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BOEING 727

MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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EFFECTIVE PAGES CHAPTER 34 78
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CHAPTER 34

NAVIGATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Subject Subject No.

AIR DATA INSTRUMENTATION

PITOT-STATIC SYSTEMS ......................................................................................... 34-11-0

AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS......................................................................................... 34-12-0

AIR DATA COMPUTER .............................................................................................. *[2] 34-12-01

AIR TEMPERATURE INDICATION ............................................................................ 34-13-0

MACH AIRSPEED WARNING SYSTEM .................................................................... 34-14-0

ALTITUDE ALERTING SYSTEM................................................................................ 34-17-0

STALL WARNING SYSTEM ....................................................................................... *[1] 34-18-0


*[2] 34-18-01

ATTITUDE AND DIRECTION INSTRUMENTATION

COMPASS SYSTEMS ................................................................................................ 34-21-0

ATTITUDE REFERENCE ........................................................................................... 34-22-0

TURN AND BANK INDICATOR.................................................................................. 34-23-0

STANDBY ARTIFICIAL HORIZON ............................................................................. 34-25-0

RADIO NAVIGATION

VOR/GS NAVIGATION SYSTEMS............................................................................. *[5] 34-31-0


*[6] 34-31-01

MARKER BEACON SYSTEM..................................................................................... 34-35-0

AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER SYSTEMS ......................................................... 34-37-0

178 Book I
Dec 20/79 Contents 34
Page 1
Subject Subject No.

RADAR NAVIGATION

WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM..................................................................................... *[14] 34-41-0


*[8] 34-41-01
*[13] 34-41-02

ATC SYSTEM ............................................................................................................. 34-43-0

DME SYSTEM ............................................................................................................ *[11] 34-45-0


*[12] 34-45-01

LOW RANGE RADAR ALTIMETER SYSTEM ........................................................... *[1] 34-48-0


*[9] 34-48-01
*[10] 34-48-02

POSITION COMPUTING

GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM ............................................................. *[7] 34-52-0

FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEM.................................................................................... *[1] 34-62-0


*[2] 34-62-01
NAVIGATION WARNING SYSTEM............................................................................ *[3] 34-63-0
*[4] 34-63-01

*[1] ALL EXCEPT 727-200


*[2] 727-200
*[3] ALL EXCEPT XA-SEM and 727-200
*[4] XA-SEM and 727-200
*[5] XA-SEA, XA-SEM, XA-SEP, XA-SER and XA-SEU
*[6] ALL EXCEPT XA-SEA, XA-SEM, XA-SEP, XA-SER, XA-SEU
*[7] XA-HOH and on
*[8] XA-TUY and XA-SEW
*[9] 727-200 Series XA-TAA thru XA-TAC
*[10] 727-200 Series ALL EXCEPT XA-TAA thru XA-TAC
*[11] XA-SEA, XA-SEM, XA-SER, XA-SEU, XA-SEW, XA-TUY
*[12] 727-200 ALL EXCEPT XA-TAA thru XA-TAC, XA-DAT, XA-CUB, XA-CUE, XA-CUN
*[13] ALL EXCEPT XA-SEA thru XA-SEW, XA-TAA thru XA-TAC, and XA-TUY
*[14] XA-SEA thru XA-SEU and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC

Book I 178
Contents 34 Dec 20/79
Page 2
PITOT STATIC SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. The pitot static system is an installation of pitot tubes and static ports connected by tubing to
instruments for measuring or indicating dynamic and ambient air pressures. These pressures
are used for determining airplane vertical speed, airspeed, altitude and mach number.
B. Dynamic air pressure from the pitot tubes or ambient pressure from the static ports or both are
supplied to the following instruments and equipment: airplane vertical speed indicators,
altimeters, cabin pressure automatic controller, autopilot air data sensor, air data computer,
flight recorder, mach/airspeed warning switches, cabin altimeter/differential pressure and
airspeed/machmeter combined indicators. (See figure 1.)
2. Pitot System
A. Three pitot tubes are used to sense dynamic air pressure and are mounted on the forward part
of the fuselage. One tube is mounted on the left side and two tubes are mounted on the right
side of the airplane. The pitot tubes are not interconnected.
B. The pitot tube on the left supplies dynamic air pressure to the captain’s airspeed/machmeter
combined indicator. The upper pitot tube on the right supplies dynamic air pressure to the first
officer’s airspeed/machmeter combined indicator, the No. 2 mach/airspeed warning switch, and
to the No. 2 data computer (provisions only). The lower pitot tube on the right furnishes
dynamic air pressure to the autopilot data sensor, No. 1 air data computer, No. 1
mach/airspeed warning switch and flight recorder. (See figure 1.)

178
Jun 15/66 34-11-0
Page 1
MX

Pitot Static System Schematic 178


H73959

34-11-0 Figure 1 (Sheet 1) Mar 20/77


Page 2
EFFECTIVITY
727-200

178 Pitot Static System Schematic


H73963

Dec 20/78 Figure 1 (Sheet 2) 34-11-0


Page 3
3. Static System
A. Static or ambient pressure is sensed through eight ports, except the 727-200 airplanes, which
has six ports. The ports are connected in pairs, so that each pair consists of a port on one side
of the airplane connected with a port on the opposite side of the airplane.
B. One of the pairs is connected through a manifold to the captain’s instruments. The second pair
is connected to the first officer’s manifold and instruments, the No. 2 mach airspeed warning
switch, and to the No. 2 air data computer (provisions only). The third pair (auxiliary static
system) is connected to the autopilot air data sensor, No. 1 air data computer, cabin altimeter
and differential pressure indicator, No. 1 mach airspeed warning switch and flight recorder. The
fourth pair (all except 727-200) is connected to the cabin pressure automatic controller, and to
the equipment cooling differential pressure switch.
C. A two-way selector valve located on the captain’s instrument panel (on the captain’s sidewall on
727-200) connects the captain’s instruments to the captain’s static source when set to the
normal position, and to the auxiliary static system when set to the alternate position. An
identical valve on the first officer’s station allows the first officer to choose between the first
officer’s and auxiliary static system.
4. Anti-Icing
A. Heater circuits are provided for anti-icing the pitot tubes and static ports. Controls for the
heaters are on the overhead panel. On 727-100 Series Airplanes incorporating SB 34-95, the
heaters are removed from the static port assemblies (Ref Chapter 30 for detailed coverage).

178
34-11-0 Mar 20/77
Page 4
AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. The air data instruments are those instruments which derive their inputs from the pitot static
system (34-11-0) and a temperature probe displaying information concerning indicated
airspeed, mach number, vertical speed and altitude. The location of the various instruments
and accessories is shown on figure 1.
B. Indicated airspeed and mach are displayed on an airspeed/machmeter combined instrument.
Readings are provided as a function of differential pressure as sensed by the pitot static
systems.
C. Vertical speed, or rate of climb, is displayed over a range of 0 to 6000 feet per minute by
vertical speed indicators from static pressure information obtained from the airplane static
systems.
D. Altitude is displayed over a range of -1000 feet to +50,000 feet by altimeters also receiving
information from the airplane static systems.
MX

E. An air data computer is located in the electronic rack. From a static input, the computer
provides two independent altitude hold outputs for the flight director system, digitized altitude
encoded signals for the captain’s servopneumatic altimeter and altitude alerting controller. On
727-200 airplanes, in addition to the above outputs, altitude rate, altitude hold and IAS Q-pot
information for the autopilot system is available from the air data computer.
F. Pitot static, wiring and air temperature input provisions are available for true airspeed and static
air temperature information.

178
Dec 20/72 34-12-0
Page 1
Air Data Instrument Component Location 178
H73969

34-12-0 Figure 1 Dec 20/72


Page 2
2. Airspeed/Mach Indicator
A. The airspeed/mach indicator is a combination of two flight instruments presenting an integrated
display of indicated airspeed and mach number. The captain and first officer are each provided
with an indicator.
B. A precision single revolution limit mechanism drives the instrument’s pointer from 60 through
420 knots airspeed range. This mechanism produces linear rotation of the pointer and is
calibrated to permit readability in 2-knot increments for airspeeds between 60 and 160 knots.
Above 160 knots , the scale is calibrated logarithmically.
C. The mach number mechanism is actuated by an evacuated capsule whose linkage is such that
it rotates a subdial at an angular rate which varies linearly with the logarithm of the static
pressure. The subdial is graduated in increments of 0.02 mach and reads from 0.5 to 1.0 mach.
D. The airspeed dial and subdial scale factors are selected so that the single pointer shows
airspeed on the outer scale of the dial and at the same time indicates mach number through a
cutout in the main dial. (See figure 2.)
E. A manually set index on the outer periphery of the main dial draws attention to a preset value of
airspeed in the low speed range and is set by the knob at the lower left corner of the
instrument. Two additional peripheral indices are provided and can be set by hand to any
desired airspeed.
F. The colored pointer on the indicator indicates the maximum operating airspeed of the airplane
as a function of altitude. On MX ALL EXCEPT XA-SEA thru XA-SEW and XA-TUY, airplanes,
the maximum operating airspeed follows a limit as selected by the A-B limit speed selector.

177 Captain’s and First Officer’s Airspeed/Mach Indicator


H73970

Jun 20/78 Figure 2 34-12-0


Page 3
3. Vertical Speed Indicators
A. Vertical speed or rate-of-climb indicators are provided for the captain and first officer. The
indicators are operated by static pressure applied to both the inside of the instrument case
through an orifice, and the inside of a flexible diaphragm within the case. As the airplane
changes altitude, the pressure inside the diaphragm changes more rapidly than the pressure
inside the instrument case. The resulting differential pressure causes the diaphragm to expand
or contract. The amount of expansion or contraction is proportional to the rate of change of
altitude and is indicated by a radial pointer in thousands of feet per minute. An accelerometer is
incorporated in the instrument to provide readings of instantaneous vertical speed (Fig. 3).
B. A small screw, installed on the lower left corner of the instrument, is used to adjust the pointer
to zero.

NOTE: The adjustment screw range for zeroing the vertical speed indicators is from 400
ft./min. DOWN to 400 ft./min. UP. The instrument cannot be harmed by turning the
zero adjustment screw too far in either direction. Recalibration of the IVSI is not
necessary after the zero adjustment is accomplished, but if it cannot be zeroed, the
instrument must be recalibrated.

Captain’s and First Officer’s Vertical Speed Indicators 166


H73972

34-12-0 Figure 3 Mar 20/81


Page 4
4. Altimeters
A. Altimeters are provided for each pilot. Both altimeters are drum-pointer type having a range of -
1000 feet to 50,000 feet. The pointer indicates feet in hundreds and moves once around the
dial for each 1000 feet of altitude. The drum indicates feet in thousands and is calibrated from -
1 to 50. The barometric pressure is set by rotating the knob on the front of the instrument
(Fig. 4).
B. Instrument vibrators are attached to the back of each altimeter to shake the instrument
mechanism and prevent any error caused by mechanical linkage friction. Power to the vibrators
is supplied through a circuit breaker on circuit breaker panel P18.
C. On airplane XA-SEW, each pilot is provided with a pneumatic altimeter which operates
MX

conventionally from the airplane static system. An indicator on the face of the altimeter shows
barometric pressure in inches of mercury.
D. On ALL EXCEPT XA-SEW, the captain’s altimeter is integrated with the air data computer and
will display corrected altitude signals when the altimeter ON-OFF switch is set to ON, thus
causing the altimeter to operate in its servo mode and display a black flag in the indicator
window. Upon setting the switch to OFF, or failure of altimeter power, the BARO flag will be
displayed and the altimeter will operate conventionally in its pneumatic mode. Two indicators
on the face of the altimeter show barometric pressure in inches of mercury and millibars. The
first officer’s altimeter is not integrated, and only operates pneumatically.

178
Dec 20/72 34-12-0
Page 5
Captain’s and First Officer’s Altimeters 178
H73975

34-12-0 Figure 4 Dec 20/72


Page 6
MX

5. Air Data Computer (ALL EXCEPT 727-200 airplanes)


A. The air data computer is an electromechanical device that uses static pressure from the aircraft
static system to compute altitude hold information for the flight director system. The air data
computer consists of a chassis assembly and a plug-in altitude module. The chassis assembly
includes a power supply, a function test circuit, cabling and pneumatic plumbing required for
interconnection of the modules. Power is supplied at 115 volts ac from circuit breaker panel
P18 and 26 volts ac from a transformer in the electronic equipment shelf. The air data computer
circuit breaker on panel P18 controls both these supplies. (See figure 5 for computer schematic
diagram.)
B. The major components of the altitude computer module are a sensing unit, servo-amplifier,
control motor, gear train, and two altitude error transmitter synchros. The sensing unit is located
in a chamber vented to static pressure and uses a bellows and fixed spring to position a sense
beam. The bellows is evacuated, and reacts to the static pressure level in the chamber,
exerting a vector force on the sense beam in opposition to the fixed vector force of the spring.
Any change in static pressure offsets the sense beam and an inductive pick-off provides a
phase-oriented signal. This pick-off signal is then amplified by the servo-amplifier to operate the
control motor which drives the gear train. The gear train drives two error signal transmitters
when their clutches are engaged by a 28-volt dc signal from the flight director system. The
aircraft altitude represented by the position of the gear train at the moment of engagement,
serves as a reference for the error signal transmitters. When altitude changes, the error signal
transmitters develop phase reversing outputs in proportion to the direction and amount of
change. The phase reversing outputs are used in the flight director system.
C. A function test circuit is included in the chassis assembly to provide a ground check of the air
data computer. When the ALT HOLD switch of the flight director is placed in the ON position
and the FUNCTION TEST switch S1 of the air data computer is pressed, the command bars of
the flight director indicator will move down.

178
Dec 20/72 34-12-0
Page 7
AIR DATA COMPUTER - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

727-200

1. General
A. The main chassis assembly which contains the computer power supply, checkout circuits and
module interlocks is mounted in the auxiliary rack. Three multipin connectors at the rear provide
for connection of 115-volt ac and 28-volt dc power, in addition to total air temperature sensor
input signals (when integrated), and all computer outputs.
B. The computer front panel incorporates pitot static pressure input connectors, computer self-test
function switch, module toggle test switches, latching failure monitor annunciator lights, and
airplane configuration customizing adapter unit (Fig. 1).
2. Analog Air Data Computer
A. Air Data Computer Modules
(1) Three plug-in type modules are located in the main computer chassis assembly: Altitude,
Airspeed, and Mach (Fig. 1).
(a) The altitude module receives static pressure information , and the self-contained
altitude servo pressure sense unit mechanically transduces this data to provide
equivalent phase relationship signals which are then processed to obtain the altitude
signal outputs. A preset correction cam adjusts the output potentiometers and
synchros to provide linear electrical output as related to altitude pressure input.
(b) The airspeed module pressure input is from both static and pitot sources. Essentially
the function of the airspeed module components is almost identical with those in the
altitude module, with the exception that the transducer is actuated by pitot static
differential pressure, rather than by mechanical spring and static pressure as in the
altitude module. The corrected airspeed module outputs are linear as related to pitot
static pressure inputs.

NOTE: The callout TOTAL, on the air data computer front panel, refers to the sum
of pitot and static pressure, however, for continuity in this manual, the
expression pitot pressure will apply for total pressure.

(c) A simulated mach module is installed.

171
Dec 20/79 34-12-01
Page 1
Air Data Computer 171
H73980

34-12-01 Figure 1 Dec 20/79


Page 2
(d) The airplane configuration customizing adapter, on the air data computer front panel,
provides characterization of selected outputs for matching the air data computer to
this model of airplane. The adapter also contains the required interlock circuits for
proper operation of the computer.
B. Air Data Computer Master Failure Monitor
(1) The air data computer master failure monitor is concerned with monitoring the computer
altitude, airspeed and mach module operation. The master failure warning annunciators
(normally white) are mounted on the computer front panel and identified with a particular
module (Fig. 1). When a module failure or fault occurs, the relevant master failure warning
annunciator center will show red and thus indicate that a fault has occurred in that module.

NOTE: Once a computer master failure warning annunciator has been tripped, it will
remain red until a reset has been completed. This reset entails removal of the air
data computer cover and application of a reset voltage to that annunciator. The
failure warning annunciators have proven ineffective, and unverified nuisance
trips have compromised the credibility of fault monitors. Action based solely on
the fault monitor annunciators can be disregarded.

(2) The three air data computer master failure monitors each incorporate solid-state logic and
annunciator/relay driver circuits. In addition, a special holding circuit is included to prevent
computer master warning annunciators from being actuated when certain computer test
configurations are selected.
(3) The air data computer master failure monitor also drives the captain’s altimeter warning
flag.
C. Air Data Computer Signal Outputs
(1) Outputs to the air data instruments from the air data computer and air data computer
interface to other system s are shown in Fig. 2.
3. Digital Air Data Computer
A. General
(1) The digital air data computer (DADC) is a solid-state device that uses pitot static
pressures and air temperature inputs to compute air data information required by airplane
displays and systems. In addition to the above inputs, 115-volt ac and 26-volt ac are
provided to a multipin connectors at the rear of the computer.

178
Dec 20/79 34-12-01
Page 3
MK

Air Data Computer System Block Diagram 178


T49152

34-12-01 Figure 2 Dec 20/79


Page 4
(2) The computer is of modular construction and consists of two pressure transducers, 12
plug-in printed circuit cards, a power supply and a chassis assembly. The front panel (Fig.
1) provides two switches for self-test actuation, a self-test indicator light, a fault isolation
test connector for off-airplane trouble shooting and pitot static pressure input connectors.
Three electrical connectors mounted on the back of the chassis provide interconnection
with the airplane wiring.
(3) The TEST SELECT switch manually selects built-in test to be performed as follows:
FUNCTION - transmits fixed values on all the computer signal output lines.
SLEW - sets altitude rate to 600 feet per minute.
HOLD - activates hold circuits.
FAIL - activates all failure warning flags.
The PUSH TO TEST pushbutton switch initiates the built-in test and the TEST VALID
WHEN LIT indicator light comes on within 2 seconds after manually activated test is
successfully completed and remains on if there is no failure.
B. Functional Description
(1) The computer uses primary inputs of static pressure (Ps), total pressure (Pt), and air
temperature (Ti) to compute air data information. Other inputs required by the computer
are power, reference voltages, enabling and command signals, and programmed inputs to
inform the computer what airplane it is installed in. The computer contains a
microcomputer that operates on the input information to form output parameters of analog
and digital voltages representing altitude, airspeed, air temperature, and derivations
thereof.
(2) Two plug-in circuit card assemblies each contain a microprocessor that controls an
arithmetic processing unit for making air data calculations. Both circuit card assemblies
have large scale integration (LSI) integrated circuits that contain read only memory (ROM)
for program storage, random access memory (RAM) for scratch pad memory, and
peripheral integrated circuits (IC’s) having I/O ports. All of the LSI integrated circuits are
tied together by common buses. Calculations of the computer are performed on a time-
shared basis.

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Feb 20/82 34-12-01
Page 5
(3) Two pressure inputs and one temperature input are converted into 16-bit data words.
Various reference, enabling, and command signals are received from the airplane and are
used by the computing circuitry (using the pressure and temperature data) to provide
outputs that drive airplane systems and indicators. The computer uses solid-state
electronics to perform functions that were formerly carried out by mechanical devices.
Synchros and potentiometers are "synthesized" using solid-state electronics. Also
developed are hold signals, rate signals, and failure warning signals.
(4) The computer contains a digital information transfer system (DITS) that generates a serial,
bipolar output. An air traffic control (ATC) code is also generated. The computer also
contains an extensive, self-test monitoring system.
(5) A static source error correction (SSEC) program is stored in the instructional program. The
SSEC program is used by the computer to compensate for differences in airplane type.
The program to be used is selected by airplane program jumpers that inform the
microcomputer which type of airplane the computer is in.
(6) Outputs to the air data instruments from the air data computer(s) and air data computer
interface to other systems are shown in Fig. 2.

178
34-12-01 Dec 20/79
Page 6
AIR TEMPERATURE INDICATION - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. The temperature of the air outside the airplane is used to calculate air density which is required
for proper adjustment of the engines. Ram air temperature (if installed) and total air
temperature indications are displayed in the control cabin, providing two types of outside
temperature indication.
B. Information for air temperature is derived from noninductive resistance elements mounted in the
airplane slipstream. The two sensing elements for total air temperature are contained in a
probe. One sensing element is used for temperature indication and the other for the air data
computer. The element for ram air temperature is a flush-mounted bulb. The resistance of the
elements varies proportionally to temperature change of the air. These variations in resistance
are electrically fed to indicators which display the temperature in degrees centigrade (°C) by a
needle pointer (Fig. 1 and 2).
2. Total Air Temperature
A. Total air temperature is displayed on an indicator on the first officer’s instrument panel.
Temperature indications are derived from the air temperature probe mounted externally on the
lower left side of the fuselage at station 263. The temperature element within the probe is one
leg of a bridge. As the temperature at the element changes, the resistance changes and the
current through the meter changes proportionally.
B. The air temperature probe is provided with an internal heating element for deicing when in
flight. The heater is controlled by the captain’s pitot static heater switch on the overhead panel
(Ref Chap 30).
C. Electrical power for operation of the indicator and probe is 115 volts, 400 cycles, and is
obtained from a circuit breaker on panel P18.
3. Ram Air Temperature (MX ALL EXCEPT XA-SEW; DB A6-HHM)
A. Ram air temperature is displayed on an indicator on the third crewman’s lower panel.
Temperature indications are derived from the flush mounted air temperature bulb installed at
station 200, slightly right of the bottom centerline of the airplane (Fig. 1). The bulb is accessible
from inside the lower nose section.
B. Electrical power for operation of the indicator and bulb is 28 volts dc, and is obtained from a
circuit breaker on panel P18-2.

178
Dec 20/72 34-13-0
Page 1
Air Temperature Indication Component Location 178
H73985

34-13-0 Figure 1 Dec 20/72


Page 2
178 Air Temperature Indication Schematic Diagrams
H73987

Dec 20/72 Figure 2 34-13-0


Page 3
MACH AIRSPEED WARNING SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. The mach airspeed warning system is provided to alert the flight crew when the airplane
approaches a critical speed. The warning is accomplished by a pitot static operated switch, a
warning horn relay, and a warning horn. Test switches are provided on the captain’s instrument
panel to check operation of the warning circuits (Fig. 1). Two complete systems are installed on
passenger airplanes.
B. On 727-200 Series Airplanes, an A-B mode switch on the captain’s instrument panel provides
for connecting either No. 1 or No. 3 mach airspeed warning switch into the No. 1 system. The
selection to A or B mode is based on the gross weight of the airplane, and should not be
changed in flight. To determine selection of mode A or B, refer to the Flight Manual.
2. Mach Airspeed Warning Switches
A. The Mach Airspeed Warning Switch contains a pair of sensitive contacts mounted on a pair of
levers independently actuated by aneroid and differential pressure diaphragm capsules which
are connected to the aircraft’s pitot-static system. The range of these capsules span the
complete limiting speed curve.
B. During operation in the normal speed ranges these sensitive contacts remain closed and the
relay contacts are open. Whenever the maximum operating limit speed is exceeded, the
sensitive contacts open, de- energizing the relay and closing its contacts. This actuates the
warning device located in the aural warning devices unit M6 (Fig. 1).
C. The switch for the No. 1 system is located at station 421 in the electronic equipment
compartment on the upper stanchion between racks E-2 and E-3. On all except 727-200,
Series the switch for No. 2 system is located in the lower nose section at station 205. On
727-200 Series, the No. 2 system switch is located on the upper right end of rack E-3 at station
420 and a third mach airspeed warning switch, of different characteristics, is installed at station
440 on the equipment compartment ceiling, and provides airplane speed configuration warning
when selected by the captain’s A-B mode switch (Fig. 1).
3. Mach Airspeed Warning Horns (Clackers)
A. Both warning horns are located in the aural warning devices unit which is mounted over the
third crewman’s table. When energized, the horns emit a clacking sound at a vibration rate of
approximately 8 per second.

