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Sur la modélisation et la commande de suspension de

véhicules automobiles
Damien Sammier

To cite this version:


Damien Sammier. Sur la modélisation et la commande de suspension de véhicules automobiles. Au-
tomatique / Robotique. Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble - INPG, 2001. Français. �tel-
00198474�

HAL Id: tel-00198474


https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00198474
Submitted on 17 Dec 2007

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Accel caisse (m/s2)

0.6 Confort BF 15mm,0.05Hz = 94


Surtension Zcaisse/Zsol = 2.1218
0.5 Fréquence Zcaisse/Zsol = 1 Hz
0.4
Surtension Zroue/Zsol = 1.9262
0.3 Fréquence Zroue/Zsol = 10.6 Hz

0.2 Trépidation 1mm,0.5Hz = 1.688

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Caractéristique Force−Déplacement de la raideur linéaire (− −) et non−linéaire (−) de la 406 Amortisseurs linéaire (− −) et 406 serie non linéaire (−)
8000 150

6000 100

4000 50

Charge (daN)
2000 0
Force (N)

0 −50

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comparaison amortisseurs 406−série(−.) et 607−9lois(−) en compression


110

100

90

80

70

Force (daN)
60

50

40


30

20

10

0
comparaison amortisseurs 406−série(−.) et 607−9lois(−) en detente 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
0 Vitesse relative (m/s)

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Confort BF Rebond de roue


2.5 2

2
1.5
Zcaisse/Zsol (−)

Zroue/Zsol (−)
1.5
1
1

0.5
0.5

0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 5 10 15 20
Fréquence (Hz) Fréquence (Hz)

Trépidation
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0.7
Accel caisse (m/s2)

0.6 Confort BF 15mm,0.05Hz = 94


Surtension Zcaisse/Zsol = 2.1218
0.5 Fréquence Zcaisse/Zsol = 1 Hz
0.4
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0.3 Fréquence Zroue/Zsol = 10.6 Hz

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0.1
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Fréquence (Hz)

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−3 Tests temporels bosse 10x2000mm, vitesse 30km/h


x 10
10 2
2
accelcaisse(m/s )
Zcaisse(m)

5 0

0 −2

−5 −4
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.02 500
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Zroue(m)

0.01
0
0

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0.02 1

0.01 0.5
Vrel(m/s)
Zrel(m)

0 0

−0.01 −0.5

−0.02 −1
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temps(s) temps(s)

suspension avant

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Comparaison de z (s)/z (s)=S(s)/((s+2*pi)2P’(s)) avec P’(s)=(s+p)5
caisse sol
10
sans commande
0
p=1000
p=600
−10 p=800

−20

−30
(dB)

p=200
caisse sol

−40
/z

p=400
z

−50

−60

−70

−80

−90
−1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

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160

140
pôle quintuple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 90, 100, 106, 115, 130}
Magnitude (dB)

120

100

80

60

100

−100
Phase (deg)

−200

−300

−400

−500

−600
−3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

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S

10

5
Magnitude (dB)

−5

pôle quintuple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 90, 100, 106, 115, 130}


−10

−15

100

50
Phase (deg)

−50
−1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

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A       
       
y/b=T

5
pôle quintuple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 90, 100, 106, 115, 130}
0
Magnitude (dB)

−5

−10

−15

−20

−25

−30

200

0
Phase (deg)

−200

−400

−600

−800
−3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

 (AV *


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*   ¼
u/b=KS

160

140
pôle quintuple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 90, 100, 106, 115, 130}
Magnitude (dB)

120

100

80

60

200

100

0
Phase (deg)

−100

−200

−300

−400

−500

−600
−3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

 (AV *


    * 
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*   ¼
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y/d=SGd

20
BO
0
Magnitude (dB)

−20

−40
pôle quintuple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 90, 100, 106, 115, 130}

−60

100

0
Phase (deg)

−100

−200

−300

−400
−1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

 (A?V *


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*   ¼
u/d=KSGd

110

100
pôle quintuple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 90, 100, 106, 115, 130}
Magnitude (dB)

90

80

70

500

0
Phase (deg)

−500

−1000
−3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

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Comparaisons BO(−.)−BF(−) du transfert Zs/Zsol


3

BO
2.5

pôle quintuple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 90, 100, 106, 115, 130}


2
Gain

1.5

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
fréquence en Hz

 (ABV *


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O     *.  * 
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Comparaisons BO(−.)−BF(−) du transfert Zu/Zsol


2.5

BO

1.5
Gain

pôle quintuple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 90, 100, 106, 115, 130}


0.5

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
fréquence en Hz

 (AEV *


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 5 * 
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Comparaisons BO(−.)−BF(−) du transfert Zs2nd/Zsol


0.8

pôle quintuple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 90, 100, 106, 115, 130}


0.7

0.6
Acceleration de la caisse (m/s2)

0.5

0.4

0.3

BO
0.2

0.1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
fréquence en Hz

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Comparaison de Zcaisse(t) avec Zcaisse(s)/Zsol(s)=S(s)/P’(s) et P’(s)=(s−p)
1.6

1.4

sans commande
p=130
1.2
p=115
p=106
1
Zcaisse (m)

To: Y(1)

0.8

0.6
p=100

p=90
0.4

0.2

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

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Comparaison de zcaisse(s)/zsol(s) pour différentes pulsations de coupure wn du filtre F(s)


