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PIONEER F& 6
MISSION TO JUPITER
Pioneer F and G Missions
Man's first reconnaissance of maximum scientific return dur- star, appears to have its own
the giant planet Jupiter will ing closest approach, to within internal heat source. Jupiter
begin with the launch of two about 90,000 miles. rotates at fantastic speed. A
spacecraft, Pioneers F and G, The bizarre and spectacular spot on its equator travels at
in 1972 and 1973 on missions planet Jupiter is potentially the 22,000 mph, compared to 1,000
which are planned to last for most interesting in the solar mph for a similar spot on Earth.
several years. system. Striped in yellow- Because of the planet's appar-
These spacecraft are expected orange and blue-gray like an ent semi-liquid character, this
, to be the first to go beyond the enormous rubber ball, it has a rotation produces a large equa-
orbit of Mars, to pass through huge red "eye" in its southern torial bulge.
the Asteroid Belt and to use hemisphere. Its mass is more One goal of the Pioneer F and
•Jupiter's gravity to escape the than twice that of all the other G missions is to develop tech-
solar system. After a trip of planets combined. Scientists nology and experience for other
more than a billion miles, each recently have raised the possi- missions to the outer planets,
craft will spend about a week bility of life on the planet. It planned for the late 1970s, and
swinging around Jupiter, with has 12 moons and, like a small also to assess hazards of deep
space, primarily penetration by
a high-velocity rock fragment
in the Asteroid Belt, and pos-
sibly crippling effects of Jupi-
ter's radiation belts.
After the flight past Jupiter,
scientific data from Pioneer F
will be retrieved out to the limit
of the spacecraft's communica-
tion system, 1.5 billion or more
miles from the Sun.
Pioneer F will be launched
between February 27 and
March 13, 1972, Pioneer G be-
tween April 3 and 20, 1973.
The Pioneer Project is managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames
Research Center, Mountain View, California, for the Office of Space Science and Applications, NASA
Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Spacecraft
Pioneers F and G are iden- MAJOR SUBSYSTEMS

tical spacecraft weighing about © RADIOISOTOPE


THERMOELECTRIC
570 pounds apiece, including GENERATORS (2)
THRUSTERS
65 pounds of scientific instru- MEDIUM-GAIN
ments. Each will be capable ANTENNA
HIGH-GAIN ANTENNA
of performing 13 scientific ex- COMMAND
periments, and photographing DISTRIBUTION UNIT
STELLAR REFERENCE
Jupiter in better detail than ASSEMBLY
Earth-based telescopes. LOW-GAIN ANTENNA
TRAVELING WAVE
TUBES (2)
DIGITAL TELEMETRY
UNIT

V
PIONEER JUPITER SPACECRAFT
Navigation, Attitude Control, and Propulsion
For navigation, the Doppler positioned in the ecliptic plane gyroscopic effect of a spin of
shift in frequency of the Pio- by pointing their high-gain, five revolutions per minute
neer radio signals will be used narrow-beam dish antennas will stabilize them in this at-
to calculate continuously the continuously at the Earth. The titude. The axes of spacecraft
speed, distance, and position
of the spacecraft. The Doppler
shift is caused by motion of
the spacecraft and is measured
by ground tracking.
Because the planes of the or-
bits of the Earth and of Jupi-
ter almost coincide, the most
efficient trajectories to Jupiter
lie in the Earth's orbital plane
(the ecliptic). EARTH WILL ORBIT SUN TWICE JUPITER
COMPLETES 1/6 REVOLUTION DURING MISSION
Pioneers F and G will be
ATTITUDE CONTROL AND PROPULSION
spin coincide with the axes of
the radio beams of the space-
EARTH ORBIT
craft high-gain antennas.
SPACECRAFT TRAJECTORY Earth-point of the space-
craft high-gain antennas is
maintained by a conical scan
system on the spacecraft. It
uses the intensity pattern of
the incoming radio signals to
RADIO SIGNAL PATTERN
FROM GOLDSTONE TRACKING
STATION, CALIFORNIA
measure amount and direction
of drift of the spin axes from
exact Earth-point. Drift is then
VELOCITY CHANGE IN a ATTITUDE
CHANGE IN SPIN-RATE
THRUSTERS
FIRE IN UNISON
ATTITUDE 1
lf=»
THRUSTERS
PULSE
automatically corrected.
CONSTANT CONSTANT
Since the spacecraft rotate
EARTH-POINT EARTH-POINT continuously, thrusts to change
their attitudes can occur at only
photopolarimeter will show the
entire planet, while at closest
approach (to within one planet
diameter, 86,900 miles) the im-
age will cover about 25 per cent
of the planet's surface. This
picture will show the terminator
(the line between sunlit and
dark hemispheres), which is
never seen from the Earth.
Scanning in strips 0.03° wide,
the camera will complete a pic-
ture in from 25 to 110 minutes.

