually more cloud cover as altitude increases. A
secondary agro-climatic factor is lower evaporation at reduced temperatures and higher humidity.
This means that a given amount of rain will last longer and have a more significant effect on
plant production. .
Table 4 summarises some mean Temperature data noted during preparation of this report and
supports the lapse rate data summarised above.

5.3 Micro-climate Effects

The importance of microclimate effects on ecological systems and agriculture/ forestry


enterprises cannot be over-emphasised. It has already been pointed out that aspect as well as
elevation can cause marked differences in rainfall patterns in the mountainous terrain of East
Timor. Similarly temperatures are frequently higher on the north facing slopes than they are on
the south facing slopes. As explained above the temperature decrease with elevation (Adiabatic
Lapse Rate) is usually around 0.5 ° C/ 100metres or 5.5 ° C/ 1000 metres. However temperatures
in valleys and on plateaus within the mountains can be up to 5 ° C lower than predicted by the
lapse rate because cold air drains from the surrounding high peaks and ponds in the depressions
(H Nix, personal communication). In Northern Thailand at elevations of around 1200 metres
temperatures at dose to the same elevation may vary by up to 9.4 ° C due to these microclimatic
effects (K Chapman, personal communication).

5.4 ARPAPET Agro climatic Classification

The Agricultural Adviser on the first phase of the ARPAPET project analyzed the
available historical rainfall and climatic data (ARPAPET, 1996) to develop a simple but
effective agro-climatic classification of Timor Lorosae based on the factors elaborated in the
previous section. The six agro-climatic zones provide a very good conceptual basis for
discussing agricultural problems and opportunities.
The six zones are based on rainfall (totais and distribution) and altitude which also acts
as a surrogate measure of temperature and other microclimate effects on plants and animals.
Figure 4 based on data from Java (PROSEA, 1994) illustrates the importance of altitude
(temperature) on crop selection for maximum productivity.
The altitude contours from which Figure 5 is developed are based on those provided by
the National Agency for Lands (BPN) and the Land Resources Evaluation Project II (LREP)
which included the 100 m and 500 m contours. The main reasons why these contours were
chosen as boundaries between the agro-climatic zones are:

a) The driest locations in the province are mostly in coastal lowlands and valleys of the
main rivers and most of these are between sea level and 100 m altitude.
b) The wettest locations are mostly above 500 m which is also the approximate upper limit
for coconut and cashew trees and the lower limit for coffee trees in East Timor.

The land areas within these altitudinal ranges are:


0 - 100 m 313,756 ha (21 %)
100 - 500 m 641, 608 ha (44 %)
> 500 m 505,574 ha (35 %)
Total area1,460,938 ha

Monomodal Rainfall Patterns (NW Monsoon)


A. Northern Lowlands - Coastal land and valley floors below 100 m.
Av. Annual rain < 1000 mm
4 - 5 Month Wet season Nov. – March

B. Northern Slopes - Land in northern hills between 100 - 500 m.


Av. Annual rain 1000 - 1500 mm
5 - 6 Month Wet season Oct - March
C. Northern Highlands - Land in northern hills and mountains above 500 m
Av. Annual rain > 1500 mm
6 - 7 Month Wet season Oct - April
Bimodal Rainfall Patterns (NW Monsoon & SE Trades)
D. Southern Highlands - Land in the southern hills and mountains above 500 m
Av. Annual rain > 2000 mm
9 Month Wet season Nov - April; May - July

E. Southern Slopes - Land in southern hills between 100 - 500 m.


Av. Annual rain 1500 - 2000 mm
8 Month Wet season Nov - April; May - July

F. Southern Lowlands - Coastal land and valley floors below 100 m


Av. Annual rain around 1500 mm
7 - 8 Month Wet season Nov - March; May – July

Field inspections during the dry months can lead to the perception that the climate is
semi arid. The semi arid appearance is due more to the vegetation which is a consequence of
poor soil fertility and low water holding capacity rather than insufficient rainfall alone.
Within each of these Zones it is important to map soils of particular villages or
catchments which are the focus of agricultural activities. Most of the flat land has the deepest
and most fertile soils - Northern and Southern Lowlands. The Southern Lowlands have the
greatest development potential but distance from the major centres is a marketing constraint.
The least fertile soils are within the Northern and Southern Slopes although there are
many places with good soils in these two zones. Due to the steep slopes and lack of stable
vegetative cover on leached soils of low fertility, these zones pose the greatest erosion threat.
Most of the mountainous terrain is too steep for arable agriculture and should be confined
to forestry and agro- forestry activities. To achieve this aim subsistence farmers accustomed to
long established swidden agriculture on slopes up to 45 ° will need to be provided with alternate
lands and farming systems.
The areas in hectares of each agro-climatic zone in each district are listed in Table 5.
At some time in the future when more complete climate and soils data have been entered on the
agro-climatology data base it should be possible to develop a more detailed agro climatic
classification of East Timor using GIS mapping techniques. These maps will only be useful if
the basic data used to develop them is confirmed with field transects and field surveys. In the
mean time, the six agro-climatic zones defined by the ARPAPET project provide a very good
conceptual framewo rk for discussing agricultural problems and opportunities.
6. Agricultural Implications of Agro-climatic Zones
6.1 Fitting Crops/ Enterprises to Agro-climatic Zones

Low temperatures do not place constraints on agricultural productio n except in the


highest farming lands in the Ainaro and Maubisse districts where frosts sometimes occur. On the
other hand, these elevated lands with cool temperatures and low humidity provide ideal
conditions for coffee and many temperate fruit and vegetable crops not usually grown in the
tropics eg. wheat. Some areas are subjected to stronger winds than others towards the end of the
North West monsoon season but this is not a widespread constraint.
Provided soils and terrain are suitable, Table 6 indicates the crops which can be grown in
each agro-climatic zone.
The first step is to detail crop/ tree/ livestock specifications and then to allocate
enterprises which are suitable to each agro-climatic zone. These specifications include climate
related factors (radiation response, optimum & critical temperatures for growth, temperature and
day length development response, rain requirements) as well as soil related factors (non limiting
& potential root depth, texture, drainage, p I-I, salinity response).
Based on the climate related factors crops/ enterprises can be allocated to the Agro
climatic zones. Soil specifications can then indicate the locations in each zone which are suitable
for specific enterprises.
Table 6. Suitability of Main Crops/ Enterprises to Agro-climatic Zones of East Timor 6.2 Present
Agricultural Enterprises by Agro-climatic Zones

A. Northern Lowlands
Food Crops - mixed crops of maize, cassava, beans and pigeon pea
Tree Crops - lontar palms, coconuts, cashews
Livestock - cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs, poultry

B. Northern Slopes

Food Crops - mixed crops of maize, cassava, long beans, pigeon pea, peanuts, sweet
potatoes, pumpkins, mono crops of peanuts
Tree Crops - coconuts, candle nuts
Livestock - cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs, poultry

The 500 metre contour forms the upper limit for coconuts and cashews and the lower limit
for coffee.

C. Northern Highlands

Food Crops - mixed crops of maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, taro, beans, pumpkins,
mono crops of red beans and peanuts
Tree Crops - coffee, candle nuts
Livestock - cattle, buffaloes, goats, pigs, poultry

D. Southern Highlands

Food Crops - mixed crops of maize or upland rice, cassava, sweet potatoes, taro,
beans, pumpkins, mono crops of red beans and upland rice in the second rainy season.
Tree Crops - coffee, candle nuts, areca nuts
Livestock - cattle, buffaloes, pigs, poultry

E. Southern Slopes

Food Crops - mixed crops of maize (or upland rice), cassava, sweet potatoes, beans,
pumpkins, second crop of upland rice (or maize) followed by mung beans as a relay or
third crop.
Tree Crops - coconuts, candle nuts, areca nuts
Livestock - cattle, buffaloes, pigs, poultry

F. Southern Lowlands
Food Crops - mixed crops of maize, cassava, beans, peanuts and pumpkins, second
crop of upland rice (or maize), followed by mung bean as a relay or third crop (all in non
irrigated land)
Tree Crops - coconuts, areca nuts, cashews
Livestock - cattle, buffaloes, pigs, poultry
6.3 Future Agricultura) Opportunities

All Agro-climatic Zones In all six zones (considering that it is largely subsistence
agriculture) there is scope for increased variety and volume of vegetable and fruit production
from household gardens as well as egg and chicken meat production. The increased volume and
diversity could supplement family nutrition as well as providing cash income from the closest
market. Inspections during 1997-98 of south coast transmigration areas occupied by farmers
from East Timor and various parts of Indonesia provided good evidence of the diversity and
quality which can be achieved in house gardens.

Northern Lowlands have greatest potential for increased egg and chicken meat
production especially in villages closest to major centres - there is a premium on the local
Kampung chicken and eggs. Sorghum is a possible source of alternate chicken feed and sesame
is another alternative crop.
Food crops can be grown between coconut or cashew rows or the space can be used for
grass and legumes for animal feed. There is probably a limited market for high quality coconut
oil extracted in small - scale village extractors and the copra industry needs to be revisited. Goat
and sheep numbers could be increased in this zone based on tree legumes (lamtoro, gamal,
Centro) and stall feeding. To avo id environmental damage, this program would need to be
closely monitored to ensure that the increased numbers are not allowed free range. The dangers
of increasing feral goat, cattle and pig populations need to be considered in all livestock
activities and control measures introduced.
At present, the bulk of the potential irrigated area (17,000 ha) is in the Northern
Lowlands with a smaller area in the Northern Slopes Zone. These irrigation areas need
rehabilitation and in some cases possible expansion.

Northern Slopes have potential for peanuts as a mono crop in fertile red and black soils.
Again, there is scope for goats fed in stalls with tree legumes. Cashews which are best suited to
climates with 1000 - 2000 mm and a dry season of 4 months could be developed in this zone in
Home yards and hill side crop land.
Other possibilities are: mung beans as a relay crop after maize on more fertile soils; red
onions where dry season water is available.

Northern and Southern Highlands: Coffee is the most important crop at present and the
only real agricultural export earner for East Timor. Much can be done to improve production,
quality and marketing. Coffee could be incorporated into an expanded agro forestry program
targeting timber, honey and beeswax production in addition to coffee.
A wide range of vegetables and fruit suited to cool highland conditions could be
introduced for income generation. Suitable temperate vegetables with or without irrigation
include cabbages, carrots, green peas, beans, lupins, potatoes, onions (red and white), garlic,
mint, canna. Red beans which are the main source of protein for most rural Timorese are most
suited to areas above 750 metres and are a vital component of highland farming systems. Carrots
and garlic have export opportunities. Mandarins and citrus could be targeted to well drained soils
and avocadoes, durian, and rambutan which prefer cool, wet climates should also be considered.
Apples and grapes could be grown. Candle nut gives best results at between 300 - 800 metres
particularly on alkaline (limestone) soils in hilly areas too low for coffee. Rainfall is generally
more reliable above 500 metres but dry periods which stress coffee and reduce yields do occur.

Fresh water fish in ponds and rice fields should also generate income in this zone, where
ample water is available.
Southern Slopes: Mung beans could be introduced as a late season mono or relay crop.
Cassava could be used more widely for feeding pigs particularly if high yielding varieties were
introduced. Cassava processing factories have also operated in the past in this zone (eg. Same).
Cattle and buffalo numbers could be increased in this zone provided adequate fodder is provided
and herds are controlled to avoid environmental damage.

Southern Lowlands: At present only 20 % of the potential irrigated area of approximately


17,000 ha is in the Southern Lowland and Southern Slopes Zones. Because of the better rainfall
distribution and totais in the southern zones, it would be expected that production from irrigatio n
could be increased in there two zones, especially the Southern Lowlands. Irrigation facilities
(intakes and canals ) need to be improved and availability of buffaloes or tractors for land
preparation is also important.
Mung beans as a late season mono or relay crop and peanuts in mixed and mono crops
could be encouraged. Cattle numbers of small landholders could be increased with increased
fodder resources for cut and carry fattening as long as environmental and crop damage is
minimized. Another possibility is cashews in well drained land.

6.4 Seed and Cultivar Supply and Sourcing

While many of the varieties presently being grown are well adapted to the conditions and
requirements of East Timor, there could be a case for the introduction and testing of improved
varieties and cultivars of new untried crops, vegetables, fruit and tree crops.
Until recently the farmers of East Timor have largely maintained their own seed and
planting material supplies. Some of there supplies have been lost or destroyed, so no w is an
opportune time to establish a group responsible for seed and cultivar supply and sourcing.
An FAO program is addressing supply of quality rice and maize seed but there is an
urgent need for a program to screen improved cultivars of vegetable, fruit and root crops. It may
be possible to tap into the cultivar improvement programs developed in the Pacific Islands

Introduction of high yielding industrial cassava varieties is needed

There is also potential for improved cultivars of existing and new horticulture) tree crops:
citrus, avocado, rambutan, durian, salak, markisa, apples, grapes, Pete, macadamia etc. Other
crops being suggested are: nutmeg, cloves, vanilla. Farmers should be encouraged and trained to
raise there own seedlings of trees such as candle nut instead of relying on government or NGO
agencies.

