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FTTH Basics and

Network Design
Mark Boxer, Jeff Bush, OFS
Agenda

• Why Fiber?
• Fiber Feeds Everything
• Nuts and Bolts - The Components
• Installation Techniques
• Network Architectures and Planning

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Why fiber? The time is now!
Fiber is future proof.
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• Technology and bandwidth adoption trends

• Fiber vs. metal cables and wireless

2 Residents decide where to live based on quality of broadband. Fiber is


best.
3 Fiber is simpler.

4 Fiber is less expensive.

5 Fiber is less intrusive and easier to install.


Why Fiber?

1
Fiber is future proof.

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Bandwidth growth is accelerating

• In the past 15-20 years, we’ve seen…


– The Internet, iPods C I S C O B AN D W I D T H F O R E C AS T

– HDTVs, DVRs
– Smartphones, Tablet computers
– Streaming services
– Connected everything
• All require bandwidth
• We must expect more bandwidth growth in
the future
Bandwidth – then, now, and next
Then 25 Mbps Now
1.5 Mbps

≈ 0.6 kbps

Next

VR > 9 Mbps
2 Mbps
500 MBPS 6 Mbps

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4k (ULTRA HD) TV

55" 4K TV Price
• Next generation TV format $25,000
SS
SOURCE: OF OU
PRRC
I CEE: B
SEUS
RTV E
BYUY

• Content online and growing $20,000


rapidly
$15,000
• For the first time ever, higher
quality video is available via $10,000

Internet streaming versus $5,000


standard packages
$0
• Price continues to drop rapidly 2012 2016
25 Mbps/screen – How many screens used at once?
Internet of Things and Artificial
Intelligence
• Image analysis, voice analysis
• Natural language – digital assistants
• Language translation
• Autonomous vehicles & robotics
• Enormous potential for medical improvements
using sensors and bandwidth
Technology adoption continues to get faster

• From Mary Meeker’s


(Kleiner Perkins) “Internet
Trends 2018” presentation
• Time until 25% adoption is
dropping dramatically for
new technologies
Why Fiber?

Copper
More Less

Bandwidth Cost/bit
Distance Size
Bandwidth Distance Cost per Bit
Weight
Interference Fiber
Conductivity (no
power needed) 2,400 Pair Copper 1 Fiber Cable
Cable > 50 Tbps
100 Gbps to 1KM > 5,000 KM
Bandwidth Distance Cost per Bit

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Technology evolution
Copper Wireless - Cellular Fiber
Mid-20th
century Phone grade
copper
Early 1980s
Early 1990s Category 3 1G -2G Single-mode fiber
• How Long Will Your Building Last?
introduced in early
1995 Cat 5
1980s,
1999 Cat 5E
still viable and
2002 Cat 6 2G-3G
compatible today,
2009 Cat 6A 100 Gbps+
2016 4G
Cat 8
2018-2020 5G

Single-mode fiber stands the test of time.


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Why Fiber?

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Fiber attracts
Residents and businesses decide where to locate based on quality of broadband.

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Bandwidth enables knowledge workers

“Economic Development is the Killer App for Local Fiber Developments”

• Multiple studies linking fiber deployments to job


growth
• Bandwidth enables…
– Language services
– Media and technology development of all types
– Telemedicine, education, etc.
– “Aging at home”
• SOURCE: http://www.bbpmag.com/Features/1116-
Kill-App.php
Technology and agriculture
FTTH increases home values
S O U R C E : F TTH C O U N C I L I N F O G R A P H I C

THE FIBER EFFECT


Access to fiber in your
neighborhood
raises the value of your
home by
1.3%
Broadband – “the” amenity for MDU
residents
• US National Multifamily Housing Council surveys
• High speed internet access is the most important amenity
• Renters will often pay more for a building with better broadband
Why Fiber?

3
Fiber is simpler.

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Install one cable instead of two

Fiber Coaxial Copper


TV, Voice, Data and
whatever’s next

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Why Fiber?