10
w =30
n
sans commande
5
w =50
n
w =70
n
0

−5

sans filtre
w =90
zcaisse/zsol (dB)

n
−10
wn=106

−15

−20

−25

−30

−35
−1 0 1
10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

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Comparaison de z (s)/z (s) pour différents amortissements xi du filtre F(s)


caisse sol
10

sans commande

5 wn=50, xi=0.9
wn=50, xi=0.7

wn=50, xi=0.5
0 wn=50, xi=0.2
zcaisse/zsol (dB)

−5 w =70, xi=0.9
n

wn=70, xi=0.7

−10 w =70, xi=0.5


n
w =70, xi=0.2
n

−15

sans filtre
−20

−25
−1 0 1
10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

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Comparaison de zcaisse(s)/zsol(s) avec et sans filtre F(s)
10

avec filtre w =90 et xi=0.707


0 n

sans filtre
−10

sans commande
−20

−30
zcaisse/zsol (dB)

−40

−50

−60

−70

−80

−90
−1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

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Comparaison des correcteurs K(s)=R(s)/S(s) avec et sans filtre F(s)

200

sans filtre
150

100
Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB)

avec filtre
50

100
sans filtre
0

−100

−200

avec filtre
−300

−400
−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10 10

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Comparaisons BO, BF et limite du transfert Zcaisse/Zsol Comparaisons BO(−.)−BF(−) du transfert Zroue/Zsol
3 3
BF

2.5 2.5

BO
2 2

BO
Limite
Zcaisse/Zsol

Zroue/Zsol
1.5 1.5

1 1
BF

0.5 0.5

0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Fréquence (Hz)
Fréquence (Hz)

 (@V %  % (  (BV   


Comparaisons BO, BF et limite de l’accélération de la caisse d2Zcaisse/dt2
0.8

BF
Limite

0.7

0.6
Acceleration de la caisse (m/s )
2

0.5

0.4

(
0.3

0.2

BO

0.1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Fréquence (Hz)

 (EV %  0 % -


  4= *

5

Tests temporels bosse 10x2000mm, vitesse 30km/h


0.02 5
accelcaisse(m/s2)
Zcaisse(m)

0.01
0
0

−0.01 −5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.02 200
Jcaisse(m/s3)

100
Zroue(m)

0.01
0
0
−100

−0.01 −200
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.02 0.5

0.01
Vrel(m/s)

0
Zrel(m)

0
−0.5
−0.01

−0.02 −1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
temps(s) temps(s)

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Fonction de sensibilité S pour w =90, xi=0.707 et p=106


n

10

0
Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB)

−5

−10

100

50

−50
−1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10

Fréquence (rad/sec)

 (CV 8 


  


  

Fonction de sensibilité T=y/b pour w =90, xi=0.707 et p=106


n
50

−50

−100
Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB)

−150

−200

200

100

−100

−200

−300

−400

−500

−600
−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Fréquence (rad/sec)

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Fonction de sensibilité KS=u/b pour wn=90, xi=0.707 et p=106

150

100
Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB)

50

200

100

−100

−200

−300

−400
−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Fréquence (rad/sec)

 (V 8 


  


    

Fonction de sensibilité KSGd=u/d pour w =90, xi=0.707 et p=106


n
150

100

50

0
Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB)

−50

−100

200

−200

−400

−600

−800
−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Fréquence (rad/sec)

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Transfert zcaisse/zsol pour différentes valeurs du pôle triple p

sans commande
5

p=50 rad/s
zcaisse/zsol (dB)

p=74.34 rad/s
−5

p=100 rad/s

−10
p=200 rad/s

−15

−20
0 1
10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

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200
Magnitude (dB)

150

100

pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}


50

250

200
pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}
Phase (deg)

150

100

50

0
−1 0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

 (?V *


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S

0
Magnitude (dB)

−5

−10

pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}


−15

60
pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}
40
Phase (deg)

20

−20

−40
0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

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y/b=T

−50
Magnitude (dB)

−100

pôle triple p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}


−150

−200

−250

200

100

0
Phase (deg)

−100

−200

−300 pôle triple p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}


−400

−500

−600
−1 0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

 (BV *


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u/b=KS

200

pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}


Magnitude (dB)

150

100

50

250

200
pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}
Phase (deg)

150

100

50

0
−1 0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

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y/d=SGd

−50
Magnitude (dB)

−100

−150
pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}
−200

−250

−50

−100
Phase (deg)

pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}


−150

−200

−250

−300
0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

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u/d=KSGd

100
Magnitude (dB)

50

0
pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}

−50

100

50

0
Phase (deg)

−50

−100

−150

−200 pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}

−250

−300
−1 0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (rad/s)

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Comparaisons BO(−.)−BF(−) du transfert Zs/Zsol
3

BO
2.5

2
Gain

1.5

pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
fréquence en Hz

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Comparaisons BO(−.)−BF(−−) et limitation(−) du transfert Zu/Zsol


3

2.5

2
Gain

1.5

pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000}

0.5

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
fréquence en Hz

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Comparaisons BO(−.)−BF(−−) et limitation(−) du transfert Zs2nd/Zsol