6.5 Agro climatic Requirements of Specific Crops

Setting up a data base of crop/ tree/ livestock specifications should be an important role
of the Agro-climatology unit. These specifications should include soil requirements and climate
requirements for present and potential new enterprises. This was explained at the Participative
Workshop which broke up into four groups to discuss specifications for a selection of enterprises
in Food Crops, Cash Crops, Forestry and Livestock.
Candle nut gives best results at between 300 - 800 metres particularly on alkaline soils in
hilly areas too low for coffee.
Cashews are best suited to dry climates with 1000 - 2000 mm rainfall and with a dry
season of at least four months. Yields from trees in East Timor have been very variable
reflecting variations in genotype, management (especially planting too Gloze with consequent
susceptibility to insect and fungal disease), soils and climate. Nevertheless cashews have
considerable potential - they require minimal inputs, fit into existing farming systems, have
strong international demand and high value per kilogram, a useful attribute if grown in isolated
places. Goats can be grazed under mature trees but for successful establishment of cashews and
candle nut the slow growing seedlings need protection from livestock and fires.
6.6 Agronomic Support
Crop Nutrition
Crop nutrition and fertilizer needs are other topics which need some attention. It may be
some time before the basically subsistence agriculture can afford unsubsidized inorganic
fertilizers and industries such as coffee which is being marketed as organically grown are keen
to restrict the distribution of inorganic products. The use of organic composts sho uld be
encouraged but some inorganic fertilizers and trace elements may be necessary for specific crops
and specific soils. On the volcanic soils of Indonesia, some trials on irrigated rice have shown
little response to any elements other than Nitrogen. It is quite possible that there could be
responses to Potassium, Phosphate and other elements on the marine based sediments of the
Eastern Islands.

Irrigated Rice
The immediate aim should be to make East Timor self sufficient in rice, through
improved irrigation and agronomic management as well as better processing facilities to improve
quality. Once the per hectare production of rice is increased, expansion of irrigation of other
crops and vegetables should be considered.

Soil and Water Conservation


In all zones but particularly in the Slopes and Highlands, the main food and tree crops as
well as fodder trees and grasses should be planted in an appropriate soil and water conservation
farming system eg. Contour banks with lamtoro and gamal and alley cropping with fodder trees
and grasses.

Agricultural Support Services


A well trained and mobile agriculture) service needs to link in with community
empowerment programs to establish needs, problems and opportunities on a village by village
basis. NGO, Church and other community groups could be trained and supported in follow up
activities. Other supporting services as well as food security forecasting and crop/climate
analysis include, Soil and Land Use Mapping and Agricultura) Data Base Establishment.
6.7 Factors in Decision Making
Key Questions
In planning the development or expansion of agricultural and forestry enterprises, the key
questions which must be satisfied are:

a) Is the crop/enterprise well suited to the agro-climatic zone?


b) Will it fit into or compliment the farmers existing farming systems and cropping calendars?
c) Is there a sound and established market for the produce either inside or outside East Timor?
d) If marketing is a problem can the produce be consumed within the local family or community
with benefit to diet and nutrition?
e) Will the crop/enterprise have a detrimental effect on the environment?

Main Constraints

a) Physical - Natural Resource Constraints


- Climate - particularly insufficient rain
- Soils - poor fertility, shallow depth, poor water holding capacity topography - steep erosion
susceptible land
- Limited water availability for irrigation

a) Social Constraints
- Subsistence orientation of farmers
- Farmers lack of education and information
- Traditional beliefs and customs
- Attitude to risk
- Health - inability to carry out heavy manual field work
- Land tenure
- Unstable security in some areas

a) Economic Constraints
- Lack of market demand
- lack of traders and marketing arrangements low and fluctuating prices
- transport difficulties and costs
- Lack of inputs and cost of inputs
- Lack of credit facilities
- Lack of animals or tractors for land preparation
A program may be unsuccessful if the above Key Questions and Constraints are not
taken into account. A number of programs during the Indonesian occupation were unsuccessful
because they did not have full support and ownership from the local farming communities.

7. Survey of Meteorological Stations


Over a period of seven weeks surveys were conducted in 10 of the 13 districts of East
Timor. Planned visits to Covalima and Bobonaro were postponed because of security concerns
and transport difficulties. Oecussi was given a lower priority after inspections in the other
districts found no operational equipment. A planned weekend visit by boat to Atauro Island did
not eventuate.

The purpose of the survey was to:

(i) Ascertain the condition of any existing stations and equipment

A full report on 60 Portugese stations (including those in Covalima, Bobonaro, Oecussi


and Atauro) is given in Appendix II. Possible future contacts for locating new stations are given
where possible. Very little equipment or evidence of climate recording facilities were found. The
most complete enclosure was at Fatu- Bessi (Ermera district) but all the equipment was non
Functional Anemometers had survived at Aileu, Dili Airport (Indonesian Station), Dili Port, and
Fatu Bessi but they would need to be recalibrated. The Australian Meteorological Observers
Handbook (1954) suggests that anemometers (indicating 3 cup type) should be taken down for
inspection, cleaning and oiling at approximately 3 month intervals. It can be concluded that there
is no functional or serviceable equipment remaining and that a complete set of new equipment is
required.
A hand held GPS (Garmin) was used to check latitude, longitude and elevation of most
locations inspected. An instrument of this type should be very useful in obtaining the coordinates
and elevation of the locations where new equipment is installed. The Portugese coordinates were
given in degrees and minutes but not seconds. Without seconds, it is only possible to relocate
sites within +- 926 metres (1 ° = 60 nautical miles, 1 " = 1 nautical mile = 1852 metres).

(ii) Ascertain the accessibility of sites in operation during Portugese era (Figure 6)

In the 10 districts surveyed, thirty eight of the forty eight Portugese locations were
accessed by Four - Wheeled Drive Vehicle. The remaining ten locations (Alas, Atsabe, Barique,
Boi Bau, Fatu Berliu, Fazenda Olivia, Iliomar, Lahane, Letefoho, and Turiscai) were not
accessed because of road conditions, time restrictions or security risks. Fazenda Olivia and
Lahane are part of Dili district. With the exception of Alas and Barique all these stations were
recording only rain in the post 1950 Portugese era. In many cases local information was obtained
on accessibility of these sites.

Notes were taken on travel times and distances to important villages and road junctions.
This information which is presented in Appendix III should assist in working out time schedules
during construction of security fencing and installation of new equipment. Many of the roads are
narrow with sharp blind curves. The surfaces are badly broken up in places and landslides during
the next wet season are likely to cause further problems. Accessibility and road conditions were
taken into account in locating new equipment.

(iii) Ascertain the suitability of locations for crop forecasting

General observations of the agricultural activities in various areas together with


information collated during the ARPAPET Project (summarised in previous sections of this
report) were also taken into account in allocating new equipment.

8. Recommendations Climate Network - Number of Sites and Locations

8.1 Number and Locations

The number of restored sites should be within future East Timor budget and staffing
limitations but at the same time should provide sufficient information for reliable food security
and crop productivity predictions in the main cropping areas.

It is recommended that ten fully automatic solar powered climate stations (measuring
rainfall amount and intensity, temperature, humidity, radiation, wind speed and direction) be
installed at representative locations which already have some historical records. A program is
included in the climate station modules to automatically calculate Penman evaporation from the
other measured data.
It is recommended that one station be located within each of the Agro-climatic Zones.
The following locations are suggested:
Northern Lowlands Dili Airport - near existing equipment in front of control tower
Northern Slopes Dare - On church property as Gloze as possible to old location
Northern Highlands Maubisse - Close to present Portugese army base
Southern Highlands Ainaro - Site to be selected but within old coordinates
Southern Slopes Same - Site to be selected within old coordinates
Southern Lowlands Betano - Tractor service centre used by Father Tan

These locations are readily accessible from the main road south of Dili and with the
exception of Betano have reasonable historical records. Rainfall was collected at Betano from
Jan 1957 - Oct 1962 and there should also be records from the Indonesian era - it should be
representative of the Southern Lowlands. The elevation of same is just above the 500 metre limit
but it should provide representative data for the zone and should be readily serviced.
Additional climate stations are recommended for:

Fuiloro - as representative of the Los Palos plateau - Located at Fuiloro agricultural college
Baucau - Airport
Suai - Airport
Oecussi - Airport

This makes a total of 10 Automatic Climate stations with the four Airports having
additional equipment (Wind Speed and Direction at 10 metres, Ceilometers, Visibility meter,
and power cabling to Control tower). More recent information from the Bureau of Meteorology
indicates that Ceilometers are expensive and not very robust. It is suggested that observations on
cloud height and type be taken manually by trained observers.

In November, the East Timor Civil Aviation Authority submitted a proposal to the Donor
Coordination Unit for replacement of the automatic climate stations at Dili, Baucau and Suai
airports (see Appendix VIII). If this proposal is successful, the budget allocated for these stations
in the Agriculture Division proposal can be diverted to the provision of Automatic stations in
additional strategic agro-ecological zones. The Participative Workshop suggested that every
district should have an Automatic station but stations should be sited to cover a range of agro-
ecological areas.

The placement of further automatic stations could be considered in the future when it has
been shown that the initial stations are operating satisfactorily.
It was recommended that a further thirty (30) locations (in addition to the automatic
stations) should be equipped with standard manual rain gauges. This number was increased to
thirty five (35) following the participative workshop. The workshop identified a number of
regions which were not adequately covered by the proposed network. Two of the extra rain
recording locations (Lissadila and Cribas) were not part of the Portuguese or Indonesian network.
Lissadila was selected to represent the extensive Loess river valley in west Liquica. In the
Manatuto district, Cribas was selected to represent the Northern slopes and Natarbora (site of
previous Agricultural School) was selected as a further location on the important South coast
BENAVIQ (Betano, Natarbora, Viqueque) zone in districts of Manufahi, Manatuto, and
Viqueque.
In Lautem district Iliomar was selected to represent the Southern slopes and Lore further
east should be moved from the Portugese location on the coast to Lore II on the Southern slopes
as a location more representative of cropping/ forestry enterprises. Lautem was selected to
represent the Lospalos plateau between 100 - 200 metres.
Depending on the satisfactory operation of the 10 automatic stations and the proposed
new network, some of these manual rain gauges could be converted to automatic rain recorders
in two to three years time. Protective fences could be built for the manual rain gauges from local
materials with local labour - this would avoid the costly logistics of employing contractors as is
recommended for the climate station security fencing. The automatic equipment includes solar
paneis that are a greater security risk than the manual gauges.

Table 7 and Table 8 list the recommended locations for rainfall and climate recording
sites in the Northern and Southern Agro-climatic zones respectively.
The villages of Uato-Lari and Lacluta were moved closer to the coast during the
Indonesian era - the new altitude is given with the old altitude in brackets.

8.2 Selection of Sites

At each location, sites need to be selected to give correct exposure of the instruments.
The exposure of an instrument is its position in relation to the air and the objects around it. An
instrument is well exposed when it accurately registers the properties of the air unaffected by
immediate surroundings. It is then said to be representative of the air over a certain area. This
means that its measurements are typical of the area and not affected by local obstructions.

Instruments should be sited where the observations are representative of a wide area that
is similar to the cropping or forest areas where the data will be used. Frequently it is not
convenient to locate climate stations or rain gauges in the middle of a cropping area (eg rice
paddies) and some compromise is necessary so that the instruments will be reasonably accessible
to the observer - this is particularly important for manual rather than automatic equipment.
Measured rainfall will not be representative if the gauge is placed under a tree, or beside
a post or wall - the obstruction will exclude rain that should have fallen into the gauge or perhaps
add rain that should not have fallen into the gauge. Another bad exposure is at a site where there
is a local disturbance to wind, such as on top of a roof, on a fence or near an embankment or
escarpment. In such positions wind blowing up or strongly across the gauge will deflect the
raindrops. The effects of bad exposure can easily amount to 10 percent and may be much higher.
OBSTRUCTIONS SHOULD BE DISTANT FROM GAUGES OR AUTOMATIC CLIMATE
STATIONS BY AT LEAST FOUR TIMES THEIR HEIGHT. So if there is a tree or building which
is 10 metres high at the location under consideration, the equipment would need to be installed
40 metres away from both the tree and the house.

8.3 Security Fencing

Specifications have been drawn up for security fencing for the 10 Automatic Climate
Stations (Appendix IV) and quotations have been sought from Dili International Contractors for
inclusion in the budget estimates. A minimum enclosure of 9 metres square is recommended.

It is recommended that fencing of the remaining rainfall sites be carried out by the local
communities using local materials. A small community allowance has been allocated for this in
the budget but there is no provision for observer allowances as all recurrent/ operating costs
should be met by the East Timor administration.

8.4 Guidelines for Negotiating Site Tenure and Observers

The participative workshop agreed that the exact sites of the Climate stations (10) and
Rainfall stations (35) should be negotiated as soon as possible. Until such time as an East Timor
Agro climatology counterpart is appointed District Agricultural Officers will have to take full
responsibility for site selection and negotiation. Guidelines for selecting suitable sites are
outlined in Section 8.2.
First priority should be given to the Automatic Climate Stations and some notes on each
location follow:
Dili Airport - near existing equipment in front of control tower but preferably not in line
with control tower so that Southerly influences will be recorded. The Airport Authority (Mr Bill
Townsend) and possibly PKF (David Pasfield) should be contacted.
Dare - On church property as gloze as possible to old location behind church; the contact person
is Father Pe. Santana Rogue Pereira.
Maubisse - Close to present Portugese army base
Ainaro - Site to be selected preferably within old coordinates but negotiable
Same - Site to be selected preferably within old coordinates; original Portugese site may have
been on knoll with Portugese buildings overlooking town but a site within The town
proper or on the outskirts of the town proper would probably be more representative of
the surrounding country
Betano - Tractor service centre used by Father Tan
Fuiloro - On church land at the Fuiloro Agricultural High school - contact person Father Jose
Baucau - At airport but preferably in open country to one side of control tower
Suai - At airport near control tower
Oecussi - At airport near control tower

Contact persons and other information for the proposed rain locations visited during the
survey are given in Appendix II.