4
Fiber is easier to install and less expensive.

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Price of fiber

100

5
1990 2010s
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Cost comparison

Metal cables vs. fiber in a building


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Fiber is less intrusive and easier to install.
Fiber is less intrusive and easier to install
Fiber is rugged and reliable
Agenda

• Drivers for FTTH


• Why Fiber?
• Fiber Feeds Everything
• Nuts and Bolts - The Components
• Installation Techniques
• Network Architectures and Planning

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Fiber - the core of most phone, cable,
power networks

Fiber ring

• Node
• Cabinet
• Substation
• Node
• Cabinet Fiber
• Substation Copper
Coax
Node sizes continue to fall Wireless

FTTH = Node size = 1

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Wireless loves fiber

Fiber ring Wireless

(and vice versa)

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Fiber and 5G – FBA Resources

White paper and


webinar available
from FBA
Agenda

• Why Fiber?
• Fiber Feeds Everything
• Nuts and Bolts - The Components
• Installation Techniques
• Designing the OSP Network

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Fiber Structure
Secondary
Light coating

Primary
coating
Glass
Primary coating
245 microns
fiber
• Core – Includes dopants Cladding
• Cladding - Outer layer of glass to
contain light Core
– Different index of refraction than core
125 µm
• Coating - Cushions and protects fibers
200- 250 µm
Fiber types
Conventional Bend Insensitive
Single-mode Fiber Single-mode Fiber

Single-mode Fiber
• Carries only one mode of
light
• Used for FTTH (small radius) (small radius)

Multimode Fiber
Carries multiple modes of light
Not typically used in FTTH SERVICE SERVICE
DISRUPTED MAINTAINED
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FTTH Network Macro View

Central Office / Drop Drop


Headend Closures or Cable
Terminals

Splitter
Cabinet

Underground Aerial
Cable Splice Direct Buried Cable
Closures Cable

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Outside Plant Fiber Cable
• Most often “loose tube” cable structure Buffer tube
– Fibers loose in buffer tubes
Fiber
• Handles stress/strain and
temperature fluctuations and Loose buffer
tube structure
climatic extremes
Ribbon fiber and cable
– Also available in ribbons structure

– Fibers and buffers are color coded


• Underground applications
– Direct buried or in duct
• Aerial applications
– Lashed or self-supporting
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Inside Plant Fiber Cable

• Indoor cables can be different than outdoor cables


• Most often “tight buffer” cable structure
– Provides additional protection for frequent
handling and tight bends
– Easier connectorization
• Multiple types of cable structures
• Riser, plenum, low smoke/zero halogen products
– Designed to meet flame smoke ratings

• Some cables are indoor/outdoor hybrids

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Fiber Management Devices
Closures, Terminals

• Fiber management devices are used


in the central office or remote
cabinets
• Closures are used in the field to
connect cables and fibers
• Terminals are often used for the final
drop to the home
• Multiple designs available for each
component

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Connectors and splitters
Connectors
• “SC” and “LC” most common
SC Connector
• Color indicates polish (back reflection)
• Blue = “Ultra” polish Splitter

LC Connector • Green = “Angle” polish

Splitters
Splitter in splice tray
• Used with Passive Optical Network (PON) systems
• Used to split one fiber into multiple fibers
– Decreases power
MPO Connector
(12 fiber ribbon – Splits bandwidth
connector) • Split ratios are powers of 2
Splitter Cabinet
– 1x2 to 1x64 (1x32 most common)
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MDU and in-home Deployments

• MDU and in-home


installations are different
than outside plant
• Most inside installations
require tight bends and
bend insensitive fibers
• Manufacturers have
developed fibers and
products for these
applications Fiber

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MDU Deployments – FBA Resources
Agenda

• Why Fiber?
• Fiber Feeds Everything
• Nuts and Bolts - The Components
• Installation Techniques
• Network Architectures and Planning

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OSP Cable Placement Options

Aerial
• Fast, minimal restoration time
• Typical choice for overbuilding
existing aerial plant

Below Grade
• Required if no existing aerial plant
• Aesthetically pleasing!

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Splicing

Fusion
• Most common type of splice
• Fibers joined together and melted at Electrodes used to
approximately 1600 degrees C make fusion splice arc

Mechanical
• Common overseas
• Less common in US FTTH installations
Splice sleeve to cover
completed splice
Optical Loss Budget
Designers must ensure adequate optical
power going both directions

Fiber Management
Component Typical loss
OLT
values @ 1550 nm
Unmanaged Switch
Fiber 0.2 dB/km
Encoder & DVD
Splices 0.05 dB
Connectors 0.2 dB
Splitters (1x32) 17-18 dB

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Agenda

• Why Fiber?
• Fiber Feeds Everything
• Nuts and Bolts - The Components
• Installation Techniques
• Network Architectures and Planning