0.7

0.6

0.5
Acceleration de la caisse (m/s2)

0.4

0.3
p=74.34
p=200
p=100
0.2

p=1000
0.1

pôle triple (rad/s) : p ∈ { 74.34, 100, 200, 500, 1000} p=500

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
fréquence en Hz

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Transfert zcaisse/zsol avec un pôle triple p=74.34 rad/s et le filtre F(s)

sans commande
5

0
zcaisse/zsol (dB)

xi=0.9
−5
xi=0.707
xi=0.5

xi=0.2
−10

−15
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0 1
10 10
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Transfert z /z avec un pôle triple p=200 rad/s et le filtre F(s)
caisse sol

sans commande
5

0
zcaisse/zsol (dB)

−5

xi=0.9
−10
xi=0.707

xi=0.5

xi=0.2
−15

sans filtre

0 1
10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

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Comparaisons BO, BF et limite du transfert Zcaisse/Zsol Comparaisons BO, BF du transfert Zroue/Zsol
3 2.5
BO

BF
2.5
2

1.5
Limite
Zcaisse/Zsol

Zroue/Zsol
1.5

1
BO

0.5
0.5

BF

0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Fréquence (Hz) Fréquence (Hz)

 (@V %  % (  (BV   


Comparaisons BO, BF et limite du transfert (d2Zcaisse/dt2)/Zsol
0.8

0.7
Limite

0.6
Acceleration de la caisse (m/s )
2

0.5

0.4

(
0.3
BF

BO
0.2

0.1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Fréquence (Hz)

 (EV %  0 % -


  4= *

5

Tests temporels bosse 10x2000mm, vitesse 30km/h


0.02 5
accelcaisse(m/s2)
Zcaisse(m)

0.01
0
0

−0.01 −5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.02 200
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100
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0.01
0
0
−100

−0.01 −200
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0.02 0.5

0.01
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0
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0
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temps(s) temps(s)

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−5
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−10

−15

60

40

20

−20

−40
0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10

Fréquence (rad/sec)

 (?CV 8 


  


  

Fonction de sensibilité complémentaire T(s)=y/b

−50

−100

−150
Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB)

−200

−250

100

−100

−200

−300

−400
−1 0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10 10

Fréquence (rad/sec)

 (?AV 8 


  


 * 
    
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Fonction de sensibilité KS(s)=u/b


120

110

100

90

80

70
Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB)

60

50

40

200

150

100

50

−50

−100

−150

−200
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10 10 10 10 10

Fréquence (rad/sec)

 (?V 8 


  


    

Fonction de sensibilité KS(s)G (s)=u/d


d

100

50

0
Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB)

−50

200

100

−100

−200

−300

−400

−500

−600
−1 0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10 10

Fréquence (rad/sec)

 (?V 8 


  


     
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250

200

150
"Confort BF"

406 passif

100

50

α ∈ { 0.2, 0.35, 0.5, 0.65, 0.8 }

0
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
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3.5

2.5
Zcaisse/Zsol (−)

406 passif

2
Limite

1.5

α ∈ { 0.2, 0.35, 0.5, 0.65, 0.8 }


1
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10

8
α ∈ { 0.2, 0.35, 0.5, 0.65, 0.8 }

7
Zroue/Zsol (−)

3
406 passif

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1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000


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Comparaison de la trépidation selon la commande Skyhook (Csky, α)
2.4

α ∈ { 0.2, 0.35, 0.5, 0.65, 0.8 }


2.2

2
Trépidation (m/s )

406 passif
3/2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Csky (N/m)

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Bode des pondérations Wzc, Wzr, Wzc2nd et Wu
20

Wzc

−20

Wzr
Magnitude (dB)

−40
W
zc2nd

−60

−80
W
u

−100

−120
−1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

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Comparaisons BO(−.−), BF(− −) et gabarit(−) du transfert Zcaisse/Zsol

20
γopt/Wzc
BO

−20
Gain (dB)

−40
BF

−60

−80

−100
0 1 2
10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

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Comparaisons BO(−.−), BF(− −) et gabarit(−) du transfert Zroue/Zsol


50

40
γ /Wzr
opt

30

20

BO
10
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BF

−10

−20

−30

−40
−1 0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10 10
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2 2
Comparaisons BO(−.−), BF(− −) et gabarit(−) du transfert (d Zcaisse/dt )/Zsol
70
γ /Wzc2nd
opt

60

50
BO

40
Gain (dB)

30 BF

20

10

0
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10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (@?V *


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Comparaisons BF(− −) et gabarit(−) du transfert u/Zsol


120

100
γopt/Wu

80
BF

60
Gain (dB)

40

20

−20
−1 0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (@@V *


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Bode du régulateur H d’ordre 14



110

105
Magnitude (dB)
100

95

90

85

80
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10 10 10 10 10 10 10

56

54

52
Phase (deg)

50

48

46

44
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10 10 10 10 10 10 10
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Confort en basses fréquences : transfert Zcaisse/Zsol

2.5

Passif idéal

Limite

1.5
Zcaisse/Zsol

Skyhook idéal

1
Placement de pôles idéal

0.5

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0
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Rebond de roue : Transfert Zroue/Zsol


2.5
Passif idéal
Placement de pôles idéal

Hinfini idéal

1.5
Zroue/Zsol (−)

1
Skyhook idéal

0.5

0
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Confort en hautes fréquences : Accélération de la caisse d2(Zcaisse)/dt2 (m/s2)