Once a suitable site has been determined, the District Agricultura) Officers will need to
negotiate land tenure through local village communities. Officers of the Land and Property
Division in Dili suggested that discussion should be initiated through the Chefe do Suco (Kepala
desa). Others who should be involved are Church officials (particularly if the site is on Church
property), long term school teachers and community leaders.

In some cases individuals may come forward who lay claim to the ) and in question. If
they have documentation (Hak milik) the site may need to be moved to community owned land.
The Land and Property Division considered that local communities generally have clear
knowledge of rightful ownership.

To ensure local ownership of the program, it is recommended that a manual rain gauge
be installed at the Climate stations as well as the other rain recording sites. Again, it is expected
that the District Agricultural Officers will select suitable observers for sites in their district after
discussion with local community officials. Suggestions for observers at some sites are given in
Appendix II.
9. Basic Rain Gauge Installation
9.1 Location by District and Recording

The Participative Workshop requested that some rain gauges be distributed before this
wet season. From 1 — 25 November 50 rain gauges (Nylex 1000) were distributed throughout
East Timor including three in Oecussi and one on Atauro. Considering road conditions and the
remoteness of some locations this was a great achievement only made possible through excellent
cooperation from two East Timor counterparts, who trained the recorders at each site. Some of
the locations are different from those recommended in Tables 7 and 8 (See Table 9).

Table 9.Locations of 50 Gauges (Nylex 1000) Distributed in November, 200 Listed by


Districts with Recorders (Portuguese Coordinates and Altitudes ate in Brackets and further
details are given in Appendix II)
The gauges were funded by Aus AID at a total cost of A$ 1638 including freight and
insurance. While these gauges are not as robust as the gauges included in the budgeted proposal,
they are accurate and should provide adequate data for immediate purposes - mainly agricultural
monitoring and planning. It may be possible to extend the rain recording network to more remote
communities if these gauges are shown to be durable.

The rain records are to be collected at the end of each month by District Agricultural
Officers and forwarded to the Agriculture Division in Dili. The job description of one of the
recently appointed staff will need to be modified to include data entry and maintenance of a
central data bank. Average monthly rain records are available for 58 locations including most of
those where the gauges have been located. A simple comparison of long-term averages with
current averages will enable seasonal conditions in each district to be monitored. Once long-term
averages have been verified against all available historical data, more sophisticated predictive
techniques can be developed.

9.2 Importance of Maintaining Central Climate Data Base

One of the JICA projects has included the installation of Automatic Climate Stations at
some of the project sites. It is important that projects installing climate equipment consider its
long term use and maintenance. It is critically important that any such equipment becomes part
of a National Meteorolo gical/ Agro-climatological Network and those copies of any data
collected are supplied to a central Climate Data Base on a monthly basis. As Agriculture will be
one of the prime users of Historical and Current climate data it is logical that the Agro-
climatology Unit in the Division of Agricultural Affairs will become the coordinating authority
for a central data base. This will also mean that this Unit will be responsible for supplying data
to other interested users. Maintenance of the stations being proposed by Civil Aviation for the
three Airports of Dili, Baucau and Suai will become the responsibility of that authority but it is
important that the data be supplied on a monthly basis to the Agro climatology Unit.

10. Equipment and Budget for Restoration Program


10.1 Measurement of Rainfall or Precipitation

Agro climatologists, hydrologists and agronomists are concerned with measuring the
quantity of precipitation reaching the earth's surface. Factors which affect the amount measured
are the diameter and design of the collector, the height of collector in relation to the surface and
the exposure of the instrument in relation to surrounding obstructions.
The standard daily rain gauge used in Indonesia has a collector diameter of 11.2 cm (100
cm 2) and is mounted at a height of 1.2 metres with a tap to measure into a graduated gauge. The
apparent convenience of not having to open the rain gauge to measure rainfall can also create
problems and errors as stop cocks are known to leak. They can be easily manipulated by
unauthorized personnel. From photographs it appears that the Portugese rain gauges were similar,
mounted on posts at 1.2 metres but probably with a larger collector diameter.

Effect of Diameter and Design of Collector

For collectors with diameters of 10 cm or greater there are no large errors introduced by
the use of collectors of different sizes (Handock, 1966). The design of the collector is more
important. The World Meteorological Organization recommended a "Snowden" type gauge with
a 12.7 cm (127 cm 2) diameter collector with the upper edge of the funnel 12.7 cm below the rim
and a steeply sloping funnel (at least 45 degrees). Suitably reinforcing the collector rim and
avoiding damage to the rim can prevent inaccuracies due to changes in collector area. The depth
of the collector to the upper edge of the funnel is not as critical as some of the other factors.

Effect of Height of Collector

There is a decrease in measured rainfall with increase in height of the collector. The
differences between measurements at ground level (with precautions to avoid in-splashing) and
those above ground level increase with increase in wind speed. One generalization is that
measurements decrease by 1 percent for each 30 cm increase in height but potential evaporation
studies suggest that rainfall measured at 30 cm needs to be increased by 5 percent to match the
ground level observations (Hancock, 1966).

Exposure of Collector

Exposure is the most important and justifies more attention. Errors will be introduced by
too open exposure, by very Glose obstructions or reasonably Glose but not uniform obstructions.
The best exposure would appear to be uniform sheltering obstructions distant from the gauge by
more than four times their height (Hancock, 1966).
It should be noted that apart from the accuracy of the collector area and the accuracy of
measurement all the factors discussed tend to make the observed rainfall lower than the true
rainfall. The difference depends on wind speed and the rate of rainfall but an observation could
be up to 10 percent too low even in light winds.
The World Meteorological Organization was recommending a "Snowdon" (12.7 cm diam)
type gauge of the design already outlined exposed one metre above the surface. The Australian
Bureau of Meteorology uses a 20.3 cm diam gauge (200 mm capacity) mounted at 30 cm above
soil surface as its standard. This is a very strongly constructed gauge and quotations have been
obtained for the supply of the standard Australian gauge. While there is some logic in
standardizing with Australia which is now the nearest supplier, there is also a case for continuing
to mount the rain gauges in East Timor at 1.2 meters, so that observations in the future are more
comparable with historical data. The Standard Australian ga uge is not really designed for this
purpose.
It is also possible that gauges with bigger capacity may be required as daily totais in East
Timor may exceed 200 mm on occasions. So while Standard Australian gauges have been
allowed for in the budget the possibilities of supplying alternative gauges of bigger capacity
which can be mounted at 1.2 metres will be pursued. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology also
supplies gauges of 12.7 cm diameter and 650 and 1250 mm capacities for sites where the 24-
hour rainfall frequently exceeds 200 mm. These have an added advantage for remote locations in
that they are measured with a dipstick. With the standard gauge a glass measure is used and there
is always the risk of breakage and delays in replacement. The amount allowed for in the budget
should allow the purchase of an equivalent number of gauges.

10.2 Equipment

The equipment previously used in manual climate stations required regular daily readings
and conscientious maintenance. Automatic climate and rainfall recording equipment has been in
use in many parts of the world for the past 25 years. They are reliable and require minimal
service. Data only needs to be downloaded every 4 - 6 weeks and there are other indirect
methods of downloading to a central recording centre. Software modules are provided which
store the data in its own database module which allows the observer to graph and tabulate the
data collected.

The data provided includes rainfall intensity and a calculated value for evaporation.
While the Class A Pan has provided very useful data for agronomic purposes in the past it
requires regular maintenance and readings during rain periods are often inaccurate. Class A Pans
could still be used to interpret site specific field trials and in irrigation areas to predict irrigation
need.
The specifications for the automatic equipment and the manual rain gauges are given in
Appendix IV. The specifications for automatic rain gauges are also given. At some time in the
future when it has been demonstrated that there are the capabilities to fully use the facilities
being recommended, the manual gauges could be replaced with automatic rain gauges. To
extend the rainfall recording network, the manual rain gauges could be moved to farming
locations where more information is required. Observers for the manual gauges can be drawn
from local agriculture support staff or Church and other NGO involved in agriculture. With
support and training the recording of rainfall should assist the community in understanding crop
response to different rainfall patterns.

10.3 Budgets for Restoration Program

1. Procurement of New Equipment


10 Automatic Weather Stations (4148 ea) 41,480 (69,133)
2 Data Courier Display/ Downloading devices (855) 1,710 (2,850)
4 Barometric Pressure Sensors (380) 1,520 (2,533)
Extra equipment 4 Airport Locations (1500) 6,000 (10,000)
2 Whirling Hygrometer (142) 284 (473)
45 Manual Rain Gauges (263 ea) 11,835 (19,725)
2 GPS Hand Held Units, pH and salinity Meters 1,800 (3,000)
64,629 (107, 715)

2. Supply and Delivery New Equipment


Freight and Packing 3,000 (5,000)
Insurance 623 (1,038)
Tax (Exempt?) (16,607)

3,623 (6,038)

3. Equipment Installation & Training


Equipment Technician Return Flight Aust. - Dili - Aust. 1,700 (2833)
Installation 10 Weather Stations @ $327 per station 3,270 (5450)
Training Operation, Maintenance and Software Use @ $363 per day 1,452 (2420)
Per Diems Equipment Technician 21 days (4 days training + 17 Installation) 2,289 (3815)
Installation Security Fencing and Equipment Posts @ $1000 per weather site 25,000
(41,667) 33,709 (56,182)
4. Equipment Central Office Dili
Computer Dedicated to Data Entry & Storage 6,000 (10,000)
Ancillary equipment for operation of computer and for connection to other
Forms of data downloading & entry 10,000 (20,000)

16,000 (26,700)

5. International Consultants
Agro climatology Consultant 3 Months @ US $15,000 per month 45,000 (75,000)
Per Diems @ US $ 109 per day 10,000 (16,700)
Return Flight Aust. - Dili - Aust. 1,700 (2830)
Specialist - Data Entry & Crop Modeling 3 Months @ US $15,000 per month 45,000 (75,000)
Per Diems @ US $ 109 per day 10,000 (16,700)
Return Flight Aust. - Dili - Aust. 1,700 (2,830)
Return Flight Dili - Jakarta - Dili 850 (1,415)
114,250 (190,417)
6. Local Operation Costs
Rental & operation 4 - WD Pickup Twin Cab (3 Months) 15,000 (25,000)
Training Local Staff/ Capacity building - books, hire facilities etc 7,000 (11,700)
Communities for supply of fencing local materials at 35 rain- gauge sites 3,500 (5833)
25,500 (42, 500)
7. Retrieval Data Indonesia & Portugal 5,000 (8,333)
Exchange Rate Used A$ = US$ 0.60 US$262,711 (A$ 437,885)

10.4 Budget and other Program Assumptions


East Timor Administration would be responsible for all recurrent/ operational costs,
including salaries for supervisors and allowances for observers. It is assumed that ET staff (2)
would be available to collect data and store and use data on a continuing basis and that vehicle
would be available for these staff to inspect recording sites and cropping areas. It is important
for food security prediction that all agronomy staff closely observes crop condition and
development phases on a regular basis. They should maintain Glose liaison with rainfall
observers, as well as farmers and their advisers.
Site locations should be negotiated and land tenure assured prior to commencement of the
restoration program probably in July 2001. Appointment of the observers for the 30 manual rain
recording sites should also be negotiated prior to commencement of the program.
Erection of security fences by contractors at the 10 automatic Climate Stations should be
completed as soon as possible after the program is approved. Fencing of the other 30 manual
rain gauges would be the responsibility of the Agricultural Division using locally available
materials at each site.

The Technician would be nominated by the firm contracting to supply the meteorological
equipment. The Job descriptions for the two consultants are detailed in Appendix V.

11. Recommendations Staffing, Operation, Training Agro climatology Unit

11.1 Long Term Forecasting

Climate or Meteorological Stations are often associated in some people's minds with
weather forecasting. This is possibly because the maintenance of these stations and data
collection from these stations is frequently supervised by the same department which takes
responsibility for weather forecasting. So far as I know East Timor has never had its own
weather forecasting service and it is unlikely that they will have the resources to support such a
service in the near future.
It is my understanding that climate data (other than barometric pressure collected in only
a few stations) has little to do with weather forecasting which is based on satellite images of
cloud and pressure systems. The climate stations do provide an historical record of the accuracy
of forecasts but the main use of the data is in agricultural strategic and tactical planning,
engineering design and sound environmental catchments management.
Meteorologists have defined the Southern Oscillatio n and `El Nino' weather patterns and
East Timor is in that part of the world most affected by these patterns. The individuals given
responsibility for collecting and analyzing the new ET data should liaise with the specialists in
Australia following the SOI and other indicators of longer term rainfall trends. This information
together with current rain data should increase the reliability of crop security forecasts.
There is a group 1 have contacted at Queensland Centre for Climate Applications
(QCCA) in Toowoomba which is combining long-term historical rainfall data and SOI data to
make rainfall probability predictions. They are involved in an ACIAR project working on this
approach for the seasonally dry islands of Eastern Indonesia. They would be interested in long
term daily rainfall data from East Timor so that the predictions could be extended to this area.
Also in Toowoomba is the Agricultural Production System Research Unit (APSRU) which
applies climate data to make crop productivity predictions and to prepare cropping system
strategies. In Canberra there is CIRAD and CRES with links to the Australian National
University (ANU). All these groups would be interested in liaising with appropriate people in
ET.

11.2 Staffing
Ideally, a Supervisor, two Agro-climatology Agronomists and a clerical officer with
computer skills would be required to maximize the effectiveness of the Agro climatology work
which should be an integral part of the agricultural, livestock and forestry work of the division.
Job descriptions drawn up for these positions are detailed in Appendix V. In the immediate
future, it is unlikely that there will be sufficient

Resources to support a service of this calibre. It is likely that only one or two of these
positions will be filled. One position should be advertised in the near future.

