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Le Corbusier

(1887-1965)
Swiss-French
Architect

“I prefer drawing to talking.


Drawing is faster, and leaves
less room for lies.”
—Le Corbusier

QUICK FACTS
NAME Le Corbusier was born
Le Corbusier Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-
OCCUPATION
Architect Gris in Switzerland on
BIRTH DATE October 6, 1887. In 1917, he
October 6, 1887 moved to Paris and assumed
DEATH DATE
August 27, 1965 the pseudonym Le
EDUCATION Corbusier. In his architecture,
École des Arts Décoratifs at La he chiefly built with steel and
Chaux-de-Fonds
PLACE OF BIRTH reinforced concrete and
La Chaux-de-Fonds, worked with elemental
Switzerland
geometric forms. Le
PLACE OF DEATH
Cap Martin, France Corbusier's painting
ORIGINALLY
Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-
Gris
AKA
Charles Jeanneret-Gris
FULL NAME
Le Corbusier
emphasized clear forms and structures, which
corresponded to his architecture.

5 famous works of Le Corbusier

1. Notre Dame du Haut (1954) -   is a Roman Catholic


chapel designed by Le
Corbusier. Located on a
hill near Belfort,
Ronchamp, France, it is
widely considered one
of the most
important buildings of
the 20th century.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Concrete - used for the walls, floors, and


roofs
2. Steel - used for creating reinforced concrete
3. Reinforced Concrete - used for vertical
columns
4. Glass – used for furnishing and interior design
2. Villa Savoye (1931) – is a modernist villa in Poissy, on
the outskirts of Paris,
France. It was designed by
the Swiss architects Le
Corbusier and his cousin,
Pierre Jeanneret and built
between 1928 and 1931
using reinforced concrete.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Reinforced Concrete – used almost to


construct the building
2. Glass - used for the windows
3. Pre-fabrication – used to construct the villa
3. Cite Radieuse/Radiant City (1952)
-  is arguably the most
influential Brutalist buildin
g of all time, and is
considered one of Le
Corbusier’s most famous
and successful works.
Indeed, the building is
often credited as being
the initial inspiration
behind the architectural
style of Brutalism.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Concrete (rough-cast) - used to construct the


building
2. Timber formwork - used to texture the
building
3. Glass - used for windows
4. Pavillon Le Corbusier (1957) – is the last
building Le
Corbusier designe
d before his death
in 1965.
Completed in
1967, the building
stands as a
testament to
Corbusier’s
renaissance
genius as an
architect, painter,
and
sculptor. Iconic for its floating steel roof and brightly
colored panels.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Concrete - used for pavilion floor


2. Steel - used to create a modular steel frame
and roof structure (welded steel sheets)
3. Prefabricated – used for the entire structure
4. Glass – used for windows
5. National Museum of Western Art (1959) – was the
premier public art gallery in Japan specializing in art from the
Western tradition. The
museum is also known
by the English
acronym NMWA
(National Museum of
Western Art).

BUILDING
MATERIALS

5. Reinforced Concrete - used for the


columns of the structure
6. Concrete - used to stop free plant based on
concrete slab system reticular
7. Prefabricated – used for the exterior walls
Louis Kahn
(1901-1974)
American
Architect

“Design is not making


beauty, beauty emerges
from selection, affinities,
integration, love.”
– Louis Kahn
QUICK FACTS
NAME
Louis Kahn Louis Kahn in full Louis Isadore
OCCUPATION Kahn was born February 20, 1901
Architect
at Osel, Estonia, Russian Empire. In
BIRTH DATE
February 20, 1901 1957, his mature style combined the
DEATH DATE servant-served typology with
March 17, 1974
EDUCATION inspiration from classical
University of Pennysylvania at and medieval architecture, basic
Philadephia
PLACE OF BIRTH
geometric forms, and an elegant,
Osel, Estonia, Russian Empire expressive use of such familiar
PLACE OF DEATH materials as concrete and brick.
New York, U.S.
ORIGINALLY
Louis Isadore Kahn
5 famous works of Louis
Kahn
AKA
Louis I Kahn
FULL NAME
Louis Kahn
1. Yale University Art Gallery (1953) - was the first
major commission for
Louis Kahn and is
considered his first
masterpiece. The
architect designed it
during their stay at the
School of Architecture
at the university, which
had been invited as a
critic.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Concrete - used for the modular rectangular


structure and roof
2. Glass - used for the entrance door and windows
3. Brick - used for the walls
4. Steel - used for the enclosure
5. Limestone – used for horizontal bands of brick
facades

