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OIML G 11 (ex P 5)

Edition 1992 (E + F)

Equipement mobile
pour la vérification de ponts bascules routiers

Mobile equipment
for the verification of road weighbridges
OIML P 5 Edition 1992 (B)

ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE
DE MÉTROLOGIE LÉGALE

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION
OF LEGAL METROLOGY
Français

EQUIPEMENT MOBILE

POUR LA VERIFICATION DE PONTS BASCULES ROUTIERS

SOMMAIRE

Capacité de charge nécessaire.............................................................................................................4

Choix du matériel de transport et manipulation des masses ...............................................................4

Construction des masses de vérification .............................................................................................8

Exactitude des masses de vérification...............................................................................................10

Comparateurs de masse.....................................................................................................................10

Mode opératoire de vérification des ponts bascules routiers ............................................................14

Développements possibles dans 1'avenir ..........................................................................................14

Description des équipements (en anglais).........................................................................................18

Références.........................................................................................................................................23

Note: Cette brochure est une synthèse des informations disponibles au BIML sur le sujet traité. Elle
a pour seul but de servir de guide et n'a aucun caractère officiel.

English

MOBILE EQUIPMENT

FOR THE VERIFICATION OF ROAD WEIGHBRIDGES

CONTENTS

Required test load ...............................................................................................................................5

Choice of transport and weight handling equipment ..........................................................................5

Construction of heavy test weights.....................................................................................................9

Accuracy of the test weights .............................................................................................................11

Mass comparators .............................................................................................................................11

Weighbridge testing procedures .......................................................................................................15

Possible future developments ...........................................................................................................15

Description of equipment..................................................................................................................18

References.........................................................................................................................................23

Note: This brochure constitutes a synthesis of the information available at the BIML on the subject.
It is intended mainly for guidance and has no official character.
EQUIPEMENT MOBILE
POUR LA VERIFICATION DE PONTS BASCULES ROUTIERS

Capacité de charge nécessaire

La vérification de ponts-bascules routiers s'effectuait au début en utilisant un grand nombre


de poids de 20 kg qui étaient transférés à la main sur le tablier de la bascule. La capacité de cette
méthode était bien entendu limitée à quelques tonnes seulement.

Plus tard on a introduit l'utilisation de masses spéciales, en forme de cylindre ou


parallélépipède, allant de 250 à 500 kg, ainsi qu'un matériel approprié pour leur transport et
manipulation. Cette dernière se faisait en général à l'aide d'une grue ou d'un palan, monté sur un
camion et servant à décharger et à charger les masses. Afin d'amener celles-ci aux emplacements
désirés sur le tablier du pont-bascule, les masses cylindriques peuvent être roulées, alors qu'il faut
avoir recours à un chariot spécial pour les masses en forme de parallélépipède. Quelques services
de métrologie utilisent dans ce but également la grue du camion. Ceci exige une certaine flexibilité
dans les possibilités d'utilisation de la grue.

Le but de la plupart des services est d'accroître la capacité de vérification jusqu'à la portée
maximale des ponts-bascules. Ceci n'est cependant pas toujours facile compte tenu des limitations
imposées par le transport routier. La charge admise par les camions utilisés est en général
inférieure à 12 000 kg alors que le camion peut peser vide entre 8 000 et 12 000 kg. Les remorques
utilisées peuvent souvent porter des charges plus lourdes, allant jusqu'à 20 000 kg.

Un pays [8] utilise des camions très courts de façon à permettre d'en placer plusieurs en
travers sur le tablier et ainsi accroître la capacité.

La charge totale produite par des masses étalonnées doit, aujourd'hui, de préférence
atteindre au moins 20 000 kg. Des vérifications à une charge plus élevée peuvent être effectuées
par une méthode d'extrapolation en utilisant le camion ou la remorque, ou les deux, comme charges
additionnelles. Un service de métrologie [12] utilise comme charge additionnelle un réservoir
d'eau. Cet équipement permet d'atteindre une très grande capacité totale (60 000 kg y compris
masses, remorque et eau). Le réservoir d'eau n'est en général rempli que lors de l'utilisation à la
capacité maximale, à l'arrêt, et nécessite la disponibilité sur le lieu de la vérification d'un
branchement d'eau à fort débit. Dans bien des pays il suffit de disposer d'un équipement de
vérification d'une capacité de 40 000 kg compte tenu des conditions et réglementations routières.

Choix du matériel de transport et manipulation des masses

Un service de métrologie qui projette de faire l'acquisition d'un nouveau matériel de


vérification de ponts-bascules routiers doit tenir compte des points suivants:
MOBILE EQUIPMENT FOR THE VERIFICATION OF
ROAD WEIGHBRIDGES

Required test load

Historically heavy weighbridges were first verified by a step by step method using a great
number of 20 kg weights which were placed by hand on the weighbridge platform. The capacity of
this method is of course limited to a few tonnes.

Special cylindrical or rectangular weights in the range from 250 to 500 kg were later
introduced together with suitable transport and handling equipment. The latter usually consisted of
a crane or hoist mounted on a lorry for unloading the weights. In order to bring them to the desired
location on the weighbridge platform cylindrical weights can be rolled whereas rectangular weights
have to be moved using a special cart (dolly) or a small trailer. Some metrology services also use
the crane to bring the weights to the desired place on the platform. This, however, depends on the
flexibility of the crane.

The goal of most services is to increase the calibration capacity to the full load of the
weighbridges. This is not always easy from the point of view of road transport. The load carrying
capacity of the lorries used is usually less than 12 000 kg whereas the lorry itself may weigh empty
between 8 000 and 12 000 kg. The trailers used may often carry quite high loads, up to 20 000 kg.

One country [8] uses very short lorries of which several can be placed crosswise on a big
weighbridge to increase the testing capacity.

The total load produced by calibrated weights should preferably reach 20 000 kg at least.
Tests at higher loads can then be made by a differential method using the lorry or the trailer, or
both, as additional loads. One metrology service [12] uses, as an additional dead load, a tank filled
with water. This equipment allows to reach a very high total capacity (60 000 kg at full load
including weights, trailer and water). The water tank is generally only used at highest load, when
stationary, and requires the availability of a high-speed water filling facility at the test site. In many
countries a weighbridge test facility with a capacity up to 40 000 kg may, however, be sufficient
taking into account the conditions of the roads and the traffic regulations.

Choice of transport and weight handling equipment

A metrology service which is planning the procurement of new calibration equipment for
road weighbridges should pay attention to the following points:
1. Le nombre de ponts-bascules qui doivent être vérifiés annuellement, leur portée, distribution
géographique, dimensions de tabliers, accessibilité du lieu et du tablier même, etc. (il est
préférable d'établir un inventaire détaillé).