A candidate of the right calibre should receive overseas training and candidates with
suitable qualifications are being encouraged to apply for an Aus AID Scholarship so that they
could complete a basic degree and obtain vocational training in Agro-climatology. There is a
Commonwealth/ State Institute at Toowoomba which specializes in all aspects of crop and
weather forecasting. It is important that a liaison be developed with the relevant institutes in
Toowoomba and Canberra so that agro-climatology and long range seasonal predictions for East
Timor can be developed.

There are compelling arguments for using Australian expertise in the establishment and
application of an agro-climatic network in East Timor. Both countries agriculture) activities are
conducted under extreme climate variability.

For something like 50 years Australian Researchers have been at the fore- front of:
Weather forecasting in the Southern Hemisphere
Simulation Modeling of Agricultural and Ecological Systems
Studies of Long-range Forecasts related to SOI and El Nino
Manufacture of Meteorological Equipment

The outputs from their research are now widely used in agricultural and eco-system
management and decision support.
With overseas training, a candidate of the right calibre could supervise the operation of
an Agro-climatic unit within East Timor Agricultural Affairs Division. The service could be
expanded as resources become available and staffs are trained locally to use agro-climatic data
as part of their normal agricultural activities.
The agro-climatology section would be responsible for:

(i) Monitoring food security in the districts as the seasons unfolds.


(ii) Predicting yield potential of new and existing crops on different soils in the agro-climatic
zones.
(iii) Predicting yield potential and water requirements of irrigated rice.
(iv) Providing an irrigation scheduling service for a range of crops and locations.
(v) Monitoring the development stages of crops from different sowing dates and preparing crop
specifications for existing and new crops and enterprises.
(vi) Providing training to other agronomists and field staff in monitoring crop development and
crop water balance techniques.

12. Participative Workshop


The agenda fo r the Participative Workshop held in the Main UNTAET Meeting Room on
Monday the 25 September is given in Appendix VI together with invitee and attendance lists.
The main objectives of the participative workshop were:
(i) To reach consensus on the number and location of stations
(ii) To gain a better understanding of the importance of climatic data
(iii) To introduce the concept of defining soil and climate specifications for agricultural
enterprises and their allocation to agro-climatic zones and soils

The first morning session explained the ARPAPET Agro-climatic zones and their
implications. Session two outlined some of the main points relating to the terms of reference and
the logic for selection of locations. The workshop divided into two discussion groups to consider
the suitability of the locations and other issues raised.

As a result of these discussions, it was agreed that a further five rainfall stations be
included in the first tier main climate network. The logic for the selection of these stations is
outlined in Section 8.1 of this report.

Concern was expressed at the meeting that donor finance for the new equipment may not
become available until early in the 2001 - 2002 financial year. It was requested that a minimum
of forty basic rain gauges be made available for the coming wet season. The Agro-climatology
consultant agreed to ascertain a source of robust reasonably priced and readily available rain
gauges. When the standard equipment for the proposed new network becomes available, these
gauges could usefully be deployed to more remote agriculture) communities which have not
been included in the first tier main climate and rainfall recording network. The locations of the
second tier rain recording sites should be selected by local staff familiar with village
communities and their agriculture) activities and needs. Some possible locations to be
considered are given in Table 10.
The workshop also agreed that it was important that the exact sites of the Climate stations
(10) and Rainfall stations (35) should be negotiated as soon as possible. The consultant agreed to
draw up the guidelines in Section 8.4.
The afternoon sessions outlined the importance of climate and soil data. East Timor staff
of Agricultural Affairs had been selected to lead discussion on Soil and Climate Specifications
for selected Crops/ Enterprises in the four sections of Cash Crops, Food Crops, Livestock,
Forestry. They then allocated those enterprises to the six agro-climatic zones. The presentations
and results of sessions 3 & 4 are being collated in English and Portugese. Some of the important
issues of the morning session were translated to Bahasa Indonesia.

Following the Workshop, a Note for a Future Cabinet Meeting was prepared for the Director of
Economic Affairs Department (Mr Mari Alkatiri) who was absent from Dili and unable to open
the Workshop. On the 27 October, a Proposal for Restoration of the Agro-climatological/
Meteorological Network was submitted to the Donor Coordination Unit, together wit h a copy of
the initial report.

13. References

Anon. (1954) Australian meteorological observer's handbook: Bureau of Meteorology


Commonwealth of Australia.
ARPAPET (1996a) - Agro-climatic Zones of East Timor - Lindsay Evans April, 1996. Kantor
Wilyah Dep. Pertanian Prop. Tim – Tim. Jln Estrada de Balide, Dili, Tim – Tim 88112,
Indonésia.

ARPAPET (1996b) - Action Plan for Agricultural Development in Selected Agro climatic
Zones of East Timor Province. Lindsay Evans May, 1996. Kantor Wilyah Dep. Pertanian Prop.
Tim Tim. Jln Estrada de Balide, Dili, Tim Tim 88112, Indonesia.

ARPAPET (1996c) - Southern Areas Agricultural Development Identification Study.


Lindsay Evans June, 1996. Indonesia - Australia Development Cooperation, Agricultural and
Regional Planning Assistance Program East Timor. Kantor Wilyah Dep. Pertanian Prop. Tim
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Boyce, David.J.S. (1998) East Timor - Where the Sun Rises over the Crocodile Tail.
Private Publication.
Crippen International (1980). Timor Island Water Resources Development Study - Final
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Felgas, H.A.E. (1956) Timor Português. Lisbon: Agencia Geral Do Ultramar Divisão de
Publicações E Biblioteca.

Fenco Consultants (1981) Sumbawa Water Resources Development Planning Study.


Hydrology Report, Technical Report No 2. Directorate General of Water Resources
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Garcia J. Sacadura, Cardoso J. Carvalho (1978) OS SOLOS DE TIMOR Memorias da


Junta de Investigações Cientificas de Ultramar (outside Portugal) No. 64 Sequnda Servie, Lisboa,
1978.

Handock, D.E. (1966) Routine measurement of precipitation Agric. Meteorology Proc.


WMO Seminar Melbourne, Aust. Nov-Dec. 1966. P. 177-194. Vol 1

Manan, M.E., Nur Siwan, M.A. dan Soedarsono (1986) Alat pengukur cuaca di stasiun
klimatologi. Jurusan Geofisika dan Meteorologi FMIPA - IPB.

Monk, K.A., Yance de Fretes, Reksodibarjo-Lilley, G. (1997) The Ecology of Nusa


Tenggara and Maluku - The Ecology of Indonesia Series V.

Oldeman, L.R., Las, 1 and Muladi (1980) the agro climatic maps of Kalimantan, Maluku,
Irian Jaya, Bali & East and West Nusa Tenggara (Contrib No. 60) Bogor; Central Research Instit.
For Agric.

Oldeman, L.R. and Frere, M. (1982) A study of the agro climatology of the humid tropics
of South-East Asia. Technical Note No. 179 World Meteorological Organization (WMO No.
597) 41 Av. Giuseppe - Motta, Genera, Switzerland.

Pedersen Jon and Arneberg Marie – Editors (1999) Social and Economic Conditions in
East Timor; International Conflict Resolution Program School of International and Public
Affairs. Columbia University, New York, USA. David L. Phillips Proj. Director Fafo Institute of
Applied Social Science Oslo, Norway.
PROSEA (1994) Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 8 Vegetables J.S. Siemonsma &
Kasem Piluek (Editors).

Robequain C. (1953) Malaya, Indonesia, Borneo and the Philippines. English Translation
from original French by E. D. Laborde; Longmans, Green & Co. London, Second Impression.

RePPProT (1989 a) Review of Phase 1 Results Maluku and Nusa Tenggara Vol I: Main
Report. Government of the Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Transmigration, Directorate
General of Settlement Preparation, Land Resources Department ODNRI and ODA, Jakarta.

RePPProT (1989 b) Review of Phase I Results Maluku and Nusa Tenggara Vol II:
Annexes. Government of the Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Transmigration, Directorate
General of Settlement Preparation, Land Resources Department ODNRI and ODA, Jakarta.

Servico Meteorologico Nacional (1957) The Climate of Portugese Timor; Authors Jose
Maria da Rosa and D. Ramalhata - Lisbon and Dili, Nov 1957.

Serviço Meteorológico Nacional (1965) O Clima de Portugal, Fascículo XII Província de Timor;
Trabalho elaborado sob a direcção do – Prof. H. Amorim Ferreira, Director-geral do Serviço;
Lisboa 1965 (From Northern Territory University Library)

Silva, Helder Lains E. (1956) Memorias Série de Agronomia Tropical I Timore a Cultura do
Café.

REPORT II – UPDATED NOVEMBER, 2000

REPORT ON RESTORATION of METEOROLOGICAL


NETWORK - TIMOR LORO SAE

APPENDIX
Prepared By: Glenard Donald KEEFER

53 Pratten St. CORINDA 4075 Qld.


Phone 07 3379 6068
FAX 07 3379 2375
EMAIL glenardk@hotmail.com
November, 2000

To Fulfill Contract No. AET/067 with UNTAET Dili


United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor

Appendix

Appendix I. Inventory of Available Historical Data


Appendix II. Report on Portugese/ Indonesian Stations
Appendix III. Road Distances and Travei Times
Appendix IV. Specifications Security Fencing and Automatic Climate Equipment
Appendix V. Job Descriptions
Appendix VI. Participative Workshop
Appendix VII. Long-term Monthly Rain and Temperature Averages
Appendix VIII. Miscellaneous Memos and Documents

APPENDIX – I

Inventory of Available Historical Data


APPENDIX II

Report on Portuguese/ Indonesian Stations


Report on Inspection of Climate and Rainfall Stations - East Timor
G. D. Keefer Agro climatologist Consultant - UNTAET

1 Aileu: Inspected 30 July 2000


During the Portuguese Era (PE) rain was recorded from Jan 1916 - Sep 1923 and
Temperature from Jan 1917 to Dec 1922; Orig Coordinates 8 44 S 125 34 E 869 m; Recording
was recommenced with Rain Only in Jan 1953; During Indonesian Era (IE) a complete station
was located at Pertanian/ Peternakan site about 2 km south of Aileu before bridge; all equipment
is missing except wind meter at 2 metres; suggest any new equipment be relocated to a
convenient site in Aileu Glose to agricultural office or pilot agricultural service centre.
2000 Rain Gauge (2000 RG — `Nylex 1000') located at rear of UNTAET office (10 Nov)
8 43.489 S 125 34.378 E 946 m; Recorder Joao Rodriecruiz/ Joao dos Santos; Agric officer
Ornar Sonko

2 Ainaro: Inspected 23 August 2000

PE rain Jan 1916 - July 1941 and Temperature Jan 1917 - Feb 1940; Recommenced
Climate Jan 1952; B&W Photo shows Screen and Wind mast with distinctive range in
background; Enquiries suggested that PE location was near Church - Orig Coordinates 9 00 S
125 31 E 809 m; GPS 8 59.339 125 30.293 898 m; IE broken Pluviograph behind former DPU
office and indications that there had also been a standard rain gauge.

2000 RG beside UNTAET Office (9 Nov.) 8 59.550 S 125 30.506 E 785 m; Recorder
Marcelino Mendonça/Pedro Mendonça; Agric assistant Matheus da Costa, ex. Kepala Dinas
pertanian Suai Adriano Corteal
3 Ai Fu (Belo-Horizonte): Inspected 1 September, 2000

PE Rain Only? Orig Coordinates 8 45 E 125 23 S 1232 m; GPS near CCN Coffee Factory
8 44.579 125 22.384 1211 m

4 Alas: Set out 23 August 2000 but discontinued because of security concerns and condition of
road

PE rain Jan 1916 - Dec 1923 and Temperature Jan 1917 - Dec 1923; Recommenced
Climate Jan 1953; B&W Photo 1959 shows Screen, Wind Mast and Rain Gauge on raised
mound surrounded by concrete wall with fence attached; Orig Coordinates 9 00 S 125 47 E 256
m;
5 Atabai: Inspected 3 November, 2000

PE Rain Only from Jan 1953; Orig Coordinates 8 48 S 125 10 E 375 m;


5 a Aidaba Leten (New Location in Iieu of Atabai) 2000 RG located at Aidaba Leten (sub-
district Atabai) in lieu of Atabai on 4 Nov 2000

Behind UNTAET office in front of old PPL office 8 47.037 S 125 06.118 E 58 m; Recorder
Damiao Reis Cardoso Secretary Zona; Claudio Fontes Coordinator sub-district Atabai

6 Atauro (Mau-Meta): Inspected 17 November, 2000 yr


PE rain Jan 1916 - July 1935 and Temperature Jan 1923 - Dec 1930; Recommenced Climate Feb
1953; Orig Coordinates 8 16 S 125 36 E 4 m; old station nearer beach than new 2000 RG

2000 RG (17 Nov) 8 16.037 S 125 36.196 E 22 m; Recorder Januário Oliveira CNRT Rep.
Jacinto de Araujo Agric Office, Mathieus FO, Faustino de Sousa Chefe de Suco

Mano - Coco (Atauro) No Inspect; B&W Photo 1959 shows Screen and Rain gauge in bamboo
enclosure;
7 Atsabe: Inspection 1 November, 2000 (Not inspected in earlier survey due Security Risk)
PE Rain Only Feb 1917 - Nov 1929; Recommenced Jan 1958; Orig Coordinates 8 55 S 125 24 E
1190 m
2000 RG left at UNTAET office Atsabe on 1 Nov 2000 to be sited by local staff; Angelino
Monteiro Secretary Zona; Jose de Deus Agric. Officer; Rosario da G.A Martins recordei. ? Also
spoke with Mr. Rindert Leessma and Ms Belen Molina Int. UNTAET staff Atsabe; Coord Untaet
office 8 55.562 S 125 23.826 E 1239 m
8 Baguia: Inspected 8 August, 2000
PE Rain Only Jan 1920 - Aug 1941; Recommenced Rain Only Jan 1953 and Climate Jan 1957;
B&W Photo 1957 Screen and Rain gauge with road in front and building some distance in
background; Orig. Coordinates 8 37 S 126 39 E 369 m; GPS suggested location in school
grounds 8 37 43.46 126 39 04.70 438 m; met Chefe do Suco Alawa Craic - Antonio Menetes;
location could be moved probably to near old Portugese House.
2000 RG 8 37.681 S 126 39.297 E 391 m in front of Portugese House (16 Nov); Recorder
Domingos Guterres; Jose Guterres Secretary Zona; information was given that Orig Portugese
site was on right of road just up from Portugese house but was moved in 1973 to house of
Portugese Secretary on left further up road towards church near present coconut tree.

