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Revision

Chapter (4)
Force System Resultants
4.1 Moment of Force
Example (4.1)
Determine the moment produced by force
F  20 i  10 j  15 k about point A .

Express the result as a Cartesian vector.

Solution
(1) Force Vector : F  20 i  10 j  15 k

(2) Position Vector r

(i) Coordinates: A0i 0 j 0k

C  3i 4 j 4 k

(ii) Vector r : rAC  AC  C  A

rAC  AC  3  0 i  4  0 j  4  0  k

rAC  3 i  4 j  4 k

i j k
MA  3 4 4
- 20 10 15

M A  20 i  125 j  110 k (N.m)

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Example (4.2)
Determine the moment of the
force F at A about point P .
Express the result as a Cartesian
vector.

Solution
(1) Force Vector : F  60 i  30 j  20 k

(2) Position Vector r

(i) Coordinates: A  3 i  7 j  4 k

P 4i 6 j 2k

(ii) Vector r : rPA  PA  A  P

rPA  PA   3  4  i   7  6 j  4   2  k

rPA  7 i  13 j  6 k

i j k
MP  -7 - 13 6
60 - 30 - 20

M P  440 i  220 j  990 k (N.m)

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Example (4.3)
Determine the moment of the force
F at A about point P . Express the
result as a Cartesian vector.

Solution
(1) Force Vector : F  6 i  4 j  8 k

(2) Position Vector r

(i) Coordinates: A i 2 j 6k

P 0i 4 j 3k

(ii) Vector r : rPA  PA  A  P

rPA  PA  1  0  i   2  4  j  6  3 k

rPA  i  6 j  3 k

(3) Moment Vector: M P  rPA  F

i j k
MP  1 -6 3
-6 4 8

M P  i  6  8  3  4  j 1  8  3  6  k 1  4  6  6

M P  i  48  12  j 8  18  k 4  36

M P  60 i  26 j  32 k (kN.m)

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Example (4.4)
Determine the moment of the force
F at A about point P . Express the
result as a Cartesian vector.

Solution
(1) Force Vector : F  2 i  4 j  6 k

(2) Position Vector r

(i) Coordinates: A 3i 3 j  k

P  2 i  3 j  2 k

(ii) Vector r : rPA  PA  A  P

rPA  PA  3   2  i  3   3 j   1  2  k

rPA  5 i  6 j  3 k

(3) Moment Vector: M P  rPA  F

i j k
MP  5 6 -3
2 4 -6

M P  i 6  6  4  3  j 5  6  2  3  k 5  4  2  6

M P  i  36  12  j  30  6  k 20  12

M P  24 i  24 j  8 k kN .m 

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Example (4.5)
The cable attached to the eyebolt in
Figure is pulled with the force F of
magnitude 500 N . Determine the
moment of this force F about point O .

Solution
(1) Force Vector :
(i) Coordinates: A  4 i 0 j 3k

B  0 i 6 j 0 k

O 0i 0 j 0 k

(ii) Vector AB : AB  B  A
AB  0  4  i  6  0 j  0  3 k

AB  4 i  6 j  3 k

AB 4 i 6 j 3 k
(iii) Unit Vector U AB : U AB  
AB 42  62  32
1
U AB 
7.81

4 i 6 j 3 k 
(iv) Force Vector F : F  F U AB

1
F  500 
7.81

4 i 6 j 3 k 

F  64  4 i  6 j  3 k 
F  256 i  384 j  192 k

(2) Position Vector r : rOA  OA  A  O

rOA  OA  4  0  i  0  0 j  3  0 k

rOA  4 i  0 j  3 k

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i j k
MO  4 0 3
- 256 384 - 192

M O  i 0  1152   j  768  768  k 1536  0

M O  1152 i  0 j  1536 k N .m 

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Example (4.6)
Determine the moment of this force