1
Accélération de la caisse d2(Zcaisse)/dt2 (m/s2)

Limite
0.8
Point invariant
Hinfini idéal

0.6

0.4

Passif idéal Skyhook idéal

0.2
Placement de pôles idéal

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Fréquence (Hz)

 (BCV  * % 


    
 
    
 4 

5   *
&   *   
   4
 5 
Q    A

  9   
     
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(
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Tests temporels bosse 10x2000mm, vitesse 30km/h


0.02 5

accelcaisse(m/s )
2
Zcaisse(m)

0.01
0
0

−0.01 −5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.02 200
Jcaisse(m/s3)

100
Zroue(m)

0.01
0
0
−100

−0.01 −200
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.02 0.5

0.01
Vrel(m/s)

0
Zrel(m)

0
−0.5
−0.01

−0.02 −1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
temps(s) temps(s)

 (BAV  * *   ,> 1    *.       *
     4
 5     

!        A@?

Time responses : bump of 10x2000mm at 30km/h


0.02 5

d (Zs)/dt (m/s )
2
0.01
Zs (m)

2
0
0

2
−0.01 −5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.02 500
d (Zs)/dt (m/s )
3

0.01
Zu (m)

0
0
3

−0.01 −500
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.02 1
d(Zu−Zs)/dt (m/s)

0.01 0.5
Zu−Zs (m)

0 0

−0.01 −0.5

−0.02 −1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
time (s) time (s)

 (BV  * *   ,> !9,09      *  
   4
 5    

A@@       


       

Tests temporels bosse 10x2000mm, vitesse 30km/h


0.02 5

accelcaisse(m/s )
2
Zcaisse(m)

0.01
0
0

−0.01 −5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.02 200
Jcaisse(m/s )

100
3
Zroue(m)

0.01
0
0
−100

−0.01 −200
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.02 1

0.01 0.5
Vrel(m/s)
Zrel(m)

0 0

−0.01 −0.5

−0.02 −1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
temps(s) temps(s)

 (BV  * *   ,> ½      *  
   4
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!        A@B

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Bode des gabarits γopt/Wzc, γopt/Wzr et γopt/Wzc2nd


70

60

γ /W
opt zc2nd
50

γopt/Wzr
40
Magnitude (dB)

30

20 γopt/Wzc

10

−10

−20
−1 0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (B@V 


 % 
   % 


   
   



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%
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!9,09  ½ 5( 
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# 

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Confort en basses fréquences : transfert Zcaisse/Zsol

2.5

Passif idéal

1.5
Zcaisse/Zsol

Skyhook idéal

1
Placement de pôles idéal

Gabarit γopt/Wzc
0.5

Hinfini idéal
0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Fréquence (Hz)

 (BBV *


  % 


    +
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Rebond de roue : Transfert Zroue/Zsol


4

3.5

Gabarit γ /W
opt zr
3

Passif idéal
2.5
Placement de pôles idéal
Zroue/Zsol

Hinfini idéal
1.5

1
Skyhook idéal

0.5

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Fréquence (Hz)

 (BEV *


  %  
    +
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 (
AB       
       
Confort en hautes fréquences : Accélération de la caisse d2(Zcaisse)/dt2 (m/s2)
1.2

Gabarit 0.001m × γ /W
opt zc2nd
1
Accélération de la caisse d2(Zcaisse)/dt2 (m/s2)

0.8

Hinfini idéal

0.6

Skyhook idéal

0.4

Passif idéal

0.2
Placement de pôles idéal

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Fréquence (Hz)

 (BFV *


  %  


    +
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* 
  
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     ,0> ½  D 
 
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 (EV ! 0  


 
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, 21    &  70 4 40


#  , 
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   4!5   *%   415  D
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!--- 
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#  ,   *
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    *%   * 7 0
7
AB@       
       
Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème NP, avec régulateur H

1
muNPmax

0.9

0.8

0.7
muNPmin

0.6
(−)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (EV   


      *%  
  4#15 
,>     ½ 

O  
   
 
 * 
(

. :# :
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  *>( # *          
   
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   **      (B  7
     -

  +  & A  

+
D   *%  
   
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(BB5(   *
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. :#   :    / A 


#     *
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7 

* 0 *> *0,
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  4  

   4  
  5
  4(?5
  5
 
& # ABB

Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RS, avec régulateur H∞


0.12
muRSmax

0.1

0.08

muRSmin
(−)

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (E?V   


       

  4!5  ,>
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  #1 A
7(
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7(
  1 A(
7(
 (@V 7
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1  ,> 
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  4    4  "

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1 D
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A(5   
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D   +



7   * +
   
  

-

7   *  * ( 1  * 
    
 
  
ABE       
       
Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RP, avec régulateur H

1.4

muRPmax

1.2

0.8
muRPmin
(−)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (E@V   


    
 *%   415 

,>     ½   ACM *   *>



 
  


7 * A(  +
 +    (  +

+  * 7 +



7  
*
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7  
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%
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  4  
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2   *
     
 
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* + 


7 * 0 *> *0,
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   4  
  5
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& # ABF

Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RS, avec régulateur H∞


0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

muRSmax
(−)

0.15

0.1

muRSmin

0.05

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (EBV   


       

  4!5  ,>
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  ACM *  

  #1 A
7(
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7(
  1 A(
7(

 (BV 7


       * > #1 !  1  ,>
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(

1  ,> 
*    ½  *    0
7 
  



7 
 
  7
      
O  * > 
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   *%  
   
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% 
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*
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(  *     ! 
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7 *  7
     