9 Balibo: Inspected 4 November, 2000 (Not inspected in earlier survey — Bobonaro)


PE Rain Only June 1916 - Dec 1926; Jan 1939 - Jul 1941; Recommenced Oct 1952; Orig
Coordinates 8 58 S 125 05 E 566 m;

2000 RG located at Balibo (sub-district Balibo) 8 58.172 S 125 02.644 E 559 m (4 Nov
2000) at monument in front of UNTAET office; Recorder Manuel Arti Maia sub-district Agric.
Officer; Saul da Cruz Deputy Secretary Zona
10 Barique : Set out 5 August, 2000 but met priest on road to Natabora who advised that Barique
was not accessible by road and that road to Natabora was also in poor condition.

PE Jan 1916 - Sep 1941 Temp Jan 1917 - Sep 1941; Recommenced Rain Only Jan 1953;
Orig Coordinates 8 50 S 126 05 E 288 m;

11 Baucau: Inspected 3, 7, 11 August, 2000

PE Rain 1917 - 1918 & 1936 - 41 Temp Jan 1937 - Sep 1941; Recommenced Climate Jan
1951; Orig Coordinates 8 28 S 126 27 E 512 m GIS location checked 8 30 126 26 510 m; Agric
Officer Baucau Pak Dahal introduced to Pak Guilherme who said Acacio Flores should have
information on location of Portugese stations; on return from Los Palos met Pascoal Afonso
Belo who said equipment during IE was behind Pertanian building; Equipment at Baucau
Airport similar to equipment at Dili Airport and spoke with Murray Lague in Control Tower

2000 RG 8 28.315 S 126 27.485 E 413 m (16 Nov) beside UNTET office; Recorder to be
notified; Pak Dahal Dist Agric Officer
12 Betano: Inspected 23 August, 2000
PE Rain Only Jan 1957 - Oct 1962; Orig Coordinates 9 09 S 125 43 E 4 m; GIS Father
Tan's Tractor Sheds and Workshop (Betano I) 9 09.801 125 43.145 35 m; Betano II on road
from Hato Udo

2000 RG 9 09.886 S 125 43.777 E 4 m (14 Nov) behind house of recorder facing rear of
old port building and near monument; Recorder Armando Francisca ex PPL; Hermengilda
Pereira Agric Coordinator. Sub District Betano lives on road to same

13 Bobonaro: Inspected 3 November, 2000 (No Inspection earlier survey — Bobonaro)


PE Rain Jan 1916 - Dec 1926; Jan 1938 - Sep 1941; Temp Jan 1921 - Dec 1927 - Jan 1938
- July 1939; Recommenced Climate Jan 1958; B&W Photo 1957 shows screen and rain gauge
being installed; Orig Coordinates 9 01 S 125 22 E 768 m;

2000 RG located at Bobonaro (sub-district Bobonaro) 9 02.156 S 125 19.464 E 833 m (3


Nov 2000) behind UNTAET office; Recorder Jose de Jesus Agric Officer sub-district Bobonaro;
also assisted by Celestino de Jesus World Vision; (other coordinates Bobonaro Left near old
Portugese Puskesmas 9 02.056 S 125 19.596 S 843 m; turn-off to Church 9 01.973 S 125 19.419
S 855m; below present site 9 02.110 S 125 19.472 E 822 m)

14 Boi Bau: Set out after Fazenda Algarve 1 Sept, 2000 but turned around at CCN Factory
Leotela because of poor condition of Tata and lack of power on hills

PE Rain Only Jan 1923 - Nov 1925; Jan 1929 - Jan 1934; Not Recommenced Post 1950; Orig
Coordinates 8 40 S 125 19 E 460 m - Leotela 8 39.809 125 19.945 843 m

14 a Cribas (New Location - Manatuto)


2000 RG installed 23 Novembro, 2000 beside house of Chefe do Suco 8 40.533 S 125
59.603 E 391 m; Recorder Benedicto Manuele Alvis, Chefe do Suco Peregrino Xavier Martins
(5 Dusun)
15 Dare: Inspected 24 August, 2000
PE Climate Jan 1958; Orig Coordinates 8 36 S 125 34 E 492 m; GPS 8 35.567 125 34.321
538 m at Met Screen behind church San Francisco Xavier Dare; Mario de Jesus Cavalho Chefe
do Suco, Priest/Romo Pe Santana Rogue Periera (from India 1947) Coordinates in front of
Church 8 35.514 S 125 34.280 E 478 m, near car park at Presbytry 8 35.571 S 125 34.268 E 474
m

2000 RG 8 35.867 S 125 33.770 E 577 m (12 November, 2000) on church retreat property
administered by Father Tan; Recorder Helder dos Santos Belo

16 Dili Airport: Inspected 17 July, 2000

Accompanied Bill Townsend; met David Pasfield Cornmanding officer; talked to Murray
Lague in Control Tower.

From Equipment supplied and serviced by Australian Bureau of Meteorology the tower
receives computerized display of: - Barometric Pressure; Wind Speed & Direction at 10 metres;
Temperature; Humidity; Rain. The Bureau of Meteorology installed the automatic climate
recording system when UNTAET occupied Airport in September 1999. At recent services which
are carried out from Darwin, it has been suggested that the equipment cannot be maintained in a
serviceable condition for very much ol nger (Sam Cleland is the contact person in Bureau of
Meteorology Darwin). Long term records are maintained in Darwin and it is understood that the
Darwin Bureau of Meteorology also has Dili Airport Records for 1983 - 1997.

As well as two existing 10 metre wind towers in front of control tower, the automatic
weather station has:-10 metre wind tower for speed and direction; a small louvered screen at 1.5
- 1.75 metres which probably houses temperature and humidity sensors; Rimco Automatic Rain
gauge; Ceilometer (CT25K Vaisala Helsinki) which measures cloud height and description;
Siemons automatic recording box (Aerolite World Transit).
The original Indonesian/ Portugese station was 1 kilometre east of the present weather
station location, is overgrown with vegetation and would be more problematic from a security
point of view. The buildings associated with this installation have been badly damaged and some
old climatic data and records are lying trashed on the floor. Of the equipment still remaining, the
Casella wind run meter at 2 metres (Casella W 1208/2 - kilometers) is still operating. There is an
elaborate Barometer (Grassby GMV Barometer) but the electronics have been pulled out and it
is doubtful if the equipment would be repairable at this location.
The pluviograph is also probably unserviceable. All other equipment from what was a standard
Indonesian Weather Recording Station has been removed or destroyed.
It is suggested that in addition to a standard automatic weather recorder additional equipment
required for the Airport includes : Wind Speed and Direction at 10 metres in addition to a sensor
at 2 metres as required for agricultural purposes; Barometer; Ceilometer for cloud height and
type; Visibility Meter. Power cabling and sensor cabling should be placed underground in
conduit.

PE Rain Mar 1914 - Sep 1941; Temp Jan 1917 - Sep 1941; Recommenced Climate Jan
1952; There is a suggestion that Portugese station may have been at the old Airport - now
Heliport; Orig Coordinates 8 34 S 12535E4m

PE Had stations at Airport as outlined above and in front of Old Portugese Port Authority
building; remain of latter are still there but Anemometer is only equipment still intact.

17 Ermera: Inspected 31 August, 2000


PE Rain Jan 1914 - Dec 1929; Temp Jan 1917 - Dec 1929; Recommenced Climate Jan
1959; B&W Photo 1957 shows wind mast and rain gauge with steps leading up to site with 3
thatched houses; Orig Coordinates 8 45 S 125 24 E 1200 m; GIS 8 44. 968 125 24.009 1139 m
near house at end of road which turns off to east at church - the house was built in 1957 the same
year a photo of the Portugese climate station in Ermera was taken and included in their annual
report

2000 RG left at UNTAET office to be installed by District Agric Officer (1 November,


2000)

18 Fatu Berliu : No Inspection as not directly accessible by road from main Natarbora road;
2-3 hours walk from Saren - new Fatu Berliu is on main road from Dotic between Claren and
Sahen rivers 3 Transmigration villages.

PE Rain Only Feb 1917 - Jul 1934 and Jan 1940 - Sep 1941; Recommenced Jan 1958; Orig.
Coordinates 8 57 S 125 53 E 1200 m;

18 a Village Fatu Kahi (New Location in lieu of Fatu Berliu) — Sub-district Welalohu 9 01.728
S 125 59.658 E 32 m (14 November, 2000) behind house of teacher Isac Mannic; Recorder Isac
Mannic; Tobias Hornai Secretary Zona Welalohu — villages Clacoc, Fatu Kahi, Kai Kasa on
main road and old Fatu Berliu Bubu Susu, Fahi Nihan (latter have potential for Coffee)

19 Fatu Bessi: Inspected 31 August, 2000

PE Rain Only Jan 1917 - Dec 1922; Recommenced Climate Jan 1952; B&W Photo 1957
shows screen and rain gauge enclosed by hedge; Orig Coordinates 8 45 S 125 20 E 1120 m; GIS
8 45.367 125 18.956 1084 m; location at end of concrete coffee drying platform on escarpment;
the station is still fenced

With angle iron posts and chain wire and three strands barbed wire; enclosure was locked
(A backi had key but lived some distance away); equipment included:

Radiation actinography - broken


Campbell Stokes Sunshine Recorder - glass Bali missing Class A Pan - rusted and
leaking
Wind Meter 2 metres
Pluviograph - recording rain gauge broken
Manual rain gauge
Meteorological Screen - relatively new, old screen on ground

It was suggested by those assisting AMI (Assistencia Medica Int) doctor Renado working
in the Village office nearby that recording finished in 1995-96; the site on the edge of an
escarpment is not ideal for data relative to cropping especially coffee; a large tree is also shading
the site and the village office is too Glose; Chefe do Suko to contact re possible relocation
Celestino Carvalho Alves was not available

2000 RG left at UNTAET office to be installed by District Agric Officer (4 November,


2000)

20 Fazenda Algarve: Inspected 1 September, 2000

PE Climate Jan 1950; Orig Coordinates 8 40 S 125 21 E 916 m; GIS 8 40.24 125 19.773
910 m; located on western side of Carascalao house where base of screen is still present - fairly
new Anemometer at 2 meters was in garden on south-east side of house but the cups had been
broken off.

2000 RG 8 40.223 S 125 19.793 E 887 m located at Fazenda Algarve (sub-district) on 4 Nov
2000 in garden near old Anemometer on north-west side of house; Recorder Vicente de Olivera;
Chefe do Suco Manuel de Jesus, also spoke to Francisco Gustavi

21 Fazenda Olivia (Not inspected Dili):

PE Rain Only from May 1959; Orig Coordinates 8 56 S 125 36 E 691 m;

22 Fohorem: Not inspected initial survey - Covalima

PE Rain Only Jan 1920 - Nov 1929; Climate 1953; B&W Photo 1959 shows screen and
rain gauge in enclosure; Orig Coordinates 9 17 S 125 07 E 599 m;

2000 RG left at UNTAET office to be installed by District Agric Officer (7 November, 2000)

23 Fuiloro: Inspected 9 August, 2000


PE Rain Only Feb 1918 - Dec 1926; Recommenced Jan 1951 - Sep 1953; Orig
Coordinates 8 26 S 120 01 E 430 m;

2000 RG delivered to Fathers Jojo & Jose (who was sick) on 25 November, 2000 — to be sited
in Agric School grounds where automatic station will be sited

24 Gleno: inspected 31 August, 2000

PE Rain Only? Orig Coordinates 8 43 S 125 27 E 770 m;

2000 RG 8 42.821 S 125 26.263 E 657 m located at Gleno (sub-district) on 1 Nov 2000 in
front of UNTAET office; Recorder?

25 Hato-Bulico: Inspected 22 August, 2000


PE Rain Mar 1920 - Oct 1930; Temp Jan 1922 - Oct 1930; Climate Jan 1957; Orig
Coordinates 8 54 S 125 31 E 1908 m; GPS 8 54.068 125 31.246 1916 m - location near
Portugese Guest House on hill built 1953; position across road suggested by some locais 8
54.074 125 31.176 1928 m
2000 RG 8 53.804 S 125 31.227 E 1814 m in front of house CNRT leader near SD school (9
November, 2000); Recorder Mr. Alexander CNRT Leader and school teacher

26 Hatolia: Inspected 31 August, 2000


PE Rain Apr 1914 - May 1937; Temp Jan 1917 - May 1937; Not Recommenced in Post
1950 period; Orig. Coordinates 8 48 S 125 21 E 420 m; GPS 8 48.762 125 19.05 656 m near
sports field; 8 48.647 125 19.179 673 on road in front of house behind which are the remains of
a Pluviograph and rain gauge from IE; Pluviograph parts are missing as is rain gauge; Chefe do
Suco Duarti Borges Debi Tolu Zona Lemia Kraik; before Lemio Kraik Samara; Morobo river
below Hatolia flows into Loes river and out to sea near Liquica.