Solution
(1) Force Vector :
(i) Coordinates: A 2 i 0 j 4 k

B  2 i  7 j  0 k

O 0i 0 j 0 k

(ii) Vector AB : AB  B  A
AB   2  2  i  7  0 j  0  4  k

AB  4 i  7 j  4 k

AB 4i 7 j 4k
(iii) Unit Vector U AB : U AB  
AB 4 2  72  4 2
1
U AB 
9

4i 7 j 4k 
(iv) Force Vector F : F  F U AB

1
F  900 
9

4i 7 j 4k 

F  100  4 i  7 j  4 k 
F  400 i  700 j  400 k

(2) Position Vector r : rOA  OA  A  O

rOA  OA   2  0  i  0  0  j  4  0  k

rOA  2 i  0 j  4 k

(3) Moment Vector: M O  rOA  F

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i j k
MO  - 2 0 4
- 400 700 - 400

M O  2800 i  2400 j  1400 k N .m 

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Example (4.7)
A force of F  6 i  2 j  1 k kN  produces a

the origin of coordinates, point O. If the force acts

at a point having x coordinate of x  1 m ,
Determine:
(a) The coordinates y and z .
(b) The perpendicular distance d from the point O to the line of action of force F .

Solution
(a) The coordinates y and z

(2) Position Vector r :

(i) Coordinates: O 0i 0 j 0 k

P i y j zk

(ii) Vector r : rOP  OP  P  O

rOP  OP  1  0 i   y  0  j  z  0  k

rOP  i  y j  z k

(3) Moment Vector: M O  rOP  F

i j k
MO  1 y z
6 -2 1

M O  i 1  y  z  2  j 1  1  z  6  k 1  2  6  y 

M O  i  y  2 z   j 1  6 z   k  2  6 y 

M O   y  2 z  i  6 z  1 j   2  6 y  k but M O  4 i  5 j  14 k

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4 i  5 j  14 k   y  2 z  i  6 z  1 j   2  6 y  k

For k :  14  2  6 y
 12  6 y y  2m

For j : 5  6z  1

6z  6 z  1m
(b) The perpendicular distance d
(1) The moment: M O  4 i  5 j  14 k

(3) The distance: M O  F .d

15.395  6.403  d d  2.404 m

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Example (4.8)
Determine the resultant moment
produced by forces and about point O.
Express the result as a Cartesian vector.

Solution
Coordinates: O 0i 0 j 0 k

A0i 0 j 6k

B  0 i  2.5 j  0 k

C  2i 3 j 0 k

(a) Moment of Force FB about point O

(1) Force vector FB  780 N 

(i) Vector AB : AB  B  A
AB  0  0 i  2.5  0 j  0  6  k

AB  0 i  2.5 j  6 k

AB 0 i  2.5 j  6 k
(ii) Unit Vector U AB : U AB  
AB 02  2.52  62
1
U AB 
6.5

0 i  2.5 j  6 k 
(iii) Force Vector FB : FB  FB U AB

1
FB  780 
6.5

0 i  2.5 j  6 k 

FB  120 0 i  2.5 j  6 k 
FB  0 i  300 j  720 k

(2) Position Vector r : rOA  OA  A  O

rOA  OA  0  0  i  0  0 j  6  0 k

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rOA  0 i  0 j  6 k

i j k
M FB  0 0 6
0 300 - 720

M FB  i 0  720  6  300  j 0  720  0  6  k 0  300  0  0

M FB  i 0  1800  j 0  0  k 0  0

M FB  1800 i  0 j  0 k

(b) Moment of Force FC about point O

(2) Force vector FC  700 N 

(i) Vector AC : AC  C  A
AC  2  0 i   3  0 j  0  6 k

AC  2 i  3 j  6 k

AC 2i 3 j 6k
(ii) Unit Vector U AC : U AC  
AC 22  32  62
1
U AC 
7

2i 3 j 6 k 
(iii) Force Vector FC : FC  FC U AC

1
FC  420 
7

2 i 3 j 6 k 

FC  60 2 i  3 j  6 k 
FC  120 i  180 j  360 k

(2) Position Vector r : rOA  OA  A  O

rOA  OA  0  0  i  0  0 j  6  0 k

rOA  0 i  0 j  6 k

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i j k
M FC  0 0 6
120 - 180 - 360

