Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 29

EECE 412: Digital Integrated Circuits

Lecture 2: Design Metrics

R. Kanj
Dept. of Electrical and Compute Engineering
American University of Beirut

[Slides adapted from Prof. M. Mansour, I. Kayssi, A. Chehab,


Rabaey’s Digital Integrated Circuits, ©2002, J. Rabaey et al, and from the
slides of Profs. Irwin and Vijay at PSU]

1
Fundamental Design Metrics

 Cost $$
 Non Recurring Engineering cost (fixed)
- design effort
 Recurring Engineering cost (variable)
- cost of parts, assembly, test

 Robustness and Reliability


 Noise margins
 Noise immunity

 Performance
 Speed (delay)
 Power consumption: energy

2
Cost of Integrated Circuits
 NRE (non-recurring engineering) costs
 Fixed cost to produce the design
 Influenced by the design complexity and designer productivity
 More pronounced for small volume products

 Recurring costs – proportional to product volume


 Fabrication: From silicon to chip
 assembly (packaging)
 test

3
Cost per IC: $$

NRE cost
cost per IC = RE cost per IC + -----------------
# functional chips

4
Silicon Wafer

Wafer

Single die

test

Packaged chip

From http://www.amd.com
5
Recurring Costs

cost of wafer
cost of die fabrication = -----------------------------------
dies per wafer × die yield

 × (wafer diameter/2)2  × wafer diameter


dies per wafer = ----------------------------------  ---------------------------
die area ( 2 × die area )

O= defect (e.g. dust particle) 6


Yield Calculation


 defects per unit area  die area 
die yield  1  
  
D  A   is approximately 3
Y  (1  )

100
Yield (%)
80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4 5

DxA
7
Yield Example

 Example
 wafer diameter 30 cm, die area of 2.5 cm2, 1 defects/cm2,
 = 3 (measure of manufacturing process complexity)
 240 dies/wafer (remember, wafers round & dies square)
 die yield of 16%
 240 x 16% = only 38 dies/wafer die yield !

Die cost is strong function of die area:


Calls for minimizing area: simple regular gates

8
Examples of Cost Metrics (1994)

Chip Metal Line Wafer Defects Area Dies/ Yield Die


layers width cost /cm2 (mm2) wafer cost
386DX 2 0.90 $900 1.0 43 360 71% $4
486DX2 3 0.80 $1200 1.0 81 181 54% $12
PowerPC 4 0.80 $1700 1.3 121 115 28% $53
601
HP PA 3 0.80 $1300 1.0 196 66 27% $73
7100
DEC 3 0.70 $1500 1.2 234 53 19% $149
Alpha
Super 3 0.70 $1700 1.6 256 48 13% $272
SPARC
Pentium 3 0.80 $1500 1.5 296 40 9% $417

9
Now that my chip is fabricated

For functional chips concerns include:


- Robustness to noise
- Speed consideration
- Power consumption
VDD

0 1

10
Robustness and Reliability in Digital IC

 Noise
 Definition: unwanted variations of voltages and currents
at the logic nodes
 Where can noise come from on a chip?

11
Robustness and Reliability

 from two wires placed side by side


 capacitive coupling
v(t)
- voltage change on one wire can
influence signal on the neighboring wire
- cross talk
i(t)
 inductive coupling
- current change on one wire can
influence signal on the neighboring wire
 resistive coupling

12
Robustness and Reliability

 from noise on the power and ground supply rails


 can influence signal levels in the gate

VDD

13
Example of Capacitive Coupling
 Signal wire glitches as large as 80% of the supply
voltage will be common due to crosstalk between
neighboring wires as feature sizes continue to scale

Crosstalk vs. Technology


Pulsed Signal
0.12um CMOS
0.16um CMOS

Black line quiet


Red lines pulsed 0.25um CMOS
Glitche strength vs technology 0.35um CMOS

From Dunlop, Lucent, 2000

14
Static Gate Behavior
 Steady-state behavior of a gate – static behavior – tell
how robust a circuit is with respect to noise disturbances.