2. La charge maximale admise par essieu sur les routes d'accès.

3. La masse maximale admise par la réglementation routière pour l'ensemble chargé camion-
remorque.

4. Les possibilités de maintenance de l'équipement mobile.

5. Sécurité du personnel manipulant les masses (certains dispositifs de déchargement peuvent à ce


point de vue ne pas convenir).

Les deux derniers points sont particulièrement importants lors du choix du matériel
approprié. Il est fortement recommandé que les camions, grues ou chariots élévateurs soient d'un
modèle couramment employé dans le pays de façon a permettre aisément leur réparation ou leur
remplacement.

Depuis la publication de la Recommandation OIML R 47, il est devenu plus courant


d'utiliser des élévateurs hydrauliques à fourche pour la manipulation des masses de vérification.
Ces dernières doivent alors avoir une forme permettant le levage et le déchargement par les lames
de fourche. En d'autres termes, le choix de l'élévateur à fourche et la forme des masses doivent être
coordonnés.

Le grand avantage de ce mode de manipulation est que le camion de transport n'a pas besoin
d'être construit spécialement mais peut être d'un type courant et servir également à d'autres usages
ou simplement loué pour la vérification à entreprendre. L'utilisation de plusieurs camions, afin
d'accroître la capacité de vérification, peut dans ce cas éviter l'acquisition d'une remorque spéciale.

L'élévateur hydraulique à fourche peut être d'un modèle couramment utilisé dans les ports et
magasins, ayant une capacité de charge de 1 000 à 2 000 kg et une hauteur de levage convenant aux
camions normalement employés. Certains types d'élévateurs peuvent, lorsqu'ils sont fortement
chargés, ne pas convenir lorsque le terrain n'est pas plan. Le type choisi doit par conséquent être
spécialement conçu pour usage en plein air (grandes roues pneumatiques).

Il convient de signaler une difficulté avec l'élévateur à fourche: il faut prévoir un moyen de
transport lorsque les lieux de vérification sont éloignés. S'il est transporté sur un camion, il est
possible de l'embarquer à l'aide de deux rails et d'un treuil [1] ou à l'aide d'un plateau hydraulique
monté à l'arrière d'un camion [2].

Certains services de vérification utilisent pour plus de flexibilité simultanément les deux
systèmes: élévateur à fourche et grue [20,21].

Dans certains pays (les Etats-Unis d'Amérique et le Canada) on utilise des chariots spéciaux
à moteur électrique alimentés par une batterie. Un palan est alors utilisé pour le déchargement du
camion.
1. The number of weighbridges which have to be calibrated yearly, their capacity and geographical
distribution, size of platform, accessibility to the site and when there to the plate itself, etc.
(this information should be catalogued).

2. The maximum allowable axle load of vehicles on access roads.

3. The maximum regulatory admissible mass of the vehicle combination (lorry and trailer).

4. The available maintenance facilities for the equipment to be procured.

5. Safety of personnel handling the weights (some types of unloading devices may be unsuitable).

The latter two points are particularly important for the choice of the proper equipment. It is
strongly advised that the lorries, cranes or fork-lifts to be procured are of a type which is currently
used in the country and therefore can be easily repaired or replaced.

Since the publication of the OIML Recommendation R 47 it has become more customary to
use hydraulic fork lifts for handling test weights. The latter must then be of such a shape as to
enable safe lifting and unloading using the fork blades. In other words the choice of the fork lift
and the shape of the weights have to be coordinated.

The great advantage is in particular that the transport lorry does not need to be specially
constructed but can be of a current type which may also be used for other purposes or may simply
be hired. The use of several lorries to increase the calibration capacity can in this case avoid the
procurement of a special trailer.

The hydraulic fork lift can be of the current pattern used in warehouses, having a load
carrying capacity of 1 000 to 2 000 kg and a lift height suitable for the lorries normally used. Some
types of fork lifts may when heavily loaded prove inconvenient to use if the ground is not flat. The
fork lift chosen must thus be specially designed for outdoor use (big wheels with pneumatic tyres).

One difficulty with fork lifts is that special provisions have to be made for their transport
over long distances. If they are transported on a lorry, loading and unloading can be made using
two rails and a winch [1] or by use of an hydraulically operated unloading plate located at the rear
of the lorry [2].

Some verification services use for better flexibility simultaneously the two systems: fork lift
and crane [20,21].

In some countries (USA and Canada) special battery operated carts (dollies) are used. A
special hoist is then used for their loading and unloading on the lorry.
Si l'on tient compte de la non-planéité du sol, on peut préférer limiter les masses à 500 kg et
les rendre superposables [6], ce qui également facilite leur stockage. Dans certains pays on a
cependant augmenté la valeur des masses à 1 000 kg de façon à accroître la rapidité de la
vérification. Ceci est notamment le cas aux Pays-Bas où la manipulation des masses par élévateur à
fourche a été introduite très tôt.

Dans le cas où l'on choisit la combinaison camion-grue, il est en général préférable que les
masses soient de forme cylindrique de façon à permettre leur roulage à l'endroit exact désiré et ceci
en particulier lorsque le camion lui-même doit être utilisé comme charge additionnelle. La grue
doit être placée à 1'arrière du camion de façon à augmenter son rayon d'action et permettre
d'atteindre les masses de la remorque. De plus il est préférable, pour la flexibilité de l'ensemble,
que le camion ait un court écartement d'essieux. Afin de permettre une manipulation plus aisée
mais aussi pour la sécurité du personnel, on limite en général la valeur des masses roulables à 500
kg maximum; quelques services utilisent cependant des valeurs plus élevées. En ce qui concerne le
rayon d'action de la grue, il faut également tenir compte de la charge et le camion doit souvent être
équipé de crics d'immobilisation fixés à l'extérieur des roues arrière de façon à éviter le
basculement.

Lorsque la remorque, le camion, ou les deux, sont utilisés comme charges additionnelles, il
est nécessaire que les essieux extrêmes soient suffisamment rapprochés afin de permettre la
vérification de tous les ponts-bascules. Certains peuvent en effet avoir des tabliers relativement
courts même lorsqu'ils sont construits pour recevoir des charges élevées.

Dans certains cas, lorsque les lieux de vérification ne sont pas éloignés du bureau local de
métrologie, il peut être possible d'utiliser la remorque comme une masse étalonnée [2,14]. Des
précautions doivent alors être prises afin d'éviter l'accumulation d'eau de pluie ou des matières
étrangères sur la remorque et le bureau local doit être équipé d'un pont-bascule sensible permettant
l'étalonnage ou l'ajustement de la masse de la remorque immédiatement avant chaque vérification.

Encore une fois, l'inventaire des portées et dimensions des ponts-bascules, conditions des
routes, réglementations routières et possibilités de maintenance doit permettre de trouver la
meilleure solution ou le meilleur compromis en ce qui concerne le choix des moyens de transport et
de manipulation des masses de vérification.