M FC  i 0  360  6  180  j 0  360  6  120  k 0  180  0  120

M FC  i 0  1080  j 0  720  k 0  0

M FC  1080 i  720 j  0 k

(c) Resultant Moment produced by the two forces about point O

M R  M FB  M FC

M R   1800 i  0 j  0 k   1080 i  720 j  0 k 
M R  720 i  720 j  0 k N .m 

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Example (4.9)
If FB  560 N and FC  700 N , Determine
the resultant moment produced by forces
and about point O. Express the result as a
Cartesian vector
Solution
Coordinates: O 0i 0 j 0 k

A0i 0 j 6k

B  2i 3 j 0 k

C  3i 2 j 0 k

(a) Moment of Force FB about point O

(1) Force vector FB  560 N 

(i) Vector AB : AB  B  A
AB  2  0 i   3  0  j  0  6 k

AB  2 i  3 j  6 k

AB 2i 3 j 6 k
(ii) Unit Vector U AB : U AB  
AB 2 2  32  62
1
U AB 
7

2i 3 j 6 k 
(iii) Force Vector FB : FB  FB U AB

1
FB  560 
7

2i 3 j 6k 

FB  80 2 i  3 j  6 k 
FB  160 i  240 j  480 k

(2) Position Vector r : rOA  OA  A  O

rOA  OA  0  0  i  0  0 j  6  0 k

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rOA  0 i  0 j  6 k

i j k
M FB  0 0 6
160 - 240 - 480

M FB  i 0  480  6  240  j 0  480  6  160  k 0  240  0  160

M FB  i 0  1440  j 0  960  k 0  0

M FB  1440 i  960 j  0 k

(b) Moment of Force FC about point O

(2) Force vector FC  700 N 

(i) Vector AC : AC  C  A
AC  3  0 i  2  0 j  0  6  k

AC  3 i  2 j  6 k

AC 3i 2 j 6 k
(ii) Unit Vector U AC : U AC  
AC 32  22  62
1
U AC 
7

3i 2 j 6k 
(iii) Force Vector FC : FC  FC U AC

1
FC  700 
7

3i 2 j 6 k 

FC  100 3 i  2 j  6 k 
FC  300 i  200 j  600 k

(2) Position Vector r : rOA  OA  A  O

rOA  OA  0  0  i  0  0 j  6  0 k

rOA  0 i  0 j  6 k

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i j k
M FC  0 0 6
300 200 - 600

M FC  i 0  600  6  200  j 0  600  6  300  k 0  200  0  300

M FC  i 0  1200  j 0  1800  k 0  0

M FC  1200 i  1800 j  0 k

(c) Resultant Moment produced by the two forces about point O

M R  M FB  M FC

M R  1440 i  960 j  0 k    1200 i  1800 j  0 k 
M R  240 i  2760 j  0 k N .m 

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4.2 Moment of Couple

Example (4.10)
Determine the couple moment. Express
the result as a Cartesian vector.

Solution
Coordinates: A3i 4 j 5k

B  3 i  2 j  0 k

(2) Position Vector r : rAB  AB  B  A

rAB  AB   3  3 i  2   4  j  0  5 k

rAB  6 i  6 j  5 k

(3) Couple Moment Vector : M C  rAB  F

i j k
MC  - 6 6 -5
8 -4 10

M C  i 6  10  5  4  j  6  10  8  5  k 6  4  6  8

M C  i 60  20  j  60  40  k 24  48

M C  40 i  20 j  24 k N.m 

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Example (4.11)
Express the moment of the couple acting
on the rod in Cartesian vector form. What
is the magnitude of the couple moment?