 Digital circuits perform operations on Boolean variables


x {0,1}
 A logical variable is associated with a nominal voltage
level for each logic state
1  VOH and 0  VOL

VOH = ! (VOL)
Vin Vout
VOL = ! (VOH)

 Difference between VOH and VOL is the logic or signal


swing Vsw 15
DC Operation
Voltage Transfer Characteristics (VTC)

 Plot of output voltage as a function of the input voltage

Vout Vin Vout

VOH = f (VOL)
Vout=Vin

Switching Threshold
VM

VOL = f (VOH)

VOL VOH Vin

16
Mapping Logic Levels to the Voltage Domain

 Acceptable ‘1’ and ‘0’ voltages are delimited by VIH and


VIL that represent points on the VTC curve where the
gain (dVout/dVin) = -1
 Logic ‘1’: [ VIH, VOH] Logic ‘0’: [VOL, VIL]

Vout
"1" VOH Slope = -1
VOH
VIH

Undefined
Region
Slope = -1
VIL
VOL
"0" VOL
VIL VIH Vin
17
Noise Margins
 For robust circuits, that tolerate noise, want the “0” and
“1” intervals to be as large as possible
VDD VDD

VOH "1"
NMH = VOH - VIH
VIH
Noise Margin High Undefined
Region
Noise Margin Low VIL
NML = VIL - VOL
VOL
"0"
Gnd Gnd
Gate Output Gate Input

 Large noise margins are desirable, but not sufficient …


18
The Regenerative Property
 A gate with regenerative property ensure that a disturbed
signal converges back to a nominal voltage level (e.g.
0V, 5V)

v0 v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 v6

v2
5
V (volts)

v0
3

1 v1

-1
0 2 4 6 8 10
t (nsec)
19
Conditions for Regeneration
good Low

Distorted Low v0 v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 v6

v1 = f(v0)

f(v) f(v)

v1

good Low
v2

v0 v1
Distorted Low

Regenerative Gate

 To be regenerative, the VTC must have a transition


region with a gain greater than 1 (in absolute value)
bordered by two valid zones where the gain is smaller
than 1.
20
Noise Immunity
 Noise margin expresses the ability of a circuit to
overpower a noise source
 Absolute noise margin values are deceptive
 a floating node is more easily disturbed than a node driven by a
low impedance (in terms of voltage)

 Noise immunity is the capability to suppress noise


sources
 expresses the ability of the system to process and transmit
information correctly in the presence of noise

21
Directivity

 A gate must be undirectional: changes in an output level


should not appear at any unchanging input of the same
circuit
 Key metrics: output impedance of the driver and input
impedance of the receiver
 ideally, the output impedance of the driver should be zero
 input impedance of the receiver should be infinity

22
The Ideal Inverter
 The ideal gate should have
 infinite gain in the transition region
 a gate threshold located in the middle of the logic swing
 high and low noise margins equal to half the swing
 input and output impedances of infinity and zero, resp.
Vout

Ri = 

Ro = 0

g=- Fanout = 

NMH = NML = VDD/2

Vin
23
Fan-In and Fan-Out

 Fan-out – number of load gates


connected to the output of the
driving gate
 gates with large fan-out are slower
N

 Fan-in – the number of inputs to


the gate M
 gates with large fan-in are bigger
and slower

24
Performance Metrics - Delay Definitions

Vin Vout

Vin
Propagation delay
input 50% tp = (tpHL + tpLH)/2
waveform

t
tpHL tpLH
Vout
90%
output
50% signal slopes
waveform
10%
t
tf tr

25
Modeling Propagation Delay
 Model circuit as first-order RC network

vout (t) = (1 – e–t/)V


R
vout
where  = RC

vin C
Time to reach 50% point is
t = ln(2)  = 0.69 

Time from 10% to 90% point is


t = ln(9)  = 2.2 

 First order model of a gate

26
Ring Oscillator

T = 2  tp  N

27
Power and Energy Dissipation
 Power consumption: how much energy is consumed
per operation and how much heat the circuit dissipates
 supply line sizing (determined by peak power)
Ppeak = Vddipeak
 battery lifetime (determined by average power dissipation)
p(t) = v(t)i(t) = Vddi(t) Pavg= 1/T  p(t) dt = Vdd/T  idd(t) dt
 packaging and cooling requirements

 Two important components:


 dynamic power
 Charging and discharging of capacitors
 Temporary path between supply rails

 static power
 Independent of switching activity

28
Summary

 Digital integrated circuits have come a long way and


still have quite some good potential left for the coming
decades
 Some interesting challenges ahead
 Getting a clear perspective on the challenges and potential
solutions is the purpose of this course

 Understanding the design metrics that govern digital


design is crucial
 Cost, reliability, speed, power and energy dissipation

29