On ne doit pas oublier non plus de tenir compte du temps nécessaire pour la vérification en
utilisant le type d'équipement choisi.

Construction des masses de vérification

Les masses sont en général fabriquées en fonte. La fonte ductile (alliage contenant un faible
pourcentage de magnésium) telle que couramment utilisée pour les tuyaux d'eau de grand diamètre,
est également utilisable. Il est en tout cas nécessaire d'éviter des formes présentant des
protubérances aiguës qui peuvent facilement se casser. Toute cavité doit être soit largement ouverte
de façon à éviter l'accumulation d'eau ou des matières étrangères, soit hermétiquement fermée
(avec un scellement de plomb).
Taking unevenness of the ground into account one may prefer to limit the size of weights to
500 kg and to make them suitable for stacking [6] which also facilitates storage.

To speed up the verification operation a number of countries have increased the mass of the
standard weights to I 000 kg. This is case in the Netherlands where fork lift handling was
introduced quite early.

If a lorry and crane system is chosen, weights should preferably be of cylindrical type so
that they can be rolled to the exact location in particular when the lorry itself is used as dead load.
The crane should be located at the rear of the lorry in order to provide a long range including the
trailer. Furthermore the lorry should in this case have a rather short distance between axles to be
more flexible. For reasons of easy handling and safety cylindrical weights are generally limited to a
mass of maximum 500 kg although a few services use higher values. Particular attention has to be
paid to the operating radius of the crane in relation to the load; the lorry may often have to be
equipped with stabilizing jacks fitted outside of the rear wheels so as to avoid tipping over.

When the trailer, the lorry, or both, are to be used as additional loads it is important for the
distance between the extreme axles to be short enough to enable all the weighbridges to be verified.
Some of these, although designed for heavy loads, may in fact have relatively short platforms.

When the testing sites are located close to the local metrology office it may be possible to
use the unloaded trailer as a standard weight [2,14]. Precautions must then however be taken
against accumulation of rain of foreign materials on the trailer and the local metrology office must
be equipped with a sensitive weighbridge so that all verifications can be immediately proceeded by
a calibration or adjustment of the mass of the trailer.

To repeat, an inventory of the weighbridge sizes, road conditions, traffic regulations and
maintenance possibilities should indicate the most practical solution as far as the choice of
transport and weight handling equipment.

In addition it should also not be forgotten to take into account the time required for the
testing of weighbridges using the type of equipment chosen.

Construction of heavy test weights

Heavy test weights are usually made from alloyed cast iron. Ductile cast iron (slightly
magnesium alloyed) such as currently used for water and waste water city pipes would also be
suitable. Particular attention has to be paid so as to avoid any sharp corners which are likely to
break off. Any cavity must either be fully open and designed to avoid accumulation of water or dirt
or must be hermetically closed (with lead seal).
Quelques modèles de masses figurent en tant qu'exemples dans la Recommandation OIML
R 47. D'autres modèles ont été reproduits dans les annexes à cette brochure, y compris des modèles
se prêtant à la manipulation par des élévateurs à fourche. Les dimensions exactes dépendent dans
tous les cas de la masse volumique du matériau utilisé et du volume de la cavité d'ajustage, et
doivent être trouvées par des expériences pratiques. Les masses superposables doivent avoir des
bordures ou broches d'arrêt qui évitent le glissement lorsqu'elles sont inclinées. Certains pays
utilisent des masses fabriquées en tôles d'acier. Ces masses sont remplies de ballast et doivent être
complètement étanches à l'eau, ce qui exige des essais spéciaux. La protection contre la corrosion
peut être réalisée en utilisant une peinture du type epoxy appliquée par projection.

Exactitude des masses de vérification

La règle généralement admise veut que des erreurs maximales tolérées de masses ou poids
de vérification soient au moins trois fois inférieures à celles des instruments de pesage à vérifier. Si
nous considérons que le service de métrologie doit être en mesure de vérifier des ponts-bascules
ayant 5 000 échelons, nous trouvons d'après la Recommandation OIML R 47 que les masses de
vérification doivent avoir des erreurs inférieures à 0,01 %, soit 50 g pour une masse de 500 kg.

L'instrument de pesage ou comparateur utilisé pour l'ajustage des masses doit par
conséquent présenter un écart-type inférieur à 15 g.

L'étalonnage des masses de forte portée s'effectue en général par étapes successives utilisant
Une masse sélectionnée en fonte ou en acier comme étalon de transfert ou simplement par
comparaison directe à un jeu de poids de 20 kg (similaires à ceux de la Recommandation OIML R
2). Ceux-ci peuvent à leur tour être rapidement comparés à un étalon secondaire de 20 kg en
utilisant une balance électronique à compensation électromagnétique et dont l'écart type peut être
très faible, de l'ordre de 100 mg.

Comparateurs de masse

Les étalons de forte portée jusqu'à 1 000 kg sont généralement étalonnés au laboratoire
central du pays au moyen de balances à fléau dont la précision peut être très élevée. Comme il ne
reste que très peu de constructeurs de ces balances mécaniques, les services de métrologie doivent
de plus en plus s'orienter vers des solutions de pesage électroniques.

Si le pays est grand, il s'avère souvent nécessaire de conserver des jeux de masses de
vérification dans différentes localités du pays afin de réduire les transports. Leur vérification
périodique doit cependant avoir lieu au moins une fois par an.

Afin d'éviter la nécessité de transporter toutes les masses de vérification au laboratoire


central, plusieurs services de métrologie assurent le raccordement à l'aide d'un étalon de 500, 1 000
ou parfois seulement de 20 kg et utilisent des comparateurs de masse pour ajuster ou vérifier les
autres masses sur leur lieu de stockage (ou bureau local).
A few typical designs of such weights are shown as examples in the OIML Recommendation
R 47. Some other designs are included with this note including more recent ones suitable for use
with fork lifts. The exact dimensions will, in all cases, depend on the density of the material
available, the size of the adjustment cavity, etc. and may have to be found out by trial and error.
Weights which can be stacked must have stops to prevent them from sliding when inclined. Some
countries use weights made from thick welded steel plates. Such weights are filled with ballast and
must be made completely watertight; this may require special testing.

Corrosion protection can be accomplished by using special epoxy paints which are applied
by spraying.

Accuracy of the test weights

The generally accepted rule is that the maximum permissible errors of the weights used for
verification must be at least three times smaller than those for the weighing machine to be verified.
If we consider that the metrology service must be able to test weighbridges with up to 5 000 scale
divisions We find from OIML Recommendation R 47 that the weights used shall have errors less
than 0.01 %, or 50 g for a 500 kg weight.

The platform machine or other mass comparator used for the adjustment of the heavy
weights shall thus have a standard deviation less than 15 g.