Solution
Coordinates: A0i 0 j  k

B 3i 2 j  k

(2) Position Vector r : rAB  AB  B  A

rAB  AB  3  0 i  2  0 j   1  1 k

rAB  3 i  2 j  2 k

(3) Couple Moment Vector : M C  rAB  F

i j k
MC  3 2 -2
-4 3 -4

M C  i 2  4  2  3  j 3  4  2  4  k 3  3  2  4

M C  i  8  6  j  12  8  k 9  8

M C  2 i  20 j  17 k

(4) Couple Moment Magnitude: M C  22  202  172

MC  22  202  172
M C  26.33 kN .m

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Example (4.12)
Determine the couple moment. Express
the result as a Cartesian vector.

Solution C

Coordinates: A 4i 5 j 4k

B  10 i  10 j  6 k

C 0i 5 j 0 k

(1) Force vector F  80 N 

(i) Vector BC : BC  C  B
BC  0   10 i  5   10 j  0  6 k

BC  10 i  15 j  6 k

BC 10 i  15 j  6 k
(ii) Unit Vector U BC : U BC  
BC 102  152  62
1
U BC 
19

10 i  15 j  6 k 
(iii) Force Vector F : F  F U BC

1
F  80 
19

10 i  15 j  6 k 

F  4.21 10 i  15 j  6 k 
F  42.1 i  63.15 j  25.26 k

(2) Position Vector r : rAB  AB  B  A

rAB  AB   10  4  i   10  5 j  6   4 k

rAB  14 i  15 j  10 k

(3) Couple Moment Vector : M C  rAB  F

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i j k
M C  - 14 - 15 10
42.1 63.15 - 25.26

M C  1010.4 i  67.36 j  252.6 k N.m 

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Example (4.13)
Express the moment of the couple acting on
the pipe in Cartesian vector form. What is
the magnitude of the couple moment?
Take F  125 N .

Solution
Coordinates: A  0.6 i  0.15 j  0 k

B  0.8 i  0.15 j  0 k

(1) Force vector F : F  125 k

(2) Position vector r : rAB  AB  B  A

i j k
M C  0.2 0.3 0
0 0 125

M C  i 0.3  125  0  0  j 0.2  125  0  0  k 0.2  0  0.3  0

M C  i 37.5  0  j 25  0  k 0  0

M C  37.5 i  25 j  0 k

(4) Couple Moment Magnitude: M C  37.52  252  02

M C  45.07 N .m

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Example (4.14)
The two forces of magnitude F  24 kN
parallel to x–axis form a couple. Determine
the corresponding couple–vector.

Solution
Coordinates: A  0 i  0. 9 j  z k

B  0 i  0.9 j  z  1.2  k

(1) Force vector F : F  24 i

(2) Position vector r : rBA  BA  A  B

(3) Couple Moment Vector : M C  rBA  F

i j k
MC  0 - 1.8 - 1.2
- 24 0 0

M C  i  1.8  0  0  1.2  j 0  0  1.2  24  k 0  0  24  1.8

M C  i 0  0  j 0  28.8  k 0  43.2

M C  0 i  28.8 j  43.2 k kN.m 

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Example (4.15)
If the resultant couple of the two
couples acting on the fire hydrant is
M CR  15 i  30 j  0 k N.m  ,
determine the force magnitude P .