178
Feb 20/83 34-14-0
Page 1
Mach Airspeed Warning System Component Location 157
H74195

34-14-0 Figure 1 Dec 20/74


Page 2
154 Mach Airspeed Warning System Schematic
H74197

Dec 20/74 Figure 2 34-14-0


Page 3
MX

ALTITUDE ALERTING SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. The altitude alerting system provides audio and visual signals to the pilots when the airplane
approaches a predetermined altitude set by the pilots.
B. The altitude alerting system consists of an altitude alerting controller, an audio alerting device,
two altitude alerting lights, and a flap position switch. (See figure 1.)
2. Altitude Alerting Controller
A. The altitude alerting controller is a miniaturized solid-state device, located on the center
instrument panel. The face of the instrument has a digital counter preset manually by
concentric knobs at the lower right corner. (See figure 2.)
B. The altitude alerting controller receives fine and coarse altitude synchro signals from the No. 1
air data computer, which also feeds fine altitude synchro signals to the captain’s
servopneumatic altimeter. Barometric pressure correction applied to the captain’s
servopneumatic altimeter is fed through a potentiometer to the altitude alerting controller.
C. When the input signal indicates the airplane altitude is 1000 (+ 70) feet above or below the
altitude preset on the controller, circuits are completed to activate the audio alerting device and
the altitude alerting lights.
D. When the airplane reaches an altitude 375 (+ 70) feet from the preset altitude, the altitude
alerting lights are disabled.
E. The altitude alerting controller receives 28 volts dc and 26 volts, 400 Hz from the two circuit
breakers on panel P18.
3. Audio Alerting Device
A. The audio alerting device is located at the rear of the control cabin overhead panel. It provides
an audio alerting signal of 1 to 2 seconds duration when activated by the altitude alerting
controller when the airplane altitude approaches 1000 (+ 70) feet from the altitude preset on the
altitude alerting controller.

178
Dec 20/72 34-17-0
Page 1
Altitude Alerting Controller 178
H74203

34-17-0 Figure 2 Dec 20/72


Page 2
4. Altitude Alerting Lights
A. Altitude alerting lights are located on the captain’s and first officer’s instrument panels. The
lights are illuminated when the airplane altitude reaches 1000 (+ 70) feet above or below the
preset altitude on the altitude alerting controller, and remain illuminated until an altitude 375
MX

(+70) feet from the preset altitude is reached.


5. Operation
A. The altitude alerting system operates over a range from sea level to 50,000 feet to provide
pilots with audio and visual alerting signals when a preset altitude is being approached.
Synchros within the altitude alerting controller align with synchros in the captain’s electric
altimeter.
B. When the synchros in the altitude alerting controller indicate the airplane altitude to be 1000
(+70) feet from the altitude manually preset on the altitude alerting controller, circuits are
completed to the audio and visual alerting devices. The audio alerting device will sound for 1
to 2 seconds only, but the audio alerting lights will remain illuminated.
C. When the airplane reaches an altitude 375 (+ 70) feet from the altitude preset on the altitude
alerting controller, the circuit to the altitude alerting lights is opened to extinguish the lights.

178
Dec 20/72 34-17-0
Page 3
Altitude Alerting System - Operating Diagram Acquisition Mode Only 178
H74204

34-17-0 Figure 2 Oct 20/82


Page 4
STALL WARNING SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

All except 727-200 Series Airplanes

1. General
A. The stall warning system is provided to alert the pilots when the airplane approaches stall
conditions. The warning is accomplished by vibrating the captain’s control column with a shaker
motor mounted on the control column. The system consists of an angle of airflow sensor, a flap
position transmitter, stall warning computer, control column shaker and main gear oleo
operated switch. The sensor generates an electrical signal in relation to the airplane stall
conditions and electronically applies voltage to the control column shaker motor through the
computer. One complete system is installed and provisions are made for a second system. See
figure 1 for location of components.
B. Two test locations are provided in the system, one on the captain’s overhead panel (P5) and
the other on the stall warning computer panel located in the electronic rack (E3). The test
switch on the captain’s overhead panel provides for overriding the main gear oleo operated
relay for operational checks of the control column shaker motor on ground. The test panel on
the computer allows for conducting malfunction checks of system and components on ground.
C. A monitoring light to indicate heater operation and power failure is provided at each test
location.
2. Angle of Airflow Sensor
A. The angle of airflow sensor is located on the right side of the body at station 290. The sensor
consists of a basic aerodynamic vane and a synchro. The vane rotates in relation to the airflow
pattern over it and appropriate synchro signals are generated. (See figure 2.) The output of the
synchro is impressed on the flap position stall warning synchro sensor. Power for the sensor is
supplied by a transformer in the computer, which is fed 115 volts ac from the essential bus on
circuit breaker panel P18.
B. An internal heater is provided in the sensor unit for complete deicing of the sensor vane. Power
for the heater is 115 volts ac from circuit breaker panel P18. The heater power is interlocked
with the external 28 volt dc power interlock relay R83 and auxiliary power unit power interlock
relay R84 so the heaters cannot be energized on the ground.

159
Jun 15/68 34-18-0
Page 1
Stall Warning System Component Location 152
H74207

34-18-0 Figure 1 (Sheet 1) Jul 15/65


Page 2
151 Stall Warning System Component Location
H74326

Nov 15/63 Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 2) 34-18-0


Page 3
Stall Warning System Schematic Diagram 153
H74329

34-18-0 Figure 2 May 01/65


Page 4
3. Flap Position Transmitter
A. Two flap position transmitters are mounted on the aft bulkhead of the main wheel well (See
Chapter 27.) Each transmitter contains a gear reducer and two synchros. The flap position
synchro provides flap position indication to the pilot. The stall warning synchro operates in
conjunction with the airflow sensor synchro to provide the computer with a signal representing
airplane attitude. A signal corresponding to vane angular displacement is transmitted from the
airflow sensor. The signal is received at the stall warning synchro and modified to compensate
for flap position. The differential output signal is then transmitted from the stall warning synchro
to the stall warning computer.
4. Stall Warning Computer
A. The stall warning computer, located in the electronic equipment rack (E3), is of modular design
with plug in modules. It contains amplifiers, power transformers, testing circuits, a modulator,
demodulator, filter and a power failure relay. A test panel on the face of the computer with an
indicating light, test switches and a meter provides a convenient method of trouble shooting.
Power for the computer is 115 volts ac and 28 volts dc from circuit breaker panel P18 and is
monitored by a power failure relay. Test circuits are controlled by a test relay i n the computer
and test switches. The battery transfer bus supplies power for power failure warning indication.
(See figure 2.)
B. The output signal from the stall warning reference synchro is continuously monitored by the
computer and whenever the input signal strength approaches a preset stall warning condition, it
is amplified, demodulated, filtered and applied as bias to a transistor in the computer which
conducts and applies 28 volts dc to the control column shaker motor.
C. A current transformer in the computer monitors the power being fed to the sensor heating
element and if both ac and dc power are available in the computer, the power failure relay will
energize and the power failure light will go out.
D. A test panel on the computer face has a two-way test switch, a meter, a power failure and
heater monitoring light and a confidence switch. Complete malfunctioning test can be
conducted from this location. When the test switch is placed in shaker position, 28 volts dc is
applied to the shaker motor and the motor operates. When the confidence switch is pressed, a
test signal generated in the sensor synchros is amplified and a transistor allows 28 volts dc to
be applied to the shaker motor. The heater test light will go off. The meter monitors the test
signal.

152
Jan 15/66 34-18-0
Page 5
5. Control Column Shaker
A. The control column shaker is motor-driven and mounted on the forward side of the captain’s
control column. The unit consists of a coaxially mounted 28 volt dc motor and weighted ring
assembly. Vibrations of the weighted ring are transferred to the control column to give the
shaking action. The 28 volt dc power is obtained from the essential dc bus on panel P18.
6. Oleo Actuated Relay
A. The oleo actuated relay module is located in the landing gear components unit mounted in the
electrical equipment rack E5. For more information refer to Chapter 32. The test and confidence
switches bypass the main gear safety switch and applies power to the shaker motor.
7. Operation
A. No on-off switch is provided in the system. With airplane power on, as soon as the stall warning
and battery transfer circuit breakers are pushed in, the air flow sensor synchro, flap position
transmitter, its amplifier circuit in the computer and the sensor vane heating element are
energized. When the test switch on the overhead panel is pressed, the control column motor
will operate and the monitor light will go off to indicate that vane heater is operating. The
complete system is energized and ready to operate as soon as the main gear oleo operated
switch is closed. A t any time after lift off should a signal of sufficient strength develop in the
stall warning synchro approaching preset stall warning conditions, the computer amplifies the
signal and allows 28 volts dc to b applied to the shaker motor on the control column.

151
34-18-0 Nov 15/63
Page 6
STALL WARNING SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

727-200 Series

1. General
A. The stall warning system is provided to alert the pilots when the airplane is approaching stall
conditions. The warning is accomplished by vibrating the captain’s control column by means of
a control column shaker motor. The system incorporates a stall warning module, angle of
airflow sensor, flap position transmitter, control column shaker motor, landing gear oleo
operated switch, auxiliary power unit and external power interlock relays. See figure 1 for
location of components.
B. Should stall conditions be approached, the stall warning module will supply a control column
shaker voltage, thus providing stall warning indication.
C. An integral stall warning module and control column shaker test provision is available for
ground test or confidence test of the system. A monitor light is provided on the module to
indicate vane heater failure and/or power failure.
2. Stall Warning Module
A. The stall warning module is located on the pilots’ overhead panel P5, and contains amplifiers,
power transformers, testing circuits, modulator and demodulator, filters, and a power failure
monitor. A test switch, an amber power OFF indicating light, and a rotating card test indicator
on the module front panel provide convenient facility for system confidence check. A stick
shaker test button is located at the rear of the stall warning module. Power for the module
assembly, 115 volts ac and 28 volts dc, is supplied from circuit breaker panel P18 and is
monitored by the OFF amber indicator light.
B. The output signal from the stall warning reference synchros is continuously monitored by the
computer, and whenever the input signal strength approaches a pre-set stall warning condition,
it is amplified, demodulated, filtered, and then operates a semiconductor switch in the stall
warning module. This switch applies 28 volts dc to the control column shaker motor.

159
Mar 15/68 34-18-01
Page 1
Stall Warning System Component Location 159
H68107

34-18-01 Figure 1 (Sheet 1) Mar 15/68


Page 2
159 Stall Warning System Component Location (Typical)
H05864

Mar 15/68 Figure 1 (Sheet 2) 34-18-01


Page 3
C. A solid state circuit in the stall warning module monitors the power for the angle of airflow
sensor heating element, and, if power available to the stall warning system is disconnected, the
amber OFF indicator will light.
3. Angle of Airflow Sensor
A. The angle of airflow sensor is located on the external right side of the body at station 290. The
sensor consists of a basic aerodynamic vane and a synchro. The vane rotates in relation to the
airflow pattern over it and appropriate airplane angle of attack synchro signals are generated.
(Fig. 2) The output of the synchro is impressed on the flap position stall warning synchro sensor.
Power for the sensor is supplied by a transformer in the stall warning module.
B. An internal heater is provided in the sensor unit for complete deicing of the sensor vane. Power
for the heater is 115 volts ac from circuit breaker panel P18. The heater power is interlocked
with the external 28 volt dc power interlock relay R83 (R522 on No. 2 system if installed) and
auxiliary power unit power interlock relay R84 (R521 on No. 2 system if installed) so the heaters
cannot be energized on the ground, except when engines are operating and airplane generator
power is being used.
4. Flap Position Transmitter
A. The flap position transmitter is mounted on the left outboard track of the inboard flap. The
transmitter contains a gear reducer and two synchros. A flap position synchro provides flap
position indication to the pilots. The stall warning synchro operates in conjunction with the
airflow sensor synchro to provide the stall warning module with a signal representing airplane
attitude. A signal corresponding to vane angular displacement is transmitted from the airflow
sensor to the stall warning synchro and modified to compensate for flap position. Any differential
output signal is then applied from the stall warning synchro to the stall warning module.
5. Control Column Shaker
A. The control column shaker is motor driven and mounted on the forward side of the captain’s
control column, and consists of a coaxially mounted 28-volt dc motor and weighted ring
assembly. Vibrations of the weighted ring are transferred to the control column to give the
shaking action. The 28-volt dc power is obtained through the stall warning module from the
essential dc bus on panel P18.

159
34-18-01 Mar 15/68
Page 4
6. Oleo Actuated Relay
A. The oleo actuated relay module is located in the landing gear components unit mounted in the
electrical equipment rack E5. The test and confidence switches bypass the main gear safety
switch and apply power to the shaker motor.
7. Operation
A. No ON-OFF switch is provided for the stall warning system. With airplane electrical power
connected and appropriate stall warning system circuit breakers closed, airflow sensor and flap
position synchros and stall warning module assembly are energized. (See figure 2). The system
is now ready to operate as soon as the oleo actuated relay is closed. At any time after takeoff if
the airplane approaches the preset stall warning synchro warning configuration (at
approximately 7 percent above airplane stall speed), the stall warning module will process the
synchro signal and subsequently operate the control column shaker.
B. The system may be checked on the ground, with suitable power connected and circuit breakers
closed. The test circuits are controlled from a three position toggle switch on the face of the
module. This toggle switch has a positive NORMAL mode, a positive HTR OFF mode, and a
momentary TEST mode. A shaker test switch is located on the back on the module. This test
switch may be used to check operation of the control column shaker motor.
C. Depressing the cap of the amber press-to-test OFF light will illuminate the light to check the
internal lamp circuitry. Failure of the OFF light to illuminate indicates a failure within the stall
warning system. Operating the three position toggle switch to the TEST position will provide a
confidence check of the stall warning system operation. When the airplane is on the ground
with either external power applied or APU power being utilized, the OFF light will be illuminated
since the vane heater is not energized. Under this condition, placing the switch to the TEST
position will activate the control column shaker, turn out the OFF light, and activates the motor-
driven test indicator which should spin at a minimum of two revolutions per second. Release the
switch from TEST position will illuminate the OFF light, de-activate the shaker motor, and stops
the rotation of the test indicator. When the airplane is on the ground with the engine turned on
and airplane generator power switched on, the off light will not be illuminated unless a power
failure or vane heater failure occurs.
D. An air/ground relay in the stall warning module is actuated by two relays located in the landing
gear module (E3 rack in E/E compartment). (See figure 2). These relays are controlled by
proximity switches on the main gear oleo. Compressing or extending the landing gear actuates
the switches. The function of the air/ground relay in the stall warning module is to remove vane
heater power for ground operation. It also provides an inhibit signal to prevent operation of the
shaker prior to liftoff and after touchdown. In addition, the air/ground relay provides a secondary
path for the vane heater power when in air mode.

159
Mar 15/68 34-18-01
Page 5
Stall Warning System Schematic 159
H68110

34-18-01 Figure 2 Mar 15/68


Page 6
COMPASS SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. The compass system is designed primarily to furnish the captain and first officer with
information concerning the airplane’s magnetic heading at all times during flight. Heading
information is displayed on the airplane’s compass cards and on the cards of the deviation
indicators. Heading information is also fed to the autopilot, flight recorder, navigation systems,
and steering computers.
B. The compass system is duplicated, each system consisting of the following units: remote
compass transmitter (flux valve), compensator, directional gyro, radio magnetic directional
indicator, servo-amplifier and slaving amplifier. The two amplifiers are contained in the compass
racks, and the location of all units is shown in Fig. 1.
C. Each RMI feeds heading information to a course deviation indicator (CDI) and the CDI’s repeat
the signals to a comparator unit so that any significant difference between the two systems may
be readily observed. In the event the two signals differ by a certain predetermined value or
more, the comparator warning light shows up on the instrument switching panel.
D. Two 2-position compass transfer switches are provided (Fig. 1.) The captain’s compass transfer
switch is normally set to 1 and first officer’s transfer switch to 2. If either switch is set to it’s
alternate position, the other cannot be set to its alternate position.
E. Test receptacles are provided to facilitate checkout of power supplies and signals within each
system. These receptacles are located on the electronic equipment rack (Fig. 1.)
2. Remote Compass Transmitter (Flux Valve) and Compensator
A. The flux valve contains a pendulous magnetic detector which senses the direction of the
horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field and utilizes this reference to generate an ac
signal representative of the airplane’s magnetic heading.
B. The compensator is mounted on the flux valve. It is a separate unit which is designed to
counteract the effect of any stray magnetic fields in the vicinity of the flux valve. N-S and E-W
adjustment screws are provided on the unit for this purpose.

178
Mar 15/70 34-21-0
Page 1
Compass Systems Component Location Diagram 178
H74342

34-21-0 Figure 1 Dec 15/67


Page 2
3. Directional Gyros
A. The directional gyro provides the heading reference for the compass system. Its gimbals may
be torqued by two torquemotors, the slaving torquemotor being used to precess the gyro to the
magnetic reference generated in the flux valve and the leveling torquemotor to level the gyro
with respect to gravity. The former motor is driven by the slaving amplifier and the latter is
controlled by means of an electrolytic switch.
B. A spin-down brake in the directional gyro prevents nutation of the gyro by holding the outer
gimbal steady for 10 seconds after power is applied. At shutdown, the brake is reapplied to the
gimbal 30 seconds after power is removed. This prevents the gyro from spinning around its
vertical axis. The 30-second time delay of the spin-down brake at shutdown also prevents
momentary power interruptions (such as changing inverters) from introducing errors into the
heading information.
C. Heading information for the autopilot is obtained direct from directional gyro No. 1.
4. Radio Magnetic Deviation Indicator (RMDI or RMI)
A. Heading information from the directional gyro is displayed on a rotating compass dial which is
read against a fixed index at the top of the indicator. Synchro transmitters in the RMI’s repeat
this information to the CDI’s. Other synchros in the RMI’s feed heading information to the NAV
systems, flight recorder, and to the opposite compass system RMI when the compass transfer
relay is switched to either of the alternate positions.
B. An annunciator is provided to indicate alignment of the compass card with the magnetic
reference. It takes the form of a small bar which will point to a cross or a dot whenever slaving
of the gyro is taking place. (See figure 1.) An indication midway between cross and dot signifies
that the system is synchronized.
C. The synchronizing knob on the face of the RMI is provided to bring about rapid synchronization
of the system. This is done by turning the knob in the direction indicated by the annunciator (dot
or cross).

178
Jun 15/66 34-21-0
Page 3
D. The warning flag on the RMI will appear when power is lost to the system, or in the event of a
gyro malfunction.
E. The two RMI pointers display information from the ADF and VOR systems.
5. Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
A. The synchros in the captain’s CDI receive heading information from the captain’s RMI. One
synchro is used in conjunction with the CDI servo-amplifier to control the readout of the CDI
compass card. The other two synchros have their stators connected in parallel and are fed from
a separate synchro in the captain’s RMI. These two synchros are equipped with set course and
set heading knobs in order that their rotors may be preset accordingly. The outputs from the
two synchros are fed to the steering computer and autopilot (in parallel). The differential
resolver is coupled to the comparator unit and utilized as described in paragraph l. The F/O’s
CDI operates on similar lines to the captain’s CDI except that is does not provide the autopilot
with information.
B. The flag amplifier generates the dc power required to withdraw the warning flag in the CDI from
view. The flag will be exposed if the amplifier loses its dc reference from the servo-amplifier, or
if the instrument amplifier itself loses its ac power supply.
6. Rack Mountings
A. The compass racks provide "plug-in" mountings for the servo-amplifiers and slaving amplifiers.
Each rack is wired into its own compass system.
B. The IIS racks provide similar mountings for the CDI servo-amplifiers, each with its associated
system wiring.
7. Operation
A. Both systems are made operational by closing the circuit breakers shown in figures 3 and 4.
After a brief period of time the gyros will run up and the compass cards will reflect the magnetic
heading of the airplane. (Refer to figure 2.)
B. Assume that the system is activated and that the airplane heading is magnetic north. This
heading will be displayed upon both RMI and CDI compass cards. Assume that the airplane
turns 10° left. The synchro in the directional gyro responds immediately to the change in
direction, and puts out a signal which is now related, in both phase and amplitude, to the new
heading. This signal is fed to the servo-amplifier via

178
34-21-0 Jun 15/66
Page 4
178 Transfer Switching Circuits Simplified Schematic
H74348

Mar 15/70 Figure 3 34-21-0


Page 5
Compass Switching Simplified Schematic 178
H74350

34-21-0 Figure 4 Jun 15/66


Page 6
the heading control synchro in the RMI. The servo-amplifier then drives the servomotor in the
RMI (which is geared to the compass card) towards the new heading, and at the same time
turns the rotor of the heading control synchro in such a direction as to null out the error in the
servo circuit. Thus, when the motor stops, the signal from the synchro in the directional gyro
has been nulled out in the RMI heading control synchro, and the compass card in the RMI
reflects the new airplane heading.
C. The sensing element in the flux valve will also reflect this change in heading in the form of a
signal which is fed to the slaving amplifier via the slaving synchro in the RMI. However, the
error in the slaving amplifier circuit is also nulled out by the servomotor in the RMI since both
synchro rotors are driven simultaneously by the same servomotor.
D. Random drift in the gyro is overcome by means of the flux valve and servo slaving circuits.
Assume there are no error signals in the system and that the airplane is headed towards
magnetic north once more. The gyro now drifts slightly off course. This results in an error signal
being generated in the gyro synchro which is passed to the servo-amplifier via the heading
synchro in the RMI. As in the case of the heading change the servo-amplifier drives the
servomotor to null out the error in the heading synchro and automatically turns the rotor of the
slaving synchro in the RMI along with it. However, in this case the stator of the slaving synchro
is still referenced to north by the flux valve; hence, an error signal is now generated in the
slaving synchro which is amplified by the slaving amplifier and fed to the torque motor to
precess the gyro back to a northerly heading. The error in the gyro synchro is thus nulled out
and the system returns to its original zero error condition with the gyro again "pointing" north.
E. In practice, it will be found that when the compass system is first activated, there will usually be
some disagreement between the airplane heading and that of the directional gyro. The system
will immediately start to precess the gyro to take out this error, but the precession rate for the
slaving circuits is a relatively slow one, and the time lag involved could not always be tolerated.
Hence, a "manual" method of synchronizing the system has been devised. The method used is
to introduce an artificial error signal into the heading servo circuit, which rapidly produces the
desired results. Assume that the system has been activated and that the aircraft heading is
magnetic north, whereas the compass cards are 10° "out of line." An annunciator indication of a
dot or cross, will show that the slaving circuits are operating, and will also serve to indicate
which way the HDG/SYNC knob should be turned to synchronize the system. When the knob is
turned, it turns the stator of the heading synchro, thus generating an error voltage in its rotor
which is amplified by the servo-amplifier and drives the servomotor and compass cards to the
correct airplane heading (and nulls out the error in the heading synchro as before). Since the
servo-amplifier circuit is able to respond far more rapidly to an error signal than the slaving
circuit, the "manual" method of synchronizing the system is preferred.