The calibration of heavy Weights is usually done in successive steps using a selected weight
of cast iron or a standard weight of steel as transfer device or simply by direct comparison to a
stack of 20 kg weights (similar in design as those of OIML R 2). These may in turn be rapidly
compared to a 20 kg secondary standard using an electronic top-pan balance with electromagnetic
compensation which may have a standard deviation as low as 100 mg.

Mass comparators

Heavy secondary mass standards up to 1 000 kg are usually calibrated in the central
laboratory of the country using beam balances allowing very high accuracy. As there are nowadays
very few manufacturers of these mechanical balances metrology services must however more and
more adopt solutions incorporating electronic weighing devices for such purposes.

If the country is large, it is necessary to store sets of test weights in various places in the
country to reduce travel. Special consideration must then be given to the necessity for periodic
(yearly) verification of these weights.

In order to avoid the necessity of bringing all the test weights to the main laboratory, several
metrology services assure the traceability by the use of one standard of 500, 1 000 or sometimes
only 20 kg and adjust or verify the test weights at their storage location (or local metrology
laboratory) by means of mass comparators.
Ceci peut dans bien des cas s'effectuer par substitution successive en utilisant une cellule de
charge installée dans une grue de levage et connectée à un indicateur de contrainte à affichage
digital ayant une résolution suffisante (105 échelons ou plus). Afin de réduire la dérive de la cellule,
il est nécessaire d'effectuer les lectures de l'affichage toujours au même moment après gué la masse
ait été soulevée de son support (par exemple après 40 s). Les observations ne doivent commencer
qu'après avoir fait subir a la cellule de charge au moins trois épreuves à pleine charge (par
similitude à la méthode employée pour l'étalonnage de cellules de charge et de dynamomètres).

Un comparateur de masse de 500 kg utilisant ce principe et comprenant une cellule de


charge de construction spéciale, une grue de levage et un dispositif automatique d'affichage de
contrainte à mémoire a été construit pour le service national suédois de métrologie. La grue et une
masse étalon de 500 kg sont montées sur une petite remorque. Par ce moyen, l'étalonnage des
masses peut s'effectuer avec une sensibilité de quelques grammes en utilisant des comparaisons
successives. La grue comportant la cellule de charge doit cependant être placée de façon à éviter le
vent, l'ensoleillement direct ou des gradients importants de température [30].

Un comparateur de masse d'un type particulier a été construit aux Etats-Unis d'Amérique,
dans lequel l'influence de la dérive de la cellule de charge a été réduite en maintenant la charge
entre les substitutions de masses, à l'aide d'un ressort. Selon Schoonover [29], des masses de 500 lb
(225 kg) ont ainsi pu être comparées avec une répétabilité de ± 2.10-6.

Des comparateurs de masse ayant des capacités de 20 à 2 000 kg et comportant des cellules
de charge sont également utilisés en URSS [32]. Le service de métrologie d'Autriche a également
adopté cette méthode [31].

Pour répondre aux besoins des différents services de vérification, certains fabricants de
balances électroniques ont mis au point des comparateurs de masse comportant un récepteur de
charge à plateau et un système d'affichage à très haute résolution mais travaillant dans une étendue
de mesure limitée [33]. Afin d'atteindre le maximum de précision, il est nécessaire d'installer ce
type de comparateur de masse dans un environnement de température stable et sans courants d'air.
Il faut également Veiller à chaque substitution au centrage du point de gravité des masses sur le
plateau récepteur de charge.

Des instruments de pesage basés sur le principe gyroscopique sont également utilisés
comme comparateurs de masse de 500 ou de 1 000 kg par plusieurs services régionaux de
métrologie en Allemagne et au Royaume-Uni [34].
In many cases this can be done by successive substitution using a high quality crane load
cell connected to a commercial digital strain indicator of sufficient resolution (105 divisions or
more). To reduce the influence of creep in the load cell it is necessary to read the strain indicator
always at the same moment after the load has been lifted off the floor (for instance after 40
seconds). The operation should start by full load of the cell at least three times before the start of
the actual comparison (by similarity with the practice in calibrating load cells and proving rings).

A 500 kg mass comparator using this principle and comprising a special load cell, a small
crane and an automatic strain-indicator with timer and memory has been constructed for the
Swedish metrology service. The hydraulic crane and one standard weight of 500 kg are mounted on
a small trailer. Calibration of test weights down to a few grammes or better seems to be possible
with this method using successive comparisons. The crane-load cell device must however be
placed so as to avoid wind, direct sunshine or significant temperature gradients [30].

A special load cell mass comparator has been developed in USA in which the influence of
load cell creep is decreased by maintaining the load with the aid of a spring between the
substitutions of the weights. It has been reported by Schoonover [29] that 500 pound weights (225
kg) could in this way be compared with a repeatability of ± 2.10-6.

Mass comparators in the range of 20 to 2 000 kg using crane load cells are also available in
the USSR [32]. The Austrian metrology service has also adopted this method [31].

Responding to the needs of verification services, a few manufacturers have recently made
adaptations of their current productions of electronic platform weighing machines by incorporating
very high resolution displays for mass substitution measurements within a narrow range [33]. In
order to obtain the highest accuracy this type of mass comparator must be installed in a stable
temperature environment protected from air draught. Furthermore special attention must be paid to
the centering of the effective loading point of the weights at each substitution.

Weighing machines based on the gyroscopic principle are also used as mass comparators for
500 and 1 000 kg weights by several local metrology services in Germany and the United Kingdom
[ 34 ].
Mode opératoire de vérification des ponts-bascules routiers

Comme cela a déjà été dit, il n'est en général plus possible avec les constructions modernes
de ponts-bascules d'utiliser des méthodes de vérification qui font intervenir des charges d'essais
qui n'atteignent que 10 à 20 % de la portée des bascules à vérifier.

La portée des ponts-bascules peut cependant souvent être supérieure aux charges d'essai
dont on dispose et il est maintenant fréquent d'installer des ponts-bascules d'une capacité de 50 ou
60 tonnes. En règle générale, on considère qu'il faut alors effectuer la vérification jusqu'à une
charge légèrement supérieure à la charge statique pour laquelle le pont-bascule est habituellement
utilisé en tenant compte par exemple de la réglementation routière (qui, selon le pays, souvent
limite le poids total des véhicules à moins de 40 tonnes).