10
Jupiter
Jupiter has a mass some 318 JUPITER'S VISIBLE SURFACE

NORTH POLAR REGION


times that of the Earth. Two NORTH NORTH NORTH TEMPERATE BELT
NORTH NORTH TEMPERATE ZONE
of its 12 moons, Ganymede NORTH NORTH TEMPERATE BELT
NORTH TEMPERATE ZONE

and Callisto, are larger than •**


NORTH TEMPERATE BELT
NORTH TROPICAL ZONE
„ NORTH EQUATORIAL BELT
the Earth's moon. „ EQUATORIAL ZONE
„ EQUATORIAL BAND

The atmosphere is made .- EQUATORIAL ZONE


- NORTH COMPONENT OF SOUTH
EQUATORIAL BELT
up of hydrogen with minor - SOUTH EQUATORIAL BELT
- SOUTH COMPONENT Of SOUTH
amounts of methane and am- EQUATORIAL BELT
SOUTH TROPICAL ZONE

monia, prohably helium, and GREAT RED SPOT


SOUTH TEMPERATE BELT
SOUTH TEMPERATE ZONE
some water. Temperatures in SOUTH SOUTH TEMPERATE BELT
SOUTH SOUTH TEMPERATE ZONE
the upper atmosphere may be SOUTH POLAR REGION

near room temperature. These dense layer of clouds which Spot, 30,000 miles long and
conditions could produce the form bright yellow-orange and 8,000 miles wide, which drifts
building blocks of life, or even slate blue bands (atmosphere very slowly about the same
life itself. currents) around the planet. latitude, but floats more rap-
The surface is hidden by a Jupiter has a huge "eye" or Red idly in longitude.
Communications and Data Handling
one point on the circle of rota- Communication equipment data stream for scientific and
tion. Sensors will fix upon either includes the nine-foot alumi- engineering data, at rates from
the Sun or the star, Canopus, to num-honeycomb, high-gain, 16 to 2048 EPS. While trans-
provide the reference for these narrow-beam (3°) dish antenna mitting, the spacecraft can, at
thrusts. for long distance communica- the same time, store up to
Mid-course trajectory cor- tion, plus a wider beam (32°) 49,152 data bits for later trans-
rections will be made by small medium-gain antenna. Other mission.
changes in velocity of the components are an omni-direc- Commands from Earth are
spacecraft. Thrusters will turn tional antenna, two receivers, routed by the Command Dis-
the Pioneers, aligning the spin and two transmitters powered tribution Unit to any one of
axes in the direction of the by redundant traveling wave 255 destinations on the space-
velocity change. They will then tubes. craft. Up to five commands can
fire continuously to make the At Jupiter, the spacecraft be stored for later execution.
course change, and afterwards will return to Earth 1024 data
will return spin axes and an- bits per second (EPS). The
tennas to Earth-point. spacecraft can provide a coded
Electric Power The Pictures
At Jupiter and beyond, so- solar cells, so four radioiso- The photo polarimeter ex-
lar radiation is too weak to tope thermoelectric generators periment will provide images of
efficiently provide power from (RTG's) will be used. Two Jupiter.
pairs of RTG's are mounted The camera-like device will
at the ends of two booms, use the spin of the Pioneers
120° apart. The RTG's.devices to scan the planet in narrow
which convert nuclear energy strips in both red and blue
to electricity, provide 160 watts light. Investigators will then
THCRMOELECTRI
of power at launch with power combine these elements to
\ FUEL 04!
REENTRY HEAT SHIELI
output expected to be at least make composite pictures. Su-
i FUEL CAPSULE'
120 watts five years later. The perimposition of the red and
RTG's are fueled with Pluto- blue elements will provide two-
nium 238 dioxide, and their nu- color pictures of Jupiter.
clear energy (heat) is turned
RADIOISOTOPE THERMOELECTRIC
into electricity by 90 thermo- At 350,000 miles from Jupi-
GENERATOR electric couples. ter, a complete scan by the
MODEL OF JUPITER INTERIOR
it absorbs from the Sun, sug-
gesting that it may have inte-
CLOUD TOPS
rior processes similar to those
AMMONIA CRYSTALS

