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Abstract

System for charging and injecting fuel is divided in two systems One is system for charging Otto
while other is for charging diesel engine. Diesel engine is type of ICE (Internal combustion engine)
in which fuel is injected in high pressure. Parts of this system are high preausure pump, fillter, low
preasure pump , reservoir, pipes and various hoses, respectively leads, pumps and devices for
injecting fuel in engine cilinders. In beginning ICE engines are made without pumps, because fuel
with help of gravity was coming down in engine cylinders. Today diesel engines most commonly
have two pumps, electrical, inside of reservoir and second pump of high pressure (Common Rail)
which can be found in nearby area of engine.
This type of engine is most common. His scope of application is wide.. In this paper are
given basic goals with specificities of working conditions , and some basic technical-exploitation
characteristics. Also there are listed some of manufacturers of most famous diesel engines.
The principle of work is also indicated , also and roles and functions of basic sub-parts of
system. Advantages of this type of engine are: low consumption of fuel, longer lifetime of engine,
grater availability of this type of engine relative to other ICE engines.

Keywords: diesel engine, system of injection, fuel charging

Table of Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................1

Introduction
German inventor and manufacturer Rudolf Diesel in year of 1892. secsesfully constructed engine
that got name by him. This engine belongs to group of engines with internal combustion (ICE). In
that time, all of ICE was designed to work with help of spark plug that ignited mixture of fuel and
air. Diesel devised new model of engine and with his addaptation made huge improvement of
tehnology.
Diesel engines are simmilar to Oto four-stroke engine. Difference between these two engines
is that engine which is fueled by petrol has a carburator, while in diesel engine fuel is ignited with
high pressure. Carburator int Oto engine is replaced with pump of high pressure. Mixture is ignited
when fuel is injected in air which is compresed and simultaneously heated beacause of high
pressure. Then mixture is ignited. This is so-called Diesel circular process which is comprised of
four strokes. First cycle is when air is sucked into cylinder, compression of air and injecting fuel,
combustion and expansion, and last cycle is when burned gas is exhausted into atmosphere.
Diesel engines back in days was not so common, because engines that used petrol was easier
to start and had better performance. Disel engines was used mostly in areas where economy and less
consumption of fuel. Also, they where not used in airplanes, but they showed good characterisitcs in
road vehicles and for big means of transport like ships, submarines and locomotives.
2. Area of application
2.1 Basic purpose with specifics of working conditions
Charging and injecting fuel of Diesel engine is defferent from system for injecting within petrol
engines. In Diesel engine fuel is injected in cilinder with high pressure. In order to have high-
quality working process in engine. System for injecting within Diesel engine has to complete
specific tasks, such as:
1. In every cycle fuel must be injected in precise amount in working space of engine.
2. Fuel must be dispersed in equal amount in cilinder so that we have spatial distribution in
combustion chamber.
3. Engine has to have methods of setting amount of injected fuel , starting time and ending time of
fuel injection.
4. Time of injection has to meet optimal law of injection, wich means most optimal quantitative
distribution of injected fuel in terms of crankshaft angle .
Very important characteristics of working process of Diesel engine is that combustion is
acomplished in conditions of internal preparation and self-ingintion of mixture. With
comprehensive analysis of working process of combustion in Diesel engines it comes to conclusion
that this process can‘t be observed separatly from process of mixture preparation and wise versa.
Characteristic for this process is that, flame can occure simultaneosly in multiple places and also in
same time when mixture is being prepared or when is fuel being injected. Resaon for this is that is
great inhomogeneity of mixture, which is determined from next physical processes:
 characteristics of injected fuel
 desintegration of stream and distribution of fuel in working space of engine
 flow of working matter
 distribution of heat and mass inside of working space
Specialty of combustion process in chambers of Diesel engine is that elementary processes such as
transition from liquid state in gas state in most casses develop in termodinamicaly supercritical area.
This states can be described with complicated physical and mathematical models. Chemical
combustion mechanism is also complex, because fuel as well as the products of its molecular
decomposition, can be in conditions of high temperatures and pressures and very wide limits of
concentration oxidant, to have different and complex pathways of chemical transformations of
reagents. In such conditions, in addition to the usual final stable combustion products (CO2, H2O,
N2, O2, H2, CO, NO, NO2), there are also unburnt hydrocarbons (CH) and soot particles. The
combustion process in the diesel engine will be briefly analyzed using the diagram on Figure 1,
which shows the principle flow of the characteristic stages of the combustion process [2].
Figure 1. Principal flow of the characteristic stages of the combustion process shown through the
law of heat release (PU - start of injection, KU - injection end) [2]

2.2. Basic technical-exploitation characteristics


More significant sizes influence the preparation of the fuel mixture and the combustion flow in the
engine. Those are:
1. the moment of injection
2. Injection duration and fuel flow
3. Injection pressure
4. Direction of injection and number of fuel jets
In order to perform its tasks, the injection device is equipped with two regulators that can be
can be mechanically or electronically. Those are:
 pre-injection regulator or injection start regulator: takes into account delay in injection and
delay of ignition
 engine speed: protects the motor from overload
In addition, the injection device must also be able to control the engine power, or its
regulation. These devices can be either mechanical or electronic [3].
The basic difference between the diesel and the gasoline engine is that the diesel engine is
using compression heat to ignite fuel, while gasoline engines use a spark that produce spark plugs
and ignition systems. Figure 2 shows an injection system diesel fuel [4].

Figure 2. Fuel injection system [4]