177
Jun 15/66 34-21-0
Page 7
Compass Warning Flag Simplified Schematic 178
H74354

34-21-0 Figure 5 Jun 15/66


Page 8
F. The operation of the gyro transfer switches is illustrated in figures 3 and 4. Figure 3 shows how the
relay coils are connected with the dc supply through the relay contacts. Both switches are shown in
their normal settings. Assume that the captain’s switch is now set to COMP-2. This switch puts a
ground on the lower end of latching relay coil A via contacts B2 and Al; and since the other end of
that coil is connected to +28 volts dc, it will now latch over to the alternate set of contacts and remain
there until energized once more. Note that the ground is removed from the coil by the transfer of
contacts at Al, and that the captain’s transfer switch is held in the COMP-2 position by its coil which
is now energized thru the contacts at A3. In order to ground coil A once more and switch the relay
back again, it will be necessary to return the captain’s switch to COMP-1. The first officer’s transfer
switching is carried out in a similar way. When the captain’s system is in the alternate position the
ground return for relay coil B is broken at relay contact A2. It is not possible therefore to transfer the
first officer’s system to the alternate position after the captain’s system has been switched over to his
COMP-2 position (and vice versa).
G. The switching contacts shown in figure 4 are a continuation of those in figure 3, but they take care of
the transfer of signals within the system. In the normal configuration the captain’s RMI receives its
signals direct from directional gyro No. 1 and the first officer’s RMI receives its signals from
directional gyro No. 2. AC power for each system’s servo-amplifier is taken from COMP-1 and
COMP-2 circuit breakers respectively. When the captain’s transfer relay is switched over to COMP-
2, the F/O’s system receives its signals and power supplies as before but the captain’s system now
receives its signals from a synchro in the F/O’s RMI and the power supply for No. 1 servo-amplifier is
taken from the CAPT RMI ALT circuit breaker via the contacts of the 26 volt monitor relay powered
by INST XFMR No. 2. AC power supplies for the instrument amplifiers are also switched by means
of the transfer relays. Instrument amplifier No. 1 normally gets its 26 volt ac power supply from INST
XFMR-1 but when the captain’s transfer switch is set to COMP-2, power is obtained from INST
XFMR-2. The F/O’s system switching operates in a like manner.

178
Mar 15/70 34-21-0
Page 9
H. The compass warning flag circuits are shown in figure 5. The reference signal for the captain’s CDI
flag amplifier is drawn at all times from the servo-amplifier in compass rack No. 1, and will normally
be fed to it via the transfer relay and the contacts of the malfunction relay associated with directional
gyro No. 1. (Steering computer No. 1 also receives this signal for its flag via the contacts of the 26
volt ac monitor relay which is powered by INST XFMR-1. If No. 1 gyro fails, thereby causing the
malfunction relay to fail, the CDI flag circuit is broken. The captain may however, restore the circuit -
via the contacts of No. 2 directional gyro malfunction relay - by setting his transfer switch to
COMP-2. The flag for the captain’s RMI also obtains its power from the servo-amplifier in compass
rack No. 1 and the switching is very similar to that for the CDI. Differences lie in the use of the logic
relay contacts instead of the malfunction relay contacts, and the use of two sets of contacts on the
transfer relay in place of one. The heading signal for servo-amplifier No. 1 is also fed to the logic
circuits in directional gyro No. 1 in order to ensure that its logic relay is tripped if the NULL in the
servo input circuit exceeds an error signal value of 1.5°. The F/O’s system differs only in that the
components of No. 2 system are used.

178
34-21-0 Jun 15/66
Page 10
ATTITUDE REFERENCE SYSTEMS - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. The attitude reference system is designed primarily to furnish the captain and first officer with
information concerning the airplane’s attitude in both PITCH and ROLL axes at all times during
flight. It also provides pitch and roll displacement signals to the autopilot, flight director system
and weather radar antenna stabilization system. The system is duplicated; system No. 1
feeding information to the captain’s FDI, steering computer No. 1, weather radar and autopilot;
while system No. 2 feeds information to the F/O FDI, and steering computer No. 2. Pitch and
roll signals are also fed into the comparator unit from each system, where comparisons are
made between the respective pitch signals, and the respective roll signals.
B. Each system consists of the following units; vertical gyro, roll servoamplifier, pitch servo-
amplifier, warning flag amplifier and flight director indicator. The three amplifiers, plus a small
power supply for the servomotors., are contained in the flight instrument amplifier unit, and the
location of all units is shown in figure 1.
C. A vertical gyro transfer switch is fitted to the captain’s main panel which is used to energize the
gyro transfer relay and so bootstrap the pilot’s FDI to the copilot’s FDI. In this manner, both
FDI’s utilize the pitch and roll signals from vertical gyro No. 2. There are two switch conditions
HORIZ-1 and HORIZ-2.
D. Test receptacles are provided to facilitate check out of power supplies and signals within each
system. These receptacles are located on the electronic equipment rack. (See figure 1.)
2. Vertical Gyro
A. The gyro has 360° of freedom about the roll axis, and ±85° of freedom about the pitch axis.
Initial erection of the gyro is accomplished by internal circuits, and no manual caging device is
used. The erection system maintains verticality within 1/4° during unaccelerated flight and
within 1° during maneuvers, or in turbulent air.

178
Jun 15/66 34-22-0
Page 1
Attitude Reference System Component Location 178
H74357

34-22-0 Figure 1 Jun 15/66


Page 2
3. Instrument Amplifier
A. The roll and pitch servo-amplifiers and the warning flag amplifiers are all plug-in units, and are
contained in the instrument amplifier.
4. Flight Director Indicator (FDI)
A. Each artificial horizon (contained in the FDI) consists of a moving tape assembly which displays
the horizon line, pitch scale and roll index. The tape assembly is coupled to the rotors of the roll
and pitch synchros and to the roll and pitch servomotors. When the servomotors turn, the
synchros and the tape assembly are positioned simultaneously. Airplane attitude in roll is read
from the roll index against the roll scale, and airplane attitude in pitch is read from the pitch
scale against the miniature airplane symbol. Adjustment of the tape in pitch is provided for,
through the pitch trim adjuster at the lower left corner of the indicator.
B. A gyro warning flag is provided in each FDI to indicate loss of power, or malfunction of the gyro
in that system.
5. Operation
A. Both systems are made operational by closing the circuit breakers shown in figures 3 and 4.
After a brief period of time, the gyros will erect and each FDI should indicate a level condition in
both pitch and roll axes,
B. Each system operates as follows: When the airplane is displaced in the roll plane, the gyro will
transmit an ac signal which is not only related in amplitude to the degree of displacement, but
also phase oriented to differentiate between left and right roll. The signal is passed to the roll
servo-amplifier where it is amplified to drive the servomotor, which in turn drives the horizon
tape. This ac signal is fed via the roll synchro on the roll motor shaft to ensure that the motor
stops as soon as it has turned sufficiently to null out the error signal. Pitch displacement signals
are handled in a similar way, and the electromechanical design is such that the horizon tape is
able to respond to both pitch and roll signals simultaneously. (See figure 2.)
C. In order to prevent slaving the gyro to a false vertical on acceleration or deceleration of the
MX

airplane, both the roll and pitch erection circuits are made inoperative during turns, and during
takeoffs and landings.

178
Dec 20/72 34-22-0
Page 3
Transfer Switching Circuits Simplified Schematic 178
H74008

34-22-0 Figure 3 Jun 15/66


Page 4
178 Attitude Reference System Simplified Schematic
H74247

Jun 15/66 Figure 4 34-22-0


Page 5
MX

D. The gyro warning flag appears whenever power is lost to its connected gyro and flight
instrument amplifier, or whenever the gyro is energized and goes through its fast erection cycle,
or the roll or pitch servo synchro errors exceed a certain predetermined value. Control is
through the warning flag amplifier. The warning flag amplifier provides an output voltage to
actuate the flag. This voltage appears only when power is available to the amplifier, and the roll
and pitch servo synchro errors are below the specified level. If there is an increase in the servo
synchro errors above the specified level, or a loss of power, the amplifier cuts off, causing the
flag to appear.
E. The operation of the vertical gyro transfer switch is illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. Figure 3
shows how the relay coil is connected with the power supply through the relay contacts. The
switch is shown in the HORIZ-1 setting. Assume that the switch is now set to HORIZ-2. This
puts a ground on the lower end of the latching relay and since the other end of the relay is
connected to +28 volts dc, it will now latch over to the alternate set of contacts, and remain
there until energized once more. Note that the ground is removed from the coil by the transfer
of contacts at A. In order to apply power to the coil once more and switch the relay contacts
back to normal, it will be necessary to return the transfer switch to HORIZ-1.
F. The switching contacts shown in Fig. 4 are a continuation of those in Fig. 3, but they take care
of the transfer of signals within the system. In the HORIZ-1 configuration, the CAPT’s FDI
receives its pitch and roll signals direct from vertical gyro No. 1, but in the HORIZ-2 position
these signals are taken from synchros in the F/O’s FDI. The dc supply for the CAPT’s FDI flag
is normally obtained from the roll amplifier in instrument amplifier No. 1. It is fed via the transfer
relay, and the flag warning logic relay in vertical gyro No. 1, so that the flag wil1 show if either
the FDI power supply or the gyro fails. In the HORIZ-2 configuration, the dc source is the high
level output from the flag amplifier in instrument amplifier No. 2, and it is fed via the 26 volt
monitor relay which is powered by instrument transformer No. 2. The flag will now show if either
FDI loses its power supply or if instrument transformer No. 2 fails. The F/O’s FDI flag obtains its
dc supply from the roll amplifier in instrument amplifier No. 2, and it is fed to it via the warning
logic relay in vertical gyro No. 2.
G. The power supply for the CAPT’s FDI is the CAPT HORIZ circuit breaker in the HORIZ-1 switch
position, and the CAPT HORIZ ALT circuit breaker in the HORIZ-2 position.
H. Pitch and roll signals are fed from vertical gyro No. 1 direct to the weather radar. The autopilot
is fed from the signal lines which carry pitch and roll signals to the CAPT’s FDI from vertical
gyro No. 1.

178
34-22-0 Dec 20/72
Page 6
TURN AND BANK INDICATION - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. A turn and bank indicator is installed on the captain’s and first officer’s instrument panels. The
indicators are of the direct reading type. Indications are used for reference in keeping the
airplane level in straight flight, and in establishing a desired rate of turn, and proper angle of
bank for that turn. For a pictorial view of the indicator see figure 1.
2. Turn and Bank Indicator
A. The turn portion of the indicator is an electrically driven rate-gyro linked to the pointer. Pointer
deflection is proportional to rate-of-turn.
B. The bank portion of the indicator contains a ball-type inclinometer. Fluid in the inclinometer tube
damps out any vibration between ball and tube, thereby ensuring a smooth movement of the
ball. With the airplane level, the ball should be centered between the two indices shown on
figure 1. If the ball is not centered, the clamping ring holding the indicator (rear of panel) may
be loosened and the indicator rotated until the ball has centered.
C. A power failure warning flag is also included in the indicator.
3. Operation
A. Power for the indicators is obtained from the TURN AND SLIP CIRCUIT breakers at the P18
load control center.
B. When the pointer is off center, it indicates that the airplane is turning in the direction shown by
the pointer.
C. When the airplane is in a turn, the ball is acted upon by two forces, the force of gravity and
centrifugal force. During a coordinated turn, both forces are such that the resultant force holds
the ball centered in the tube. The centered ball indicates the proper lateral attitude for any rate
of turn.

152 Turn and Bank Indicator


H74254

Aug 15/64 Figure 1 34-23-0


Page 1
STANDBY ARTIFICIAL HORIZON SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. The standby artificial horizon indicator is installed in the airplane as a backup system for the
attitude reference system. It functions as a completely independent system which provides its
own visual indication of airplane attitude in pitch and roll at all times during flight.
MX

B. On ALL EXCEPT 727-200 airplanes, the system consists of the standby artificial horizon
indicator, and a phase adapter unit. On 727-200 airplanes, the system consists of the standby
artificial horizon indicator and a static inverter. (See figure 1.)
C. The power supply for the system is provided from the STDBY HORIZON INVERTER POWER
circuit breaker, situated on the P18 load center.
2. Standby Artificial Horizon Indicator
A. The standby artificial horizon indicator contains an electrically driven gyro and the necessary
mechanism for its erection, plus a power failure mechanism which operates the flag. The gyro
has 360 degrees freedom of movement in roll, and + 80 to 85 degrees in pitch.
B. The face of the instrument is shown in figure 1. The power failure flag will show in the event of
power failure or incorrect phase rotation.
3. Phase Adapter (ALL EXCEPT 727-200)
A. The phase adapter contains the phase splitting network which provides the three-phase ac for
the gyro motor. Power input to the phase adapter is 115 volts ac.
4. Static Inverter (727-200)
B. The static inverter provides three-phase 115 volt ac power for the gyro motor. Power input to
the static inverter is 28 volts dc.
5. Operation
A. The gyro warning flag should disappear from view when power is applied and the gyro should
reach operational speed within 60 seconds. The normal rate of erection is approximately 3
degrees per minute but a rapid erection device is fitted to bring about erection within a few
seconds. The mechanism for rapid erection is actuated by pulling gently on the knob which is
fitted to the front panel of the instrument. This operation should only be attempted when the
airplane is in straight and level flight When at rest, the knob may be used to adjust the horizon
line to zero pitch by turning the knob clockwise or counterclockwise. The gyro takes
approximately 15 minutes to come to rest after power has been switched off.

178
Dec 20/72 34-25-0
Page 1
Standby Artificial Horizon System Component Location 178
H74017

34-25-0 Figure 1 Dec 20/72


Page 2
VOR/GS NAVIGATION SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

MX XA-SEA, XA-SEM, XA-SEN, XA-SEP, XA-SER and XA-SEU

1. General
A. The VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) and glide slope (GS) navigation systems provide
information of airplane position with respect to, and deviation from a selected VOR course, or
localizer (LOC) and glide slope approach beams. Information is also provided of airplane
magnetic bearing to the VOR ground station under reception.
B. Two systems, captain’s (No. 1) and first officer’s (No. 2), are installed. Each is comprised of the
following units: navigation unit (combined VOR/GS receiver and instrumentation unit), VOR
antenna, GS antenna and control panel. Location of the components is shown in figure 1.
System and switching schematics are shown in figures 2 and 3 respectively.
C. VOR/LOC course deviation information is displayed by the course deviation bar in the course
deviation indicator (CDI), and by the LOC deviation pointer in the flight director indicator (FDI).
The pointer symbolizes the runway. It is covered by a black shutter during VOR operation, so
that pointer movement is not discernible in this mode of operation. In LOC mode of operation at
GS capture, the shutter is moved out of sight to expose the pointer. Sensitivity of pointer
movement is twice that of the course deviation bar. GS deviation information is displayed by the
glide slope pointers in the CDI and FDI. VOR or ADF station bearing information is displayed by
the single and double pointers in the radio magnetic directional indicator (RMDI). Switching of
the desired ADF or VOR signals is accomplished by switches on the RMDI. The CDI and FDI
are described under 34-62-0, Flight Director Systems, and the RMDI under 34-21-0, Compass
Systems. VOR/LOC, and GS deviation information is also fed to the flight director computers in
the flight director systems, and to the autopilot.
D. Switching is provided to enable either system to feed both captain’s and first officer’s indicators,
flight director computers and the autopilot. Switching is accomplished through the VOR/GS
transfer relays, and controlled through the DEVIATION switches on the captain’s and first
officer’s instrument panels (See figures 1 and 2.) When both instrument systems are driven by
a single VOR/GS navigation unit, the GS deviation pointers and warning flags are biased out of
view in both FDI’s.

178
Dec 20/72 34-31-0
Page 1
VOR/GS Navigation System Component Location 178
H74023

34-31-0 Figure 1 (Sheet 1) Jan 20/88


Page 2
178 VOR/GS Navigation System Component Location
H74258

Jun 15/66 Figure 1 (Sheet 2) 34-31-0


Page 3
E. The VOR/LOC and GS warning flags are provided to give an indication of their associated
system malfunction. They come into view whenever power is lost to their systems, or whenever
the input signals fail, or fall below a certain predetermined value.
F. Frequency selection, in a navigation unit, is controlled from the control panel. The GS portion of
the unit becomes operative only when a localizer frequency is selected. Localizer frequencies
extend from 108.10 mc to 111.90 mc, with channels spaced on odd tenths of a megacycle.
G. In VOR operation, two signals (30 c/s REF: and 30 c/s VAR: figure 3) as radiated by a VOR
ground station are fed to both the manual and automatic sections of a navigation unit. The 30
c/s REF: signal is fed to both automatic and manual resolvers. The signal from each resolver is
then phase compared against the 30 c/s VAR: signal to produce the station bearing, VOR
deviation and TO/FROM signals. In LOC operation, the deviation signal is produced by a
comparison of the amplitude difference between two tone modulated signals (90 c/s and 150
c/s) as radiated by a runway localize r transmitter. Portions of these signals are summed to
produce the warning flag signals. The GS deviation and warning flag signals are produced in a
similar manner as the LOC deviation and warning flag signals.
H. A VOR/ILS (LOC & GS) test circuit is provided in each VOR navigation unit to enable a check
to be made of the VOR/ILS circuit function. Test switches are provided for this purpose at each
control panel. Function of the test circuits is described under Operation.
I. The NAV and GS warning flag signals are also fed to the navigation warning system. In this
system, on loss of a warning signal, an output voltage is developed which is then fed to activate
a master warning light and system warning light, which indicates the system that has
malfunctioned. (See 34-63-0, Navigation Warning System.)
J. The test receptacles, on the electronic equipment rack, are provided for use with a test set for
check-out of power and signals in the systems.
2. Navigation Unit
A. Each navigation unit consists of a glide slope receiver, a VOR/LOC receiver, and manual
VOR/LOC and automatic VOR instrumentation units with a frame and cover. The navigation
unit receives VOR, LOC and GS signals and supplies outputs to activate deviation, flag and to-
from indicators. The glide slope receiver processes the glide slope RF carrier and provides an
output to drive the glide slope deviation pointers and GS flags. The VOR/LOC receiver
processes the VOR/LOC RF carrier and detects

178
34-31-0 Jun 15/66
Page 4
178 VOR/GS Navigation System Switching Schematic
H74262

Jun 15/66 Figure 2 34-31-0


Page 5
voice transmissions on the VOR/LOC carrier. The voice signals are fed to the interphone
system and the VOR/LOC AF signals are fed to the instrumentation units. The automatic VOR
instrumentation unit compares the variable input with the reference signal and provides a
synchro output to drive the VOR RMI pointer. The manual VOR/LOC instrumentation unit
compares the localizer AF signals received from the VOR/LOC receiver and provides an output
for the LOC deviation pointers and VOR/LOC flag. During VOR operation, a comparator in the
unit detects the phase difference between the variable and reference signals and provides an
output for the deviation pointer, VOR/LOC flag and the to-from indicator (Fig. 3).
3. VOR Antennas
A. The VOR antennas are resonant cavity units flush mounted as part of the primary structure
midway up on both sides of the vertical fin. Actual elements of the antenna are slotted
rectangular pieces of sheet aluminum riveted to the inner surfaces of the plastic panels. The
antenna panels are considered nonrepairable although they can be replaced. On airplanes not
incorporating SB 727-34-68, the antenna assemblies are attached to the vertical stabilizer with
lockbolts and rivets. On airplanes incorporating SB 727-34-68, the antenna assemblies are
bolted to the vertical stabilizer with bonding areas coated with corrosion preventive compound.
In addition, each antenna has a feed assembly and associated coaxial cabling and a cavity
cover.
B. The feed assemblies are mounted inside the cavities at symmetrical points on each antenna
element. Access to the feed assembly and cables is provided by an access panel on the inner
face of each antenna cavity panel. A tuning cable, a phasing cable and a feed cable are
connected to each feed assembly. The feed assembly transmits signals, picked up by the
tuning cable, through an inductive screen to the navigation unit by the feed cable.
C. The tuning cable is a short open-ended cable used as a capacitive stub for antenna tuning.

178
34-31-0 Mar 20/74
Page 6
D. The phasing cable provides an in-phase relationship between each antenna. On airplanes
incorporating SB 727-34-66, the phasing cable connection between the antennas has been
changed by the installation of two hybrid antenna couplers and associated cabling. The hybrids
provide more symmetrical antenna patterns with improved rf reception. This reduces the
amount of deviation differences between the two VOR/ILS navigation system localizer displays
during approach to airports with poor quality localizer beams. The antenna feed cable is
connected to one input port of the associated coupler while the other input port is connected to
the opposite antenna phasing cable. The output port is connected to the navigation unit.
4. Glide Slope (GS) Antenna
A. The GS antenna is a single horizontally polarized unit and is installed above the weather radar
antenna in the nose radome.
5. Glide Slope Antenna Director Bar
A. The glide slope (G/S) antenna director bar is a passive element of the glide slope antenna used
to alter the G/S radiation patterns such that the navigation units have maximum glide slope
sensitivity.
B. The bar consists of a 13-inch strip of aluminum foil, pressure sensitive tape, installed
horizontally inside the nose radome approximately 22 inches forward of the aft edge of the
nose radome top centerline.
6. Control Panel
A. The controls for each navigation unit are on separate control panels. The controls on each
panel consist of a volume control, two frequency selectors, and a VOR/ILS test switch.
7. Operation
A. See Fig. 2 and 3. Frequencies in the VOR/LOC bands are selected by rotating the frequency
selectors on the control panel. The audio output of the signal is available through the
interphone system (Ref Chapter 23, Interphone System). Volume output is controlled through
the volume control on the control panel.
B. Taking one system as an example: position of the course deviation bar with respect to the
miniature airplane, shows real airplane position with respect to the selected course. The course
deviation dots are reference points for showing airplane angular displacement from the
selected course. TO/FROM indication is shown by the broad arrow. As the airplane passes
over the selected VOR ground station the arrow reverses 180 degrees.

178
Jan 20/88 34-31-0
Page 6A/6B
178 VOR/GS Navigation Unit Schematic
H74265

Jun 15/66 Figure 3 34-31-0


Page 7
C. Glide slope information is displayed by the glide slope pointer in the FDI and CDI. The pointer
remains horizontal and moves vertically across the glide slope scale to show airplane deviation
about the glide path. The glide slope pointer and flag are out of view when a VOR frequency is
tuned on the connected VOR/GS navigation unit.
D. Rotation of the course selector selects the desired VOR/LOC course through positioning of the
course arrow. At the time the course arrow is positioned, the selected course is also displayed
in digital form on the course counter. The manual resolver and course select synchro are also
positioned in accordance with the selected course. A signal from the resolver, is fed to the
manual VOR portion of the navigation unit, where after comparison in the phase detector, it is
fed back as the VOR deviation signal to deflect the course deviation bar.
E. A system self-test feature is incorporated. It consists of a combined ILS test switch and a VOR
test button. These switches in turn control switching of a relay, solid-state switches and two test
oscillators in the navigation unit (See figure 3). The test switch is installed on the control panel.
In the VOR test, a VOR station is tuned in and a course of 000° is selected on the CDI. When
the VOR test button is depressed, the course deviation bar in the CDI centers, the FROM flag
becomes visible and the associated RMDI pointers take-up a heading of 180°. If the course
arrow is now moved 5° on either side of the selected course, the course deviation bar will
deflect to the appropriate first dot position on the course deviation scale. In the ILS test, the ILS
test switch is turned to one or the other of the two positions marked on control panel (up/left
and down/right) in turn. Depending upon the position selected, the course deviation bar will
deflect left or right, and the GS bar will deflect up or down.

NOTE: When the autopilot is operating in a radio mode an interlock relay makes the ILS test
circuit inoperative.