UPPER I
AMMONIA DROPLETS
AMMONIA VAPOR
of the Sun.
ATMOSPHERE | ICE CRYSTALS
WATER DROPLETS
Composition of the giant
WATER VAPOR
LIQUID AND/OR SOLID HYDROGEN
planet is believed to be at least
METALLIC HYDROGEN three quarters hydrogen. Earth
INTERNAL ENERGY
SOURCE GRAVITATIONAL
based studies have not yet
OR RADIOACTIVE
ROCKY SILICATES
shown whether the "surface" is
METALLIC ELEMENTS
solid hydrogen, or slush, or liq-
uid hydrogen. Pioneers F and G
The planet periodically diation belts estimated to be will examine the sunlit side as
emits huge surges of radio a million times more intense they approach, and the dark
noise. It has a magnetic field than Earth's. side as they pass behind the
estimated to be 20 times as Jupiter appears to radiate planet. The dark side cannot be
strong as the Earth's, and ra- three times as much energy as seen from the Earth.
Asteroids
PIONEER PASSAGE THROUGH
JUPITER'S MAGNETIC HELD
MAGNETIC
AXIS
Both Pioneer spacecraft will
AND RADIATION BELTS spend from six months to a
year passing through the aster-
oid belt which circles the Sun
between the orbits of Mars and
Jupiter.
There may be as many as
50,000 asteroids ranging in size
from one mile in diameter to
the 480-mile-diameter Ceres.
CHARGED PARTICLES
In addition, there are many
FROM THE SUN TRAPPED
IN JUPITER'S MAGNETIC FIELD
hundreds of thousands of still
smaller asteroids and probably
millions of fragments. In total,
SPACECRAFT TRAJECTORY there is estimated to be enough
AND PATH ACROSS
JUPITER'S SURFACE asteroidal material to form a
13
small planet.
In the center of the Belt, pro-
jectile-like asteroidal material
has an estimated average speed
of about 30,000 mph. While
size distribution of asteroidal
material is not known, a col-
lision between the spacecraft
and even very small asteroids
is probably unlikely. Analyses
suggest that Pioneer F will ap-
proach no closer than three
million miles to any known
asteroid.

14
MARS

BOUNDARY OF HELIOSPHERE GALACTIC


COSMIC RAYS
EARTH
PIONEER ESCAPE
TRAJECTORY
SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD

INTERSTELLAR

r
SOLAR COSMIC RAYS GAS

AST JUPITER
BELT
URANUS

NEPTUNE
PLUTO I \ SOLAR WIND

15
Launch
The Pioneers will be launched
LAUNCH VEHICLE
by Atlas-Centaur launch vehi-
cles mounted with TE-M-364-4
solid-fuel third stages. The
TE-M-364-4 has a thrust of
14,800 pounds.
An Atlas-Centaur vehicle for
a Pioneer mission is about 130
feet high and 10 feet in diam-
eter. The booster is the Atlas
SLV-3C which has an overall
thrust of 413,400 pounds. The
upper stage is the 30-foot, Cen- Kennedy, on a direct ascent per-hour, believed the fastest a
taur vehicle with a thrust of trajectory. At third stage cut- man-made object has ever trav-
30,000 pounds. off, the Pioneers will have a eled in space.
Launch will be from Cape velocity of about 32,400 miles-
16
Mission Events and Operations