Comme exemple de description de la procédure de vérification d'un pont-bascule dans ces


conditions/ nous indiquons ci-dessous, en abrégé, le mode opératoire décrit dans la réf. [1] pour
une portée limitée à 40 tonnes d'un pont-bascule à tablier relativement long (16 m) permettant
d'utiliser en même temps le camion et la remorque en tant que charges additionnelles:
1. Inspection visuelle du pont-bascule, contrôle du zéro, de la mobilité et de la fidélité à vide.
2. Essais avec 10 t sur les points d'appui du tablier.
3. Contrôle (répété) du zéro. Essais à charge croissante de 0 à 20 t.
4. Mêmes essais à charge décroissante.
5. Le camion et la remorque sont conduits sur le tablier et la masse totale est ajustée pour
indiquer exactement 20 t.
6. Essais à charge croissante de 20 t à 40 t.
7. Mêmes essais à charge décroissante.
8. Déchargement du tablier.
9. Contrôle du zéro.
10. Embarquement de masses sur la remorque et sur le camion, prise de notes pour le rapport de
vérification.

La durée totale pour la méthode ci-dessus a été indiquée comme étant de 3 heures en
utilisant des masses de 1 tonne. Ceci nécessite bien entendu que le pont-bascule ait été
entièrement nettoyé et mis au point avant la vérification de façon à éviter toute perte de temps
inutile.

Développements possibles dans l'avenir

La tendance actuelle d'accroître la capacité des ponts-bascules augmente les difficultés des
services de métrologie à fournir des moyens adéquats de vérification. A ceci s'ajoute l'introduction
des ponts-bascules électroniques pour lesquels il n'est plus possible d'utiliser des méthodes
simplifiées de vérification. Ces derniers peuvent, de plus, exiger des vérifications plus fréquentes.
Il faut conseiller aux fabricants de tels ponts-bascules de les équiper de moyens de contrôle
(automatiques ou manipulés par l'opérateur) qui peuvent être vérifiés par le service de métrologie.

On doit signaler également la possibilité de surveiller la maintenance des bascules


électroniques par l'utilisation d'un semi-remorque qui est étalonné sur un pont-bascule
précédemment vérifié [2,14].
Weighbridge testing procedures

As previously mentioned it is in general no longer feasable to use with modern weighing


equipment test methods which only involve a maximum test load up to 10 or 20 % of the
capacity of a weighbridge.

The weighbridge capacity may however in many cases be higher than the amount of
available test load and reach frequently 50 or 60 tonnes for a road weighbridge. As a general
rule the tests must then be made at least up to a load which is slightly higher than the maximum
static load for which the weighbridge is normally being used taking into account for instance
the traffic regulations (which depending on the country generally limit the maximum weight of
transport vehicles to less than 40 tonnes).

As a typical description of an acceptable procedure for testing a weighbridge under these


conditions we are reproducing a free translation of the test procedure described in ref.[l] for a
maximum capacity of 40 tonnes and a weighbridge with a relatively long platform (16 m)
allowing the use of both lorry and trailer as dead loads:

1. Visual inspection of the weighbridge and its operation including verification (or
adjustment) of zero, its ability to react to small changes of load (discrimination) and the
repeatability of indications at no load.
2. Tests with a load of 10 tonnes at each of the support points of the platform (corner tests).
3. Checking of zero. Tests with increasing load from 0 to 20 tonnes.
4. The same tests with decreasing load.
5. The available dead load (lorry and trailer) is brought on the platform and adjusted to
exactly 20 tonnes.
6. Tests with increasing load from 20 to 40 tonnes.
7. The same tests with decreasing load.
8. Unloading of the platform.
9. Checking of zero.
10. Loading the weights into the lorry, drafting of the test report.
The total time for the above routine is stated to take 3 hours using 1 tonne weights. It is
evident that this requires the weighbridge to be fully cleaned and serviced before the tests so as
to avoid any unnecessary loss of time.

Possible future developments

The tendency to increase the capacity and size of weighbridges has made it more
difficult for metrology services to provide for adequate verification facilities. The introduction
of electronic weighbridges using load cells has added to this difficulty since certain simplified
test methods can no longer be applied. Furthermore, electronic weighbridges may require more
frequent calibrations. It is advisable that manufacturers of such weighbridges provide them
with suitable calibration check facilities (either automatic or operated by the user) which, in
turn, may be verified by the legal metrology service.
Supervision of the maintenance of electronic weighbridges may be accomplished by use
of a heavy loaded trailer which is calibrated on a previously verified weighbridge [2,14].
Le coût des masses de vérification et de leur transport jusqu'aux lieux où sont installés les
ponts-bascules est élevé et on a, dans le passé, proposé plusieurs moyens moins onéreux
comme par exemple l'utilisation de leviers, pistons hydrauliques, etc. L'utilisation de vérins
hydrauliques pour appliquer les forces et de cellules de charge transportables pour les mesurer a
été essayée en Suède en s'inspirant des travaux effectués en Hongrie pour la vérification de
dispositifs de mesure de la charge à l'essieu [36,37].

Des essais de ce même système de vérification ont également été effectués en


Allemagne par le fabricant de ponts-bascules Schenck [38].

Dans ce cas, il sera cependant nécessaire que les ponts-bascules soient pourvus de trous
convenant à la fixation des dispositifs d'étalonnage. De plus, les cellules de charge utilisées
doivent être étalonnées fréquemment au laboratoire central, ce qui demande l'accès à un banc
d'étalonnage à masses suspendues d'une capacité d'au moins 200 kN. (L'utilisation des cellules
de charge comme simples comparateurs de masses lorsque celles-ci sont approximativement
égales, ne nécessite bien entendu pas la présence de cet équipement coûteux).

Description des équipements utilisés

Nous avons, sur les pages suivantes de cette brochure, reproduit (en anglais) des
informations actuellement disponibles au BIML concernant l'équipement existant dans
quelques pays pour la vérification des ponts-bascules. Ces informations ne sont bien entendu
pas complètes puisque seulement quelques services de métrologie y sont représentés. Les
techniques sont cependant plus ou moins les mêmes et nous espérons que cette sélection
permettra d'apporter quelque aide aux autres services de métrologie projetant de s'équiper.

Quelques fournisseurs d'équipement spécialisé ont également été indiqués. En ce qui


concerne le matériel de transport tel que camions, remorques, élévateurs à fourche, grues, etc.,
les fournisseurs sont cependant trop nombreux et il convient plutôt de consulter les ressources
locales.
The costs of heavy weights and their transportation to the testing site are high and several
less expensive means have been proposed in the past such as the use of levers, hydraulic pistons
etc. The use of force application through hydraulic jacks and measurement by transportable load
cells will be experimented with in Sweden using as a point of departure the methods developed in
Hungary for the verification of axle scales [36,37].

Tests of this method of verification have also been made in Germany by the weighbridge
manufacturer Schenck [38].

In this case, however, weighbridge installations will have to be made so that the
transportable calibration devices can be fitted into suitable fixing holes. Furthermore such load cells
will have to be frequently calibrated at the central laboratory requiring the availability of a dead
load machine with a capacity of at least 200 kN. (The use of load cells as simple mass comparators
for approximately equal weights as mentioned in the previous chapter does of course not require
any expensive calibration machines).