27 Hato Hudo: Inspected 23 August, 2000


PE Dates Not Available but Rain Only; Orig Coordinates 9 08 S 125 36 E 426 m or 9 07 S
125 35 E 478 m; GPS of two possible sites on hill amongst old Portugese buildings 9 06.621 125
35.203 511m and 9 06.668 125 35.209 509 m Chefe do Suco Antonio Soares Hato Hudo Kota
Lama

2000 RG 9 06.627 S 125 35.223 E 580 m (13 November, 2000) in front of Portugese Guest
House; Recorder Joel Antonio Agric Coordinator lives in house on left further down road
28 Iliomar; Set off 9 August, 2000 but enquiries along road indicated that road had been cut by
extensive landslides so turned back

PE Rain Only Feb 1917 - Sep 1930; Recommenced Climate Jan 1953; B&W Photo 1957
shows Wind mast and screen in enclosure with range in background; Chefe do Suco Iliomar
Kota Juliao Soares; Orig Coordinates 8 42 S 126 50 E 365 m;

2000 RG left with District Agric Officer 24 November, 2000 for installation on 28 November by
District Field Officer — Iliomar and Hipolito de Jesus

29 Laclubar: Inspected August 4 and August 5

PE Rain Jan 1916 - Dec 1925; Jan 1936 - Sep 1941; Temp Jan 1917 - Dec 1925; Jan 1941
- Sep 1941; Recommenced Rain Only Jan 1958; B&W Photo 1957 shows rain collector on post;
Orig Coordinates 8 45 S 125 54 E 1101 m; GPS 8 45 12 5 125 54 35.2 1101 m near church;
Chefe do Suco Dominggos da Silva (Orlalan); Maria da Costa Almeyda PPL (Petugas Penyuluh
Pertanian) would be good observer; road junction Natabora GPS 8 33 13.7 125 33 59.5 1161 m

2000 RG installed 23 Novembro, 2000 in front of house Chefe do Suco 8 44.975 S 125
54.625 E 1012 m; Recorder Maria da Costa Almeida, Chefe do Suco Domingos da Silva
(Orlalan)

30 Lacluta: Inspected 17 August, 2000

PE Rain Only Jan 1918 - Aug 1924; Recommenced Rain Only Jan 1958; Orig Coordinates
8 47 S 126 09 E 290 m; GPS New Lacluta closer to coast 8 50.283 126 12.717 122m; old
Lacluta is 70 km further up in hills and 100 still live there and some others would like to return;
Chefe do Suco since 1979 Filomeno da Crus;

2000 RG 8 50.448 S 126 12.661 E 110 m (14 Novembro, 2000) beside house Chefe do Suco;
Recorder Filomeno da Crus Chefe do Suco

31 Laga (Soba): Inspected 7 August, 2000

PE Rain Only Jan 1931 - Jul 1941; Recommenced Climate May 1956; B&W Photo 1957
shows screen and rain gauge with basic enclosure; Orig Coordinates 8 29 S 126 36 E 65m;
Original site probably on hill above town near Portugese house and fort 8 28.609 S 126 36.156 E
72 m

2000 RG 8 28.401 S 126 35.784 E 44 m (15 November, 2000) behind DFO office — not ideal
location as Glose to escarpment facing sea; Recorder Margaret DFO

32 Lahane: No Inspection (Dili)


PE Rain Only since Jan 1959; Orig Coordinates 8 35 S 125 34 E 80 m;
33 Laivai: Inspected 9 August, 2000

PE Rain Only Jan 1931 - Jan 1934; Recommenced Rain Only Apr 1956 - Jan 1960; B&W
Photo 1959 shows rather large rain collector on 1 m post with tap at bottom for release and
measuring; Jaime da Costa - in Portugese times on hill but nothing remains

34 Lautem: Inspected 11 August, 2000

PE Rain Jan 1939 - Sep 1941; Temp Jan 1939 - Sep 1941; Recommenced Climate Jan
1959; Orig Coordinates 8 22 S 126 55 E 174 m; in PE may have had rain gauge on hill; IE
moved rain gauge to Moro 2 km from Lautem and then moved back to Lautem at Agricultural
(Pertanian) office

2000 RG located at Parlemento about 4 km from Lautem off main road on hill 25
November, 2000 8 21.613 S 126 55.932 E 163 m at back of village office; Recorder Armadio
Aranda, Chefe do Suco Jose dos Santos Silva; house gardens but sawah near coast on main road

35 Letefoho: Not Inspected initial survey - Security Risk


PE Rain Only Jan 1958; Orig Coordinates 8 50 S 125 25 E 1449 m;
NO Nyle x gauge located at Letefoho on 1 Nov 2000 but coordinates on main road 8
50.110 S 125 25.621 E 1389 m
36 Liquica: Inspected 21 July, 2000
PE Rain Jan 1916 - Sep 1941; Temp Jan 1919 - Sep 1941; Recommenced Rain Only Aug
1952 and Climate Apr 1959; Orig Coordinates 8 36 S 125 19 E 25 m; suggestion near CNRT
office in PE; IE probably behind one of government buildings which have been destroyed; Mau
Boke had rain gauge behind house PPL but missing
2000 RG left at UNTAET office (4 November, 2000) for installation by District Agric Officer
37 Lolotoi: Inspected 3 November, 2000 (No Inspection earlier survey – Bobonaro)
PE Rain Only Jan 1957; Orig Coordinates 9 09 S 125 16 E 784 m;

2000 RG located at Opa (sub-district Lolotoi) 9 09.954 S 125 16.072E 811 m (3 Nov. 2000)
beside UNTAET Office; Recorder João Pereira; Chefe do Suco Opa Armindo Afonso;
Secretario Zona Lolotoi Nicolao Moniz; Coordinator Agric. Herminio de Graca
38 Lore: Inspected 10 August, 2000
PE Rain Only Jan 1922 - Mar 1934; Recommenced Rain Only Jan 1958, Orig Coordinates
8 39 S 127 01 E 5 m; GPS 8 40 18.6 127 07 18.0 25 m at beach changed to 5 m so site near
beach; Chefe do Suco Cipriano Fernandes

2000 RG installed at Lore II which is about 6 kilometers from Los Palos on 24 November,
2000 8 34.468 S 126 59.140 E 338 m; Recorder Mario da Costa, Chefe do Suco Domingos da
Costa Aniceto; Lore 1(12 kilometers from Los Palos) which has more people was considered but
a satisfactory site or observer could not be found Coord. On road near school Lore 1 8 38.061 E
127 00.595 E 181 m

39 Lospalos: Inspection 10 August, 2000


PE Climate Jan 1953; B&W Photo 1957 shows Wind Tower and Screen; Orig Coordinates
8 32 S 127 01 E 394 m; GPS at Radio Transmitter Site above old airport 8 31 43.9 127 00 16.5
407 m

2000 RG located at left rear of UNTAET building 8 31.465 S 126 59.724 E 400 m 24 November,
2000; Recorder Hipolito de Jesus
40 Luro: Inspected 9 August, 2000
PE Rain Only Jan 1957; Orig Coordinates 8 31 S 126 51 E 400 m; GPS 8 32 40.4 126 50
08.4 393 m on hill Luro; IE moved to Wairoque - Odofuro 8 30 49.6 126 50 04.1 122m; Chefe
do Suco Americo Soares

2000 RG located 8 32.607 S 126 49.987 E 413 m 25 November, 2000 in front of


community buildings and small traditional house; Recorder Rolando Clemintino Xavier, Chefe
do Suco Americo dos santos

41 Maliana: Inspected 2 November, 2000 (No Inspection original survey – Bobonaro)


PE Climate Jan 1955; Orig Coordinates 9 00 S 125 15 E 298 m;

2000 RG left at Maliana for siting by Alfredo Agric Coordinator (3 November, 2000)
42 Manatuto: Inspected 5 August, 2000
PE Rain Jan 1917 -Sep 1941; Temp Jan 1917 - Sep 1941; Climate Jan 1952; 8 31 S 126 01
E 4 m;
2000 RG located to left front of UNTAET building for possible resiting 25 November, 2000, 8
30.620 S 126 00.822 E 47 m?

42 a Natarbora – New Station Manatuto District Orig Coordinates 9 00 S 126 05 E 15 m


2000 RG 8 59.164 S 126 01.569 E 62 m? Located (14 Nov) in front of house of school Head
Master; Recorder Sylvino da Costa Gomez Head of SMP School Natarbora

43 Maubara: Inspected 21 July, 2000

PE Rain Only Jan 1957; Location in PE not certain but in IE probably had rain gauge in
Maubara agric training centre

2000 RG left for siting by District Agric. Officer on 4 November, 2000 probably in front of
counterparts house (old PPL house Mau Boke)

44 Maubisse (Ailaka): Inspected 22 August, 2000

PE Rain Jan 1917 - Dec 1926; Temp Jan 1917 - Dec 1926; Recommenced Climate Jan
1952; B&W Photo 1957 shows enclosure wind mast and screen; Orig Coordinates 8 50 S 125 36
E 1432 m; GPS near present army barricks 8 50.041 125 35.907 1405 m and 8 49.97 125 35.918
1404 m; IE station near Portugese Army barricks or near Primary School; Coord. Guest House
on Hill 8 50.431 S 125 36.126 E 1512 m

2000 RG 8 50.147 S 125 35.870 S 1473 m (9 November, 2000) in front of UNTAET


office on road to barricks; Recorder staff Robert Draper District Field Officer (Liberia West
Africa) Maubisse Sub district, Mr. Bossa CNRT leader & Chefe do suco Adelino both live near
markets

45 Nitibe - Ocussi: Inspected 20 — 22 November, 2000 (Not Inspected in initial survey) Orig.
Coordinates 9 19 S 124 12 E 740 m

2000 RG installed 21 November, 2000 beside village office, 9 20.259 S 124 13.236 E 722
m – Sub-village (Dusun) Fatu Nababo, Village (Desa) Usi Taco, Sub-district Nitibe — 2 hours
drive from Oecussi either by inland road which runs through river bed and would be cut off in
wet season or by coast road — both roads are very rough and rocky and will deteriorate during
wet season; Recorder Francisco Nano, Chefe do Suco Florentino Name

46 Oecussi (Pante Makassar) - Ocussi: Inspected 20 — 22 November, 2000 (Not Inspected in


initial survey)
PE Rain jan 1919 - Jul 1941; Climate Jan 1956; B&W Photo 1957 shows a complete
station on the beach with adjoining 10 meters wind mast with recording room at bottom; Orig
coordinates 9 12 S 124 23 E 2 m; probably at other end of runway to Indonesian station;
Indonesian station has evidence of earth thermometers, soil surface thermometers, screen,
pluviograph, rain gauge, anemometer 10 meters? And telescope for tracking weather balloons;

2000 RG installed 20 November, 2000 in enclosure of Indonesian Station at rear of office


of Meteorology and Geofisika not far from one end of runway of airport, 9 11.995 S 124 20.954
E 14 m ? (4); Recorder Abilio da Costa (Numbai) who lives about 1 km from station and worked
there in Indonesian times.

47 Oe-Silo - Ocussi: Inspected 20 — 22 November, 2000 (Not Inspected in initial survey)

PE Rain Only Jan 57; B&W Photo 1959 shows secure fence with Screen and Rain Gauge;
Orig Coordinates 9 24 S 124 21 E 460 m;

2000 RG installed 20 November, 2000 beside house of observer, 9 23.841 S 124 21.403 E
576 m — Sub-village (Dusun) Tumin, Village (Desa) Bobometo, Sub-district Oe-Silo — 40 km
(1 hr 15 min) from Oecus si but road runs through river bed and would be cut off in wet season;
Recorder Jose Ulan

48 Ossu: Inspected 17 August, 2000

PE Rain Feb 1917 - Aug 1941; Climate Jan 1952; Orig Coordinates 8 44 S 126 22 E 688 m;
Remains of station on hill beside road 8 44.551 126 23.113 690 m; IE broken Pluviograph on
small knoll near Kecamatan office 8 44.204 126 22.244 799 m

2000 RG 8 44.323 S 126 22.702 E 675 m installed in front of village meeting rooms (Balai
Desa Ossu decima) 15 November, 2000; Recorder Henrique Ruas ex PPL & District Agric
Officer, Chefe do Suko Joao da Costa Guterres

49 Quelicai: Inspected 8 August, 2000


PE Rain Only Jan 1920 - Dec 1924; Jan 1928 Dec 1932; Jan 1936 - Aug 1941;
Recommenced Jan 1958; Orig Coordinates 8 33 S 126 36 E 400 m; GPS 8 06.064 126 33.297
659 m; Chefe do Suco Victor Soares Belo Ximenis; At Portugese House Sabino Alfonso 8
36.097 126 33.369 703 m;

50 Remexio: Inspected 30 July, 2000

PE Rain Only Jan 1957; Orig Coordinates 8 35 S 125 40 E 849 m; local villagers Alfredo,
Domingos and Pedro Mendonça showed PE location on knoll above road - did not seem a good
site and suggest new site near round-about.