Solution
(a) Moment of Couple (1) 75 j ,75 j  
(i) Force vector F1 : F1  75 j

i j k
M C1  0 0 0.2
0 75 0

M C 1  i 0  0  0.2  75  j 0  0  0  0.2  k 0  75  0  0

M C1  i 0  15  j 0  0  k 0  0

M C1  15 i  0 j  0 k

(b) Moment of Couple (2) P i , P i  

(i) Force vector F2 : F2  P i

(iii) Couple Moment Vector : M C 2  r2  F2

i j k
MC2  0 0 0.15
P 0 0

M C 2  i 0  0  0  0.15  j 0  0  0.15  P   k 0  0  0  P 

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M C 2  i 0  0  j 0  0.15P   k 0  0

M C 2  0 i  0.15P j  0 k

(c) Resultant Couple Moment

M CR  M C1  M C 2

M CR   15 i  0 j  0 k   0 i  0.15P j  0 k 
M CR  15 i  0.15P j  0 k but M CR  15 i  30 j  0 k

 15 i  30 j  0 k  15 i  0.15P j  0 k

For j: 0.15P  30 P  200 N

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Example (4.16)
If the resultant couple of the three
couples acting on the triangular
block is to be zero, determine the
magnitude of forces F and P .

Solution
Coordinates: A  0.6 i  0.4 j  0 k

B  0.6 i  0 j  0.3 k

C  0 i  0 j  0.3 k

D  0 i  0.4 j  0 k

(i) Force vector F : F  150 i

(ii) Position vector r : rAB  AB  B  A

(iii) Couple Moment Vector : M C 1  r  F

i j k
M C1  0 - 0.4 0.3
150 0 0

M C1  i  0.4  0  0.3  0  j 0  0  150  0.3  k 0  0  150  0.4

M C 1  i 0  0  j 0  45  k 0  60

M C1  0 i  45 j  60 k

(i) Force vector F : F  F k

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rCB  CB  0.6  0 i  0  0 j  0.3  0.3 k

rCB  0.6 i  0 j  0 k

(iii) Couple Moment Vector : M C 2  r  F

i j k
MC2  0.6 0 0
0 0 F

M C 2  i 0  F  0  0  j 0.6  F  0  0  k 0.6  0  0  0

M C 2  i 0  0  j 0.6 F  0  k 0  0

M C 2  0 i  0.6 F j  0 k

rAD  AD  0  0.6 i  0.4  0.4  j  0  0  k

rCB  0.6 i  0 j  0 k

(iii) Couple Moment Vector : M C 2  r  F

i j k
M C3  - 0.6 0 0
0 P 0

M C 3  i 0  0  0  P   j  0.6  0  0  0  k  0.6  P  0  0

M C 3  i 0  0  j 0  0  k  0.6 P  0

M C 3  0 i  0 j  0 .6 P k
(d) Resultant Couple Moment
M CR  M C 1  M C 2  M C 3

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  
M CR  0 i  45 j  60 k  0 i  0.6 F j  0 k   0 i  0 j  0.6P k 
M CR  0 i  45  0.6 F  j  60  0.6 P  k but M CR  0

0 i  0 j  0 k  0 i  45  0.6 F  j  60  0.6 P  k

For j: 45  0.6 F  0
0.6 F  45 F  75 N
For k: 60  0.6 P  0
0.6 P  60 P  100 N

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Example (4.17)
Determine the resultant couple
moment of the two couples that act
on the pipe assembly. The distance
from A to B is d  400 mm . Express
the result as a Cartesian vector.

Solution
Coordinates: A  0.35 i  0 j  0 k

(a) Moment of Couple (1) 35 k , 35 k  

(i) Force vector F : F  35 k
(ii) Position vector r : rAB  AB  B  A

(iii) Couple Moment Vector : M C 1  rAB  F

i j k
M C1  0 - 0.3464 0.2
0 0 35

M C1  i  0.3464  35  0.2  0  j 0  35  0  0.2  k 0  0  0  0.3464

M C1  i  12.124  0  j 0  0  k 0  0

M C1  12.124 i  0 j  0 k

(b) Moment of Couple (2) 50 i ,50 i  

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(i) Force vector F : F  50 i