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  4  

  4  

   4  
   4 

  5

 4(?B5
AEC       
       
Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RP, avec régulateur H

1.6

1.4

muRPmax

1.2

1
(−)

0.8
muRPmin

0.6

0.4

0.2
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (EEV   


      *%   415 

,>     ½   CM *
  ACM *  
  5


1 D
  7
      1  * 
 & A   
+
D  
+



7   * +
   
  


7   *  * (
1  * 
    
 
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+
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7  
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7 *  W 7
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 +



7
 
*
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%
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  4  

  4  

   4  
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D  *  7 * > 1   
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*  *  * >  *%   415 %  &  

  0

*>  ACM 

 *     * > 1 4A(5(  W G

  1G  G1 G * &  

      
  CM 

  *>  ACM 

 *       * > 1 4A(5(
& # AEA

Confort en basses fréquences : transfert Zcaisse/Zsol

2.5
Passif idéal

Gabarit 2 de RP du Hinfini
Zcaisse/Zsol (−)

1.5
Gabarit 1 de RP du Hinfini

Gabarit de NP du Hinfini

1
Skyhook idéal

Placement de pôles idéal

0.5

Hinfini idéal

0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Fréquence (Hz)

 (EFV *


  %   %      +
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# *  


   D+   ,>  *   +  ½  
 
  *

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7   * *  (  +



7   *   7

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. :#   :    / A 


1  *
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7 
    D 


7 * & ACM 
AE       
       
Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème NP, avec régulateur par placement de pôles
2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2
(−)

1
muNPmax
0.8

0.6

0.4
muNPmin
0.2

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (FCV  


 
     *%  
  4#15 
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  #1 A(EA 7(
  ! C(A7(
  1 A(F? 7(

 (EV 7


       * > #1 !  1  *  
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  *>    7


      * > 
#1 !  1    *    (E 4 
 D+( (FA (F5(
#        
 *  * > !  1(

 ,>      4!5 47(  ! N C(A5 *  ,>
  *> **
 7
    D  
 V


  4  
  4  

   4  
  5
  4(?F5
  5
  
  5
 

   * > 1

   +



7   *   7
-

  F?M 47(  1 N A(F?5 *  ,>   *>  

    D  
 V
& # AE

Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RS, avec régulateur par placement de pôles
0.14

muRSmax
0.12

0.1

muRSmin

0.08
(−)

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (FAV   


       

  4!5  ,>
    * *    *.    ACM *   *>

Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RP, avec régulateur par placement de pôles
2

1.8

1.6
muRPmax
1.4

1.2
(−)

0.8
muRPmin
0.6

0.4

0.2

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (FV   


    
 *%   415 
,>     * *    *.    ACM *   *>
AE       
       
Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RS, avec régulateur par placement de pôles
0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25
(−)

0.2

muRSmax

0.15

0.1
muRSmin

0.05

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (FV   


       

  4!5  ,>
    * *    *.    CM *
  ACM *  


  4    4  

   4  
  5
  4(@C5
  5
  
  5
 
#    *  +



7  % 
   :

 %   U    * 
 & A( '  *
    
  : 
%   & *
  D+ * (

. :#   :   /# / A 


!
 *     * 
  


7 * & CM  
   
  ACM    *>    7
 

    * > #1 !  1(   *    (F 4 
 D+(
(F  (F5(


 ,>      4!5 47(  ! N C(@5 *   *>
 
    D  
   

 
  


7 *
C(@ V
& # AE?

Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RP, avec régulateur par placement de pôles
2.2

1.8

1.6
muRPmax
1.4
(−)

1.2

0.8
muRPmin

0.6

0.4

0.2
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (FV   


    
 *%   415 
,>     * *    *.    CM *   ACM * 



  #1 A(EA 7(
  ! C(@ 7(
  1 (CE 7(
 (FV 7
       * > #1 !  1  *  
 *.    CM 
  ACM    *>(
AE@       
       


  4  

  4  "


   4  
   4  "
  5
 " 4(@A5
  5
  "
  5
 "

   * > 1

   +



7   *   7
-

  ACEM 47(  1 N (CE5 *  ,>   *>  

    D  
 V


  4  
 "  4  

   4   "   4  
  5
  4(@5
  5
  
  5
 
 *   +  ½   X   D+ (F?  +
  %



 *  * > #1 1 A  1    
    D   

 D
 * (
# ,   D+   %   %    ,> 
*   +  * *    *.  *  
  +
 #1  D
*  - 
 ,(  7   % 7    3: 
 
 AK 


*  *
    * > #1 4D+( (FC5(  *   ,>
  
  *
  +
 1 A 1    * > 
+  
+
 #1 *   +  * *    *. ( 
   

  *
 * > 1 A  1   *  
  7  *   ½ 
*

   A?M      
   ?M    *> 

  M  BM * 
  
  ?M    *> 
  EM(
 ,> *>     

 *
  

  BBM
   *>  
  EM      
   EM   
*>   * (
#     *%  *
  
  

  +




 
* 7 *%  
    ,>  + * *  

 *.  4     


 *  ,0> ½ 



  5( #


    +
 * 1 A  1   W %   *% 
 *   *. 
           %  *%  

,> ½ ( 

 +
   % 
   
 *

 *
 %  
% 
 & 3:  * 
 & 3: 
(

!--- 
 ==
1 D
  
     +  !9,09( # *    W


>  *   +  * (       - ,  ,>
& # AEB

Confort en basses fréquences : transfert Zcaisse/Zsol

2.5
Passif idéal

2
Gabarit 2 de RP du Placement de pôles

Gabarit 1 de RP du Placement de pôles

Gabarit de NP du Placement de pôles


Zcaisse/Zsol (−)

1.5

Skyhook idéal

Placement de pôles idéal

0.5

Hinfini idéal

0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Fréquence (Hz)

 (F?V *


  %   %      +
  * >
#1 1 A  1  *   +  * *    *. 