ASTEROID BELT JUPITER


EARTH AT ORBIT
ENCOUNTER

RADIO SIGNAL
45 MINUTES EARTH-JUPITER
45 MINUTES JUPITER-EARTH

JUPITER AT
ENCOUNTER

PIONEER HELIOCENTRIC
TRAJECTORY: ESCAPE
FROM SOLAR SYSTEM

17
The flights to Jupiter will hours, the spacecraft, traveling craft will be made every two
take from 630 to 795 days, with at half-a-million miles per day, or three days early in the mis-
the shorter trip times resulting will have passed out of the sion and every week thereafter.
from launches during the ear- Earth's magnetosphere into in_- After 180 days or more, the
lier days of the 15-day launch terplanetary space. Pioneers will begin passage
windows. Ground computers will con- through the asteroid belt. Con-
Mission events include: lift- stantly refine calculations of trollers will prepare emergency
off, passage through the Earth's the spacecraft trajectory. Con- procedures for possible impact
shadow, acquisition of the trollers will correct the trajec- by asteroid fragments.
spacecraft by the Deep Space tory at four days and again at For the week-long Jupiter
Network (DSN) and first orien- 30 days, to precisely target the fly-by, they will develop a de-
tation to point the spacecraft spacecraft for its encounter tailed sequence of events. Com-
antenna toward the Earth. with Jupiter hundreds of days mands must be precisely timed
V Experiments will be turned later. with the spacecraft's position
on one at a time, starting an Attitude changes to sharpen relative to the planet. Opera-
hour after launch. After four Earth-pointing of the space- tions will be complicated by the
18
round trip communication time include possible crippling dam- among U.S. interplanetary
of 90 minutes due to limitations age from Jupiter's radiation spacecraft in being controlled
of light speed. belts. almost entirely from the ground
Hazards at planet encounter The Pioneers are unique rather than by automatic, on-
board systems. Controllers will
be on duty 24 hours a day. Dur-
ing cruise, they will send around
20 commands per day, and, at
encounter with Jupiter, hun-
dreds of commands. Responses
to malfunctions must be imme-
diate.
These direct-control features
of the Pioneers make them rel-
atively low cost and adaptable
for many missions.
19
Data Return, Command, and Tracking
NASA's Deep Space Network be able to retrieve spacecraft
(DSN), operated by the Jet data out to about 1.5 billion
Propulsion Laboratory, will miles from the Sun.
track and receive data from
the Pioneers. For early parts
of the mission, tracking will be Mission Control will be at
by the DSN's 85-foot (26-me- Cape Kennedy for the launch,
ter) antennas. Where high rates and at the DSN's Space Flight
of data return are required, Operations Facility (SFOF),
the powerful global net of 210- Pasadena, California, immedi-
foot (64-meter) antennas of the ately after launch and during
DSN will take over. At Jupiter Jupiter fly-by. During cruise,
distance, the 85's can receive both before and after planet
128 bits per second (EPS), while encounter, control will move
the larger 210-foot dishes can to the Pioneer Mission Analy-
hear 1024 EPS. The 210's will sis Area, Ames Research Cen-
20
ter, Mountain View, California. SFOF computers. These com- ately for spacecraft control. All
puters will check for critical data will also be transmitted
Incoming telemetry data changes and provide data for to the Ames Research Center
from the spacecraft will be re- analysis by specialists on the for detailed operational and
ceived at the DSN stations, spacecraft, on the experiments, engineering analysis and dis-
and immediately formatted for and on ground systems. Their tribution to individual experi-
high-speed transmission to the analyses will be used immedi- menters. Outgoing commands
DE6P SPACE NETWORK
will be verified by the Mission
Control computers and then
sent to individual DSN sta-
tions for transmission to the
spacecraft. The same compu-
ters will confirm spacecraft re-
sponse to commands as they
process incoming telemetry
data.
21
The Experiments-What They Tell
Magnetic Fields the solar wind (ions and elec- Charged Particle Instru-
trons flowing out from the ment, Cosmic Ray Tele-
Magnetometer — will map Sun) beyond the orbit of Mars; scope — These two experi-
the interplanetary magnetic will determine solar wind in- ments will map beyond the or-
field beyond the orbit of Mars, teractions with Jupiter, includ- bit of Mars the density, speed,
Jupiter's magnetic fields, and ing the planet's bow shock direction, and mechanisms of
the modulation of Jupiter's wave; and will look for the cosmic rays (atomic nuclei)
magnetic fields by its inner boundary at which the solar coming from the Sun and Gal-
moons. wind and solar atmosphere axy. These instruments can
(the heliosphere) end and in- distinguish whether the parti-
terstellar space begins. cles are nuclei of one or more
The Interplanetary Solar of the ten lightest elements
Wind and the Heliosphere (helium, carbon, oxygen, etc.)
Cosmic Rays, Jupiter's and which one. They also will
Plasma Analyzer—will map Radiation Belts and Radio observe the interaction of
the density and mechanisms of Signals charged particles (protons and
22
electrons) with Jupiter and belts, and will study Jupiter's size, velocities, and direction.
w i t h i n Jupiter's radiation huge, periodic radio signals. This will begin the first survey
belts. of meteoroid and cometary
matter, and its source, beyond
Asteroids, Meteoroids, the orbit of Mars.
Jupiter's Charged Particles Interplanetary Dust, and
Geiger Tube Telescope, Celestial Mechanics
Meteoroid Detector — con-
Trapped Radiation Detec- Asteroid-Meteoroid Detec- sists of 216 penetration cells
tor — These two experiments tor — consists of four optical attached to the spacecraft ex-
will attempt to learn the con- telescopes which can detect as- terior. The cells measure im-
tents and mechanisms of Jupi- teroids and meteoroids as small pacts of particles from 1/100
ter's radiation belts by mea- as 1/100,000th gram by mea- millionth to l/trillionth of a
suring the intensities, energies, suring sunlight reflected from gram to gain information on
and distribution of energetic them. The instrument can mea- concentrations of interplane-
electrons and protons in the sure particle concentrations, tary particles.
23
MAGNETOMETER
COSMIC RAY TELESCOPE
INFRARED RADIOMETER
CHARGED PARTICLE INSTRUMENT
TRAPPED RADIATION DETECTOR
ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOMETER
GEIGER TUBE TELESCOPE
IMAGING PHOTOPOLARIMETER
PLASMA ANALYZER
METEOROID DETECTOR SENSOR PANELS
)ID-METEOROID DETECTOR SENSOR
24
Celestial Mechanics — Ex- Ultraviolet Photometer — gen and helium will provide
perimenters will use precision will determine the density of data to study these phenom-
Doppler tracking of the Pioneer neutral hydrogen in interplan- ena.
radio signals to improve calcu- etary space, will attempt to
lations on: the mass of Jupiter, find the limits of the helio- Infrared Radiometer—will
character of the Jovian gravity sphere by measurements of measure infrared radiation to
field, mass of Jupiter's 12 hydrogen distribution, will find Jupiter's emissions of
moons, Earth's orbit, and other measure the hydrogen-helium thermal energy, and its tem-
solar system data. ratio in Jupiter's upper and perature distribution. These
lower atmospheres, will look data will help tell how much
Interplanetary Hydrogen, for Jovian auroral activity internal energy Jupiter radi-
Helium, and Dust; near both poles, and for phe- ates, temperature of the dark
nomena resulting from pas- hemisphere, location of hot or
The Heliosphere; Jupiter's sages of the moon, lo. Mea- cold spots in the outer atmos-
Atmosphere,Temperatures, surements of light in the far phere, whether there is a polar
Auroras, and Moons ultraviolet given off by hydro- ice cap of frozen methane, and
25
the hydrogen-helium ratio in Imaging Photopolarimeter collect data on Jupiter's little-
the atmosphere. —will measure intensities and known moons.
polarization of visible light. Its
measurements of reflected light JUPITER MOONS