(ii) Position vector r : rCA  CA  A  C

(iii) Couple Moment Vector : M C 2  rCA  F

i j k
MC2  - 0.25 0.3464 - 0.2
50 0 0

M C 2  i 0.3464  0  0  0.2  j  0.25  0  50  0.2  k  0.25  0  50  0.3464

M C 2  i 0  0  j 0  10  k 0  17.32

M C 2  0 i  10 j  17.32 k

(c) Resultant Couple Moment

M CR  M C1  M C 2

  
M CR   12.124 i  0 j  0 k  0 i  10 j  17.32 k 
M CR  12.124 i  10 j  17.32 k N .m 

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Example (4.18)
Determine the distance d
between A and B so that the
resultant couple moment has a
magnitude of M CR  20 N .m

Solution
Coordinates: A  0.35 i  0 j  0 k

(a) Moment of Couple (1) 35 k , 35 k  

(i) Force vector F : F  35 k
(ii) Position vector r : rAB  AB  B  A

(iii) Couple Moment Vector : M C1  rAB  F

i j k
M C1  0 -0.866d 0.5d
0 0 35

M C 1  i  0.866d  35  0.5d  0  j 0  35  0  0.5d   k 0  0  0  0.866d 

M C 1  i  30.31d  0  j 0  0  k 0  0

M C 1  30.31d i  0 j  0 k

(b) Moment of Couple (2) 50 i ,50 i  

(i) Force vector F : F  50 i

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(iii) Couple Moment Vector : M C 2  rCA  F

i j k
MC2  - 0.25 0.866d -0.5d
50 0 0

M C 2  i 0.866d  0  0  0.5d   j  0.25  0  50  0.5d   k  0.25  0  50  0.866d 

M C 2  i 0  0  j 0  25d   k 0  43.3d 

M C 2  0 i  25d j  43.3d k

(c) Resultant Couple Moment

M CR  M C1  M C 2

  
M CR   30.31d i  0 j  0 k  0 i  25d j  43.3d k 
M CR  30.31d i  25d j  43.3d k

20  30.31d 2  25d 2  43.3d 2

202  30.31d 2  25d 2  43.3d 2
400  918.7d 2  625d 2  1874.89d 2
400  3418.59 d 2 d  0.342 m  342 mm

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4.3 Equivalent Force –Couple System

Example (4.19)
Replace the force by an equivalent force–couple
system at point at O.

Solution
Coordinates: A  2 i 0 j 2 k

B  4 i 3 j 4 k

(a) Force Vector

(1) Vector AB : AB  B  A
AB  4  2  i  3  0  j   4  2  k

AB  2 i  3 j  6 k

AB 2 i 3 j 6 k
(2) Unit Vector U AB : U AB  
AB 22  32  62
1
U AB 
7

2 i 3 j 6 k 
(3) Force Vector F : F  F U AB

1
F  630 
7

2 i 3 j 6 k 

F  90 2 i  3 j  6 k 
F  180 i  270 j  540 k N 
(b) Couple Moment Vector
(i) Force vector F : F  180 i  270 j  540 k

(ii) Position vector r : rOA  OA  A  O

rOA  OA  2  0 i  0  0 j  2  0 k

rOA  2 i  0 j  2 k

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i j k
MC  2 0 2
180 270  540

M C  540 i  1440 j  540 k N.m 

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Example (4.20)
Replace the force and couple-
A
moment system by an equivalent
resultant force and couple moment at
point P . express the results in
Cartesian vector form.

Solution
Coordinates: A  6 i  5 j  5 k

P 0i 0 j 6k

(a) Equivalent Resultant Force FR 

FR  F

FR  8 i  6 j  8 k kN 
(b) Resultant Couple Moment at point O
Position vector for F : rPA  PA  A  P

rPA  PA   6  0 i  5  0 j  5   6 k

rPA  6 i  5 j  11 k

M RO  rPA  F  M

i j k
M RO  -6 5 11  M
8 6 8

M RO  i 5  8  6  11  j  6  8  8  11  k  6  6  8  5  M

M RO  i 40  66  j  48  88  k  36  40  M

M RO  26 i  136 j  76 k   20 i  70 j  20 k 
M RO  46 i  66 j  56 k

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Example (4.21)
Replace the two forces acting on the post
by equivalent resultant force and couple
moment at point O. Express the results in
Cartesian vector form