2. Kimbell Art
Museum (1966) - has
become a mecca for all who are interested in modern
architecture.  The element of natural light is the main focus
of the design, and creates elegant spaces that are
perfectly suited for the art that it houses.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Limestone (travertine) - used for in-fill


material or wallpaper
2. Concrete - used for the vaults
3. Reinforced Concrete - used to support the
weight of the structure

3. Esherick House (1961) - is the first residence of its kind to


convey the grand
ideas of Kahn-style
architecture. The two
story dwelling, which is
one of only nine
private houses
designed by Kahn to come into realization, rests on a lively six
acre garden.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Wood - used for doors and windows


2. Concrete - used for the whole structure

4. First Unitarian Church (1969) - is one of Kahn’s most


impressive works.
It combines modern
design aesthetic with
traditional Unitarian
values that promotes
community and unites everyone at the heart of the building, the
sanctuary.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Brick - used for walls


2. Concrete - used for the whole structure
3. Wood (planks) - used for interior design

5. Fisher House (1967) - is the simplest expression


of Kahn’s idea: two
cubes, one for the
living room and the
other for the
bedrooms, which touch at an angle as if by chance, like dice
thrown on a table.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Wood - used for the structure


2. Stone - used to adapt the inclination of the terrain

Kenzo Tange
(1913-2005)
Japanese Architect

“Designs of purely arbitrary


nature cannot be expected to
last long.”
– Kenzo Tange
QUICK FACTS
NAME Kenzo Tange was born in Osaka, Japan
Kenzo Tange
OCCUPATION on September 4, 1913.He is winner of
Architect the 1987 Pritzker Prize for architecture. 
BIRTH DATE In 1935, Tange was successful and was
September 4, 1913
accepted at the University of Tokyo in
DEATH DATE
March 22, 2005 the architecture program. During his
EDUCATION studies, he was inspired by Le
The University of Tokyo at Corbusier, a renowned Swiss architect
Tokyo
PLACE OF BIRTH
known for founding the modernist
Osaka, Japan movement. He was one of the most
PLACE OF DEATH significant architects of the 20th century.
Tokyo, Japan
ORIGINALLY
Tange, Kenzo / 丹下 健三 5 famous works of Kenzo
Tange
AKA
Kenzo Tange
FULL NAME
Kenzo Tange

1. Tochō (1990) - The Tokyo


Metropolitan Government
Building houses the headquarters of
the Tokyo Metropolitan
Government, which governs
the special wards, cities, towns
and villages that constitutes the
whole Tokyo Metropolis. The
design of the building was meant to resemble
an integrated circuit, while also evoking the look of
a Gothic cathedral.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Asbestos - used as an insulating material for the


structure
2. Glass - used for the windows
3. Reinforced Concrete - used for the walls

2. St. Mary Cathedral (1954) - The Tokyo Cathedral has


been completed in 1964,
replacing the old wooden
cathedral, in gothic style, burnt
during wartime. Tange
conceived the new church as a
concrete structure, simple in
concept and complex in shape,
which recalls the lightness of a
bird and its wings.
BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Steel – used for the external claddings


2. Concrete – used for the slabs and walls
3. Glass – used for windows

3. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum (1955) -


By designing the
Hiroshima Peace
Center and Memorial
Park, Tange
expressed the
solidarity of human
kind as well as
symbolizing a
commitment to peace.
BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Concrete (pillars) - used for the stand of the


building
2. Concrete - used for the structure
3. Reinforced Concrete - used for the stilts
4. Glass - used for the windows

4. Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower (2008) - The elliptical


shape of the structure allows for more
varied spaces, both its foundations
and its top is narrow. At street level,
the space was seized with gardening;
top allows unobstructed views of the
sky. This is an innovative educational
center in which three institutions work:
the Professional School of Fashion
(Tokyo Mode Gakuen), the Special
Superior School of Technology and Design (HAL Tokyo), and
the Medical College (Shuto Iko). 