Description of equipment used

On the following pages we are reproducing in a condensed form the information presently
available at BIML concerning existing equipment for the verification of road weighbridges in some
countries. This information is by no means complete as only a few countries are represented. The
technologies are however more or less the same and it is hoped that this selection may provide some
help for those metrology services which are planning to equip themselves.

A few international suppliers of specialized equipment are listed. As regards adaptable


lorries, trailers, forklifts, cranes etc. suppliers are, however, too numerous to be included and local
sources of supply will have to be consulted.
DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT

TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS of MASS COMPARATORS for CALIBRATION of

HEAVY WEIGHTS

Load capacity: minimum 1100kg


Discrimination (or scale interval): equal or less than 10 g
Standard deviation: less than 15 g
Pan or platform size (fixed installations): minimum 700 x 700 mm

For fixed installation in a laboratory

alternative A. Equal-armed balance designed for transposition of the load from one arm to the
other through rotation of the beam or otherwise [26]

Transposition balances according to a design by Russell have been


supplied by
Henri Tromner Inc. Voland Corporation
6825 Greenway Avenue 5 Skyline Drive
Philadelphia Pa 19142 P.O. box 1002
USA Hawthorne N.Y. 10532
USA

Other equal-armed balances of high capacity have been supplied by

Carl Schenk GmbH International Steel


Landwehstrasse 55 2880, Diab
D- 6100 Darmstadt Ville St-Laurent
Germany Québec H4S 1M7

Chyo Balance Corporation


376-2 Tsukiyama- cho
Kuze, Minami-ku
Kyoto
Japan

alternative B. Platform weighing machine for comparison of equal weights by successive


substitution, mechanical balancing by drop-weight or steelyard system [28],
manufactured by
Avery Export Limited
Smethwick
Warley, West Midlands B66 2LP
United Kingdom

alternative C. Electronic platform weighing machine with partial electromagnetic


compensation specially constructed as mass comparator [33], manufactured by
Sauter, Germany (a Mettler subsidiary company) and supplied internationally
by distributors of Mettler balances
alternative D. Weighing machine based on the gyroscopic principle specially constructed for
comparison of heavy weights [34 ] , manufactured by
Wohwa GmbH
D-7114 Pfedelbach
Germany

alternative E. Specially constructed platform machine based on the principle of vibrating


strings, manufactured by
Pesa Waagen AG
Industriestrasse 6
CH-8618 Oetwil am See
Switzerland

Transportable mass comparators


alternative F. Special load cell mounted in a hydraulically operated crane lifting device
for comparison of heavy weights by successive substitutions [29,30,31,32]
For information about these transportable mass comparators write to
- SP, attention H. Källgren
P.O. Box 857, S-501 15 Boras
Sweden
-NIST, attention R.M. Schoonover
Office of Weights and Measures
Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899
USA
-SNIIM, Siberian State Scientific Research Institute
of Metrology
4 Dimitrov Prospekt, 630099
USSR
-Bundesamt fur Eich- und Vermessungswesen
Arltgasse 35, Postfach 20, A-1163 Wien
Austria

SPECIFICATIONS for LORRIES and TRAILERS

The specifications must take into account accessibility of the weighbridges, prevailing road
conditions and traffic regulations with respect to heavy load carriage.

Fork lift operated weights can generally be transported by lorries and trailers of any
conventional design which may simply be hired for this purpose if weighbridge verification is not a
daily task.
Crane operated weights generally require a specially designed lorry, preferably with an
independent power supply for the crane. The latter should be placed at the rear of the lorry for
greater flexibility. The crane may require the use of stabilizing jacks on each side of the
vehicle.

When vehicles are to be used as dead load it should be checked that the length between
extreme axles does not exceed the length of the platforms of existing weighbridges. Some
metrology services use hydraulic jacks placed behind the front wheels of the lorry to enable
lifting of the wheels off the ground and thus, when needed, shorten the distance between the
loading points. In this case it is necessary for the jacks to be provided with large studs in order
to prevent damage to the weighbridge platform.

All means of transportation are subject to heavy wear and tear and should be of a design
which can be easily maintained in the country of use.

The following tables summarize available information about test weight vehicles used
in some countries. Details about trucks and cranes used may be found in the references.
REFERENCES

References from which illustrations or extracts have been


reproduced in this brochure are marked *

Fork lift operated weights and equipment

1* - J.N. van Pelt: Equipement pour la vérification des ponts-bascules routiers du service de
la métrologie des Pays-Bas Bulletin de 1'OIML N° 54, Mars 1974

2* - Belgique: Matériel pour la vérification et la surveillance des ponts-bascules Bulletin de


1'OIML N° 124, Septembre 1991

3* - Pedro G. Camara Camino: Verification of heavy weighing machines using mobile mass
laboratories Bulletin de 1'OIML N° 100, Septembre 1985

4 - M. Jacob: Einsatz grosser Massenormale fuer die Pruefung elektromechanischer


Waagen Feingeratetechnik, 26, Heft 4, 1977, p.168-169

5 - Information concerning Queensland given in enclosure to letter to BIML dated 15 April


1981 from National Standards Commission, Australia

6* - Sketch of 500 kg weights used in Sweden received by BIML in 1990 Crane operated
weights and equipment

7 - Information concerning South Australia given in enclosure to letter to BIML dated 15


April 1981 from the National Standards Commission, Australia

8* - Information received by BIML from Bundesamt fur Eich- und Vermessungswesen,


Vienna in September 1990

9* - Belgium: Test unit for weighbridges below 20 t

see article ref.2 in Bulletin de 1'OIML N° 124, Sept.1991

10* - T. Abildgaard and G. Andreasen: A new scheme and equipment for calibration of large-
capacity weighbridges Bulletin de 1'OIML N° 102, Mars 1986

11* - H. Johannsen: Equipement de 1'administration berlinoise des poids et mesures en vue de


la vérification des bascules pour véhicules routiers Bulletin de 1'OIML N° 9,
Septembre 1962

12* - Equipment supplied to Landeseichdirektion Bremen, Germany (extract from commercial


pamphlet from the supplier O.A. Schwimmbeck, 2807 Achim, Bremen, Germany)

13* - Information given in letter dated January 1981 received by BIML through PTB with
photographs from Schleswig-Holstein, Amt fur das Eichwesen 2300 Kiel 1, Düppelstrasse 63,
Germany
14* - Information given in letter to PTB of 4 September 1980 by Landeseichdirektion
Nordrhein-Westfalen, 5000 Kö1n 1, Spichernstrasse 73-77, Germany

15* - Drawings of vehicles and weights sent to BIML on 17 December 1981 by Eichdirektion
Rheinland-Pfalz, 6550 Bad Kreuznach, Germany, see also W. Ludwig: Mobile
equipment for the verification of weighbridges up to 50 tonnes Bulletin de 1'OIML N°
114, Mars 1989