Solution
Coordinates: A 0i 0 j 8 k

B 0i 6 j 0 k

C 0i 0 j 6 k

D  2i 3 j 0k

(i) Force FB  5 kN 

(1) Vector AB : AB  B  A
AB  0  0 i  6  0 j  0  8 k

AB  0 i  6 j  8 k

AB 0i 6 j 8 k
(2) Unit Vector U AB : U AB  
AB 02  62  82
1
U AB 
10

0 i 6 j 8 k 
(3) Force Vector FB : FB  FB U AB

1
FB  5 
10

0 i 6 j 8 k 

FB  0.5 0 i  6 j  8 k 
FB  0 i  3 j  4 k

(ii) Force FD  7 kN 

(1) Vector CD : CD  D  C

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CD  2  0 i   3  0  j  0  6  k

CD  2 i  3 j  6 k

CD 2i 3 j 6k
(2) Unit Vector U CD : U CD  
CD 22  32  62
1
U CD 
7

2 i 3 j 6 k 
(3) Force Vector FD : FD  FD U CD
1
FD  7 
7

2 i 3 j 6 k 
FD  2 i  3 j  6 k

(a) Equivalent Resultant Force FR 

FR  FB  FD

  
FR  0 i  3 j  4 k  2 i  3 j  6 k 
FR  2 i  0 j  10 k kN 
(b) Resultant Couple Moment at point O
Position vector for FB : rOA  OA  A  O

rOA  OA  0  0 i  0  0  j  8  0 k

rOA  0 i  0 j  8 k

Position vector for FC : rOC  OC  C  O

rOC  OC  0  0  i  0  0  j  6  0 k

rOC  0 i  0 j  6 k

M RO  rOA  FB  rOC  FD

i j k i j k
M RO  0 0 8  0 0 6
0 3 4 2 -3 6

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M RO  i 0  4  3  8  j 0  4  0  8  k 0  3  0  0
 i 0  6  6  3  j 0  6  2  6  k 0  3  0  2

M RO  i 0  24  j 0  0  k 0  0  i 0  18  j 0  12  k 0  0

M RO  24 i  0 j  0 k  18 i  12 j  0 k

M RO  6 i  12 j  0 k

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Example (4.22)
Replace the two forces acting on the
post by a resultant force and couple
moment at point O. Express the results
in Cartesian vector form
Solution
Coordinates: A  0.5 i  1.5 j  0 k
B  1.5 i  2.5 j  2 k
C  1.5 i  0.5 j  3.5 k
(i) Force FB  600 N 

(1) Vector AB : AB  B  A
AB   1.5  0.5 i   2.5   1.5 j  2  0  k

AB  2 i  j  2 k

AB 2 i  j 2 k
(2) Unit Vector U AB : U AB  
AB 22  12  2 2
1
U AB 
3

2 i  j 2 k 
(3) Force Vector FB : FB  FB U AB

1
FB  600 
3

2 i  j 2 k 

FB  200  2 i  j  2 k 
FB  400 i  200 j  400 k

(ii) Force FC  450 N 

(1) Vector AC : AC  C  A
AC   1.5  0.5 i  0.5   1.5 j  3.5  0 k

AC  2 i  2 j  3.5 k

AC  2 i  2 j  3.5 k
(2) Unit Vector U AC : U AC  
AC 2 2  2 2  3.52
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U AC 
4.5

 2 i  2 j  3.5 k 
(3) Force Vector FC : FC  FC U AC
1
FC  450 
4.5

 2 i  2 j  3.5 k 

FC  100  2 i  2 j  3.5 k 
FC  200 i  200 j  350 k

(a) Equivalent Resultant Force FR 

FR  FB  FC

  
FR   400 i  200 j  400 k   200 i  200 j  350 k 
FR  600 i  0 j  750 k N 
(b) Resultant Couple Moment at point O
Position vector for FB : rOA  OA  A  O