  #1 (BB 7(
  ! C(A 7(
  1 (EB 7(
 (ACV 7
       * > #1 !  1  !9,09
  ACM    *>(

 *   +  !9,09 **


    (F@ & (FE(

. :# :

   * >  *%  
   * 
 & A &
F K 4(@3:5   @  EC K 4AC  A(F3:5 4D+( (F@5  

  
+



7   * *  (  +



7   *   7

 BBM 4D+( (BB5   7   %   *
  7
   
  #1  (BB(

. :#   :    / A 


1  *
 0
7 
    D 


7 * & ACM 
  *>    7
      * > 
#1 !  1    *    (AC 4 
 D+( (FB (FE5(
#        
 *  * > !  1(
AEE       
       

Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème NP, avec régulateur Skyhook


5

4.5

3.5

3
(−)

2.5

muNPmax
2

1.5

muNPmin
0.5

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (F@V   


      *%  
  4#15 
,>     !9,09

Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RS, avec régulateur Skyhook


0.12

0.1
muRSmax

0.08
muRSmin
(−)

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (FBV   


       

  4!5  ,>
    !9,09   ACM *   *>
& # AEF

Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RP, avec régulateur Skyhook


5

muRPmax
4.5

3.5

3
(−)

2.5

1.5

muRPmin
0.5

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (FEV   


    
 *%   415 
,>     !9,09   ACM *   *>

 ,>  *   +  !9,09     4!5 47(  ! N 
C(A5 *  ,>   *> **
 7
    D 

 V


  4     4  "


   4  "

  5
 "
 4(@5
  5
  "

  5
 "


   * > 1

   +



7   *   7
-

  EBM 47(  1 N (EB5 *  ,>   *>  

    D  
 V


  4   "  4  

   4  
  5
  4(@5
  5
  
  5
 
#    *  +



7  % 
   :

 %   U    * 
 & A( '  *
    
  : 
AFC       
       
Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RS, avec régulateur Skyhook
0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2
(−)

muRSmax
0.15

0.1

0.05

muRSmin

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 (FFV   


       

  4!5  ,>
    !9,09   CM *
  ACM *  
  #1 (BB
7(
  ! C(C
7(
  1 (EF
7(

 (AAV 7


       * > #1 !  1  !9,09
  CM 
  ACM    *>(

%   & *


  D+ * (

. :#   :   /# / A 


!
 *     * 
  


7 * & CM  
   
  ACM    *>    7
 

    * > #1 !  1(   *    (AA 4 
 D+(
(FF  (ACC5(


 ,>      4!5 47(  ! N C(C5 *   *>
 
    D  
   

 
  


7 *
C(C V


  4  

  4  

   4  
   4 


  5


 4(@?5
& # AFA

Majorant et minorant de la mesure µ du problème RP, avec régulateur Skyhook


5
muRPmax
4.5

3.5

3
(−)

2.5

1.5

1
muRPmin
0.5

0
−2 −1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Fréquence (Hz)

 
(ACCV   
     *%   415 
,>     !9,09   CM *   ACM *  

  5
 


  5




   * > 1

   +



7   *   7
-

  EFM 47(  1 N (EF5 *  ,>   *>  

    D  
 V


  4  
 "  4  

   4   "   4  
  5
  4(@@5
  5
  
  5
 
 *   +  *   X   D+ (ACA  +
 
 
% 


 *  * > #1 1 A  1    
    D 
 
  D
 * (

# *  
   +
 D  % 


 *  * > #1 
 *

 
 **    %    *

     - 
 , *  *  *  + +
    

    

 *
 (
 +
  *  * > #1  *
    +
  * >
1    
*

    *  *

(  *   + 
AF       
       
Confort en basses fréquences : transfert Zcaisse/Zsol

2.5
Passif idéal

Gabarit 2 de RP du Skyhook
2
Gabarit 1 de RP du Skyhook

Gabarit de NP du Skyhook
Zcaisse/Zsol (−)

1.5

Skyhook idéal

Placement de pôles idéal

0.5

Hinfini idéal

0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Fréquence (Hz)

 (ACAV *


  %   %      +
  * >
#1 1 A  1  *   +  !9,09

* 


  

  +



  *%  
 

 +
 

  %  % 


  ,>  *   + 
!9,09
  ( 



 *
   
 
 
L   


* 
   *%  
   !9,09  *    %

* ** 7 *%  
   ½ ( 
"D  ,> 
*     

 *

 * 


  FFM      
   M   *>( # 

    

 

     
  * *
  
 

    ACCM *
   
+
D
 *


  
    +
(

,  

"  
    