16* - Information supplied by Centro Espanol de Metrologia with letter to BIML dated 29
October 1989

17* - Information supplied by the Federal Office of Metrology, Switzerland with letter to
BIML dated 1 November 1990

18* - Information supplied by the Local Authorities Coordinating Body on Trading Standards
(LACOTS) in a letter to BIML of 20 October 1990. Extracts for Birmingham, Kent
and Northumberland are reproduced in this booklet

19* - K. Hurley: Weighbridge Test Unit

Institute of Trading Standards, ITSA review, July 1990, p.7

20* - R.C. Goldup: A new weighbridge test unit for Hampshire County Council Bulletin de
1'OIML, Decembre 1990

21* - Information concerning Somerset Council equipment supplied by LACOTS with letter of
20 October 1990

Special systems using carts or dollies

22 - B. Hoyerman (General Body Co.): The evolution of the motor truck scale testing vehicle.
Weighing and Measurement, USA, July-August 1978, p.8-10

23* - Fabricated heavy test weights, catalogue from H. Tromner, 6825 Greenway Avenue, Pa
19142, USA

24* - Large capacity scale test unit, catalogue from Seraphin Test Measure Company, 30 Indel
Avenue, Rancocas, New Jersey 08073, USA

25 - J.L. Armstrong: Canadian test unit

The Monthly Review 76, U.K., No.3, March 1968, p.52-53

Test weight calibration comparators

26* - Two-armed Russell balance, supplied by Tromner Inc., 6825 Greenway Avenue,
Philadelphia 19142, USA

27* - Mechanical mass comparator constructed at INIMET, Cuba Bulletin de 1'OIML N° 105,
Decembre 1986

28* - Platform machine for calibration of heavy weights supplied by Avery, U.K.
29* - R.M. Schoonover: Mass comparator for in-situ calibration of large mass standards (USA)
Bulletin de 1'OIML N° 100, p.13-20, Septembre 1985

30* - H. Källgren: Mobile mass comparator for heavy weights (Sweden) Bulletin de 1'OIML
N° 100, p.32-36, Septembre 1985

31* - Mass comparators used by the Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Austria
(1990)

32* - Mass comparators developed and manufactured in USSR

A. Nazarenko and others: Mass comparators for the verification of heavy weights

Measuring Techniques, USSR, N° 12, 1987

33* - Platform mass comparators commercialized by the Mettler company

34* - Platform mass comparators based on the gyroscopic principle supplied by Wöhwa-
Waagenbau, Germany

35* - Mechanical dual beam 500/1000 kg balance developed at the National Railway
Weighbridges Center in P.R. China

Other methods to test weighbridges

36 - G. Kovacs, F. Petik: Recent progress in the verification of wheel and axle load scales in
Hungary

Weighing Technology, 8th Conference of the IMEKO Technical Committee TC 3 on


measurement of force and mass, Krakow, Poland, September 1980

37 - L. Borjeson, H. Källgren, L. Pendrill: Simulated loading of vehicle scales SP Report


1989:31 Weights and Measures, Boras, Sweden

38 - T. Preusser (Schenck AG) and W. Weiler (PTB): An advanced method for the calibration
of weighbridge and related systems Acta IMEKO 1988, p.217-226

Errors in weighbridges

39 - E. Green, NRC (Canada): Errors in large capacity weigh scales Bulletin de 1'OIML N° 28,
p.11-30, Juin 1967

40 - A.C. Wightley and S.F. Johnston:


Part I. Road weighbridges; Part 2. Errors when single weighing;
Part 3. Errors when double weighing, theoretical aspects;
Part 4. Errors when double weighing, actual errors;
Part 5. Weighing procedures manual; Part 6. Feasibility study for
weighbridge replacement published in The Institute of Weights and Measures Review,
Australia,
Vol. 24, No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1978
Ref 18
United Kingdom
(1990)

EXAMPLES of WEIGHBRIDGE TESTING EQUIPMENT USED

in the UNITED KINGDOM

Information supplied by LACOTS P.O.Box 6, Croydon, United Kingdom CR9 1LG

BIRMINGHAM

Tracting unit: Foden S 106

Trailers (3 axle) : 1 for roller weights, 1 for slab/roller weights

Weights: 6 tonne of 250 kg and 35 tonne of 500 kg roller weights

35 tonne of 1000 kg slab weights

Gross weight: 16 500 (trailer) + 21 000 kg weights = 37 500 kg Calibration of weights: 1300
kg gyroscopic weighing machine

General Remarks

There is a useful refinement to roller weights, which is a counterpoise weight attached to the
pulling handle on either side of the weight, below the central axle. This ensures the handle is kept
vertical above the weight and allows crane hooks to hook onto the handle without the need for a
second person to lift the handle into an upright position.

With the ever increasing use of electronic weighbridges, which invariably have their smallest
increment much finer than an equivalent capacity mechanical mach
ine, the question of the accuracy of test weights, especially when used in large quantities on
high capacity machines, has to be considered.

This calls for careful use of roller weights and perhaps more frequent calibration, this is
evidenced by identifying each individual weight and recording a history of the weight change
for each weight at every calibration.

This consideration is one important factor which has recently seen a move towards favouring
the use of a fork-lift truck and 1 tonne slab weights.

These weights are not rolled on and off weighbridge plates, but gently lifted on and off which
gives more confidence in their continuing accuracy between calibrations.

In addition, one person driving the fork-lift truck can do all the necessary work in a shorter
time, than 2 or 3 persons normally used with roller weights.

One system in operation has two ramps and the fork-lift truck is driven off and on the low-
level trailer.

KENT

This authority maintains a weighbridge test unit, which consists of a three axled tractor unit
with a three axle trailer. The vehicle is designed to carry 44 tonnes, but due to current UK
legislation it does not exceed 38 tonnes.
Ref 18
United Kingdom
(1990)

KENT (continued)

1. There are no heavy mass standards. The weights are all tested by means of previously tested 20
Kg and 10 Kg working standard weights, and hence have status as "test weights".

2. Kent has one 250 Kg roller weight, thirty-eight 500 Kg roller weights and twenty-one 1 tonne
block weights. All are corrected to 50% of the prescribed tolerance (for the purpose of Regulation
30 of the Non-Automatic Weighing Machine Regulations 1988).

3. Kent owns a 1,300 Kg capacity giroscopic platform machine, which is used to test and correct all
the above-mentioned weights.

4. The transport equipment consists of one tractor unit and one trailer. The trailer body is fitted out
with rails which allow Kent to carry either nineteen of their 1 tonne blocks or thirty-eight half
tonne rollers without the weights moving during transportation.