2000 RG 8 37.032 S 125 40.171 E 896 m installed in front of house Chefe do Posto 10
Novembro, 2000; Recorder Pedro Mendonça, Chefe do Suco Lorenso Sique ira

51 Same: Inspected 23 August, 2000

PE Rain Jan 1916 - Apr 1935; Temp Jan 1917 - Dec 1918; Recommenced Climate Jan
1957; 3 B&W Photos 1957 show station under construction with a low concrete wall and
concrete posts for equipment plus Wind Tower and Screen; B&W Photo 1959 shows same with
well kept hedge and low battlement fence in background; Orig Coordinates 9 00 S 125 40 E 544
m; GPS on knoll near Portugese House overlooking rest of city 9 00.044 125 39.137 600 m
Quito Marcai pointed out this site; near house below knoll 9 00.015 125 38.391 537 m
Seemed more likely

2000 RG 9 00.655 S 125 38.791 E 556 m at side of UNTAET office (14 November, 2000);
Recorder Anecleto dos Santos

52 Soibada: Inspected 5 August, 2000

PE Rain Jul 1916 - Dec 1923; Temp Jan 1917 - Dec 1923; Recommenced Climate Jan
1951; B&W Photo 1957 shows Screen, Wind Mast and Rain Gauge and distinctive range in
back-ground; Orig Coordinates 8 52 S 125 56 E 873 m; GPS 8 51 25.6 125 56 34 674 m site
pointed out as old station - had concrete block and stay for wind tower and agreed with photo
from Portugese Report; now covered by small house; Colegio Dominicanas de Soibada -
orphanage would be good site for new rain gauge
53 Suai: Inspected 8 November, 200 (Not Inspected initial survey – Covalima)

PE Rain Only Jan 1938 - May 1941; Recommenced Jan 1953; Orig Coordinates 9 21 S
125 18 E 73 m; Old Screen found in Church grounds 9 18.999 S 125 15.295 E 72 m; Airport 9
18.140 S 125 17.103 E 59 m has automated Rimco rain gauge, Temp, Humidity, Wind Speed
and Direction plus Ceilometer — shown around by Sergeant Peter Hughes

2000 RG (7 Nov) 9 18.005 S 125 18.087 E 47 m at Samfuk (Old BPP now NGO vegetable
and plant nursery project Emmy); Recorder Carlos de Fatima

54 Turiscai: Checked out in Maubisse 23 August, 2000


PE Rain Only Jan 1939 - Aug 1941; Recommenced Jan 1957; Orig Coordinates 8 50 S 125
43 S 1171 m; Commander Portugese Army Post Maubisse gave information that road is bad and
the last 1 km must be on foot

55 Tutuala: Inspected 10 August, 2000


PE Rain Only Jan 1953; Climate Jan 1957; Orig Coordinates 8 24 S 127 16 E 361 m;
nothing found although old photo (1959) indicated on point near guest house GPS 8 23 30.6 127
15 26.8 417 m;

2000 RG 8 23.630 S 127 15.354 E 369 m near house Vice Secretaries Suco (Macario
Lopes) opposite football field 24 November, 2000, Recorder Benedict Pereira (teacher); Chefe
do Suco Armando lives in group of houses before entering main part of village and was in Los
Paios the day of our visit.

56 Uato-Lari: Inspected 16 August, 2000


PE Rain Feb 1920 - Aug 1941; Recommenced Jan 1953; Orig Coordinates 8 46 S 126 34 E
257 m; in PE Uato-Lari in highlands (atas) but in IE population moved nearer coast road and
most do not want to return; GPS new Uato-Lari 8 49 29.2 126 31 31.1 66 m; Chefe do Suko
Lorenco de Jesus

2000 RG (15 Nov. ) 9 49.287 S 126 31.799 E 15 m left front house Chefe do Suko; Recorder
Lourenço de Jesus Chefe do Suko

57 Vemasse: Inspected 7 August, 2000


PE Rain Only Jan 1931 – Sep 1941; Recommenced Apr 1956; Orig Coordinates 8 31 S
126 13 E 6 m; did not have rain gauge Chefe do Suco Thomas Francisco da Costa Freitas; IE
PPL Bonifácio da Costa Freitas

58 Venilalae: Inspected 17 August, 2000


PE Rain Only Jan 1918 - Dec 1923; Jan 1929 - Jul 1941; Recommenced Jan 1953; Orig
Coordinates 8 38 S 126 22 E 775 m; probably near Portugese buildings

2000 RG 8 38.650 S 126 22.705 E 823 m; installed to left front of CIVPOL office 25 November,
2000, to be read for present by CIVPOL staff— an arrangement made by Mr Dahal

59 Viqueque: Inspected 16 August, 2000


PE Rain Jan 1916 - Dec 1941; Temp Jan 1923 - Dec 1935; Recommenced 1957; Orig
Coordinates 8 52 S 126 22 E 46 m; site not located may be near old airport Naeboruk

2000 RG (15 Nov08 51.358 S 126 21.803 54 m in front of UNTAET office; Recorder to be
named
60 Zumalai: Not Inspected initial survey - Covalima
PE Climate 1953; Orig Coordinates 9 12 S 125 25 E 108 m;
60 a Raemea - New Location Covalima
2000 RG installed 8 Novembro, 2000 at Belaku 9 11.987 S 125 28.918 E 24 m; Recorder
Chefe do Suco Miguel da Costa Berak
APPENDIX – III

Road Distances and Travei Times


Times are conservative as roads have many unexpected hazards and must be negotiated
slowly and cautiously, particularly if delicate meteorological equipment is being transported.
Some experienced drivers could cover some roads much more quickly but not without taking
risks from unexpected oncoming traffic around sharp bends and not without placing strains on
vehicle components and contents. For example, the consultant is advised that the Parish Priest at
Soba (Laga) who travails these roads regularly has recorded 20 minutes to Quelecai (CF 1 hr 17
mins) and 45 minutes to Baguia (CF l hr- 50 min).
APPENDIX – IV
Specifications Security Fencing - Automatic Climate Stations East
Timor

Specifications Automatic Climate/ Rainfall Recording Equipment

Specifications Security Fencing - Automatic Climate Recording Stations East


Timor Locations

1. Dare - On church property as Glose as possible to old Portugese location


2. Maubisse - Close to present Portugese Army base
3. Ainaro - Site to be selected within old coordinates in town area
4. Same - Site to be selected within old coordinates in town area
5. Betano - Tractor service centre used by Father Tan
6. Fuiloro – Fuiloro Agricultura College
7. Baucau Airport
8. Suai Airport
9. Ocussi Airport
10. Dili Airport

Distances/ Times from Dili - These are estimates only ; it will be the responsibility of the
contractor to confirm transport arrangements. Times will depend on seasonal road conditions.

1. Dare - 13 km (28 minutes)


2. Maubisse - 73 km (2 hrs 10 min)
3. Ainaro - 114 km (3 hrs 37 min)
4. Same - 117 km (3 hrs 30 min)
5. Betano - 139 km (3 hrs 50 min)
6. Fuiloro - 203 km (6 hrs )
7. Baucau Airport - 120 km (3 hrs )
8. Suai Airport - ?
9. Ocussi Airport - Helicopter or ship
10. Dili Airport

Specifications/ Requirements

Supply and erection of 10 enclosures (9 meters by 9 meter) with access gate as per attached
sketch
Fence posts galvanized tubular steel with caps 2.1 meters above ground level concreted below
ground.
Fencing materials - chain wire to 1.8 metres with three strands of barbed wire on top 30 cm.
Gate, Chain and Padlock to be supplied and fitted.
Two shorter posts to be installed within compound to take one climate station and one manual
rain gauge. These posts to be 1.2 metres above ground leve l.
It is anticipated that the work would commence in July 2001 and would need to be completed
within 2 - 3 weeks from date of signing the contract.
Specifications Automatic Climate/ Rainfall Recording Equipment
1. Features
• Light-weight (7 kg) self contained unit, compact, portable
• Six sensors for solar radiation, relative humidity (electronic), air temperature, Rainfall
(intensity and total), and wind speed, wind direction.
• Seventh optional sensor - barometric pressure, soil water (gypsum block), soil temperature,
grass temperature, leaf wetness (with 10 metre cable)
• 104 K memory, real time clock
• Extended data storage through data compression
• Flexible user programming using text file

2. Description
A compact, robust, automatic weather station with six in-built electronic weather sensors,
data logger and solar panel. A spare channel provides for a seventh optional sensor mounted
outside the main housing, up to 100 metres from the unit. As well as the standard sensors listed
above, other sensors should be available to meet particular requirements.

Each sensor automatically sends information to the data logger which processes and stores
the data in its memory. The data are then available for collection and analysis using a personal
computer.

3. Calibration
All sensors must be factory calibrated so that they are ready for immediate use and so that
adjustments will not be required for an extended period. The unit must be solar powered and
fully self contained so that installation involves mounting on a post and switching on.

4 Memory
The memory should have at least 104 Kb of RAM to provide up to 35,000 readings and to
facilitate high- intensity data collections with long intervals between down- loading. Data must be
stored in secure, battery backed data memory, split into 3 independent areas. Daily summaries
can be stored in Memory Area 1, hourly data in Memory Area 2 and more detailed data in
Memory Area 3.

An automatic circuit ("watch-dog") should be provided to restart the logger within a minute of
software failure resulting from for example a lightning strike. This will ensure that data storage
is uninterrupted. The internal real- time clock ensures that the correct date and time are always
stored with the data.
4. Specifications Sensors
Air Temperature - 15.0 °C to + 50.0 °C; Accuracy +/- 0.2 °C, calibrated at 0.0 °C and 25 °C.
Relative Humidity - electronic capitance type; accuracy +/- 5 %; range 10 -90%.
Rainfall - tipping bucket mechanism; resolution 0.2 mm; operating range up to 450 mm per hour;
stainless steel barrel; barrel removable for easy cleaning with approximately 5 years operation
before over- hall required; funnel diameter 203 mm; contact voltage 5.5 to 7 volts DC.
Wind Speed - 3 cup 66 mm Anemometer; resolution 10 m; starting threshold 1 kph.
Wind Direction - Optical shaft encoder; resolution 6 degrees; accuracy +/-6 degrees.
Solar Radiation - global incoming with cosine correction; accuracy +/- 5 %; cosine accuracy +1-
3 %.
Extra Sensors (Optional) - one only; barometric pressure, leaf wetness, soil temperature, grass
temperature or additional sensors excluding rainfall; interfaces for voltage, current, resistance
available.

5. Data Recorder

Memory: data stored into 3 independent memory areas; 104 K battery backed RAM
capable of storing a total of 35,000 readings (uncompressed) or typically up to 100,000 readings
with data compression.

System Indicator: 1 Second flash - Communicating; 2 Second flash - Normal; 4 Second flash -
Fault.
Battery: 6 volt 3.0 AH internal sealed rechargeable gel cell - capacity for 6 weeks operation
without sunlight.
Power Consumption: 3 mA in operating mode; 40 mA while communicating; 0,8 mA shut-down
mode.
Solar Charger: 1 watt panel maintains battery with three hours bright sunshine per day.
Programming: Pre-programmed with universal program which stores daily summary (memory 1),
hourly sensor data (memory 2) and 5 minute data (memory 3).

6. Housing
Housing dimensions: 650 mm X 210 mm diameter excluding mounting bracket and solar
panel; 900 mm X 420 mm with mounting bracket and solar panel; weight 7 kg without mounting
bracket.

7. Readout Software
Format: Readable texts file (ASCII); includes calendar dates and times; decimal places as
required; Software for MS-DOS

Connection RS232: 6 pin (serial RS232C standard); DTR, DSR, TX, RX, ground & power; 300
to 9600 Baud

8. Data Accessibility

The system should be supplied with a standard Windows-based data collection and
downloading program which would suit most standard applications and so that data is
transmitted in a standard text format which is easily viewed and transferable directly into most
standard spread-sheet or data-base programs.

System options should include evaporation calculation from data; data-base & graphing
windows software; air-data vector analysis software for accurate wind direction recording.

9. Communication Options
At site with laptop computer
At site with data display/downloading device
By direct cable connection - maximum distance 400 meters
By direct cable connection with fine driver package for distances between 400 metres to 5
kilometers
By connecting to standard telephone Tine with solar powered modem and sealed housing
By connecting to digital GSM cellular data terminal By connecting to specially designed radio
link
By Remote Voice Access with the voice output connected via a standard telephone fine modem,
a VHF radio or UHF radio CB radio connection. If the system cannot be operated on main's
power, a larger solar panel and battery is required for the voice operated system. This provides
24 hour access to the system and a total data transmission time of up to 3 hours.