  - , * 
D 
    D 


  * 0 * >  

  4!5   *%  
415(  *        ,>  * 4#15  + *  
* *    *.   
%
 *  & %
  +



7 
 & 

 ½    +
 *  *   !9,09  * 
7 
    (

/ %  
  )
   
  *    ,0 
  & *
  > 
 
( '

 
      >  *   
(  0 0   
(      $   AF

Comparaison BO/BF du déplacement de la caisse pour une montée de trottoir


0.16

0.14
z en BO
caisse
zsol
en BF

0.12
caisse,sat

0.1
et z
caisse

0.08
en BO, z

z en BF
caisse,sat

0.06
caisse

z en BF
caisse
,z
sol

0.04
z

0.02

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Temps (s)

 (ACV *


 < K<8   *     
      


 *
 * &   
L   


  >  -
 
   -

(  *+*0 (E(A  
  
L   
   

  ,>  + *   * *    *. (   *+*0 (E(
 *         
  * 1!   


 
>  -
 
  
 
- 
%   *
   ½  
!9,09 
 *   *  ,    * *    *.  4>
,0>5(

8       
  *+*0  **
       * *   
*.   
     %  & CCC#  
  **7


: +
> 

   
(
# O  7 
(  *
 * &  
 
 * 
0   AC (    *    0
 
  *  
  
 %   7
  +  & C3:(
1 0 
 

   *     
    * 
,>          %  

    %    
 
 D     *  D   D
   7
> ,0>  *  
 *.     D        
 ( 
 D+ (AC & (AC   
 &     
 
   D+
(AC? & (ACB * &   0
(

      


   *     
 

 ,>    
%   > 
 

         
*  
AF       
       

Comparaison BO/BF du déplacement de la roue pour une montée de trottoir


0.16

z en BF
roue,sat
0.14
zroue en BF

0.12
en BF
roue,sat

0.1
et z
roue

0.08
en BO, z

zroue en BO

0.06
roue

z
sol
,z
sol
z

0.04

0.02

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2


Temps (s)

 (ACV *


 < K<8   *           


Comparaison des commandes u, ufiltree et ufiltree,sat pour une montée de trottoir

2500

ufiltree
ufiltree,sat

2000
(N)
filtree,sat

1500
,u
filtree
u, u

1000

500

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Temps (s)

 (ACV *


         
     


(      $   AF?

Comparaison BO/BF du comportement de la caisse sur route chaotique


0.04

0.03
zsol zcaisse BO

0.02
en BF (m)

0.01
caisse

zcaisse BF
en BO et z

0
caisse

−0.01
,z
sol
z

−0.02

−0.03

−0.04
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Temps (s)

 (AC?V *


 < K<8   *     
   0


*
  *  ??(@M( "   %  4<85   *       
 * *  
 0 %    *    W  *  
    4< 5( *    

 *  *
  <8( # * 
   
  * >
* *  
   
   * * 

 (

! 
  0
 *
 7
    *     
  <8
 7 %
 *  *
     < (  %   
 (  *
    


  <   <8( ' ,   *    

  
  ( #  *    
 

 &     + 

G *  G  *D   
  a?  -?  &  %     &
C3:(
 
 * *  
 O 
 O   
 *
 
   
 * 

     *(  

  *D  
  *  
  
(  
 & CCC#  *  > 
:  
 

   
( ' *  W
  
+ 


 >  *  *
   
   

 *   ,>  + *
  * *    *. (

8 7     9      -


  *
  **
   * *    *.  47
> ,-

0>5 !9,09  ½   >  -
 
  
(  >    
-
 

 * &  
 
- 
% 
 7 1+ @CB 

*
 F   

 8 -;
 
O   -
 
 4 %( D+ (  (?5(
AF@       
       

Comparaison BO/BF du comportement de la roue sur route chaotique


0.06

0.05

0.04
zsol
en BF (m)

0.03

0.02
roue
en BO et z

0.01

0
roue
,z
sol

−0.01
z

−0.02 zroue en BF

z en BO
−0.03 roue

−0.04
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Temps (s)

 (AC@V *


 < K<8   *        0


Comparaison sur route chaotique des commandes avec ou sans filtre


1200

1000

800

600
ufiltree

400
(N)

u
filtree

200
u, u

−200

−400

−600

−800
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Temps (s)

 (ACBV *


         
   0

(      $   AFB

Confort en basses fréquences : transfert Zcaisse/Zsol


2.5

Suspension passive 406

1.5
Zcaisse/Zsol

Placement de pôles avec actionneur semi−actif

Placement de pôles avec actionneur idéal

0.5

0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Fréquence (Hz)

 (ACEV % <8 *  *    *.  G


  G  *    *.  G
-
 
%G   ,> *
%   
  C@

D 

 
*   


  >  -
 
  


- 
% F 
   
  * *    *.   *  ,>
  +     >  
   C@  ,>    *
*    *.    

    
    * *    *. 
 