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Steel & Concrete - used for the foundation of


the structure
2. Glass - used for the windows
3. Aluminum - used to covered the structure

5. UOB Plaza (1995) - United Overseas Bank Plaza is a


complex with twin tower late-
modernist skyscrapers in the
city of Singapore. The
materials, colors, shapes and
overall image of the building
closely resembles the Tokyo
Metropolitan Government
Building, which was completed
in Shinjuku, Tokyo in 1990 which was also designed by
Kenzo Tange.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Granite - used for the performance wall of the


tower
2. Glass - used as insulator to the performing wall
3. Reinforced Concrete - used for the structure

Oscar Niemeyer
(1907-2012)
Brazilian Architect

“Forms follow beauty”


– Oscar Niemeyer
QUICK FACTS
NAME
Oscar Niemeyer His exploration of the aesthetic
OCCUPATION possibilities of reinforced
Architect
BIRTH DATE concrete was highly influential in the
December 15, 1907 late 20th and early 21st centuries.
DEATH DATE Niemeyer was most famous for his
December 5, 2012
EDUCATION use of abstract forms and curves. He
  Federal University of Rio de was one of the greatest architects
Janeiro At Escola Nacional de in Brazil's history, and one of the
Belas Artes
greats of the
PLACE OF BIRTH
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil global modernist movement. After his
PLACE OF DEATH death in 2012, Niemeyer left the world
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
more than five hundred works
ORIGINALLY
Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida scattered throughout the Americas,
Niemeyer Soares Filho Africa, and Europe.
AKA
Oscar Niemeyer
FULL NAME 5 famous works of Oscar
Oscar Niemeyer
Niemeyer

1. Museum of Contemporary Art (1996) - resembles a


flying saucer hovering
above Rio de Janeiro’s
Guanabara Bay. In
addition to exhibition
space, the structure
includes a viewing
gallery, whose windows offer panoramic views of the water
below and Sugarloaf Mountain in the distance.

BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Concrete - used for the structure, beams,


pavement of the great ramp.
2. Steel – used for the window frames
3. Glass (crystals) – used for the window

2. Brasilia Cathedral (1970) - The Metropolitan


Cathedral, or Cathedral of
Brasilia, is one of many public
buildings designed by architect
Oscar Niemeyer, 60th in the
Brazilian capital. Having such a
significant history, it can be
expected that the architecture
of Brasilia reflects the richness
and prominence of the culture as
a planned city.
BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Concrete - used for the hyperbolic structure


2. Glass – used for the roof

3. The Palácio da Alvorada (1958) - The building was


designed in the
modernist style. It has
been the residence of
every Brazilian
president since
Juscelino Kubitschek.
The building is listed as
a National Historic
Heritage Site.
BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Marble - used for the columns of the structure


2. Glass – used for the façade and windows

4. Palace of the Arches (1970) - is the headquarters of


Brazil’s Ministry of
External Relations, in
Brasília. The
building’s namesake
arches mimic the
colonnade of the
nearby Supreme
Federal Court and
Palácio da Alvorada.
BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Glass - used for the windows


2. Concrete - used for the columns and the
structure

5. The Brazilian Attorney General’s office (2002) –


Two mirrored cylinders,
one topped with a
starlike crown of
concrete, make up the
Sede da Procuradoria
Geral da República
Brasileira.
BUILDING MATERIALS

1. Concrete - used for the crown


2. Glass - used for the mirrored windows
3. Steel - used for the framing of the structure