178
34-31-0 Jun 15/66
Page 8
VOR/GS NAVIGATION SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

MX ALL EXCEPT XA-SEA, XA-SEM, XA-SEP, XA-SER and XA-SEU

1. General
A. The VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) and glide slope (GS) navigation systems provide
information of airplane position with respect to and deviation from a selected VOR course, or
localizer (LOC) and glide slope approach beams. Information is also provided of airplane
magnetic bearing to a VOR ground station under reception.
B. Two systems, captain’s and first officer’s, are installed. Each consists of the following
components: navigation unit (combined VOR/GS receiver and instrumentation unit), VOR
antenna, GS antenna and control panel. Location of the components is shown in Fig. l. System
switching and a navigation unit schematic are shown in Fig. 2 and 3 respectively.
C. A third navigation unit, labeled AUX NAV, is also installed, and can be switched to take the
place of either navigation unit. Switching is accomplished through the VOR/GS transfer relays,
controlled through the radio navigation switch on the instrument switching panel (Fig. l and 2).
D. VOR/LOC course deviation information is displayed by the course deviation bar in the course
deviation indicator (CDI) also called horizontal situation indicator (HSI) and by the LOC
deviation pointer in the flight director indicator (FDI) also called attitude director indicator (ADI).
The pointer symbolizes the runway. It is covered by a black shutter during VOR operation, so
that pointer movement is not discernible in this mode of operation. In LOC mode of operation,
the shutter is moved out of sight to expose the pointer. Sensitivity of pointer movement is twice
that of the course deviation bar. GS deviation is displayed by the glide slope pointers in the CDI
and FDI. VOR, or ADF station bearing information is displayed by the single and double
pointers in the radio magnetic directional indicator (RMI). Switching of the desired signals to the
pointers is made through the ADF/VOR switches on the instruments. VOR/LOC, and GS
deviation information is also fed to the flight director computers in the flight director systems,
and to the autopilot.
E. The VOR/LOC and GS warning flags are provided to give an indication of their associated
system malfunction. They come into view whenever power is lost to their systems, or whenever
the input signals fail, or fall below a certain predetermined value.

178
Jun 20/74 34-31-01
Page 1
VOR/GS Navigation System Component Location 178
H74025

34-31-01 Figure 1 (Sheet 1) Jan 20/88


Page 2
178 VOR/GS Navigation System Component Location
H74272

Mar 15/70 Figure 1 (Sheet 2) 34-31-01


Page 3
VOR/GS Navigation System Switching Schematic 178
H74027

34-31-01 Figure 2 Mar 15/70


Page 4
F. Frequency selection, in the navigation unit, is controlled from the control panel. The GS portion
of the unit becomes operative only when a localizer frequency is selected. Localizer
frequencies extend from 108.10 to 111.90 MHz, with channels spaced on odd tenths of a MHz.
VOR frequencies extend from 108.00 to 117.95 MHz except for above localizer frequencies.
G. The test receptacles, on the electronic equipment rack, are provided for use with a test set for
checkout of power and signals in the systems.
2. Navigation Unit
A. Each navigation unit consists of a glide slope receiver, a VOR/LOC receiver, and manual
VOR/LOC and automatic VOR instrumentation units with a frame and cover. (See figure 3.) The
navigation unit receives VOR, LOC and GS signals and supplies outputs to activate deviation,
flag and to-from indicators. The glide slope receiver processes the glide slope RF carrier and
provides an output to drive the glide slope deviation pointers and GS flags. The VOR/LOC
receiver, processes the VOR/LOC RF carrier and detects voice transmissions on the VOR/LOC
carrier. The detected voice signals are fed to the interphone system and the VOR/LOC AF
signals are fed to the instrumentation units. During LOC operation, the manual VOR/LOC
instrumentation unit compares the localizer AF signals received from the VOR/LOC receiver
and provides an output for the LOC deviation bar, pointer and VOR/LOC flags. During VOR
operation, a comparator in the unit detects the phase difference between the variable and
reference signals and provides an output for the course deviation bar, VOR/LOC flag and the
TO-FROM pointer. The automatic VOR instrumentation unit compares the variable input with
the reference signal and provides a synchro output to drive the RMI pointers.

178
Mar 20/73 34-31-01
Page 4A/4B
3. VOR Antennas
A. The VOR antennas are resonant cavity units flush-mounted as part of the primary structure
midway up on both sides of the vertical fin. Actual elements of the antenna are slotted
rectangular pieces of sheet aluminum riveted to the inner surfaces of the plastic panels. The
antenna panels are considered nonrepairable although they can be replaced. On MX XA-SEW,
XA-TAA thru XA-TAC and XA-TUY, less airplanes incorporating SB 727-34-68, the antenna
assemblies are attached to the vertical stabilizer with lockbolts and rivets. On MX XA-CUB,
XA-CUE, XA-CUN, XA-DAT, XA-DUI thru XA-DUK, XA-FID, XA-FIE, XA-HOH and XA-HON,
plus airplanes incorporating SB 727-34-68, the antenna assemblies are bolted to the vertical
stabilizer with bonding areas coated with corrosion preventive compound. In addition, each
antenna has a feed assembly and associated coaxial cabling and a cavity cover.
B. The feed assemblies are mounted inside the cavities at symmetrical points on each antenna
element. Access to the feed assembly and cables is provided by an access panel on the inner
face of each antenna cavity panel. A tuning cable, a phasing cable and a feed cable are
connected to each feed assembly. The feed assembly transmits signals, picked up by the
tuning cable, through an inductive screen to the navigation unit by the feed cable.
C. The tuning cable is a short open-ended cable used as a capacitive stub for antenna tuning.
D. The phasing cable provides an in-phase relationship between each antenna. On airplanes NX
XA-CUB, XA-CUE, XA-CUN, XA-DAT, XA-DUI thru XA-DUK, XA-FID, XA-FIE, XA-HOH and
XA-HON, plus airplanes incorporating SB 727-34-66, the phasing cable connection between
the antennas has been changed by the installation of two hybrid antenna couplers and
associated cabling. The hybrids provide more symmetrical antenna patterns with improved rf
reception. This reduces the amount of deviation differences between the two VOR/ILS
navigation system localizer displays during approach to airports with poor quality localizer
beams. The antenna feed cable is connected to one input port of the associated coupler while
the other input port is connected to the opposite antenna phasing cable. The output port is
connected to the navigational unit.
4. GS Antenna
A. The GS antenna is a single horizontally polarized unit and is installed above the weather radar
antenna in the nose radome.
5. Glide Slope Antenna Director Bar
A. The glide slope (G/S) antenna director bar is a passive element of the glide slope antenna used
to alter the G/S radiation patterns such that the navigation units have maximum glide slope
sensitivity.
B. The bar consists of a 13-inch strip of aluminum foil, pressure sensitive tape, installed
horizontally inside the nose radome approximately 22 inches forward of the aft edge of the
nose radome top centerline.
6. Control Panel
A. The controls for each navigation unit are on separate control panels. The controls on each
panel consists of a volume control and two frequency selectors.

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Page 6A/6B
7. Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
A. The CDI displays airplane magnetic heading, and airplane position relative to the selected VOR
course, or LOC course, and deviation from the course through positioning of the VOR/LOC
(course) deviation bar. Airplane position with respect to the glide path is shown by the glide
slope pointer. The indicator also provides TO/FROM indication, glide slope and VOR/LOC flags
to show system failures. The heading select cursor and course select cursor show the heading
or course, respectively, that has been selected on the indicator. A glide slope scale, pointer and
warning flag are also provided on the ADI.
8. Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)
A. The radio magnetic indicators display magnetic heading, and VOR/ADF bearing. An indicator is
installed on the captain’s and first officer’s instrument panels (Fig. 1).
B. The instrument face has fixed lubber markings and 45- and 90 degree reference markings.
Compass heading is displayed on a rotating compass card graduated in 5-degree increments.
A narrow pointer displays radio bearing derived from VOR No. 1 system and a wide pointer
displays radio bearing derived from VOR No. 2 system.
C. The instrument pointers are controlled by radio bearing receiver autosyns which respond to
VOR or ADF system signals. VOR bearing signals are supplied from the automatic VOR
instrumentation units in the navigation units. Details of compass information on the RMI are
described in Compass Systems.
9. Operation
A. Refer to Fig. 2. Frequencies in the VOR/LOC bands are selected by rotating the frequency
selectors on the control panel. The audio output of the signal is available through the
interphone system (Ref Chapter 23, Interphone system). Volume output is controlled through
the volume control on the control panel.
B. In VOR operation, two signals 30 Hz REF (reference), and 30 Hz VAR (variable) as radiated by
a VOR ground station are fed to both the manual and automatic sections of a navigation unit
(Fig. 3). The 30 Hz REF signal is fed to both automatic and manual resolvers. The signal from
each resolver is then phase compared against the 30 Hz VAR signal to produce the station
bearing, VOR deviation and TO/FROM signals.
C. In LOC operation, the deviation signal is produced by a comparison of the amplitude difference
between two tone modulated signals (90 Hz and 150 Hz) as radiated by a runway localizer
transmitter. Portions of these signals are summed to produce the warning flag signals. The GS
deviation and warning flag signals are produced in the same manner as the LOC deviation and
warning flag signals.

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D. Taking one system as an example: position of the course deviation bar with respect to the
miniature airplane, shows real airplane position with respect to the selected course. The course
deviation dots are reference points for showing airplane angular displacement from the
selected course. TO/FROM indication is shown by the broad arrows (flag). As the airplane
passes over the selected VOR ground station the arrow reverses 180 degrees.
E. Glide slope information is displayed by the glide slope pointer in the CDI and the first officer’s
FDI. The pointer remains horizontal and moves vertically across the glide slope scale to show
airplane deviation about the glide path.
F. Rotation of the course selector knob on the CDI selects the desired VOR/LOC course through
positioning of the course pointer. At the time the course pointer is positioned, the selected
course is also displayed in digital form on the course counter. The manual resolver and course
select synchro are also positioned in accordance with the selected course. A signal from the
resolver, is fed to the manual VOR portion of the navigation unit, where after comparison in the
phase detector, it is fed back as the VOR deviation signal to deflect the course deviation bar.
G. The high-level VOR/LOC warning flag signal is fed to the flight director computer where it is
utilized as a monitoring signal by the computer warning flag circuit. (See Flight Director
Systems.) The high level VOR/LOC signal is also used at the CDI to operate the NAV receiver
annunciator.
H. A system self-test feature (NAV TEST) is incorporated. It consists of a combined ILS test switch
and a VOR test button. These switches in turn control switching of a relay, solid-state switches
and two test oscillators in the navigation unit. (See figure 3.) The test switch is installed on both
the control panels. In the VOR test, a VOR station is tuned in and a course of 000 degrees is
selected on the CDI. When the VOR test button is pressed, the course deviation bar in the CDI
centers, the FROM pointer becomes visible and the associated RMI pointers take up a heading
of 180 degrees. If the course arrow is now moved 5 degrees either side of the selected course,
the course deviation bar will deflect to the appropriate first dot position on the course deviation
scale. In the ILS test, the ILS test switch is turned to one or the other of the two positions
marked on control panel (up/left and down/right) in turn. Depending upon the position selected,
the course deviation bar will deflect left or right, and the GS bar will deflect up or down. When
the autopilot is operating in a radio mode, an interlock relay makes the ILS test circuit
inoperative.

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Page 8
MARKER BEACON SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. The marker beacon system provides the pilots with both visual and aural indication of airplane
passage over airways fan markers, station location Z markers and instrument landing system
(ILS) middle and outer markers.
B. The marker beacon system consists of a receiver, an antenna, two sets of three indicator lights
and a sensitivity switch. (See figure 1.)
C. The ground marker beacon transmitters all operate on a fixed frequency of 75 mc and are
modulated by one of four audio signals, depending on the type of marker beacon. The signals,
received by the airborne receiver as the airplane passes over the transmitter, are made to light
indicator lights. The audio signal is also made available to the crew by actuation of the MKR
control on the audio selector panels. Following are the four types of marker beacons with their
tone frequency and indicator light color.
(1) ILS Outer Marker - An intermittent 400-cycle tone with the blue light flashing.
(2) ILS Middle Marker - An intermittent 1300 -cycle tone with the amber light flashing.
(3) Airways Fan Marker - An intermittent 3000-cycle tone with the white light flashing.
(4) Station Location Z Marker - A steady 3000-cycle tone with a steady white light.
D. When an ILS middle marker signal is received, this information is fed to the pitch control
channel of the autopilot system for glide slope extension function (See Chapter 22, Autopilot).
2. Marker Beacon Receiver
A. The receiver is a single conversion crystal controlled superheterodyne operating at a fixed
MX

frequency of 75 mc. Sensitivity of the receiver is variable and controlled by a switch located on
the ATC/marker panel on the control stand, or by a switch located on the captain’s instrument
panel. Audio filters tuned to 400 cycles, 1300 cycles and 3000 cycles are used for separation of
the three types of tone modulation used by the beacons. The receiver, which contains an
integral power supply, is installed on the electronic equipment rack (E-5).

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Dec 20/72 34-35-0
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MX

Marker Beacon System Component Location 178


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34-35-0 Figure 1 Feb 20/82


Page 2
3. Antenna
A. The antenna is a flush mounted unit located on the bottom of the airplane at body station 730
on right buttock line 15. The antenna is connected to the receiver by a coaxial cable.
4. Indicator Lights
A. There are two sets of three indicator lights. One set is on the captain’s instrument panel and the
other is on the first officer’s instrument panel. The lights are covered by white, blue and ember
lenses and are the PUSH TO TEST type.
5. Operation
A. The system is energized by the MARKER switch on the ATC/marker control panel. On 727-200
MX

Series and XA-SEM, this switch, with positions OFF, LO, MED and HI, also controls the
sensitivity of the receiver. On ALL airplanes EXCEPT 727-200 Series and XA-SEM, the
sensitivity is controlled by a switch on the captain’s instrument panel. The sensitivity to be used
is determined by the flight altitude. HI position is used when flying at high altitude and the LO
when flying at low altitude.

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Dec 20/72 34-35-0
Page 3
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER SYSTEMS - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. Two separate and completely independent Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) systems axe
installed in the airplane. Each system consists of a receiver, sense antenna, sense antenna
coupler, fixed loop antenna, radio-magnetic indicator and control panel. (See figure 1.)
B. ADF systems axe used as navigation aids using radio signals from sources in the frequency
range of 190 to 1750 kHz. Sources operating in this frequency range include standard
broadcast stations, low frequency radio ranges, etc. The ADF systems may be used for
automatic determination of bearing to the station being received, manual determination of
bearing, flying radio ranges, or reception of weather and other broadcast programs.
C. The ADF receivers receive signals from the sense and fixed loop antennas. Circuits in the
receiver determine the bearing of radio stations electrically and transmit bearing information as
a synchro signal to the radio-magnetic indicators. Audio signals from the receivers axe
monitored through the interphone system.
2. Automatic Direction Finder Controls
A. Each ADF system is remotely controlled from individual control panels located on the electronic
control panel. Each control panel contains a function selector switch, loop control switch,
frequency band selector switch, volume control, beat frequency oscillator control switch, tuning
meter, tuning knob, and frequency indicator.
B. The frequency of the signal being received is read directly.
3. Automatic Direction Finder Sense Antennas
A. On all except 727-200 Series Airplanes the sense antennas for both ADF systems axe located
on the center engine air inlet. Each antenna is part of the assembly mounted around the inlet,
forming part of the cowling. (See figure 1.)
B. On 727-200 Series Airplanes both No. 1 and No. 2 ADF sense antennas form an integral part
of the body structure located at approximately station 850 to station 950D, on top of the
fuselage.
C. The sense antennas provide a nondirectional reception pattern and high strength signal to the
receivers.
4. Automatic Direction Finder Fixed Loop Antennas
A. Fixed loop antennas are sealed units, flush mounted from outside in individual antenna cavities
on the bottom center of the fuselage at stations 710 (720E on 727-200 airplanes) and 750 and
have no moving parts.

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ADF System Component Location 178
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34-37-0 Figure 1 (Sheet 1) Aug 15/70


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152 ADF System Component Location
H74404

Nov 15/65 Figure 1 (Sheet 2) 34-37-0


Page 3
B. The antenna consists of two pairs of ferrite cored coils, one pair oriented parallel to the fore and
aft axis of airplane and a second pair perpendicular to it. The IT signals are coupled to the
receiver via quadrantal error correctors.
C. The quadrantal error correctors compensate for the distortion of the BF field in the vicinity of the
airplane caused by the airplanes structure. The correctors are located in the antenna cavities
and can be removed as separate units.
5. Automatic Direction Finder Sense Antenna Input Coupler
A. An input coupler is used in each ADF system to match the capacitance of the sense antenna to
the capacitance of the transmission line between the antenna and receiver. The total
capacitance of the sense antenna, coupler and line as seen by receiver input, is approximately
3000 picofarads.
B. On all except 727-200 Series Airplanes the input couplers are mounted on the left side of the
center engine air inlet. (See figure 1.)
C. On 727-200 Series Airplanes both No. 1 and No. 2 sense antenna couplers are located in the
vicinity of the sense antennas. (See figure 1.)
6. Automatic Direction Finder Receivers No. 1 and No. 2
A. Two ADF receivers one for each system, are located in the electronic rack. Each receiver is
completely transistorized and employs a single conversion superheterodyne circuit in the signal
portion. The circuits include a five-stage IF amplifier, two RF amplifiers, a three-stage audio
amplifier and a two-stage AGC amplifier. The receiver operates in the range of 190 to 1750 kHz
in three bands. A variable capacitor controlled by a servomotor tunes the receiver in each band.
The receiver has inputs from loop antenna to the resolver via the quadrantal error corrector and
from the sense antenna via its coupler. See figure 2. The resolver in the receiver combines the
two RF inputs into a single component representing the angular position of the radio

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Page 4
102 ADF System Block Diagram
H74409

Mar 20/73 Figure 2 34-37-0


Page 5
station. The receiver, thru its system of loop and servo-amplifier circuits converts the received
radio signal to a synchro output to operate the radio-magnetic indicators. The receiver sends
out audio monitoring signal to the airplane interphone system. (See Chapter 23.)
7. Operation
A. Operating power for the automatic direction finder systems is taken from circuit breaker panel
(P18). The system is energized by closing the 28 volt dc ADF circuit breaker on P18-2 and
instrument transformers and power transfer circuit breakers on P18-1.
B. Function Selection
(1) Function Selection is accomplished through a three-position rotary switch having ADF-
ANT-LOOP positions. When the switch is in the ADF position, circuits are selected to
determine automatically the bearing to the station being received. During ADF operation,
both the sense and loop antenna circuits operate, and bearing information is displayed on
the radio-magnetic indicators.
(2) When the ANT function is selected, only the sense antenna circuits are utilized, and the
receiver is used for reception of audio signals. The ANT function is used for reception of
weather broadcasts and radio range signals.
(3) The LOOP function is used for manual determination of bearing to the station being
received. The loop function is electronically controlled by the loop control switch through a
servo action and a null in reception is determined by monitoring the tuning meter. The
LOOP function may also be used for audio reception under conditions of severe
precipitation static, since the loop is shielded electrostatically, and may reduce
interference. The LOOP function should not be used on radio ranges since it may give
confusing and unreliable reception of range signals.
C. Loop Control
(1) Loop control is provided through a loop control switch and is used only when the LOOP
function is selected by the function selector switch. Rotating the loop control switch to L or
R position will transmit a synchro signal to the loop amplifier and radio-magnetic indicator.
The correct position for slow rotation of loop function is at the midpoint of the switch
position. When the switch is in any position but the center position, two nulls can be
determined, as the radio-magnetic indicator goes through 360 degrees.
(2) Manual loop control is used to determine aural nulls. Determination of the null point is
achieved by observing the tuning meter during loop control. The point of minimum
deflection of the tuning meter needle is the null point.

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34-37-0 Sep 15/67
Page 6
D. Frequency Selection
(1) Selection of stations operating in the frequency range of 190 to 1750 kc is accomplished
by operating the frequency selector band switch and a concentric tuning control knob on
the control panel. As the tuning knob is rotated, in any selected band, the frequency
appears on indicator dial.
(2) Tuning is best accomplished with the function selector in the ANT position. While tuning to
the desired frequency, the tuning meter should be observed to determine the point of
maximum signal strength.
E. Gain Control
(1) Audio output from the ADF receivers is directed to the interphone system. Audio output
level may be controlled from minimum to maximum through the gain control on the remote
control panel.
F. Beat Frequency Oscillator Control
(1) Continuous wave signals are made audible by mixing a beat frequency oscillator output
with the received signals to produce a tone. The beat frequency oscillator is operative
when the BFO control switch is placed in the BFO position.
(2) Aural determination of bearings may be made more easily when receiving amplitude
modulated signal by turning the BFO on. The BFO produces a tone even though the
carrier being received is not modulated, and therefore enables accurate determination of
the true null.
G. Tuning Meter
(1) A meter on the control panel provides a relative indication of received signal strength.
During tuning, the frequency tuning knob is adjusted to produce maximum meter
deflection. During manual ADF, the meter provides the most accurate determination of the
null, or minimum signal point and enables accurate bearing determination.

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May 15/63 34-37-0
Page 7
WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
MX

EFFECTIVITY

MX XA-SEA thru XA-SEU and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC

1. General
A. The weather radar system presents the pilots with an accurate and continuous picture of
weather conditions ahead of the aircraft. This presentation of weather conditions in terms of
range and azimuth enables course changes to be made to avoid turbulent areas.
B. Weather radar operation is based on the fact that water particles present in the air, as rainfall or
a cloud, will reflect a radar beam in direct relation to the density or concentration of the
moisture. During the normal mode of operation, the receiver translates echo returns from these
moisture concentrations into a picture on the radar indicator where they appear as bright and
lighted areas. During iso-echo contour mode of operation, the areas of heaviest rainfall or storm
centers are shown as black holes in the lighted areas on the indicator.
C. The weather radar system consists of a receiver-transmitter, an accessory unit, an indicator, a
control panel, waveguide, a reflectometer and an antenna (Fig. 1). Power for the system is
supplied through circuit breakers on circuit breaker panel P18.
2. Weather Radar Controls
A. All operating controls for the system are on a control panel and on the radar indicator. These
units are on the forward electronic control panel (Fig. 1).
B. The control panel has a range switch, a gain control, an antenna tilt control and a normal-
contour switch. Controls on the indicator are a range marks control and an intensity control, and
a quick erase button.
C. On airplanes XA-SEA, XA-SEN, XA-SER and XA-SEU, a two-position (NORMAL/STOP)
antenna rotation switch is provided on the third crewman’s auxiliary panel (Fig. 1).
3. Weather Radar Receiver-Transmitter
A. The receiver-transmitter supplies the pulses of microwave energy which are transmitted by the
antenna. It also supplies the accessory unit with automatic frequency controlled signal
information from the receiver. The power output pulses from the magnetron oscillator are of
approximately two microsecond duration and have a pulse repetition rate of 400 Hz. Peak
output power of the transmitter is 75 kilowatts at a frequency of 5400 ±20 MHz.

1MX
Jun 20/78 34-41-0
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MX

Weather Radar System Component Location 178


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34-41-0 Figure 1 Dec 20/72


Page 2
B. The front panel of the receiver-transmitter contains a running time meter, which records the
total time of operation of the system, a test meter and a test switch. As the test switch is rotated
to each of the positions from the OFF position, the test meter monitors the readings in the mid-
range for various positions of the test selector switch.
C. The receiver-transmitter is mounted in a chock mount in the pressurized area just aft of the
nose radome at body station 195. It is connected to the antenna by a waveguide and to the
accessory unit by a coaxial cable. The receiver-transmitter unit is air cooled by two integral
blower assemblies.
4. Weather Radar Accessory Unit
A. The accessory unit contains the synchronizing, video, isocontour, I-F, and stabilization circuitry
for the radar system. In addition, it provides filament and plate power for the indicator. A test
meter and three associated selector switches are provided on the unit for checking DC
voltages, isocontour calibration, receiver gain, and for self-test and calibration of the antenna
stabilization circuits. A red light labeled TEST ON which flashes on and off to indicate that the
antenna stabilization self-test is in use, a three position toggle switch to stop and hold antenna
rotation, and four spring-loaded one ampere fuses (two in the primary input lines, two spares)
are also available on the front panel. Controls for making contour level, gain calibrate, pitch and
roll calibration, and phase adjustments are mounted near the top of the front panel behind the
spring-loaded, self-closing cover bearing the RCA monogram. These controls are sealed off but
they can be made available by loosening the screw holding the sealing plate in position and
letting the plate slide downward.
B. The accessory unit is located in the electronic equipment rack E-2.
5. Weather Radar Indicator
A. The indicator consists of a lightweight housing which contains a 5-inch cathode-ray tube on
which target information is displayed. It also contains the final video amplifier, yoke-rotating
mechanism and the high voltage power supply for the cathode-ray tube. Controls are provided
for range marks, intensity, and quick erase.
B. The indicator is mounted on the forward electronic control panel so as to be accessible to both
the captain and first officer.