10. Warranty
Equipment found to be defective due to incorrect manufacturing would be repaired free of
charge for up to 12 months from the date of delivery. Damage caused by misuse, accident, abuse,
faulty installation, mishandling or damage in transit would not be covered by warranty. The
customer would be expected to cover freight costs to and from the factory.
APPENDIX VII

Long-term Monthly Rain and Temperature Averages


Long - term Monthly Rainta Averanges and totals for 58 E.T loc

NW Área Jan Feb Mar Apl May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Anual
Balibo 389 330 188 106 38 29 24 5 4 20 109 253 1495
Maubara 178 183 123 92 48 44 18 14 12 49 49 150 971
Liquica 150 125 101 93 142 79 36 12 16 22 72 143 990
Boibau 353 218 176 123 44 37 3 10 19 48 126 229 1386
Lahane 238 238 110 53 59 53 21 4 21 52 52 200 1284
Dili 140 139 133 104 75 38 20 12 9 13 61 145 898
Dare 285 302 242 159 74 90 51 27 11 22 120 263 1644
Fazenda Algarve 544 469 324 178 100 62 52 23 11 56 242 434 2496
Fatu-Bessi 427 425 317 255 109 107 48 32 51 129 338 438 2676
Ermera 352 434 326 303 159 60 35 29 37 140 309 404 2585
Remexio 366 469 343 183 139 84 42 18 10 11 128 277 2070
Fazenda Olivia 441 390 368 258 91 81 15 12 6 32 93 358 2143
Aileu 259 262 156 170 58 45 15 24 21 74 242 324 1651
Hato-Lia 398 405 437 177 64 33 15 13 30 30
122 287
122 352 2333
Lete-Foho 552 495 323 152 107 31 26 9 29 54 239 508 2526
Atsabe 458 444 301 181 68 21 17 3 8 60 153 397 2111
Turiscai 305 405 307 195 156 102 53 5 3 16 126 397 2096
Maliana 544 469 324 178 100 62 52 23 11 56 242 434 2496
NE Área
Manatuto 103 87 83 65 52 20 15 4 2 4 30 100 656
Laclubar 290 347 292 235 131 88 66 8 10 32 164 324 1985
Vemasse 132 116 91 91 59 25 17 10 5 9 40 104 697
Venilale 326 341 287 141 89 63 36 13 3 19 120 321 1758
Baucau 213 221 152 154 96 38 20 11 5 7 76 186 1178
Quelicai 218 264 195 158 124 51 17 7 3 16 85 242 1379
Laga 111 124 86 106 65 41 15 8 1 5 33 128 723
Laivai 130 100 86 94 56 38 2 2 0 0 34 57 600
Fuiloro 161 178 180 91 186 96 63 3 5 6 132 187 1287
Lautem 151 102 98 190 116 43 6 8 1 17 40 144 916
SW Área
Babonaro 369 322 244 249 137 66 33 13 16 76 178 340 2042
Maubisse 186 233 168 185 115 66 36 18 20 29 137 245 1438
Hato-Builico 366 384 249 212 150 77 22 18 10 25 135 309 1947
Ainaro 384 342 364 243 175 110 73 30 34 119 244 455 2572
Same 345 350 325 255 290 237 131 29 23 51 145 341 2497
Raimera 339 376 338 263 354 275 174 29 23 77 194 349 2791
Alas 280 226 183 216 251 195 153 46 15 32 99 277 1970
Lolotoi 430 428 303 301 394 259 152 28 23 62 173 285 2837
Zumalai 184 158 121 166 135 104 115 46 3 34 63 182 1310
Uato-Udo 218 176 155 157 198 141 114 51 11 56 106 198 1582
Bentano 173 128 153 147 335 140 89 9 2 26 11 145 1357
Fohorem 237 168 209 144 164 131 92 21 9 29 86 261 1549
Suai 272 238 155 215 240 208 141 31 10 39 55 177 1779
Sl Área
Soibada 350 364 273 218 252 196 130 40 18 38 120 344 2351
Fatu-Berliu 234 287 275 193 277 244 91 23 7 24 98 334 2351
Lacluta 310 309 322 210 193 137 57 18 17 50 124 282 2028
Barique 298 273 255 209 222 158 85 24 9 20 103 245 1901
Ossu 282 249 240 205 197 169 78 30 7 21 108 227 1813
Uato-Lari 195 179 167 238 293 282 144 39 9 10 56 168 1790
Baguia 272 273 260 227 374 301 146 45 10 18 95 252 2322
iliomar 209 198 162 270 387 325 199 74 12 11 63 176 2086
Lore 171 136 180 248 292 168 142 18 5 5 80 156 1599
Lospalos 220 224 255 234 323 232 132 48 15 23 84 232 2123
Tutu ala 153 147 150 247 316 261 107 40 '13 12 70 169 1683
Luro 276 333 280 199 204 109 63 11 1 22 85 281 1863
Viqueque 212 192 202 214 243 171 92 22 8 16 67 197 1635
ENCLAVE ISLANDS
Ocussi 282 229 206 89 67 8 6 3 1 16 54 177 1107
Atauro 178 168 112 111 37 39 28 6 2 9 55 141 887
Oe Silo 342 273 213 111 31 8 3 2 3 13 68 222 1287
Nibite 378 403 158 96 51 20 10 5 4 22 86 270 27
Long - Term Rain Day Averanges

NW Área Jan Feb Mar Apl May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Anual
Balibo 17 16 13 8 3 2 2 0 1 2 8 17 89
Maubara 13 15 11 8 7 3 4 2 1 2 7 13 86
Liquica 16 15 13 7 2 1 1 0 0 2 5 14 76
Boibau 20 20 16 11 5 4 1 0 1 5 11 18 112
Lahane 19 19 17 12 6 5 3 1 1 2 7 18 110
Oiti 15 14 14 10 7 4 3 1 1 2 7 15 93
Dare 20 20 17 13 8 7 4 3 1 4 10 19 126
Fazenda Algarve 23 21 19 15 9 6 5 3 3 8 21 22 155
Fatu-Bessi 22 20 20 17 10 6 4 3 4 10 20 24 160
Errn era 19 19 17 16 10 5 3 2 3 8 16 21 139
Ramexio 21 23 20 14 9 5 4 2 1 2 11 20 132
Fazenda Olivia 23 23 20 19 11 5 3 2 2 4 10 20 142
Aileu 20 20 15 12 7 7 40 2 3 9 17 21 137
Mato-Lia 18 18 18 10 5 3 2 1 2 7 13 18 115
Lete-Foho 26 25 22 18 14 5 6 4 4 26 17 26 173
Atsabe 22 21 17 14 7 3 2 1 2 6 12 23 130
Tu riscai 20 19 19 14 14 15 11 2 1 2 8 17 142
Ma liana 23 23 20 14 9 6 5 2 1 4 12 23 142
NE Arear
Manatuto 8 8 7 6 4 2 1 0 0 1 3 5 45
Laclubar 18 19 21 16 14 14 9 3 1 2 12 20 149
Vernasse 10 11 10 10 5 4 2 1 0 1 5 10 69
Venilale 23 21 20 12 11 9 6 2 1 3 10 20 138
Baucau 20 17 16 15 10 6 4 2 01. 7 15 113
Quelicai 14 15 14 10 8 4 3 1 0 2 7 14 92
Laga 12 11 10 9 8 6 4 2 1 2 7 13 85
Laivai 10 10 8 7 4 3 1 0 0 0 3 7 53
Fuiloro 14 15 1 7 10 10 8 1 1 1 5 13 86
Lautem 9 9 8 10 7 3 1 1 0 1 3 9 61
SW Área
Bobonaro 20 18 15 13 9 7 6 3 1 4 10 18 124
Maubisse 13 14 11 11 12 8 7 3 1 3 9 13 105
Hato-Builico 19 17 15 11 9 7 3 1 1 3 8 19 113
Ainaro 20 19 19 15 14 13 10 5 3 6 12 22 158
Sarne 18 18 17 12 14 14 12 4 2 2 7 16 136
Rafrnera 20 19 17 15 16 15 11 5 4 4 9 17 152
Alas 20 18 14 14 16 16 14 6 3 3 8 17 149
Laltrtoi 23 21 19 18 18 19 15 6 3 5 10 22 179
Zumalai 15 14 12 13 16 15 11 5 1 3 6 16 127
Uato-Udo 16 13 11 12 15 14 11 4 2 2 6 15 121
Benta no 17 12 10 9 15 12 9 3 1 2 2 10 102
Fohorem 14 11 11 10 10 11 8 2 1 3 7 16 104
Suai 13 11 9 10 11 12 9 2 1 2 4 11 95
SE Área .
Soibada 19 19 16 13 15 14 13 5 2 2 9 17 144
Fatu-6erliu 16 15 14 11 14 13 8 4 1 2 5 15 118
Lacluta 15 16 17 13 12 10 7 3 1 3 7 15 120
Barique 16 17 16 15 16 14 9 4 2 2 6 14 133
Ossu 17 15 17 14 16 14 10 5 2 2 7 16 135
Uato-Lari 13 12 12 13 15 14 10 4 1 1 4 11 110
Baguia 16 16 16 15 17 15 11 6 1 2 6 13 134
Iliomar 14 13 13 15 17 15 13 7 2 3 5 13 130
Lore 12 10 10 12 13 10 6 4 1 1 3 9 91
Lospalos 18 18 16 18 21 18 16 10 5 3 7 17 167
Tutuala 12 13 12 16 16 15 11 7 2 2 4 12 122
Luro 18 21 19 16 16 13 9 3 1 1 6 19 142
Viqueque 15 12 14 14 16 12 10 4 2 1 5 13 118
Enclave/lslands
Ocussi 16 15 13 7 2 1 1 0 0 2 5 14 76
Atauro 13 13 9 7 4 4 2 0 0 1 4 11 68
0e-Silo 21 22 16 9 6 3 3 1 0 2 8 19 110
Nitibe 22 24 17 12 8 3 2 1 1 1 6 18 115
Bigest Daily ( 24 hour ) Totals - long - term for 58 Locations
NW Área Jan Feb Mar Apl May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Anual
Balobo 470 185 109 106 77 95 87 31 15 71 142 200 470
M aubara 73 120 122 47 70 65 61 28 80 14 75 89 122
Liguica 288 92 67 92 232 215 114 60 53 52 84 72 288
Boibau 180 180 87 70 86 68 20 5 40 35 47 40 72
Lahane 80 140 127 65 56 77 77 53 14 41 41 75 140
Dili 106 144 112 124 275 131 76 47 43 66 70 106 275
Dare 119 138 108 74 52 123 96 52 20 20 91 151 151
Fazenda Algarve 129 209 57 99 55 89 119 40 39 86 95 133 209
Fatu-Bessi 172 169 87 92 80 65 74 112 65 78 110 137 172
Er-mera 133 127 89 86 106 71 64 47 82 88 73 105 133
Remexio 114 210 133 70 132 168 46 35 45 16 52 71 210
Fazenda Olivia 165 141 134 73 71 105 12 23 11 55 34 232 232
Aileu 108 70 81 77 98 67 49 111 82 98 62 149 149
Hato-Lia 150 150 175 115 112 77 40 50 49 91 115 142 175
Lete-Foho 145 145 90 46 44 34 23 17 30 51 100 208 208
Atsabe 137 385 83 115 119 58 31 15 26 75 93 190 385
Tu riscai 83 190 85 71 180 70 70 4 10 28 70 103 190
Maliana 200 137 96 59 74 68 91 79 34 68 89 224 224

NE Área
Manatuto 179 92 57 59 170 54 74 31 23 48 64 80 179
Laclubar 186 93 92 102 109 52 75 19 35 45 85 80 186
Vamasse 150 75 64 71 78 24 40 73 15 40 44 65 150
VeniIate 139 201 123 118 145 74 91 102 30 58 96 119 201
Baucau 150 84 104 101 185 48 27 82 61 22 78 126 185
Quelicai 149 116 79 88 115 79 32 15 25 38 88 130 149
Laga 352 509 226 253 249 121 148 73 7 27 157 398 509
L210 ai 63 37 39 72 49 34 6 17 0 3 75 26 75
Fuiloro 78 66 70 50 90 190 100 11 2 35 170 120 190
Lautem 110 71 109 124 120 57 15 29 5 35 81 96 124
SW Área
Bobonaro 176 188 100 138 162 66 40 29 74 182 140 112 188
Maubisse 79 91 98 110 70 57 67 113 80 51 88 150 150
Hatoburlico 170 166 107 250 170 59 34 40 26 97 69 181 250
Ainaro 160 116 337 145 172 112 80 235 81 134 103 178 337
Sa me 111 108 103 127 182 165 202 60 95 217 93 179 217
Raimera 110 128 170 131 166 147 168 54 45 71 120 119 170
Alas 92 84 93 129 117 104 175 241 58 58 97 96 241
Lolotoi 102 144 108 96 267 83 79 16 82 65 109 91 267
Zumalai 100 96 60 234 101 63 229 203 8 56 55 101 234
Uato-Udo 81 69 54 99 107 61 127 186 27 146 90 98 186
Bentano 77 87 83 79 95 91 86 10 5 55 12 111 111
Fohorem 109 112 122 113 256 143 87 194 42 37 101 100 286
Suai 190 82 80 217 97 93 155 76 33 58 68 73 217

NE Área `.
Soibada 111 143 172 115 118 140 101 149 52 86 87 149 172
Fatu-Berliu 300 104 110 133 174 123 70 46 30 49 94 108 300
Laclut2 157 137 218 121 117 106 95 31 62 111 181 156 218
Banque 401 119 120 163 178 106 120 111 47 79 151 96 401
Ossu 102 103 98 242 154 130 112 126 36 60 140 204 242
Uato-Lari 91 109 160 148 187 202 160 307 36 43 88 125 307
Baguia 111 164 123 152 167 145 189 215 40 38 95 124 215
Iliomar 160 67 63 218 324 215 271 149 40 25 67 111 324
Lore 181 106 106 174 277 173 153 21 17 24 200 113 277
Lespalas 68 84 201 85 211 398 192 94 57 71 130 136 398
Tutuata 121 69 152 134 194 200 73 69 41 30 83 102 200
Luro 104 81 85 70 64 78 141 12 3 76 67 80 141
Viqueque 188 148 122 160 166 164 124 59 67 63 200 92 200
Encave / Island
Ocussi 149 108 230 195 146 49 35 24 10 52 60 85 230
Aturo 154 205 137 156 66 127 207 68 25 49 120 115 207
Oe- Silo 382 255 192 96 97 49 42 20 19 73 174 604 604
Nitibe 155 192 230 97 68 29 34 24 28 52 61 85 230