Occultation Experiment — (zodiacal light) will be used to


will measure effects of Jupiter's calculate the amount, distribu-
atmosphere on the Pioneer tion, and origin (from asteroids
radio signals as the spacecraft and comets) of interplanetary
disappears behind the planet dust. At Jupiter, experimenters
and reappears again. These will use the data to attempt to
changes will show the refrac- find the structure and compo-
tive index of the planet's at- sition of the Jovian clouds and
mosphere, add to knowledge of atmosphere, data on the plan-
its hydrogen-helium ratio, and et's thermal balance, and to
show electron density in the retrieve close-up pictures. The
ionosphere. instrument also will attempt to
26
t Team NASA HEADQUARTERS PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
OSSA— Dr.J.E.Naugle
Planetary Programs — R. S. Kraemer
Pioneer Programs Manager — F. D. Kochendorfer

1
NASA-AMES RESEARCH CENTER (ARC)
1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
1
ATOMIC ENERGY Director — Dr. Hans Mark
COMMISSION
EXPERIMENTS
Director of Development — J. V. Foster SYSTEM
Space Nuclear Systems Division
D. S. Gabriel Pioneer Project Office
Project Manager— C. E Hall (ARC)
Space Nuclear Systems Office
G.A.Newhy Manager — J. E. Lepetich
Isotope Power Systems Project Project Staff
Branch — H. Jaffe Management Control — J. R. Spahr
SNAP-19/Pioneer Project Mission Analysis & Launch Coordination — R. U. Hofstetter
1
Time Zero
Project Support
1 Corporation
Teledyne Isotopes
Reliability & Quality Assurance— J. R. Mulkem
R. O. Convertino
Magnetics — E. J. lufer Santa Barbara
Research Center