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Page 3
6. Weather Radar Antenna
A. The antenna consists of a base assembly, an azimuth frame with reflector and waveguide
components. The base assembly contains a motor and drive gears which rotate the azimuth
frame and reflector. The azimuth frame supports the reflector and serves as a waveguide to
conduct microwave energy from the base to the reflector feed. The azimuth frame also
incorporates a servomotor which controls antenna tilt and stabilization. The antenna rotation
and azimuth switches are provided on the antenna assembly.
B. The antenna stabilization and control circuits consist of components in the antenna, radar
control panel, accessory unit and attitude reference system. Stabilization signals are taken from
attitude reference gyro No. 1.
C. The antenna is located at the nose of the airplane covered by the nose radome. It is connected
to the receiver-transmitter by sections of rigid and flexible waveguide.
7. Weather Radar Waveguide
A. The waveguide transmission line is a double ridge C-band waveguide and consists of rigid and
flexible sections.
8. Operation
A. Prior to operation, set the controls in the following positions. On the control panel, place the
range switch to OFF, the gain control to mid-position, the antenna tilt to 0, and the contour
switch to NORM. On the indicator, turn the range marks and intensity controls fully
counterclockwise.
B. The range switch should now be turned to STBY and the equipment allowed to warm up for a
minimum of 5 minutes. After warm-up, the range switch can be turned to either the 20, 50 or
150 position. The range marks control on the indicator should now be rotated clockwise until
the range marks on the indicator are of the desired brilliance. On the 20-mile range, 4 range
marks will appear with 5 miles between each mark. On the 50-mile range, 5 range marks will
appear with 10 miles between each mark. On the 150-mile range, 6 range marks will appear
with 25 miles between each mark.
C. The intensity control on the indicator should now be rotated clockwise until the sweep line is
barely visible. The gain control on the control panel may now be varied from its initial position
for the optimum presentation of targets. The antenna tilt control may be used to tilt the antenna
either up or down to search for other aircraft or to get ground targets. The contour switch when
placed in the CONTOUR position, causes the areas of greatest intensity on the indicator to be
shown as black holes.

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Page 4
WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
MX

EFFECTIVITY

XA-TUY and XA-SEW

1. General
A. The weather radar system presents the pilots with an accurate and continuous picture of
weather conditions ahead of the aircraft. This presentation of weather conditions in terms of
range and azimuth enables course changes to be made to avoid turbulent areas.
B. Weather radar operation is based on the fact that water particles present in the air, as rainfall or
a cloud, will reflect a radar beam in direct relation to the density or concentration of the
moisture. During the normal mode of operation, the receiver translates echo returns from these
moisture concentrations into a picture on the radar indicator where they appear as bright and
lighted areas. During iso-echo contour mode of operation, the areas of heaviest rainfall or storm
centers are shown as black spots in the lighted areas on the indicator.
C. The weather radar system consists of a receiver-transmitter, an indicator, a control panel,
waveguide, and an antenna. (See figure 1.) The system has an operating range of 180 nautical
miles. Power for the system is supplied through circuit breakers on load control center P18.
2. Weather Radar Controls
A. All major operating controls for the system are on a control panel and on the radar indicator.
These units are on the forward electronic control panel. (See figure 1.)
B. The control panel has a six position function selector switch, (OFF, STBY, NORMAL,
CONTOUR, MAP AND TEST) a gain control and an antenna tilt control. Controls on the
indicator are a range select switch, a dimmer control, an erase rate control, and a trace adjust
control.
3. Weather Radar Receiver-Transmitter
A. The receiver-transmitter supplies the pulses of microwave energy that are transmitted by the
antenna. The power output pulses from the magnetron oscillator are of approximately 2
microseconds duration and have a pulse repetition rate of 400 (± 20) pps. Peak output power of
the transmitter is 50 kilowatts at a frequency of 9375 (± 30) MHz in the X-band. Certain test
functions are also generated in the receiver-transmitter.

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Weather Radar Component Location 171
H74079

34-41-01 Figure 1 Sep 15/68


Page 2
B. The receiver-transmitter is mounted in a shock amount in the pressurized area just aft of the
nose radome at body station 195. It is connected to the antenna by a waveguide. The unit
consists of synchronizing, video, iso-contour, IF, sensitivity time control, stabilization, and test
circuitry for the radar system. In addition, it provides filament and plate power for the indicator
as well as the pre-amplifier.
C. The front panel of the receiver-transmitter contains a test function selector switch and a test
meter for monitoring various voltages.
4. Weather Radar Indicator
A. The indicator consists of a light weight housing which contains a 5-inch cathode-ray tube on
which target information is displayed. It also contains the final video amplifier, yoke-rotating
mechanism and the high voltage power supply for the cathode-ray tube. Controls are provided
for range selection, erase rate, trace adjustment and panel light dimming.
B. The indicator is mounted on the forward electronic control panel so as to be accessible to both
the captain and first officer.
5. Weather Radar Antenna
A. The antenna consists of a base assembly, an azimuth frame with reflector and waveguide
components. The base assembly contains a motor and drive gears which rotate the azimuth
frame and reflector. The azimuth frame supports the reflector waveguide to conduct microwave
energy from the base to the reflector feed. The azimuth frame also incorporates a servomotor
which controls antenna tilt and stabilization. A two position on/off tilt drive motor switch is
provided on the antenna assembly.
B. The antenna stabilization and control circuits consist of components in the antenna, radar
control panel and receiver-transmitter. Stabilization signals are taken from vertical gyro No. 1.
C. The antenna is located at the nose of the airplane covered by the nose radome. It is connected
to the receiver-transmitter by sections of rigid and flexible waveguide.
6. Weather Radar Waveguide
A. The waveguide is a standard rectangular section x-band waveguide and consists of removable,
rigid and flexible sections.

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Jul 15/66 34-41-01
Page 3
7. Operation
A. Prior to operation, set the controls in the following positions. On the control panel, place the
gain control to midposition, the antenna tilt to 0 and function selector switch to STBY. On the
indicator, turn the trace adjust control fully counterclockwise and the erase rate control fully
clockwise.
B. After warm-up, turn the function selector switch to NORM. The range selector switch on the
indicator can be turned to either the 30, 80 or 180 position. On the 30 mile range, 3 range
marks will appear with 10 miles between each mark. On the 80 mile range, 4 range marks will
appear with 20 miles between each mark. On the 180 mile range, 6 range marks will appear
with 30 miles between each mark.
C. The gain control on the control panel and the erase rate control on the indicator may now be
varied from their initial positions for the optimum presentation of targets. The antenna tilt control
may be used to tilt the antenna either up or down to search for better weather or to get ground
targets. The function switch, when placed in the CONTOUR position, causes the areas of
greatest intensity on the indicator to be shown as black spots.

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Page 4
WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

MX ALL EXCEPT XA-SEA thru XA-SEW,


XA-TAA thru XA-TAC, and XA-TUY

1. General
A. The weather radar system presents the pilots with a continuous picture of weather rainfall storm
conditions ahead of the airplane. This presentation of rainfall conditions in terms of range and
azimuth enables course changes to be made to avoid turbulent areas. Maximum operating
range of the radar system is 300 nautical miles.
B. Weather radar operation is based on the fact that water particles present in the air as rainfall
will reflect a radar beam in direct relation to the density or concentration of the moisture. During
the normal mode of operation, the receiver translates echo returns from these moisture
concentrations into a picture on the radar indicator where they appear as bright and lighted
areas. On color weather radar indicators, the colors green, yellow, and red are used to
represent increasing levels of rainfall concentrations and provides an easily identifiable picture
of the rainfall areas and their associated concentrations. On systems without color radar
indicators, the relative brightness of indications is associated with the amount of rainfall
concentration. The iso-echo contour mode of operation is provided for systems without color
indicators to allow the heaviest rainfall concentrations to be displayed in black and are
identifiable as black spots within the normal lighted indications.
C. The weather radar system consists of one receiver-transmitter, an indicator, a control panel,
waveguide, a waveguide switch, a dummy load, and an antenna (Fig. 1).
D. The weather radar system consists of one receiver-transmitter, an indicator, a control panel,
waveguide, a waveguide switch, a dummy load, and an antenna (Fig.1).
E. All major operating controls for the system are on a control panel and on the radar indicator.
These units are on the forward electronic control panel. Power for the system is supplied
through circuit breakers on load control center P18.
2. Control Panel
A. The system is controlled from a single control panel. The control panel has a six-position
function selector switch (OFF, STBY, TEST, NOR, CTR, and MAP), an antenna tilt control, a
manual gain control with an AUTO position, and an antenna stabilization disable switch. On
airplanes with color PPI-IT indicators, the CTR position of the function selector switch is
placarded WX.

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Weather Radar Component Location 178
H74087

34-41-02 Figure 1 Mar 20/80


Page 2
3. Receiver-Transmitter
A. The receiver-transmitter (R-T unit) contains receiver, modulator, duplexer, stabilization, power
supply, monitor, and control circuits. In addition, self-test circuits provide means for rapid
checking of system operation. Output from the magnetron oscillator is approximately 65 kw
peak at a frequency of 9375 MHz in the X-band. Pulse length is 5 microseconds nominal and a
pulse repetition frequency is 200 pps (synchronized to line frequency).
B. A number of controls used in self-testing the weather radar system are located on the front
panel of the R-T unit. These include fault lamps (VSWR, ANT and T/R), access holes for STAB
(stabilization), PITCH and ROLL gain adjustments, a VSWR reset pushbutton switch and an
elapsed time meter. The R T unit is mounted in a shockmount in the pressurized area just aft of
the nose radome at body station 195.
4. Indicator
A. The display storage tube (DST) indicator contains the video and shaping amplifiers, a 5-inch
cathode ray tube with its associated high voltage power supply, and self-test, range mark, and
sweep circuits. It is self-contained except for dc control signals from the receiver-transmitter.
B. The indicator controls include a range select switch (OFF, 50, 150 and 300 nautical miles), an
erase pushbutton switch, a display offset switch and a manual brightness control. Range marks
occur at intervals of 25 miles on the 50-mile range and 50-mile intervals on the 150-mile and
300-mile ranges. The OFF position on the range switch removes power from the indicator. The
left and right offset sweep facility permits the lateral display of extreme range at all scan angles.
5. Antenna
A. The antenna consists of a base assembly, an azimuth frame with reflector and waveguide
components, and a stabilization chassis. Mechanical and electromechanical components
include the azimuth drive motor, azimuth resolver, roll synchro, roll and tilt motors, and
elevation and tilt resolvers. Antenna scanning rate is 45 degrees per second and scan angle is
approximately 90 degrees either side of the dead ahead position. The antenna is connected to
the receiver-transmitters by sections of rigid and flexible waveguide.

180
Mar 20/79 34-41-02
Page 3
Weather Radar PPI Scan Display and RF Beam Patterns 180
H74090

34-41-02 Figure 2 (Sheet 1) Mar 20/79


Page 4
180 Weather Radar PPI Scan and RF Beam Patterns
H74426

Mar 20/79 Figure 2 (Sheet 2) 34-41-02


Page 5
B. The indicator has a 5-inch display cathode ray tube which provides for direct view under all
ambient light conditions. A BRT (brightness) control adjust the video intensity of the CRT and a
range switch allows selection of 25-, 50-, 150- and 300-mile ranges on the display.
C. The indicator uses digital circuits, integration/averaging functions, and memory storage to
provide a low noise, non-fading display.
D. Targets are displayed in green, yellow, and red according to the strength of the microwave
pulses which return to the antenna. Displayed in blue are the azimuth lines (0, ±30, ±60
degrees), and the range marks. Alphanumerics generated in blue are the RNG and MRK labels
with their respective distances.
7. Antenna
A. The antenna consists of a base assembly, an azimuth frame with reflector and waveguide
components, and a stabilization chassis. Mechanical and electromechanical components
include the azimuth drive motor, azimuth resolver, roll synchro, roll and tilt motors, and
elevation and tilt resolvers. Antenna scanning rate is 45 degrees per second and scan angle is
approximately 90 degrees either side of the dead ahead position. The antenna is connected to
the receiver-transmitter by sections of rigid and flexible waveguide.
B. The stabilization system utilizes a split-axis type mount having its roll axis fixed to the airplane’s
structure, its azimuth axis mounted on the roll axis, and its tilt axis mounted on the azimuth
axis. This arrangement permits the use of three-wire control signals from the vertical gyro
system to stabilize the roll axis independent of azimuth or pitch angles. The tilt axis motion has
then to correct only for airplane pitch maneuvers and azimuth scan motion. The reflector and
feed move together in both scan and tilt excursions so that the radiation pattern remains
constant over the full range of movements. For the mapping mode of operation, the normal
pencil beam is changed to an equal energy ground mapping beam (Fig. 2).
8. Waveguide
A. The waveguide is a standard rectangular section X-band waveguide and consists of rigid and
flexible sections. The waveguide switch connects the receiver-transmitter to the antenna or to a
dummy load and is controlled by a switch on the weather radar control panel.
9. Operation
A. Prior to operation, set the controls to the following positions. On the control panel, turn the gain
control to midposition and the antenna tilt control to 0 degree. On the indicator, turn offset
display switch to AHEAD and the range select switch to any range. Turn function selector
switch to STBY and wait for a 3-minute warm-up period.

180
34-41-02 Mar 20/80
Page 6
B. After warm-up period, set function switch to NOR. Adjust the gain control for optimum
presentation of targets. The antenna tilt control may be used to tilt the antenna either up or
down to search for better weather.

NOTE: The gain control adjusts the sensitivity of the receiver. In its maximum
counterclockwise position, the control detents to automatic (AUTO). In AUTO, receiver
sensitivity is automatically regulated on the basis of existing noise reference level in
system. The manual gain position, receiver sensitivity (including automatic gain
control) is automatically regulated to the manually set gain level.

C. When the MAP position is selected, the radar system operates in the terrain mapping mode.
The CONT position is used to switch the iso-echo contour circuit into operation to display storm
centers. TEST position controls the self-test facilities.
D. When STBY is operated, a delay of approximately 3 minutes takes place before the selected
radar system reaches the standby state. After warm-up is completed, an additional 30-second
delay occurs between initial operation of the selected mode and the operational state. This
delay only happens when switching sequence is from off mode. Changing from NOR, CONT,
MAP, or TEST modes to STBY inhibits any further 30-second delay when the system is
eventually switched back into one of the operational modes.
E. The stabilization system receives pitch and roll signals from the airplane’s attitude reference
system plus a modifying tilt signal from the control panel to effect roll axis and elevation axis
correction. Pitch stabilization signals to the R-T unit and roll stabilization signals to the antenna
are derived from No. 2 vertical gyro (Ref. 34-22-0, Attitude Reference System). Stabilization
maintains the antenna beam pattern at a constant elevation with respect to the horizon, within
pre-determined limits, regardless of airplane attitude.
F. The self-test facilities include on-line monitoring for automatic fault indication, pre-flight self-test,
and maintenance tests for fault indication. In event of a failure, the faulty unit is automatically
identified. In addition, the output of the fault isolation circuits are also applied to the indicator
when in TEST mode. If a malfunction exists, the test pattern changes to indicate that one or
more of the test fault lamps on the floor panel of the R-T unit are illuminated.

180
Mar 20/80 34-41-02
Page 7
ATC SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

1. General
A. The ATC (Air Traffic Control) system, when interrogated by a signal from a ground station,
automatically transmits a coded signal to the ground station. This coded signal is then
displayed on the ground station radar indicator and shows the identity of the aircraft as well as
MX

its range and bearing. Also, the air data computer system provides digitized altitude coding to
the ATC system for automatic altitude reporting (Ref 34-12-0, Central Air Data System).
B. The system consists of two transponders (on MX ALL EXCEPT XA-TAA thru XA-TAC) with
individual antennas controlled by a single control panel (Fig. 1). The system receives 115 volts
ac and 28 volts dc from circuit breaker panel P18.
2. ATC Controls
A. Controls for the transponder(s) are on a remote control panel, located on the forward electronic
control panel (Fig. 1). The control panel consists of code selector switches, an IDENT button, a
function switch, a mode selector switch, a transponder selector switch, a test switch, a test light,
and an altitude reporting switch.
3. ATC Antennas
A. The ATC antennas are conventional omnidirectional flush-mounted or blade type units that are
connected to the transponders by coaxial cable. The No. 1 system antenna is on the bottom
centerline of the fuselage at body station 470 on ALL EXCEPT 727-200 Series Airplanes and at
body station 410 on 727-200 Series Airplanes. The No. 2 system antenna is on the bottom
centerline of the fuselage at body station 510 on ALL EXCEPT 727- 200 Series Airplanes and
at body station 470 on 727-200 Series Airplanes.
4. ATC Transponder
A. The transponder(s), located on the electronic equipment rack E5, are designed for remotely-
controlled continuous duty operation. No adjustments or controls are available to the operator
other than those on the remote control panel. The receiver portion of the transponder operates
on 1030 MHz and is capable of accepting signals modulated with pulse pairs spaced at 8, 17,
21, or 25 microseconds depending upon the mode of operation selected.

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ATC System Component Location 178
H74202

34-43-0 Figure 1 Mar 20/74


Page 2
B. When a proper interrogation pulse signal pair spaced at 8 microseconds (mode A) or 17
microseconds (mode B) is received, the transmitter portion of the transponder sends a pulse
coded reply consisting of two to fourteen accurately spaced pulses on a frequency of 1090 MHz
(Fig. 2). The first and last pulse of each reply code is called framing pulses and are always
transmitted. The second thru thirteenth pulses are called information pulses and may be
transmitted in any combination from zero to twelve pulses depending upon the code selected
by the crew. Any one of 4096 reply codes may be selected in modes A and B. On some
airplanes, however, the right-hand code selector switch is intentionally disabled and code
selection is performed with the left-hand code selector switch. This limits the number of
possible reply codes to 64.

NOTE: On some airplanes, mode B is not used.

C. On airplanes with the automatic altitude reporting capability activated, reception of a 21


microsecond altitude interrogation signal causes the transmitter to send an encoded altitude
reply to the ground station. The reply is automatically sent, irrespective of mode selector
position, and consists of two to fourteen pulses on a frequency of 1090 MHz. The first and
thirteenth pulses of each reply code are called framing pulses and are always transmitted. The
fourteenth (special position identification pulse) and the second to twelfth pulses are called
altitude information pulses and may be transmitted in any combination of one to twelve
depending upon altitude. The altitude information received from the air data computer system in
digitized altitude coding, is fed into the transponder encoder and will enable the ground station
indicator to present altitude information next to the airplane target.
D. Mode D is presently unused but is available for decoding 25 microsecond pulse pair signals for
possible future functional assignment.
E. A suppression pulse system is connected between the ATC and DME systems since both
systems are pulse coded and operate in the same frequency range. The ATC suppresses the
DME so there is no interference between systems.
5. Operation
A. The ATC is placed into operation through the function switch. The switch can be turned on and
after approximately 80 seconds warm-up delay, power will be applied to the transponder
circuits. The low sensitivity position provides operation at reduced gain.
B. Two concentric switches are used to select the desired reply code of the transponders. The
switches are turned so that the desired numerical code is indicated by dials in a window directly
above the switches.

107
Jan 20/92 34-43-0
Page 3
ATC Operation Block Diagram 180
H07098

34-43-0 Figure 2 Jun 15/67


Page 4
C. The mode switch selects the interrogation signal from the ground to which the transponder will
reply. Normally modes A and B are used for identity interrogation and mode C is used for
altitude interrogation. In the A mode (normally used in domestic operation), the system will
respond to an interrogation signal with a pair of pulses spaced at 8 microseconds and in the B
mode (normally used in Europe), to a signal with a pair of pulses spaced at 17 microsecond
intervals. However, for altitude interrogation the system response is independent of mode
selection (A, B or C) and the transponder will automatically reply to a 21-microsecond altitude
interrogation signal. On some airplanes, the mode switch may be mechanically limited so that
the transponder will operate only in certain modes.
D. An IDENT button is mounted concentrically with the code selector switch. When pressed
momentarily, identification pulses are transmitted for a preset length of time (6 to 15 seconds).
The identification pulses follow the coded pulse-train replies.
E. With the transponder selector switch, the pilot can select either transponder No. 1 or No. 2 for
use with the system.
F. The test switch, when held in the test position, will interrogate the transponder. If the
transponder is working properly, it will transmit a reply which will light the test light. A check
may be made to see if the transponder is being interrogated by leaving the test switch in its
normal (or monitor) position. If the transponder is being interrogated, the test light will illuminate
each time the transponder replies. On some airplanes an aural reply tone will be heard over the
interphone system when the transponder replies properly to interrogation.
G. An altitude reporting source switch with three positions is installed on the control panel. On
airplanes with an operational altitude reporting feature, the switch enables the pilot to obtain
altitude reporting information from either the No. 1 air data computer or the No. 2 air data
computer. The OFF position on the switch will enable the pilot to shut off altitude reporting
information if he suspects the air data computer is malfunctioning.

107
Jun 15/68 34-43-0
Page 5
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

MX XA -SEA, XA-SEM, XA-SER, XA-SEU, XA-SEW, XA-TUY

1. General (Fig. 1 and 2)


A. The DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) system continuously measures the slant range
distance between the airplane and a selected ground station and displays it on appropriate
DME indicators as nautical miles. The DME interrogator and VHF navigation receiver are tuned
simultaneously by the VHF NAV control panel.
B. The interrogator unit transmits a pulse-coded interrogation signal that actuates a corresponding
ground station reply. This reply signal is received and processed by the interrogator. The time
interval between the interrogation signal transmitted from the airplane and the ground station
reply signal received by the airplane is measured, converted into distance (nautical miles), and
displayed on appropriate DME indicators.
C. Two complete DME systems are installed in the airplane. Each system consists of an
interrogator (receiver-transmitter) unit, an antenna, a VHF NAV control panel, and a miles
readout on the appropriate Course Deviation Indicator and DME indicator.
D. Each DME system operates on 115-volt, 400-Hz and 28-volt dc power. System No. 1 is
supplied from the 115-volt ac essential radio bus and the 28-volt dc essential radio bus through
circuit breakers DME 1 - AC and DME 1 - DC. System No. 2 is supplied from the 115-volt ac
radio bus No. 2 and the 28-volt dc radio bus No. 2 through circuit breakers DME 2 - AC and
DME 2 - DC.
2. Control Panel
A. Each VOR/DME ground installation operates on an assigned VOR frequency. Since the DME
frequency selection depends on the VOR station frequency, controls for both DME and VOR
are located on the same control panel. The operating controls consist of a VOR/DME frequency
selector and a DME control. DME No. 1 is controlled from the captain’s VOR/DME control panel
and DME No. 2 from the first officer’s VOR/DME control panel.
B. On MX ALL EXCEPT XA-SEM, a test button is provided for system test. When depressed, the
MX

DME indicators should read zero miles.