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FTTX Network Planning

Establish Ultimate Network Plan

Network Plan Objectives


• Reduce installed costs
• Increase speed of network build
• Increase return on investment
o Target network segments based
on ROI
• Streamline build cost estimation Example Network Plan
process Cable route design for 10k premise network
Typical FTTH Architectures

PON (Passive Optical Network)


• Uses a signal divider, such as an
optical power splitter Central office or
remote cabinet
• One fiber at the central office feeds OLT
many fibers in the field
Optical Power Splitter
• G-PON (Gigabit PON) and GE-PON PON or wavelength filter

(Gigabit Ethernet-PON) are the most


common architectures Central office or
remote cabinet

Point-to-Point (“Active Ethernet”) OLT


• One fiber in the head end = one Point-to-point
fiber in the field
FTTX Architectures

GPON GE-PON
Point to Point
XGS- 10G- (Active Ethernet)
GPON GE-PON
PON EPON
Downstream 2.4 Gbps 10 Gbps 1.2 Gbps 10 Gbps 100 -1000 Mbps per
Bandwidth total total total total sub
Upstream 1.2 Gbps 10 Gbps 1.2 Gbps 10 Gbps 100 -1000 Mbps per
Bandwidth total total total total sub
Typical distance 20 km 20 km 20 km 20 km 20 km
Wavelengths
(nm), 1490 1577 1550 1577 1550
Downstream 1310 1270 1310 1270 1310
Upstream

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FTTX Architectures
PON - Central Office Splitting
Central Office Dedicated
or Powered Cabinet Fibers
SFU

OLT
F1 Fibers F2 Fibers
MDU

Splitter

Business
Shared
Fibers
• Requires largest cables and most splicing
• Maximizes OLT port utilization
• Utilized in dense urban deployments

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FTTX Architectures
PON - Cabinet Splitting
Central Office Dedicated
or Powered Cabinet Fibers
Splitter SFU
Cabinet
OLT
F1 Fibers F2 Fibers
MDU

Splitter

Shared Business
Fibers

• Closely resembles copper networks


o Cross connect cabinets

• Most common method of deployment in U.S.


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FTTX Architectures
Central Office PON - Distributed Splitting
or Powered Cabinet
Splice
Closures
Splitter Splitter
OLT
F1 Fibers F1 Fibers F1 Fibers

Shared Dedicated
Fibers Fibers

Business MDU SFU SFU

• Greatly reduces cable sizes and splicing


• Requires more OLT ports than CO or cabinet splitting
o Typical break-even take rate is 20-25%

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FTTX Architectures
PON - Cascaded Splitting
Shared “S2”
Central Office Fibers 2nd Splitter SFU
or Powered Cabinet
SFU
“S1”
OLT 1st Splitter
F1 Fibers F1 Fibers

Dedicated
Fibers

MDU
Splice Closure
Or Cabinet
Splice “S2” Business
Closure 2nd Splitter

• Minimizes cable sizes and splicing


• Ideal for rural deployments
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FTTX Architectures

Active Ethernet (Active E) or Point-to-point (P2P)


Dedicated
Central Office Fibers
or Powered Cabinet
SFU

Electronics
MDU

Business

• Requires largest cables and most splicing


• Highest cost of electronics per customer
• Maximum bandwidth per customer

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FTTX Architectures
Distributed / Cascaded Splitting vs
CO / Cabinet Splitting
1. Significantly reduces cable sizes
2. Significantly reduces splicing requirements
Advantages
3. Eliminates need for splitter cabinets
• Associated permitting
1. 100% splitter installation
• Initial as opposed to incremental
Disadvantages
2. 100% OLT port installation
• Initial as opposed to incremental

Typical break-even take rate is 20-25%


• Greater than 25% - distributed / cascaded more economical
• Less than 20% - CO / cabinet more economical
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Summary

• New technologies require bandwidth, which requires fiber


• Fiber is the best method for providing low cost, high bandwidth services
• Fiber is future proof
• Fiber drives economic development and attracts residents
• Fiber is simpler
• Fiber is less expensive and easy to install
• Fiber architectures include multiple types of PON and point-to-point
• Multiple ways of deploying FTTH
• OSP design decisions have significant impacts on network build costs

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Questions?

Mark Boxer
Applications Engineering Manager, OFS
mboxer@ofsoptics.com
252 495-4131

Jeff Bush
Professional Services Manager, OFS
jbush@ofsoptics.com
770 241-4713

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