Position vector for FC : rOA  0.5 i  1.5 j  0 k

M RO  rOA  FB  rOA  FD

i j k i j k
M RO  0.5  1.5 0  0.5  1.5 0
- 400 200 400 - 600 0 750

M RO  i  1.5  400  0  200  j 0.5  400  0  400  k 0.5  200  1.5  400
 i  1.5  750  0  0  j 0.5  750  0  600  k 0.5  0  1.5  600

M RO  1725 i  575 j  1400 k N.m 

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Revision

Example (4.23)
Replace the two forces acting on the post by a
resultant force and couple moment at point O.
Express the results in Cartesian vector form

Solution
Coordinates: A0i 0 j 4k
B  0 i  0 j  5.5 k
C  i 4 j 0k
D  2 i 3 j 0 k
(i) Force FA  250 N 

(1) Vector AC : AC  C  A
AC   1  0 i  4  0 j  0  4  k
AC   i  4 j  4 k
AC  i 4 j 4k
(2) Unit Vector U AC : U AC  
AC 12  42  4 2
1
U AC 
5.74456

 i 4 j 4 k 
(3) Force Vector FA : FA  FA U AC

1
FA  250 
5.74456

 i 4 j 4 k 

FA  43.52  i  4 j  4 k 
FA  43.52 i  174.08 j  174.08 k

(ii) Force FB  175 N 

(1) Vector BD : BD  D  B
BD  2  0 i   3  0 j  0  5.5 k
BD  2 i  3 j  5.5 k
BD 2 i  3 j  5.5 k
(2) Unit Vector U BD : U BD  
BD 22  32  5.52

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1
U BD 
6.5765

2 i  3 j  5.5 k 
(3) Force Vector FB : FB  FB U BD
1
FB  175 
6.5765

2 i  3 j  5.5 k 

FB  26.61 2 i  3 j  5.5 k 
FB  53.22 i  79.83 j  146.36 k
(a) Equivalent Resultant Force FR 

FR  FA  FB

  
FR   43.52 i  174.08 j  174.08 k  53.22 i  79.83 j  146.36 k 
FR  9.7 i  94.25 j  320.44 k N 
(b) Resultant Couple Moment at point O
Position vector for FA : rOA  OA  A  O
rOA  OA  0  0 i  0  0 j  4  0  k
rOA  0 i  0 j  4 k
Position vector for FB : rOB  OB  B  O

rOB  OB  0  0  i  0  0 j  5.5  0  k

rOB  0 i  0 j  5.5 k

M RO  rOA  FA  rOB  FB

i j k i j k
M RO  0 0 4  0 0 5.5
 43.52 174.08 - 174.08 53.22 - 79.83  146.36

M RO  i 0  174.08  4  174.08  j 0  174.08  4  43.52  k 0  174.08  0  43.52

 i 0  146.36  79.83  5.5  j 0  146.36  5.5  53.22  k 0  79.83  0  53.22

M RO  696.32 i  174.08 j  0 k  439.06 i  292.71 j  0 k

M RO  257.26 i  108.63 j  0 k

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Revision

Problems
4.1 Determine the resultant moment
produced by forces and about point O.
Express the result as a Cartesian vector
.

4.2 The tower is supported by three cables.

If the forces of these cables acting on the
tower are FB  520 N , FC  680 N and
FD  560 N . Determine the resultant
moment produced by forces and about
point O. Express the result as a Cartesian
vector.

4.3 If the couple moment acting on the

pipe has a magnitude of 300 N.m .
Determine the magnitude of the
force F .

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Revision

4.4 Which of the systems are

equivalent to the couple in (a)?

4.5 Represent each of the force systems with a force-couple system having the force act at point A.
Which systems are equivalent to each other?

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