178
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DME System Component Location 178
H74205

34-45-0 Figure 1 Dec 20/72


Page 2
194 DME System Interface Diagram
H74433

Jun 15/72 Figure 2 34-45-0


Page 3
3. Antennas
A. The DME antennas are conventional omnidirectional flush-mounted or blade-type units
connected to the interrogators by coaxial cable. The No. 1 system antenna is on the bottom of
the fuselage at approximately body station 720F+10. The No. 2 system antenna is located at
approximately body station 837.
4. Interrogator
A. The interrogator units are standard 1/2 ATR short assemblies which mount (side-by-side) on a
shelf in the electrical/electronic compartment (Fig. 1).
B. When a VOR station frequency is selected, the associated DME interrogator is automatically
tuned to the DME station at the same installation. The interrogator transmits a pair of high
power UHF pulses which trigger a similar ground station reply to the airplane.
C. The DME interrogator sends a suppression pulse to the ATC radar transponders, during the
transmission and reception of signals. Since both the ATC and DME systems are pulse coded
and operate in the same frequency range, the suppression pulse acts to prevent system
interference. Similarly, the ATC transponders, when transmitting, suppress the DME
interrogators.
D. The interrogator operates in the frequency range of 962 to 1213 MHz. There are 126
transmitting channels between 1025 and 1150 MHz and two 63-channel receiving bands
from 962 to 1024 and 1151 to 1213 MHz.
E. The TEST switch on front panel of interrogator provides a system self-test when pressed.

174
34-45-0 Mar 20/75
Page 4
5. Indicators
A. The DME indicators are electromechanical, digital counting types and indicate nautical miles on
three individual counter dials measuring in units, tens, and hundreds.
B. The No. 1 DME system drives the captain’s CDI and first officer’s DME No. 1 indicators while
DME system No. 2 drives the first officer’s CDI and captain’s DME No. 2 indicators. On some
airplanes the DME information is presented on the CDI indicators only. (See figure 1).
C. Warning flags come into view when the DME navigation system is in-operative, in the search
mode, or in the standby mode.
6. Operation (See figure 3).
A. Placing the DME control switch to the STBY position causes primary power to be applied to the
system for warm-up only. The interrogator incorporates a time delay circuit which inhibits the
transmitter for approximately 1 minute after application of power. In this position, warning flags
appear across the DME indicators.
B. The system incorporates a signal controlled search (SCS) feature, to prevent unnecessary
search when tuned to a VOR only station, or when out of range. When the ground station signal
is too weak to be usable, the signal controlled search circuits place the interrogator in the
standby mode. When this occurs, the search operation stops, the transmitter is turned off, and
the warning flags appear. When a usable ground station signal reappears, the system
automatically starts operating.
C. The echo protector circuitry (EPC) prevents the interrogator from remaining locked to an echo
reply at any distance up to the range limit setting for more than 10 seconds. When an echo
reply is detected by the EPC, it causes the interrogator to break lock, disable the transmitter
section momentarily and slew the DME indicator(s) to 0 miles. The interrogator will
automatically start the search cycle again from 0 miles to assure that the correct reply pulse is
encountered first. The EPC is disabled when the interrogator is in the search or standby mode.

126
Jun 15/72 34-45-0
Page 5
DME System - Block Diagram 171
H70262

34-45-0 Figure 3 Jun 15/72


Page 6
D. In the DME position, the system performs normal search and measurement functions within the
200- or 300-mile range capability except for DME ground stations which are located with ILS
(instrument landing system) ground stations. When a localizer channel between 108.0 and
111.9 MHz (channels 17-56) is selected on the VOR control panel, DME operation is
intentionally limited to a 50-mile range. In this instance the DME will search from 0 miles, slew
back down to 0, and repeat the cycle until it locks to a signal.
E. Operation of the system in the override position is similar to normal operation except that on
localizer channels between 108.0 and 111.9 MHz, the 50-mile range limitation is over-ridden
and all channels can be utilized for full range DME operation.
F. When the TEST button on the NAV control panel is pressed, the system overrides any signal to
the indicator and causes the distance dial to rotate backwards slightly below 0 and then align
at 0. The flag should be out of view. This test checks the accuracy of the distance measuring
portion of the system. The test button on the front panel of the interrogator unit self-tests the
unit itself and will cause the range indicator (on front panel) to rotate to display 000 miles.
G. The DME interrogators always search outbound, that is going up in mileage to ensure that the
system locks on a fundamental signal. However, occasionally the indicators will run backwards,
decreasing in mileage reading. Any time the system is re-channeled or loses lock at an
indication less than 50 miles, the distance indicators will slew to slightly below 0 miles before
the outbound search begins. This feature (reciprocating search) saves the time formerly
required to drive the indicators through maximum range limits to 0 miles.
H. When the DME system is locked on a station, the indicators decrease in reading as the airplane
flies inbound and increase in mileage as the airplane flies outbound from the station. A memory
circuit prevents the system from recycling to the search mode, during momentary signal
interruption.
I. Audio monitoring of the DME station identification is accomplished through the interphone
system, and controlled through VOR/DME controls on the audio selector panels. The DME
signal is distinguished by the higher tone station identification (morse code) which follows every
fourth VOR identification signal.
J. Operating power for the DME system is supplied through 115-volt ac and 28-volt dc circuit
breakers located on the essential radio bus for DME No. 1 and on radio bus No. 2 for DME
No. 2.

130
Jun 20/73 34-45-0
Page 7
DME SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

MX 727-200 ALL EXCEPT XA-TAA, XA-TAB, XA-TAC,


XA-DAT, XA-CUB, XA-CUE, XA-CUN

1. General (Fig. 1)
A. The DME (distance measuring equipment) system automatically measures the distance (in
nautical miles) between the airplane and a selected ground station. The system measures the
airplane-to-station slant-range distance (line-of-sight) and the information is displayed on a
digital readout indicator as miles-to-go. The method of measuring this distance is primarily a
function of an interrogator (receiver-transmitter) unit, operating the 960- to 1215-MHz range.
The DME frequency is automatically selected when a VOR frequency is selected.
B. The interrogator unit transmits a pulse-coded interrogation signal which actuates a
corresponding ground station reply. This reply signal is received and processed by the
interrogator. The time interval between the interrogation signal transmitted from the airplane
and the ground station reply signal received by the airplane is measured converted into
distance, and displayed on the indicator.
C. Two complete DME systems are installed in the airplane. Each system consists of an
interrogator (transmitter-receiver) unit, an antenna, two distance indicators and a remote tuning
control panel (Fig. 1). The system is designed to indicate a range of approximately 200 nautical
miles in normal operation and 400 nautical miles in override.
D. The 115-volt ac, 400-Hz power is applied to DME system No. 1 from the essential radio bus. An
internally mounted power supply converts the 115 volts ac to required ac and dc operating
power.
E. Power to DME system No. 2 is the same as that supplied to DME No. 1 except that it is
supplied from radio bus No. 2.
F. The DME system interface is shown in Fig. 2. The output of the interrogator is applied to the
digital readout of the DME indicator. A sample pulse is taken from each interrogator and
coupled to the ATC system, which operates in the same general frequency range. This pulse
acts as a suppression pulse. An audio signal from the DME interrogator is applied to the flight
interphone system.

178
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Page 1
DME System Component Location 178
H74208

34-45-01 Figure 1 Jun 20/74


Page 2
2. Control Panel (Fig. 1 and 2)
A. Each ground station installation is assigned a specific VOR frequency and associated DME
frequency. Since the DME system operates in conjunction with the VOR/ILS navigation system,
controls for both are located on the same control panel and consist of a NAV frequency selector
and a DME function selector switch. DME system No. 1 is controlled from the captain’s control
panel and DME system No. 2 from the first officer’s control panel.
3. Antennas
A. The DME antennas are conventional flush-mounted or blade-type units which are connected to
the interrogator units by coaxial cable. The No. 1 system antenna is installed on the bottom of
the fuselage at station 720f+10. The No. 2 system antenna is installed at station 837. Each
antenna performs both transmitting and receiving functions for its respective DME system in the
frequency range of 960 to 1215 MHz.
4. Interrogator Units
A. Each interrogator unit provides the capability to compute the time interval between transmitted
and received pulse-pair signals, convert this time difference to distance, and apply this
information to the DME indicator.
B. The interrogator units, with a digital to analog converter installed, are standard 1/2 ATR long
assemblies which mount (side-by-side) on a shelf in the electrical/electronics equipment center
(Fig. 1).
C. Three fault indicators and a reset switch are provided on the front panel of some interrogators.
The fault indicators are placarded R/T, IND, and ANT. The fault indicators turn yellow to
indicate a malfunction occurring in the interrogator (R/T) or the antenna unit (ANT) and are
used as an aid for trouble shooting the system. The IND fault indicator is not used. The RESET
button allows the operator the option of resetting the IND and ANT fault indicators to normal
(black) indication. To reset the R/T fault indicator it is necessary to ground pin 34 of the A.T.E.
connector.
D. A digital to analog (D/A) converter unit is installed on the interrogator unit which allows the
synchro-type indicators to be used with the binary coded decimal (BCD) output of the
interrogator.

178
Jun 20/78 34-45-01
Page 3
DME System Interface Diagram 178
H73953

34-45-01 Figure 2 Jun 20/74


Page 4
5. Indicators
A. The DME indicators are electromechanical, digital counting types and indicate nautical miles on
three individual counter dials measuring in units, tens, and hundreds.
B. The No. 1 DME system drives the captain’s HSI and first officer’s DME No. 1 indicator while
DME system No. 2 drives the first officer’s HSI and captain’s DME No. 2 indicator. (Fig. 2).
C. Warning flags come into view when the DME navigation system is inoperative. In the search
mode or in the standby mode, the indicator will display zeros.
6. Operation
A. Functional Description
(1) The DME interrogation signal from the airborne equipment consists of pulses of rf energy
transmitted in pairs. The pulses in a pair are spaced 12 microseconds apart for the
assigned 126 DME channels. A replay signal is transmitted from the ground station for
each interrogation pulse-pair from the airplane equipment. The reply signal consists of
pulse pairs with the same characteristics as the interrogation pulse pairs, except for rf
frequency. The reply pulse rf frequency is 63 MHz above or below the interrogation pulse
frequency. The exact relationship of the frequencies depends upon the particular DME
channel selected. The DME system searches for synchronous pulses and provides valid
distance data when locked on and tracking.
(2) DME channel selection is enabled by tuning the VOR/ILS system to a VOR frequency on
the VHF NAV No. 1 or 2 control panel (Fig. 3). This operation automatically tunes the DME
through the frequency synthesizer. The frequency synthesizer tunes the voltage control
oscillator (vco), which is the first stage of the transmitter chain, to the frequency chosen by
the VHF NAV panel channel selector. Power from the vco is sampled and applied through
divider-mixer to card 1 - frequency control. Card 1 divides the frequency by a factor which
is controlled by the VHF NAV panel channel selector.

178
Jun 20/74 34-45-01
Page 5
DME No. 1 Block Diagram 178
H07178

34-45-01 Figure 3 (Sheet 1) Jun 20/78


Page 6
178 DME No. 1 Block Diagram
H07181

Jun 20/74 Figure 3 (Sheet 2) 34-45-01


Page 7
The resultant frequency is compared with 31.25 kHz and an error signal developed. The
error signal is applied to the loop filter where it controls the tuning voltage applied to the
vco (and the receiver preselector filter tuning voltage). The vco is then corrected until there
is no detected error between the vco frequency and the 31.25 kHz reference oscillator.
This operation is considered to be an endless “loop” as there is no definite starting point.
When the vco has moved to the desired frequency and has stabilized, the loop is
considered to be “locked up”.
(3) The first stage of the transmitter, the voltage control oscillator (vco), develops rf power of
at least 100 milliwatts on a frequency between 1025 and 1150 MHz. This frequency is
determined by the frequency synthesizer. This rf power is applied to the buffer amplifier
where it is amplified to approximately 1 watt. The buffer amplifier rf output is used to drive
the first power amplifier. The pulse modulator applies 1200-volt pulses to the first power
amplifier and 1800-volt pulses to the intermediate and final power amplifiers when a
transmit command is received from the ranging circuits. The first power amplifier provides
an output power of at least 20 watts to the intermediate power amplifier which in turn
amplifies it to at least 200 watts. The final power amplifier amplifies this 200 watts to at
least 800 watts. The power from the transmitter is then sent to the diplexer to be routed to
the DME antenna.
(4) Incoming receive energy from the antenna is routed through the diplexer and applied to
the preselector filter. The frequency synthesizer applies a dc tuning voltage to the
preselector filter to tune it to the desired frequency within the selected frequency range.
The output of the preselector filter is then applied to the mixer where it is mixed with a
sampling of the transmitter power provided by a tap on the buffer amplifier output. The
output from the mixer, is then applied to the IF amplifier which provides amplification and
selectivity. The IF amplifier has a narrow band (high selectivity) and wide band (normal
selectivity) output. Both outputs are applied tot he video processor which determines if the
received signal is on frequency, is of sufficient amplitude, measures the 50% level of
received pulses for ranging purposes, and supplies agc voltage to the IF amplifier.

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(5) The ranging circuits, consisting of integrated circuit card 2 thru 6, utilize digital computer
techniques. Basically, it may be considered to be similar in operation to a digital electronic
counter operating in the time interval mode, with the start pulse to the counter
corresponding to the time of transmission of the interrogating pulse pair and the stop pulse
to the counter corresponding to the time of reception of a reply pulse pair from the ground
station. Ranging always starts at zero miles, searching out in distance for a reply from the
ground station. The point of inspection, or range gate, moves out at a high rate, equal to
the round trip propagation time of an anticipated ground station reply. If a pulse pair from
the ground station is encountered on one of these fast outward sweeps, the point of
inspection is held at that range until it is determined whether the pulse pair is a valid range
reply or a squitter pulse pair. The ranging circuits contain a 40,000 bit counter, which
serves as a memory or storage unit. The function of the memory unit is to store the
number of clock pulses that occur between the transmission of a pulse pair and the
reception of a pulse pair from the ground station. This stored number is equivalent to the
distance in hundredths of a mile. Each bit counter time corresponds to one-hundredth of a
nautical mile of round-trip travel time of a radio wave. The crystal-controlled timing
reference, or clock, generates clock pulses at a rate of 8.091 MHz, corresponding to one-
hundredth of a mile per clock pulse.
(6) The monitor circuits, consisting of cards 7 and 8, provides output data monitor
(continuous), automatic self-test monitor, and track monitor. Data monitoring is
continuously accomplished and consists of checking the serial data output lines for
presence of clock, word sync and DME label. Automatic self-test is accomplished upon
changing channels or every 45 seconds during search or automatic standby. Track
monitor is accomplished while the DME is tracking a ground station. A secondary digital
ranging circuit (within the monitor) continuously seeks synchronous targets and compares
the position with the DME range gate position. In the event a synchronous target exists at
a range less than the DME range gate position (indicating the DME is locked to an echo),
the monitor immediately causes the DME to unlock and begin a new search cycle,
allowing the ranging circuits to acquire the closer (nonecho) reply. If during the time the
DME is tracking, the monitor ranging system does not confirm the presence of a reply
within the DME range gate; it will cause the distance indicator flag to display.
(7) On interrogators with fault indicators,
if the monitor ranging system does not confirm the presence of a reply within the DME
range gate the R/T fault indicator on the front of the unit to change to yellow (yellow
indicating failure) and one of two fault indicators located on the rear of the unit to also
change to yellow. Additionally, should the monitor detect repeated system unlocks,
indicating a tracking servo malfunction, it will cause the distance indicator flag to display
and the R/T and both rear fault indicators to change to yellow.

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(8) On interrogators with fault indicators, the monitor circuits provide fault monitoring of the
interrogator unit and DME antenna. The monitor circuits contain amplifier circuits that drive
the fault indicators on the interrogator front panel (R/T, IND and ANT). These indicators
are magnetic matching indicators, that when initially set, must be reset to remove the
indication. These fault indicators enable isolation of a faulty receiver/transmitter
(interrogator unit) or antenna. The IND fault indicator is not used.
(9) The monitor also provides a flag output signal. The flag signal is a stimulus for the flag
alarm circuit which results in the DME indicator showing a flag when a malfunction occurs
in the system.
(10) The BCD distance word bits are clock-pulse synchronized and amplified into a 32-bit serial
BCD word that is applied to the digital to analog (D/A) converter. The data clock signal,
and word sync signal, are also applied to the converter. These signals are converted to
synchro (DC) signals which are applied to the indicators.
(11) Rotating the DME function selector switch to the STBY position turns off the transmitter. In
this position zeros appear on the DME indicators. With the DME function select switch in
STBY or ORIDE, or the TEST button depressed, a ground is applied to the BCD frequency
converter which in turn appropriately programs the distance circuits. The system also has
an automatic standby feature which places it in the standby mode when a ground station
is not available or when the ground station signal is too weak to be usable. When this
occurs, the search operation stops, the transmitter is turned off, zeros appear on the
indicators and the system is in all respects on standby except for the position of the DME
control switch. When a usable ground station signal reappears, the system automatically
starts operating.
(12) Operation of the system in the ORIDE position is essentially identical to normal operation.
However, the 200-mile range limitation is overridden and all channels can be utilized for
full-range DME operation (400 nautical miles).

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(13) With the TEST button on the NAV control panel DME function selector switch depressed,
the distance circuits develop a synthetic reply pulse spaced to represent the functional test
distance of zero nautical miles. The distance circuits measure the time between the
interrogation and self-test reply pulse and apply appropriate distance information to the
control circuits. The control circuits then develop the serial BCD word which is applied to
the digital to analog converter which drives the indicators. When the test is activated. The
DME indicator flag appears for 1 to 2 seconds, followed by 000.0 nautical miles readout.
(14) A TEST switch located on the back of the D/A converter unit produces a 289 ±1 miles
readout when actuated.
7. Control
A. The DME system is turned on by closing the DME 1 or DME 2 circuit breaker on the P18 circuit
breaker panel and tuning the system to the desired channel (using the VHF NAV frequency
tuning controls) with the DME function select switch to DME position.

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LOW RANGE RADAR ALTIMETER SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

ALL EXCEPT 727-200 Series Airplanes

1. General
A. The low range radar altimeter measures true terrain clearance or absolute altitude. The system
employs a terrain-reflected electromagnetic signal as a source of altitude information. It
measures altitude from essentially ground level to a height of 2500 feet and is used primarily
during the low approach and landing phases of flight operations. The system supplies height
information to a height indicator, flight director computer, autopilot flare computer (if used), and
radar altimeter needle on the flight director horizon director indicator.
MX

B. One complete system is installed on the airplane. The system consists of a receiver-transmitter
unit, transmitting antenna, receiving antenna, height indicator, and test switch. Location of
components is shown on figure 1.
2. Receiver-Transmitter Unit
A. General
(1) The receiver-transmitter (R/T) units are located on the electronic equipment rack E5. (See
figure 1.) Each R/T unit is completely transistorized except for a voltage tunable reflex
klystron. The R/T unit contains power supply, receiver, transmitter self test, flag alarm,
computer and instrumentation circuitry necessary to derive and present a dc analog
voltage which is proportional to airplane terrain clearance. The voltages are fed to the
height indicator and the flight director computer.
B. Operation
(1) The microwave circuit, which consists of the reflex klystron, generates a 4300 (+ 50)-MHz
carrier. A 25 kHz signal which has been amplitude modulated by a 400-Hz signal is then
used to frequency modulate the output of the klystron. The frequency modulated carrier is
applied to the transmitting antenna through a constant load ferrite isolator and probe
coupler. (See figure 2.)
(2) The transmitting antenna radiates the frequency modulated carrier at a center frequency
of 4300 MHz downward from the airplane. At the probe coupler a portion of the transmitted
signal is diverted and fed to a frequency translator. The output at the translator is
increased by 212 kHz and the result used as a local oscillator signal.

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Low Range Radar Altimeter System Component Location 178
H74210

34-48-0 Figure 1 Dec 20/72


Page 2
178 Low Range Radar Altimeter System Block Diagram
H74446

Mar 20/79 Figure 2 34-48-0


Page 3
(3) The terrain reflected signal is coupled through a band pass filter and fed to a balanced
mixer. Here the signal is heterodyned with the frequency translator output to produce an IF
signal. The IF signal consists of the second harmonic of the 25 kc modulating signal and
the 212 kc translated signal. The IF signal is fed to a preamplifier where all frequencies
except those lying in a narrow band about the desired intermediate frequency of 262 kc
are rejected.
(4) Due to the time delay between the transmitted and received signal there is a phase shift
between the two signals which results in a change in the carrier peak deviation. Therefore
an increase or decrease in airplane altitude causes the deviation of the mixer output to
change continuously. This signal is demodulated to recover the 400 cycle amplitude
modulated component. The altimeter computes altitude by measuring the amplitude and
phase of the demodulated signal. The amplitude of the signal is proportional to altitude
and the phase is indicative of the direction of altitude change. The error signal is then fed
to an integrator, computer diode network and a beta amplifier. The output of the beta
amplifier is a deviation voltage which is summed with the 25 kc amplitude modulated
signal, fed to a deviation amplifier, and finally to the klystron. The deviation voltage
changes the peak carrier deviation of the klystron inversely with altitude in an effort to
maintain a constant deviation frequency at the output of the mixer. The output of the beta
amplifier is fed to altitude amplifiers and demodulators to supply dc altitude voltages for
the height indicator.
3. Indicator
A. A visual display of airplane terrain clearance is accomplished by use of the height indicator.
The indicator is an electromechanical servo mechanism which converts an analog dc input
voltage to a dial-and-pointer display of altitude. Circuitry incorporated in the indicator consists of
a nonlinear potentiometer, modulators, servo-amplifier, flag alarm and trip circuitry, servomotor,
rate generator, 800 cycle tone oscillator and audio amplifier.
B. A control knob located in the lower right corner of the instrument is mechanically attached to a
potentiometer and an adjustable index cursor which travels along the periphery of the dial face.
Setting the knob locates the cursor at a predetermined altitude and will illuminate the minimum
decision altitude light (located in the upper left corner of the instrument) whenever the pointer
indicates an altitude lower than that of the cursor setting. A minimum decision altitude light is
also installed on the autopilot approach progress display which operates only when an autopilot
approach is made.

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C. A striped failure warning flag drops from behind the masked portion of the dial to indicate failure
in the system. (See figure 1.) The flag is retracted when the altimeter is operating properly. It
appears in the event of power failure, a loss of return signal, incorrect altitude tracking, self-test
operation and when the airplane is above the operating range of the altimeter.
D. The height indicator is supplied with a dc analog altitude signal from the receiver transmitter
unit. This voltage is summed with the output of a nonlinear feedback potentiometer, modulated,
amplified and used to drive a servomotor. The motor shaft is coupled to a rate generator, the
feedback potentiometer, the indicator pointer and 2500 foot altitude switch. The feedback
potentiometer provides a negative voltage which is used to null the system while the output of
the rate generator is used for stabilization. The dc altitude voltage is also summed across a
bridge network with the output of the MDA set potentiometer, and used to trigger an 800 Hz
tone generator when the airplane altitude is approximately 75 feet above the altitude at which
the MDA bug is set. The 800 Hz tone is amplified and fed to the pilot’s and copilot’s interphones
and speaker system. The tone builds up in intensity until the airplane descends to an altitude
equal to the MDA bug setting. At this time a dc signal from one leg of the bridge is modulated,
amplified and used to energize the adjustable trip relay which biases the audio amplifier to
cutoff.
4. Antennas
A. The antennas are flush mounted probe fed conical horns. Two identical antennas are used, one
for transmitting and one for receiving. The antennas are connected to the R/T unit through
coaxial cables. The antennas are flush mounted on the lower body centerline. The transmit
antenna is installed at station 570 and the receive antenna is installed at station 530.
5. Controls
MX

A. The controls necessary for operation of the altimeter are located on the indicator. These
controls are the adjustable trip knob, and TEST switches.