 
- 
% -
 
 & F 
   @CB(  D+ (ACE (ACF  (AAC
*  * * 
  %   %      
  
 
    
 *  
 ,> * (
  W 
>  D+ (AAA (AA  (AA  *  (AA (AA? 
(AA@  * *  +   !9,09  ½ * 
( 
1 *   
*

    G*    *. 
  G 4*( G!9,09
  G

 G ½
  G5  ,> . *  
  * *    *.  4*(

!9,09  ½ 5     

    G*    *.  
- 
%G G!9,09


- 
%G  G ½ 
- 
%G   
 

 7 F 
 -
 
(

!- -- 
 
 F 
   
    * + 
 4 *



 
* *  
  
5 *  &  

   
%
 * 
  *  ,>    
 F 
  
+   
 ,>  
 

    ** 0   
 ,>    
 *
% 4

C@5(
  *      * 
L    W

>( 1   * *    *.   *
     
AFE       
       

Rebond roue : transfert Zroue/Zsol


3

Placement de pôles semi−actif

2.5

2
Placement de pôles idéal
Zroue/Zsol

1.5

Suspension passive 406


0.5

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Fréquence (Hz)

 (ACFV    *  *    *.  G


  G  *    *. 
G
- 
%G   ,> *
%   
  C@

Confort en hautes fréquences : accélération de la caisse d2z /dt2 (m/s2)


c
0.8

Placement de pôles idéal


0.7

0.6
Accel caisse (m/s )
2

0.5

0.4
Suspension passive 406

0.3

0.2

Placement de pôles semi−actif

0.1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Fréquence (Hz)

 (AACV  


 
    
 *  *    *.  G
  G 
*    *.  G
- 
%G   ,> *
%   
  C@
(      $   AFF

Confort en basses fréquences : Transfert Zcaisse/Zsol


2.5

suspension passive 406

1.5
Zcaisse/Zsol

Skyhook avec actionneur semi−actif

Skyhook avec actionneur idéal


1

0.5

0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Fréquence (Hz)

 (AAAV % <8 *  !9,09 G


  G  !9,09 G
- 
%G   ,>
*
%   
  C@

Rebond de roue : transfert Zroue/Zsol


2

1.8

1.6
Skyhook semi−actif
1.4

Skyhook idéal
Zroue/Zsol

1.2

1
Suspension passive 406

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Fréquence (Hz)

 (AAV    *  !9,09 G


  G  !9,09 G
- 
%G   ,>
*
%   
  C@
CC       
       

Confort en hautes fréquences : accélération de la caisse d2z /dt2 (m/s2)


s
0.8

0.7

0.6
Accel caisse (m/s2)

0.5

0.4

Skyhook semi−actif
Skyhook idéal
0.3

0.2

Suspension passive 406

0.1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Fréquence (Hz)

 (AAV  


 
    
 *  !9,09 G
  G  !9,09 G
-
 
%G   ,> *
%   
  C@

Confort en basses fréquences : transfert Zcaisse/Zsol

2.5

Suspension passive 406

2
Zcaisse/Zsol (−)

1.5

H∞ avec actionneur semi−actif à 9lois

H∞ avec actionneur idéal

0.5

0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Fréquence (Hz)

 (AAV % <8 *  ½ G


  G  ½ G
- 
%G   ,> *
%  

  C@
(      $   CA

Rebond de roue : transfert Zroue/Zsol


2
H∞ avec actionneur idéal

1.8

1.6

1.4
Zroue/Zsol (−)

1.2

Suspension passive 406


1

H avec actionneur semi−actif à 9lois



0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Fréquence (Hz)

 (AA?V    *  ½ G


  G  ½ G
- 
%G   ,> *
%
  
  C@

Confort en hautes fréquences : accélération de la caisse


0.7
H∞ avec actionneur idéal

0.6
accélération de la caisse d2(Zcaisse)/dt2 (m/s2)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

Suspension passive 406


0.1
H avec actionneur semi−actif à 9lois

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Fréquence (Hz)

 (AA@V  


 
    
 *  ½ G
  G  ½ G
- 
%G 
 ,> *
%   
  C@
C       
       
  
  *  C(F & A(@ 
    * * 

  D +

 ** 0   *
% 4
 C@5( 1    G % <8G
  
- 
% 4@@5  
  &  
 
  4@E5(  *
     
 !9,09  *   
  *  A(C & A(A   D +  & 


     
   D  
7  0 %  (   
 * 
 !9,09 &   

  G % <8G 
*  E  

  & @C    
- 
%(  W    * *    *. 

  ½ 
     

   *
    
*  C(EA

& A(( 1   ½    ** 0   *
%  D +  +>
  
  
 7  ( =   
 &    

 
G % <8G *  F   
  & ?    
- 
%( 
  W   %  
       ½ ( 
#      *
      *  O   *   *

*    *.   ½  *   !9,09(   *
  %
  


   ½
    *    *. 
  

  * + *  +
  +*0
 8 -;
    

   !9,09
  (  

7*   D+ (AAB *  *  %    *   + 

!9,09  ½ 

   
  
%
     *+  0
   
 4AC 7 5 
    
 * ( # ,    +  

 +
 *   W 
>( " O   +  ½   %  *

>
* 
 * W %
  *
      +  !9,09
   %  
  *%
  
( # *  
*  
D+  %       %  
*
    


  


- 
% & F 
   @CB(  

 &   
 
- 
%     -


 8 -;
 

  *    7
   

   + 

*    * *    *.   ½    !9,09( =%


  ½    *

  G%-<8G 
  7  -
 !9,09  * *    *.  4 %(   (A5(

        * *    *.   *   + 



   !9,09 
   W *     ½ 4 7
3 3

>      
- 
%  W +
 7( 
 (


"D   *

   ½ 
- 
%  * *    *.  
-
 
%   
  * ** 7 
 7  
 *     
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