5. The handling equipment is a lifting crane, which is mid-mounted upon the trailer. They have a
yoke with four handling hooks, which engage the self-balancing handles of the roller weights, so
loading and unloading are both one man operations. The 1 tonne blocks are lifted by means of
straps placed through holes in them designed for forklift operation, hence a two man operation.
They did, in fact, experiment with a forklift, but in the light of experience, they decided against this
system.

NORTHUMBERLAND

Our new vehicle is a 38 tonne articulated system (designed to carry an extra 2 tonnes when the
maximum train weight becomes 40 tonnes).

The system:

1. Has a rear mounted hydraulic crane (HMF make of the "HIAB" type). Weights can be
offloaded in various positions.

2. Will carry both roller weights and block weights (both conventional and fork-liftable).

3. Is capable of testing road and rail weighbridges (subject to road access).

4. Can be tested with the trailer connected to the tractor or disconnected.

5. Has power operated landing legs and stabilisers for quicker operation.

6. The overall wheelbase is 11 metres but the trailer has a lif table rear axle to reduce this to 9.7
metres if necessary. With the trailer disconnected and with the axle lifted, the trailer will fit on
plate a length of 4.5 metres (although not to 38 tonnes capacity).

7. The crane is powered by a trailer mounted engine so can be operated independently of the tractor
unit.

8. The crane can be operated by a remote control system so-that the operator has more visibility,
control, etc.
Ref 20
Hampshire
(1990)
ROYAUME-UNI

A NEW WEIGHBRIDGE TEST UNIT


for HAMPSHIRE COUNTY COUNCIL
by Rodney C. GOLDUP
Deputy County Trading Standards Officer,
Hampshire County Council, Winchester, England

In early 1990 the Trading Standards Department of Hampshire County Council, Winchester,
England, took delivery of a new weighbridge test unit. This short article sets out the technical
specification which may assist other departments likely to be faced with a similar purchase in the
near future.
All of Hampshire County Council's vehicles are owned by the Transport Management
Organisation, a section within the Commercial Services Department of that Council and
vehicles are then leased to user departments. Early discussions with the T.M.O. agreed a
maximum budget of £120000 for a new vehicle and in October 1989 a working party was set
up to decide upon the vehicle's specification. 38 tonnes with forklift operation was quickly
agreed as the basic specification, with the remaining parameters designed around that
fundamental decision.
The various major components of the Unit will be replaced at differing intervals; the
forklift will be replaced after 7 years, the tractor unit after 10 years and the trailer after 20
years. With legislative changes possible during these time scales, 44 tonnes design weight was
specified and indeed, the finished vehicle has since been tested at the Chobham, Surrey test
track at 44 tonnes with entirely satisfactory results. Whilst this specification has resulted in a
very large vehicle, the tractor unit has twin drive axles and the trailer is fitted with a steering
(and lifting) third axle, both of which help to make the vehicle very maneuverable. The twin
drive axles are also fitted with locking differentials which will enable the vehicle to have
traction in all situations including lime, sand and gravel quarries.
The primary method of operation is by forklift, which has an unladen weight of 5 tonnes
and is capable of carrying 3 x 1 tonne weights. This allows much faster operation and no longer
requires the use of other staff to manhandle weights. The block weights (Fig. 1) are particularly
advantageous when testing axle weighers and

Fig. 1 — 1 000 kg block weight Length 1


670 mm, Width 285 mm, Height 360 mm
No. of lifting bars 2, No. of slots 2 Slot
width 300 mm, Slot height 120 mm

Bulletin OIML - N° 121 - Décembre 1990 47


are of sufficient length to straddle railway lines on rail weighbridges. The weights are usually
off-loaded from each side of the trailer by forklift, but where necessary the hoist may be used,
which is capable of not only off-loading to each side but also to the rear of the trailer.

The trailer has the facility to carry 18 x 1 tonne weights, although fewer are currently
loaded to enable the vehicle to stay within the maximum 38 tonnes United Kingdom limit. Also
carried is a half tonne roller weight and another half tonne of 20kg blocks. The lifting third
trailer axle reduces the wheel base to under 12 meters to allow this common size of plate to
accommodate the complete vehicle.

The calibration of the 1 tonne block weights is by use of an Avery 32 N 52. The Avery is
initially calibrated by use of a cradle and 20 kg weights which have in turn been calibrated using
the F1 Hampshire Local Standard and a Sartorius 5788 MP8 balance. Once the initial calibration
of the Avery is complete a 1 tonne block transfer standard is weighed. This transfer standard is
then re-checked between every two test weights to ensure confidence in the repeatability of the
Avery machine. Both machines have been fitted with a gantry System so that any weights
suspended on the weighing mechanism invariably exert their force in an identical position.

Hampshire makes extensive use of its weighbridge test unit and hires it to some seven other
authorities. The new unit (Fig. 2) came into operation during April, 1990 and has seen use in
Hampshire and most of those other authorities, providing an effective and more efficient
service.
Ref Z I

Somerset U.K

(199C)
SOMERSET'S WE IGHBRIDGE TESTING UNIT

Lorry: Rigid Platform 8x4 Volvo F7-31 236 HP Truck with Flat Bed Diesel
Crane: TICO K1050T permanently fixed to rear end of lorry's chassis.
Lifting capacity - 5250 kgs. at 2 metres radius and 1400 kgs at 7 metres
radius.

Forklift: Toyota Model 4FD 25 - lifting capacity - 2000 kgs

Block Weights
carried: 28 x 500 kg
Fully-laden gross Vehicle weight is approx. 30,400 kg.
500 KG/ 1000 KG DUAL-RANGE BALANCE

Equipment developed by Senior Engineer Guo Ruilin & Li Jianzeng


at the National Railway weighbridges Metrology center
China Academy of Railway Sciences, Beijing 100081, PR China
Information supplied by Engineer Wang Jinglin

MAIN TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:


1. Measuring range: Range 1- 500 kg
Range 2- 1 000 kg
2. Accuracy: Range 1 and Range 2 - better than 1 x 10-6
3. Value of a scale division (d): Range 1 – d = 0.5 g
Range 2 – d =1.0 g
4. Variability of the indication: ≤ 1 d
5. Errors caused by non-equal arm: ≤ 3 d
6. Structural form of the balance: equal arm balance
a. The weighing pan of the left side is for measuring. It is a square of 750
x 750 mm.
b. The weighing pan of the right side is a mechanical structure
incorporating selectable balancing weights. These are all forged to
cylinder or ring form and include the weight pieces of 10 kg, 20 kg,
20 kg, 50 kg, 100 kg, 200 kg, 200 kg, 500 kg.
7. The beam length of the balance: 1600 mm
8. Method of loading: the compared weight is transferred by a electric conveyor.
9. Dimensions (L × W× H): 2500 x 1600 x 2600 mm