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6. Operation
A. The radar altimeter system is supplied with 115-volts ac power from the essential radio bus.
Circuit breaker protection is provided with the breaker located on the P18 overhead panel.
B. The altimeter is turned on by activating the circuit breaker or overhead panel P18. Rotation of
MX

the knob on the lower right corner of the indicator positions the MDA bug to any desired preset
altitude. Upon turn-on of the system, the flag will appear. Approximately 30 seconds later the
system will lock on the return signal, the pointer will slew to zero altitude and the flag will
retract. To further check system operability the TEST switch is actuated and the pointer drives
to 40 feet within one second while the flag will again be displayed. Upon release of the TEST
switch the pointer first drives up slightly and then returns to zero altitude and the flag again
retracts. Upon turn-on of the system in flight, the pointer will slew to the indicated altitude and
the flag will retract, after a 30-second warmup period. If the airplane is flying above 2500 feet at
turn-on, after a 30-second warmup, actuation of the TEST switch will cause the pointer to slew
to 40 feet indicating the altimeter is operable. Release of the Self-Test then causes the pointer
to drive back up in altitude behind the mask.
C. The altimeter will continuously display the absolute altitude over the range of 0 to 2500 feet. As
the airplane climbs through 2500 feet the pointer will continue to track up behind the indicator
mask. When the system is no longer capable of tracking the return signal, the fail flag will be
displayed and remain displayed until the airplane again descends into the specified range of
the altimeter. When this occurs the flag retracts and the altimeter tracks all the way down to
touchdown. The TEST switch may be actuated at anytime except when the autopilot is in the
glide slope engage submode and if the altimeter is functioning properly it will indicate 40 feet.
During cruise, the flag may be biased out of sight by turning the ON-OFF switch to OFF and
leaving the circuit breaker activated. The pilot adjustable trip is adjusted by rotation of the knob
on the lower right corner of the indicator. When the pointer descends to the preset altitude the
MDA trip light is illuminated. This lamp will stay lit at all altitudes below the desired preset
altitude. The MDA trip light assembly includes a dimmer and a press-to-test feature for the
lamp.
D. The dc voltage which retracts the failure warning flag in the height indicator is fed through a
series logic circuit all of which must be GO to retract the flag. There must be a return signal,
correct tracking of the electronic servo, autopilot drive contacts positioned to drive the autopilot,
indicator servo and pointer below 2500 feet, correct tracking of the indicator servo and +dc from
the receiver transmitter power supply.

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LOW RANGE RADAR ALTIMETER SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

MX 727-200 Series XA-TAA thru XA-TAC

1. General
A. The primary purpose of the low range radar altimeter (LRRA) system is to supply vertical
position information, in the form of dc analog voltage, to the height indicator during approach
and landing phases of flight operation. The system (Collins) provides an accurate measurement
of absolute altitude (height above terrain) from 2500 feet to touchdown. The system also
provides vertical terrain clearance outputs which are used in the autopilot system. Altitude
"trips" within the altimeter may be preset to operate at specific altitudes and activate external
indicating devices or circuits in other equipment.
B. One complete system is installed in each airplane and provisions are made for a second
system. Each system installation consists of a receiver-transmitter, test switch, height indicator
with MDA lights, transmitting antenna, and receiving antenna. Location of components is shown
on Fig. 1. For a block diagram of the system see Fig. 2.
C. The outputs of each radar altimeter, namely altimeter indicator trip signals, flag signals, and
pointer drive signals, are fed to a height indicator which converts the outputs to visual
indications of airplane altitude above terrain, visual signal when the airplane descends below
certain adjustable minimum altitude, and visual indication that the information is unreliable.
2. Receiver-Transmitter
A. General
(1) The receiver-transmitter is a completely solid-state unit that operates in the 4250- to 4350-
MHz range. The receiver-transmitter supplies two dc output voltages which represent
airplane true altitude above terrain. Six altitude "trips" are provided in the unit for external
warning or indicating devices as may be desired. In-line monitoring circuits in the receiver-
transmitter give a continuous check of counter accuracy, output amplifiers, and return
signal strength. The unit also contains functional test circuits used to perform a confidence
check of the entire system, excluding antennas and antenna cables.

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Low Range Radar Altimeter System Component Location 178
H74214

34-48-01 Figure 1 Aug 15/70


Page 2
B. Operation
(1) The low range radar altimeter system is a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW)
transmitter-receiver. The S-band transmitter is frequency modulated 50 MHz each side of
4300 MHz at a 100-Hz rate; in other words, the output frequency sweeps from 4250 to
4350 MHz and back 100 times a second. (See figure 2.) The primary FM oscillator of the
transmitter produces a fundamental frequency of 67.2 MHz. The modulator 100-Hz
oscillator develops a 100-Hz sawtooth wave which is applied to the FM oscillator to
produce a frequency-modulated signal. Then the FM signal is doubled twice (to 268.8
MHz) and boosted to 7 watts at the output of the power amplifier. This signal is applied to
a varactor (voltage-variable capacitor) multiplier chain, containing two doublers and a
quadrupler, to obtain the nominal output frequency of 4300 MHz, at approximately 500
mw. This transmitter is fed through a monitor coupler where a small amount of signal is
tapped off and fed to the modulator monitor circuit. This circuit continuously monitors the
100-Hz modulator slope and provides a warning to the logic matrix in the event of
modulator failure. The signal from the monitor coupler is fed through a directional coupler,
where a small amount of signal is tapped off and fed to the diode mixer. The signal from
the directional coupler is applied through a circulator to the transmit antenna - the
circulator serving as an RF switch to shunt transmitter output through a delay line during
self-test. In normal operation, the receive antenna delivers the ground reflected signal to
the mixer through the receive circulator.
(2) In the mixer, the ground-return signal is heterodyned with the transmit signal tapped from
the directional coupler. The frequency of the mixer output (IF) signal is therefore the
instantaneous difference between the transmitted and received signal frequencies. Since
the slope of the frequency-modulation is linear, the IF frequency is directly proportional to
the altitude of the airplane. The IF signal is fed into the preamplifier and tracking filter
module. This amplifier includes low-pass and high-pass filters which are together
controlled by the automatic gain control (AGC) amplifier to form a tracking filter. The agc:
voltage is taken from the output of the No. 1 frequency counter and varies directly with the
dc: altitude output voltage. The gain of the tracking filter is programmed to increase as the
airplane altitude increases in order to provide sufficient signal for the altimeter to process.
The tracking filter output signal, sampled by the signal presence monitor, VSWR monitor,
and 115-kHz detector, is then applied to a low-pass filter which effectively gates out any
double-bounce ground return signals. This filter includes a monitor circuit which provides a
warning signal, with a duration of 4 seconds, to the logic matrix in the event of a filter
malfunction or double-bounce condition.

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Page 3
Low Range Radar Altimeter System Block Diagram 154
H74219

34-48-01 Figure 2 (Sheet 1) Dec 15/68


Page 4
178 Low Range Radar Altimeter System Block Diagram
H74457

Mar 20/79 Figure 2 (Sheet 2) 34-48-01


Page 5
(3) The VSWR monitor checks the quality of operation of the antennas and antenna cables,
and transmitter output power and receiver gain while the airplane is more than 2500 feet
above terrain. The signal used in this monitor is a low-level, low-frequency signal that
exists as a result of the adjusted VSWR on the antenna cables. The 115-kHz monitor
establishes a positive dc signal when the tracking filter output is greater than 115 kHz.
This frequency indicates an altitude above 2500 feet (off-scale). Both the VSWR and off-
scale oscillator monitors provide warning outputs to the logic matrix in the event of
malfunction. The two outputs from the low-pass filter are applied to two separate circuits
each consisting of a frequency counter, operational amplifier, and gain-shaping network.
The frequency counters convert the output from the low-pass filter into square waves of
varying pulse width. This pulse width varies linearly with altitude up to 480 feet. Above 480
feet, the pulse width varies logarithmically with altitude and is controlled by the gain-
shaping network. The outputs from the frequency counters are converted to dc analog
signals in the operational amplifiers. The delay line is a coaxial line approximately 100 feet
in length. When self-test is initiated, both transmit and receive circulators are switched so
that the primary signal is routed from the transmitter, through the delay line and into the
mixer, giving a 100-foot readout on the indicator. In normal operation, the receiving
antenna delivers the ground reflected signal to the mixer through the receive circulator,
bypassing the delay line. The mixer contains an RF (C-band) bandpass filter and two low
pass IF (difference frequency) filters. These circuits and the directional coupler are
contained in a single strip-line assembly. The mixer is composed of two diodes of opposite
polarity. The parallel output of the diodes cancels the transmitter amplitude-modulated
products. AID bias (airplane installation delay) is inserted to correct for antenna cable
length between antennas and the touchdown antenna height above ground.
(4) The signal presence monitor produces a positive-going signal as long as the received
signal is above threshold. When the signal is negative-going, the preamplifier low pass
switch is turned on so that the receiver is sensitive to low altitude (low-frequency) signals.
The signal presence monitor output is also applied to the logic matrix. Trigger outputs from
the limiters are applied to monostable flip-flops in the frequency counters. The No. 1 limiter
output is sampled by the greater-than-115 kHz monitor which produces a positive-going dc
signal when the limiter output pulse train frequency is greater than 115 kHz. This
frequency represents an altitude above 2500 feet. The monitor output is coupled to the
logic matrix.

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Page 6
(5) The logic matrix output supplies three warning signal outputs; warning flag, pointer
out of view bias, and altitude trip disable. The major logic matrix inputs are from the
comparator, the signal presence monitor and the greater than 115 kHz monitor. If the
comparator detects a difference between the outputs of the two operational
amplifiers, or if the signal presence monitor indicates less than threshold, the altitude
indicator flag will appear, and the altitude trips will be disabled. The logic matrix also
contains circuitry to prevent a flag indication when the aircraft is above 2500 feet.
(6) The test circuitry provides a fixed delay between the transmitting circulator and the
mixer and, at the same time, the operational amplifier outputs are unbalanced to
check the operation of the comparator. During test, the altitude indicator pointer
should indicate 100 feet and the flag should appear (indicating that the comparator is
working). If the comparator is not working properly, no flag will appear and the pointer
will be biased out of view after a short delay. The delay circuit used in the logic matrix
in connection with self-test is used to prevent transient flag signals and to reset the
2500-foot logic following testing.
3. Height Indicators (Provisions only)
A. The installed system has provisions for circular and/or vertical scale type indicators. A typical
system contains two height indicators connected in parallel. Each height indicator is a self-
contained servo driven instrument which converts the altitude analog output from the receiver-
transmitter to a visual indication of airplane altitude on a circular or vertical calibrated scale. On
a circular indicator the scale is linear through the first 180 degrees of arc, and logarithmic
throughout the remainder of the range. The vertical scale indicator is linear throughout its entire
range. The pointer is hidden behind a mask when the airplane altitude is greater than the range
of the scale. When the airplane is located below the altitude set by the MDA control knob on the
indicator, the minimum MDA light is illuminated, and a trip switch is actuated. A warning flag in
the indicator appears when the radar altitude information is unreliable, and during self-test.
4. Antenna
A. The antennas are flush-mounted probe fed conical horns. Two identical antennas are used in
the system, one for transmitting and one for receiving. The antennas are connected to the
receiver-transmitter through coaxial cables. The antennas are flush-mounted on the lower body
centerline stations as follows:

TRANSMIT NO. 1 570 TRANSMIT NO. 2 510 (PROVISIONS)


RECEIVE NO. 1 550 RECEIVE NO. 2 530 (PROVISIONS)

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5. Controls
A. The MDA control, located on the indicator, controls positioning of the MDA index on the scale.
Rotation of the control will move the index around the periphery of the dial. The MDA light is
illuminated and a trip is enabled whenever the pointer indicates an altitude lower than that of
the index setting.
B. The test switch is located on the height indicator. During test, the altitude pointer on the
indicator should indicate 100 (± 51 feet, and the warning flag should come into view if the
altimeter is operating properly. If the altimeter malfunctions, the warning flag will not cane into
view and the altitude pointer will be biased out of view after a short delay. Test of the altimeter
system during localizer engage mode is prevented by a relay in the autopilot system.
6. Operation
A. The radar altimeter system is supplied 115 volts ac power from the 115 volts ac essential bus.
Circuit breaker protection for the system is provided by s circuit breaker located on the P18
overhead panel.
B. The altimeter is turned on by activating the circuit breaker. Upon turn-on of the system, the flag
will appear. When the system locks on the return signal, the pointer will slew to the correct
altitude and the warning flag will retract.
C. The radar altimeter will continuously display the absolute altitude within range 0 to 2500 feet.
As the airplane climbs through 2500 feet the pointer will continue to track up behind the
indicator mask. When the airplane descends to 2500 feet, the pointer will come into view and
track all the way to touchdown.
D. The minimum altitude index is adjusted by rotation of the MDA control on the indicator. As the
altitude pointer rotates CCW and arrives at the preset altitude, the MDA light on the indicator
will illuminate. The light will remain illuminated at all altitudes below the preset altitude. The light
assembly includes press-to-test and dimming features.

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Page 8
LOW RANGE RADAR ALTIMETER SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

MX 727-200 Series ALL EXCEPT XA-TAA thru XA-TAC

1. General
A. The low range radar altimeter (LRRA) system provides accurate terrain clearance (absolute
altitude) information during approach and landing phases of flight operation. This vertical
position information is supplied from 2500 feet to touchdown.
B. One complete system and provisions for a second system are installed in the airplane. The
installed system consists of a receiver-transmitter, two height indicators, transmit antenna, and
receive antenna. Location of components is shown on Fig. 1.
C. The LRRA system provides a failure warning and 1500-foot altitude trip signals to the autopilot
system and flag alarm and 200- and 1500-foot altitude trip signals to the flight director system.
2. Receiver-Transmitter (Fig. 1)
A. The receiver-transmitter is located on shelf four of E5 electronic rack. All electrical connections
to the receiver-transmitter are made through a connector located on the rear panel. An auxiliary
connector is located on the front panel for connecting to test equipment.
B. Controls and indicators located on the front panel are WARN, SENS, XMTR, COMP, IND, and
FLAG monitor indicators and a PRESS TO MONITOR button.
3. Height Indicator (Fig. 1)
A. Airplane altitude is read from a circular dial which is calibrated from -10 to 2500 feet. Dial
calibration is linear from -10 to 480 feet and logarithmic from 480 to 2500 feet. Below 500 feet,
the dial is divided into
10-foot increments. Above 500 feet, it is divided into 100-foot increments.
B. The MDA control knob is used to adjust the position of the MDA cursor to any altitude shown on
the dial. The MDA cursor setting designates the altitude at which the MDA light will be
energized during descent or de-energized during ascent. The brightness of the MDA light is
controlled by rotating the light casing.
C. The warning flag is solenoid operated and will come into view whenever the solenoid is de-
energized.
D. The PUSH TO TEST switch is used to initiate a functional check of the LRRA system.

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Low Range Radar Altimeter System Component Location 178
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34-48-02 Figure 1 Sep 20/73


Page 2
4. Antenna
A. The antennas are linearly polarized horns. Two identical antennas are used in the system, one
for transmitting and one for receiving. The antennas are interconnected with a coaxial cable
which provides a controlled leakage input signal to the receiver transmitter integrity monitor
circuits. The antennas are connected to the receiver-transmitter with coaxial cables and are
flush mounted on the lower fuselage centerline of the airplane as follows:

TRANSMIT ANT STA 570 RECEIVE ANT STA 550

5. Operation (Fig. 2)
A. Altitude Measurement Operation
(1) The LRRA system provides altitude data when power is applied to the receiver-transmitter.
Low voltage power is then supplied to all circuits in the receiver-transmitter and to the
height indicator power supply. The LRRA system is turned on by closing its circuit breaker.
(2) An oscillator in the modulator generates a 155-Hz modulation signal. This signal is
wobbulated by a 31 Hz input signal from the wobbulation generator and then applied to a
generator which produces the triangular wave modulating signal for the transmitter.
(3) The signal from the modulator frequency modulates an oscillator signal in the transmitter.
The resultant signal is amplified and frequency multiplied to produce the nominal 4.3 GHz
transmitter output signal.
(4) A portion of the transmit signal is coupled to the AFC circuits. The AFC loop acts to hold
the center frequency of the transmitted signal to 4.3 GHz. Another sample of the
transmitted signal is coupled to the calibration loop mixer and delay line. The resultant
difference frequency output from the calibration loop mixer is applied to the calibration
circuits where it is converted to a dc voltage (altitude). This voltage is compared to a
standard reference voltage and any difference is sensed and applied to the modulator for
altitude self-calibration. The calibration is accomplished by varying the slope of the
triangular wave to reduce the calibration circuit difference (error) signal to zero.

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Low Range Radar Altimeter System Schematic Diagram 178
H74222

34-48-02 Figure 2 (Sheet 1) Sep 20/73


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178 Low Range Radar Altimeter System Schematic Diagram
H74461

Mar 20/79 Figure 2 (Sheet 2) 34-48-02


Page 5
(5) The output signal from the transmitter is applied through the transmit circulator to the
transmit antenna. The signal from the antenna is radiated to the earth and reflected back
to the receive antenna. The received signal is applied to a filter to eliminate interference
frequencies and the output is routed through the receive circulator to the mixer. The
transmit and receive circulators transfer any reverse direction power to high loss loads to
provide protection (isolation) for receiver-transmitter circuits.
(6) In the mixer, the received signal is beat against a sample of the transmit signal and the
difference frequency output is applied to the filters. The mixer output is directly
proportional to the time required for the transmit signal to travel to the ground and back,
and is proportional to the distance from the ground (altitude).
(7) The AGC circuit determines the relative signal strength in the receiver section by
monitoring the amplifier output. An AGC signal is applied to the filters to vary the filter
cutoff frequency and maintain the receiver signal level near a preset threshold. Signal
strength normally increases with decreasing airplane altitude. The output of the filters is
applied to the amplifier where it is amplified to a level suitable to drive the two frequency
counters, AGC circuit, and antenna coupling monitor.
(8) The operation of both frequency counter and driver circuits is identical. The amplifier input
to a frequency counter is converted to a dc analog voltage which is proportional to the
input frequency (altitude). This voltage is amplified by a driver and the driver output is the
dc altitude voltage supplied to external using equipment. The output from one driver is
supplied to the height indicator and the output from the other driver is available for use by
other airplane systems. In addition, the output from the two drivers is applied to the
receiver-transmitter high and low altitude trip circuits.
(9) The operation of all six altitude trip circuits is identical. The dc altitude input voltage from
the driver is compared to a reference voltage (altitude trip setting). If the input voltage
exceeds the reference voltage, the trip relay remains de-energized. When the input
voltage is less than the reference voltage, the trip relay is energized. The output from each
altitude trip circuit is a ground signal to using equipment.

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(10) The dc altitude voltage from the receiver-transmitter is applied to the height indicator
pointer drive comparator. The comparator compares this voltage with the voltage from the
altitude pointer potentiometer. If there is a voltage difference, the comparator supplies an
error signal to the servo-amplifier. The amplifier output signal drives the servomotor which
repositions the altitude pointer potentiometer until the comparator output error signal is
nulled. The potentiometer and altitude pointer are both geared to the servomotor. This
causes the altitude pointer to be positioned to the proper altitude.
(11) The receiver-transmitter dc altitude voltage is also supplied to the height indicator
adjustable trip comparator. The comparator compares this voltage with the voltage from
the adjustable trip potentiometer. As long as the airplane altitude exceeds the altitude of
the adjustable trip setting (MDA cursor), the trip relay and MDA light(s) will remain de-
energized. When the airplane altitude is slightly less than the altitude of the adjustable trip
setting, the trip relay will be energized causing the MDA light(s) to illuminate.
B Self-Test Operation
(1) Self-test of the LRRA system may be initiated at either the captain’s or first officer’s height
indicator. When the test switch is depressed, a ground signal is applied through a relay in
the autopilot accessory box to the test circuits in the receiver-transmitter. The accessory
box relay inhibits the self-test command when the autopilot is in the glide slope engage
submode.
(2) Depressing the test switch energizes the test relay. One set of relay contacts routes a test
signal from the calibration loop mixer to the receiver circuits where it is processed in the
same manner as a normal altitude signal. The other set of contacts applies a dc voltage to
test circuits in the AID calibration unit to bring the dc altitude to the predetermined test
altitude. During self-test, each height indicator should display the test altitude indicated on
Fig. 1.
C. Monitor , Fault Indicator, and Flag Operation
(1) The two dc altitude output voltages are applied to the comparator and if the two voltages
do not agree within a specified tolerance, the comparator provides an output to the flag
gates and COMP threshold sensor signifying improper operation.

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(2) At altitudes above the operational range of the receiver-transmitter, the low level signal
coupled between antennas through the external interconnecting coaxial cable is
processed through the receiver circuits and detected in the antenna coupling monitor to
check the operation of the antenna system. At altitudes within the operational range of the
receiver-transmitter, the normal received signal is processed through the receiver circuits
and detected in the AGC circuit. The AGC circuit functions to maintain receiver gain and
provides a signal to the signal presence monitor. The output from the antenna coupling
monitor is applied to the SENS indicator threshold sensor and flag gate circuit. The output
from the signal presence monitor is applied to the SENS indicator threshold sensor and
flag alarm circuit.
(3) An output from the calibration loop mixer is applied to the power modulation monitor and
altitude calibration circuits. If the monitor detects a loss in signal that exceeds tolerances,
an output is provided to the flag gates and XMTR threshold sensor signifying improper
operation. The calibration circuits will do the same if the amount of altitude correction
required is beyond the limits of the self-calibration circuits.
(4) In the height indicator, the 10-kHz tracer signal to the servo-amplifier is processed to the
integrity monitor when the servo is in a nulled state. The detected tracer signal maintains
the flag amplifier in the conducting state allowing the flag solenoid to be energized (flag
out of view). The tracer signal output from the integrity monitor is also supplied to the
receiver-transmitter IND threshold sensor and flag gates. The absence of the tracer signal
signifies improper height indicator operation; therefore, both height indicators must fail
before the receiver-transmitter indicates a height indicator malfunction.
(5) The inputs to the flag gates must be of sufficient magnitude to inhibit a flag alarm
condition. If any one of the inputs drops below a specific value, an output is supplied to the
flag alarm circuits which turns off the flag driver causing the height indicator warning flag
to come into view and the receiver-transmitter FLAG indicator to illuminate. In addition, the
A/P warn relay is de-energized to provide warning signal to the autopilot system,
deactivation of the altitude trip circuits, and illumination of the receiver-transmitter WARN
indicator.
(6) An output from the flag alarm circuit is also provided to the pointer stow circuit. An alarm
condition activates this circuit causing the height indicator altitude pointer to freeze in
position for approximately 1 second and then to be driven up behind the pointer mask.

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(7) When the airplane is at an altitude of over 2500 feet or for any condition when received
signal strength is inadequate for normal system operation, an input is provided to the flag
alarm circuit to de-energize the A/P warn relay. This results in immediate warning to the
autopilot system, deactivation of all altitude trip circuits, altitude pointer stow, and
illumination of the receiver-transmitter WARN indicator.
(8) The receiver-transmitter lights marked WARN (yellow) and FLAG (red) are controlled
directly by the autopilot disconnect and flag alarm functions, respectively. The WARN
lamp will light when there is a loss of signal and both the WARN and FLAG lamps will light
if a malfunction occurs in the LRRA system. The four neon lights marked SENS, XMTR,
COMP, and IND are controlled by the integrity gates. Power is applied to the neon lights
only when the PRESS TO MONITOR button is pressed. Pressing this button will cause
one or more of the neon lamps to light identifying the area in which a fault has occurred.