27
1 1
MISSION TRACKING
1 LAUNCH VEHICLE UNMANNED
SPACECRAFT AND DATA SYSTEM LAUNCH
OPERATIONS SYSTEM
SYSTEM Jet Propulsion OPERATIONS
SYSTEM Lewis Research Center
Laboratory NASA-(LeRC) Kennedy Space Center
(ARC) (ARC) (JPL) Manager — D. J. Schramo Director — J. Neilon
Manager — R. W. Holtzclaw Manager — R. R. Nunamaker Manager — Dr. N. A. Renzetti
Tracking and Data System — Project Representative —
Pioneer Deep Space Network
Manager — A. J. Siegmeth R. A. Flage J. Johnson
1 1 1
PRIME GSFC General Dynamics
Bendix Field
CONTRACTOR I
Engineering
TRW Systems Group Corporation McDonnell-
Project Manager. Pioneer
Project— B. J. O'Brien
Assistant Project Manager for General Dynamics
Integration and Test — Convair Division
W. E Shrehan

28
Experiments and Experimenters

Instrument Principal Investigator I


1. Imaging Photo Polarimeter Dr. Thomas Gehrels
University of Arizona
2. Helium Vector Magnetometer Dr. Edward J. Smith
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
3. Plasma Analyzer Dr. John H. Wolfe
NASA-Ames Research Center
4. Charged Particle Instrument Dr. John A. Simpson
University of Chicago
5. Geiger-Tube Telescope Dr. James A. Van Allen
University of Iowa
6. Cosmic Ray Telescope Dr. Frank B. McDonald
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
7. Trapped Radiation Detector Dr. R. Walker Fillius
University of California at San Diego
8. Ultraviolet Photometer Dr. Darrell L. Judge
University of Southern California
29
Instrument Principal Investigator
9. Infrared Radiometer Dr. Guido Munch
, California Institute of Technology
10. Asteroid-Meteoroid Detector Dr. Robert K. Soberman
General Electric Company
11. Meteoroid Detector William H. Kinard
NASA-Langley Research Center
12. The spacecraft radio trans- Dr. Arvydas J. Kliore
mitter used for S-Band Jet Propulsion Laboratory
occultation experiment

13. The spacecraft and the Dr. John D. Anderson


Deep Space Network Doppler Jet Propulsion Laboratory
radar used for celestial
mechanics experiment

30
Pioneer Accomplishments
Pioneers 6 to 9 continue to op- data bits had been received, pro- 8. First occultations by solar disc
erate in solar orbit, and some of cessed, analyzed, and reported of man-made signal source (Pio-
their accomplishments are: to the scientific community. A neers 6 to 9).
total of 26,000 commands had 9. First lunar occultation using an
1. The most precise determination been transmitted to these four interplanetary spacecraft (Pio-
so far of characteristics of the spacecraft. neer 7).
solar atmosphere (the helios-
phere).
2. Determination of solar cosmic
ray and solar wind flow pat-
terns, and magnetic and electric
field mechanisms in the solar
atmosphere. 5. First use of telecommunications 10. First simultaneous receipt of
characteristics for spacecraft two spacecraft signals using a
3. Longest-lived operational inter- orientation. single ground antenna (Pio-
planetary spacecraft (Pioneer neers 6 and 7).
6, launched December 16, 1965). 6. First gathering of space weather
data for operational use. 11. First particles and fields investi-
4. Pioneers 6 to 9, by the end of gations of radial and spiral char-
1971, had achieved 230 months of 7. First spacecraft to use convolu- acteristics of solar wind and so-
day-to-day tracking and data tional coding/sequential decod- lar cosmic rays (Pioneers 6 and
acquisition. Almost 20 billion ing (Pioneer 9). 7).
31
12. Most distant intelligible telem-
etry data from Earth, and most
distant use of command func-
tions, 170 million miles (Pio-
neer 6).
13. First spacecraft to define char-
acter of Earth's magnetic tail
(Pioneers 6 and 7).
14. First spacecraft to use linearly
polarized S-band antenna and
therefore only spacecraft able to
conduct Faraday rotation expe-
riments during solar occultation
(Pioneers 6 and 9).
15. First spacecraft equipped with
a telecommunications range-
adaptive telemetry system.
16. First major spacecraft system
designed, developed, and deliv-
ered on a fixed-price incentive-
fee contract.
32
-•
The Pioneer spacecraft have
a record of reliability and per-
formance which makes them
candidates for future deep
space missions.
34
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Ames Research Center
Moffett Field, California 94035
GPO 791-263