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GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

MX XA-HOH and on

1. General
A. The ground proximity warning system (GPWS) provides the pilots with aural and visual warning
of potentially dangerous flight paths relative to the ground. The GPWS processes radio altitude
information from the No. 1 low range radio altimeter (LRRA), altitude rate information from the
No. 1 central air data computer (CADC) glide slope deviation information from VOR/ILS system
and landing gear and landing flap position signals to provide warnings of the following hazards:
(1) In advertent descent close to the ground.
(2) Level flight or too shallow climb towards rising terrain.
(3) Excessive rate of descent.
(4) Deliberate descent in unsuspected proximity to the ground.
(5) Excessive deviation below the glide slope.
B. The GPWS consists of a ground proximity computer, two warning lights labeled PULL UP, a
warning speaker, a test switch, two glide slope warning indicator/inhibit switches labeled
BELOW G/S, a guarded flap inhibit switch, and a GPWS failure monitor INOP light. Equipment
location is shown in Fig. 1.
C. Primary power for the system is 115 volts ac supplied from the essential radio bus in panel P18
through a circuit breaker labeled GROUND PROXIMITY WARN.
D. 26 volts ac is also received from the central air data system as a reference voltage for the
altitude rate circuits.
2. Computer
A. The ground proximity warning computer (GPWC) is rack-mounted on shelf No. 4 of electronic
equipment rack E5. The GPWC consists of a logic and power supply module, a comparator and
closure warning, audio, voice, glide slope, monitor, and self test modules. A power transformer
and an interference capacitor are also mounted in the rear of the chassis above the electrical
connector. In addition, a test switch, mode annunciators, reset switch, and fault indicators are
installed on the front panel.

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Ground Proximity Warning System Component Location 123
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34-52-0 Figure 1 Sep 20/75


Page 2
3. GPWS Warning Lights
A. A rectangular shaped red warning light labeled PULL UP is installed on each pilot’s flight
instrument panel. Access to the bulbs and a fuse within the light assembly is provided by
removing the lens cover.
B. The lights come on to provide a visual indication that the GPWC has generated a warning of an
unsafe flight path.
4. G/S Warning Light
A. A rectangular shaped amber G/S (advisory) light labeled BELOW G/S is installed on each
pilot’s instrument panels. Access to the bulbs and a fuse within the light assembly is provided
by removing the lens cover. The light comes on to provide a visual indication that the airplane is
below the glide slope beam when an ILS frequency is selected.
B. The G/S warning light will inhibit the glide slope deviation warning when pressed, provided the
hard glide slope warning is not already on.
5. GPWS Test Switch
A. The GPWS TEST switch is located on the first officer’s instrument panel. It provides a
confidence check of the system, either on ground or in flight.
6. Flap Inhibit Switch
A. The flap inhibit switch is located on the first officer’s instrument panel. It will simulate a flaps
down condition when set to INHIBIT position.
7. Warning Speaker
A. A warning speaker is installed in overhead panel P5. The speaker provides an aural indication
that the GPWC has generated a warning of an unsafe flight path.
8. Operation (Fig. 2 and 3)
A. The GPWS is operational when load control center P18 is energized and the CADC, GPWS,
VHF-NAV, and LRRA circuit breakers are closed.

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Ground Proximity Warning System Schematic 123
H74233

34-52-0 Figure 2 (Sheet 1) Sep 20/75


Page 4
123 Ground Proximity Warning System Schematic
H74467

Sep 20/75 Figure 2 (Sheet 2) 34-52-0


Page 5
Ground Proximity Warning System Schematic 123
H74235

34-52-0 Figure 2 (Sheet 3) Sep 20/75


Page 6
123 Ground Proximity Warning System Schematic
H74470

Jun 20/76 Figure 2 (Sheet 4) 34-52-0


Page 7
Ground Proximity Warning Curves 123
H74242

34-52-0 Figure 3 Jan 20/88


Page 8
B. Signal inputs to the GPWC consist of radio altitude information from LRRA No. 1 and altitude
rate information from CADC No. 1. The radio altitude signal is a dc voltage which is a function
of airplane height above ground level and is useful to approximately 2500 feet. The barometric
rate signal is ac with a scale of 250 mv/1000 fpm altitude change. This rate signal is in phase
with the 26-volt ac reference from the CADC autotransformer during ascent and out-of-phase
during descent.
C. Binary inputs to the GPWC consist of a landing gear and landing flap position signal and 28-volt
dc radio altimeter valid, glide slope valid, and air data computer valid signals. The landing gear
position signal is open when the landing gear is in any position other than down and locked and
ground potential when the landing gear is down and locked. The landing flap position signal is
ground potential when the flaps are less than 30 degrees, and open when the flaps are
extended more than 30 degrees.
D. The GPWC processes the input signals to provide warning outputs during the following flight
conditions:
(1) Excessive sink rate warning (Mode 1)
(a) The barometric sink rate and the 2400-foot radio altitude detector signal to switch the
gate on and indicate excessive sink rate.
(b) The system provides a minimum warning time of approximately 30 seconds at radio
altitude between 2450 and 1180 feet prior to predicted terrain impact. Less warning
time is provided below 1180 feet of radio altitude.
(2) Closure warning (Mode 2)
(a) The terrain closure rate detector combines the output of the radio altitude linerized,
flap logic and the unsafe descent rate to provide a warning as shown in the curve.
(3) Negative climb rate warning (Mode 3)
(a) A warning is provided when the airplane is at a less than 700-foot terrain clearance,
landing gear of flaps up in takeoff/landing mode, and a barometric altitude loss is
detected. The altitude loss required to activate the GPWS warning varies with the
height of the airplane above the ground at the time of inadvertent descent occurs. At
a climbout altitude of 100 feet, any loss of altitude will activate the warning. At 700
feet, an altitude loss of 70 feet will activate the warning.
(b) The flip flop is set to takeoff/landing mode when the radio altitude is less than 700
feet, with landing gears down and flaps down.

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(4) Unsafe terrain clearance warning (Mode 4)
(a) A warning is provided when the airplane is in cruise mode 500 feet with gears up, or
in cruise mode with gears down, flaps up between 200 and 500 feet of radio altitude
and unsafe descent rate is detected, or in cruise mode at a radio altitude below 200
feet with gears down and flaps not in landing range. The warning may be inhibited if
the pilot chooses to land with less than normal landing flaps by setting the inhibit
switch on first officer’s instrument panel to INHIBIT position.
(b) The slip-flop is set to cruise mode when the radio altitude is greater than 700 feet. In
the event of missed approach, the flip-flop is set to the takeoff (mode 3) warning
within 2 seconds of flap lever being moved out of the landing range.
(5) Glide slope deviation warning (Mode 5)
(a) A soft glide slope warning is provided if the deviation of the airplane below the glide
slope exceeds 1.3 dots when the airplane is between 1000 and 150 feet of radio
altitude. A hard warning is provided if the deviation of the airplane below the glide
slope exceeds 2 dots when the airplane is between 300 and 150 feet of radio
altitude.
(b) In order to allow the pilot to purposely descend below the glide slope without
triggering a warning, the glide slope warning mode may be inhibited by pressing the
BELOW G/S indicator when the radio altitude is below 1000 feet and the hard
warning is not in progress. The glide slope warning cannot be inhibited when the
hard warning is on.
E. The GPWC warning output provides an aural warning WHOOP-WHOOP PULL UP broadcast
over the warning speaker, and illuminates the red PULL UP warning light on the pilots’
instrument panels.
F. The glide slope deviation warning output provide a voice alert GLIDE SLOPE broadcast over
the warning speaker and illuminate the amber BELOW G/S warning indicator light on the pilots
instrument panels.
G. System self-test may be initiated by pressing the GROUND PROXIMITY SYS TEST switch.
During self-test, the PULL UP, INOP, BELOW G/S indicators come on, and one cycle of aural
warning consists of WHOOP-WHOOP PULL UP, and GLIDE SLOPE broadcast over the
warning speaker.

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Page 10
H. Self-test may also be initiated by pressing the test switch in front of the computer. In addition to
the aural and visual warnings at a reduced level occur as described above, the fault indicator
lamps on the computer come on momentarily indicating signals are valid, and the mode
annunciators on the computer will display white as each mode is exercised and checked. The
GPWC OK light comes on momentarily when all modes are valid. The annunciators may be
reset manually by means of the RESET switch on the computer or automatically when the radio
altitude is greater than 50 feet.

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Page 11
FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEMS - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

ALL EXCEPT 727-200 Series

1. General
A. the flight director systems furnish the means to select a desired flight path, along with lateral
(bank) and vertical (pitch) steering commands, which if followed, will enable intercept and
tracking of the desired flight path. The desired flight path may be a magnetic heading, go
around after aborted approach, VOR course, or localizer (LOC)/glide slope (GS) approach
beams. In addition, altitude information obtained from the air data computer is converted to
pitch steering command information and utilized in holding the airplane at a desired altitude.
B. Two systems are installed, captain’s (No. 1) and first officer’s (No. 2).Each is comprised of the
following units: approach horizon (flight director) indicator (FDI), course deviation indicator
(CDI), flight instrument amplifier, flight director computer, flight director control panel, flight
director annunciator. A single air data computer supplies altitude signals to both systems.
Location of the components is shown in figure 1. The FDI, annunciator and CDI are shown in
figure 2.
C. Each flight director computer receives input signals from its associated VOR/GS navigation
system (VOR, or LOC/GS deviation signals), and attitude reference system (bank and pitch
displacement/error signals). (Refer to 34-22-0, Attitude Reference Systems and 34-31-0,
VOR/GS Navigation Systems.) Selected heading error and course datum error signals are also
fed to each computer from its associated CDI. These error signals are developed with reference
to airplane magnetic heading (34-21-0, Compass Systems) when the desired magnetic
heading, or course is selected. The selected heading, or course error signals, in combination
with the radio deviation, bank, or pitch signals are fed to the computer, which then develops the
bank and pitch steering signals. The bank and pitch steering commands are displayed by the
steering command display system (V-pointers) in the FDI. The pointers are servo operated and
move to indicate the desired attitude in bank and pitch. The airplane is then maneuvered so as
to align the pointers against the miniature airplane symbol. When the pointers are aligned with
the airplane symbol, the real airplane will be in the correct attitude to intercept, or remain on the
desired flight path. An overall simplified schematic of the systems is shown in figure 3.

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Flight Director Systems Component Location 177
H74855

34-62-0 Figure 1 Nov 15/65


Page 2
107 Flight Director Systems Indicators
H74795

Jun 15/68 Figure 2 34-62-0


Page 3
D. Signal and/or power failure in a system, including failure of the steering command display,
along with similar types of failure in any one of the data supplying systems (VOR/GS
navigation, attitude reference, or compass systems), is monitored through a warning flag circuit
in the computer, and a warning then displayed by the COMPUTER warning flag in the FDI.
E. Test receptacles are provided for use with a test set for the check-out of signals and power in
the systems. (See Wiring Diagram Manual.)
2. Flight Director Indicator
A. The flight director indicator (figure 2) furnishes a pictorial display of airplane attitude in bank
and pitch, along with the bank and pitch steering commands. The bank and pitch steering
commands are superimposed over an artificial horizon on a moving tape. The horizon line
displays the pitch attitude of the airplane, and is read relative to the miniature airplane symbol.
The bank marker index, connected by gearing to the tape, is read against the bank scale to
give airplane bank angle. The tape is positioned by the bank and pitch servos, controlled by the
bank and pitch attitude signals fed from the associated attitude reference system.
B. The steering command display includes the two V-pointers, the localizer deviation pointer and
the glide slope deviation pointer.
C. The two V-pointers flank the miniature airplane symbol and form a spread "V." They are servo
positioned, and controlled by the bank and pitch steering command signals fed from the
computer (figure 4). The airplane is maneuvered in response to the commands displayed by
the pointers. When the pointers are aligned alongside the miniature airplane symbol, the real
airplane will be in the correct attitude to intercept, or remain on the selected flight path.
D. The localizer deviation pointer at the lower part of the display indicates deviation from the
localizer beam and is in view only after capture of the glide slope. Pointer deviation to the left
indicates that the localizer beam is left of the airplane.
E. The localizer warning flag covers the localizer deviation pointer when the LOC receiver is not in
use or in the event of failure of the LOC receiver or signal.

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178 Flight Director Systems Schematic
H74799

Jun 15/66 Figure 3 34-62-0


Page 5
F. A horizontal pointer at the left side of the FDI indicates airplane deviation from the center of the
glide slope beam. Pointer deflection above the center reference mark indicates that the center
of the glide slope beam is above the airplane. In HDG and VOR the glide slope deviation
pointer and flag are biased out of sight.
G. When in LOC, GS AUTO or GS MAN the GS flag becomes visible if the glide slope signal is
below usable level, or if the receiver becomes unserviceable.
H. The GYRO warning flag monitors the bank and pitch attitude display. It is spring-loaded to
become visible when the bank and/or pitch attitude channels are not operating properly, or
when power is lost to the attitude reference system, or the vertical gyro has not erected
properly. It is energized out of sight when the vertical gyro is operating correctly.
I. The COMPUTER warning flag monitors power to the computer, plus the various input warning
signals from the systems feeding signals to the computer in specific combinations, depending
upon the mode of operation of the computer. This is described under Operation. An adjustment
screw at the left lower corner of the FDI enables screwdriver adjustment of the vertical trim of
the horizon line with respect to the fixed miniature airplane symbol. The slip indicator, at the
bottom center of the indicator, is a conventional aid with a weighted ball in a liquid filled tube. It
enables the pilot to monitor airplane slip, or skid in turns.
3. Course Deviation Indicator
A. The course deviation indicator (figure 2) presents a plan view of the navigation situation. The
display includes airplane heading with reference to magnetic north, the selected magnetic
heading, and the selected radio course.
B. Magnetic heading of the airplane is displayed by the compass card which is read with respect
to the lubber line. The card is positioned through the heading servo, and controlled by the
heading signal fed from the compass system. This heading signal is also fed to the stators of
the heading and course select synchros in the indicator.
C. The heading cursor, which is ganged to the rotor of the heading select synchro, indicates the
selected magnetic heading, and is positioned by the HEADING knob. At the time the heading
cursor is positioned, the heading error signal, developed in the rotor of the heading select
synchro, is fed to the computer. Once set, the heading cursor rotates with the compass card,
giving a continuous display of selected heading, and any heading deviation. Heading
information is used in computing bank and pitch steering commands when the flight director
system is in heading mode.

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171 Flight Director System Steering Command Servo Loops
H74803

Jun 15/67 Figure 4 34-62-0


Page 7
D. The central portion of the indicator is the deviation section. It contains the course arrow, course
deviation bar, course deviation scale and to-from arrows. The entire section rotates with the
compass card as the heading of the airplane changes. The various components of the section
perform their individual functions as follows:
(1) The course arrow points in the direction of the selected radio course, and is positioned by
the COURSE knob. At the time the course arrow is positioned to the selected course, the
selected course is also displayed in digital form on the course counter at the upper right
corner of the indicator. The course arrow is ganged to the rotor of the course select
synchro. The course error signal, developed in the rotor of the course select synchro, is
fed to the computer.
(2) The course deviation bar provides an indication of course deviation and moves
perpendicular to its length to provide the indication. The amount of course deviation is
read off the course deviation scale. When the bar completes the course arrow, the
airplane has no lateral displacement from the selected course. The bar is actuated by the
VOR or LOC deviation signal fed from the navigation unit.
(3) To-from indication about a VOR station is shown by the broad arrows. They operate only
when the associated navigation unit is tuned to a VOR frequency. The arrows appear
singly to indicate the direction to the station.
E. The miniature airplane in the center of the indicator simulates the position of the real airplane in
flight. It is compared against heading cursor, course arrow and course deviation bar positions,
to obtain the pictorial representation of the airplane heading, and any deviation from the desired
heading or course.
F. The VOR/LOC flag functions to indicate navigation unit malfunction. It appears whenever power
is turned off, or lost to the navigation unit, or whenever the VOR/LOC signal fails, or falls below
a certain predetermined value. The GS warning flag functions in a similar manner, but with
respect to the GS receiver. In addition, when the system is operating in HDG or the VOR
submode, the GS flag and deviation pointer are biased out of sight.

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G. The GS pointer displays airplane position relative to the glide slope. It is read against the GS
scale to indicate position of the airplane with respect to the glide slope. A deflection up
indicates that the airplane is below the glide slope, and a deflection down that it is above the
glide slope. The pointer is actuated by the GS deviation signal. When the system is operating in
HDG or VOR submodes, the pointer and flag are biased out of sight.
H. The MILES counter at the upper left corner of the CDI s the DME indicator. (See 34-45-0.)
4. Flight Instrument Amplifier Rack
A. The flight instrument amplifier rack contains five separate servo-amplifiers, plus a dual (bank
and pitch) channel signal converter and a power and command monitor. The servo-amplifiers
furnish the servo actuating power required by the bank and pitch servos in the FDI, the heading
servo in the CDI, and the bank and pitch steering command servos in the FDI. The signal
converter functions to change the dc steering command signals to the ac signals required by
the steering command servos. The steering command signals control positioning of the V-
pointers in the FDI. (See figure 4.) Error signals induced in the steering command synchros are
fed to the bank and pitch steering command servo-amplifiers, where after amplification, they
are fed back to actuate the bank and pitch steering command servomotors. The motors then
operate and drive in such a direction as to null out the induced error signals, at the same time
repositioning the pointers to display the new command. The OFF switching in two legs of the
position synchro provides the biasing to deflect the V-pointers out of view when the system is
OFF. The power and command monitor functions to monitor both power to, and any errors in,
the roll and pitch command servo loops. Warning is given through the computer warning flag.
When power is available and the servo errors are within tolerance, a transistor is switched on,
completing part of the circuit which holds the computer flag out of view. Threshold amplifiers in
each servo-amplifier module prevent weak or random signals from actuating the FDI servos.
5. Flight Director Control Panel
A. The flight director control panel enables switching of the computer to operate in any one of the
following modes: GS, HDG, VOR/LOC, GS AUTO, or GS MAN. It contains the mode selector
switch, altitude hold switch and manual pitch command knob.
B. The mode selector switch has the following positions: OFF, GA, HDG, VOR/LOC, GS AUTO, or
GS MAN. The switch has to be depressed in order to select GS MAN. The switch will
automatically return to the GA position from GS AUTO, or GS MAN position, when the autopilot
disconnect button on the pilot’s control wheel is depressed.

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Flight Director System Control Schematic 177
H74858

34-62-0 Figure 5 Jun 15/66


Page 10
C. The V/L ARM submode is selected by turning the mode selector switch to the HDG mode and
keeping it there for 3 seconds, before turning to VOR/LOC mode. When this is done, the V/L
arm (amber) indicator lights in the display annunciator, and remains in sight until the display is
switched to V/L by mode signals from the computer. This happens when the appropriate beam
is sensed. The circuit is shown in figure 5.
D. When GS ARM submode is selected by turning the mode selector switch to GS AUTO, the GS
arm (amber) will appear at the annunciator. The mode and annunciation will automatically
switch to GS when the GS beam capture sensor is operated. (See Operation.) Alternatively, GS
mode can be obtained by turning the mode selector switch to GS MAN.
E. Altitude hold selection is provided by the altitude hold toggle switch, which is solenoid held in
the ON position. If the mode selector switch is in either the GS AUTO or GS MAN mode, and
the glide slope has been intercepted, the solenoid circuit will be opened and the altitude hold
switch released from the ON position.
F The manual pitch command synchro, controlled by the manual pitch command knob supplies
the manual pitch command signal to the computer.
6. Flight Director Computer
A. The flight director computer provides the bank and pitch steering commands, which are
displayed by the V-pointers in the FDI. These signals are d-c signals, and are fed first of all to a
dual channel signal converter in the flight instrument amplifier, where they are changed to a-c
signals, before being fed to operate the bank and pitch steering command servos in the FDI.
B. Information concerning radio deviation, selected magnetic heading and bank angle are used in
the computation of the bank steering command signal, and information concerning pitch
attitude, glide slope deviation, or altitude information are used in the computation of the pitch
steering command signal. From this division of the input signals, two signal flow channels result
in the computer: bank and pitch. The functioning of these channels is described later under
"Operation" and is shown in figures 6 and 7.

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Flight Director Computer Bank Channel 195
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34-62-0 Figure 6 Dec 15/69


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C. The computer also contains two power supply circuits, termed attitude and heading power.
Attitude power is switched through the vertical gyro transfer relays depending upon the position
of the VG transfer switch. The computer also contains a warning flag circuit plus several logic
circuits. The logic circuits are used in switching of the computer to the various modes of
operation. Some of these logic circuits are controlled from the flight director control panel, and
others are controlled internally in the computer. The COMPUTER warning flag is actuated by a
warning flag signal fed from the warning flag circuit. This circuit, in addition to monitoring all of
the various input warning signals, also monitors the V-pointers and power to the computer.
7. Air Data Computer
A. The air data computer is a device for detecting changes in static pressure altitude, as supplied
from the airplane static system. Once altitude hold is selected, any deviation in pressure
altitude will result in an error voltage being supplied to the computer pitch channel. The pitch
command output positions the V-pointers to visually show the airplane attitude necessary for a
smooth return to the desired pressure altitude. The air data computer is described in Chapter
34-12-0, Air Data Instruments.
8. Operation
A. Before the flight director systems can be operated, the attitude reference, compass and
VOR/GS navigation systems are required operational. Refer to figure 3. Closing the circuit
breakers shown provides power to the systems.
B. When power is applied to a system, if the mode selector is in OFF position, the V-pointers and
the COMPUTER warning flag in the FDI move out of sight. In this mode, as well as in all other
modes, the COMPUTER warning flag monitors power to the computer. Turning the mode
selector switch to the GA mode, or any one of the other modes causes the V-pointers to come
into sight.
C. In the bank channel, the bank error signal (which is developed in the vertical gyro when the
airplane is banked) is compared against the computed bank command signal to yield the bank
steering command signal. Similarly, in the pitch channel, the pitch error signal, or altitude error
signal is compared against the computed pitch command signal to yield the pitch steering
command signal. The bank channel is shown in figure 6 and the pitch channel in figure 7. On
these schematics, the controlling inputs that alter gain and control switching of the circuits in
the various modes are shown. For example: in figure 6, the LOC ONLY input shows that the
gain of the complementary filter is altered when functioning in VOR/LOC mode with a LOC
frequency selected. Switches are shown, but in the computer, transistors handle the switching.

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Flight Director Systems Pitch Channel 177
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34-62-0 Figure 7 Jun 15/66


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D. G/A Mode
(1) The GA (Go-Around) mode of operation is used for an aborted approach. The system will
automatically switch to GA, from either of the glide slope modes, by depressing the
autopilot disconnect switch on the control wheel. This energizes the switch release
solenoid and permits the mode selector to spring back to the GA position. If the selector
switch is in GS AUTO position the system must have developed glide slope capture to
enable the release to GA position. When the flight director system is in GA mode, the roll
and pitch annunciators show GA and the computer produces steering commands in the
bank and pitch channels. In the bank channel, the computer receives bank error signals
from the vertical gyro which are directed through the flight instrument amplifier as bank
steering commands to the FDI. The V-pointers indicate the corrections necessary to keep
the airplane level in a lateral plane. In the pitch channel, the computer receives and mixes
pitch error signals from the vertical gyro and preset 10-degree pitch up command in the
computer to produce pitch steering command signals. These steering command signals
are supplied through the flight instrument amplifier to the V-pointers in the FDI. The
V-pointers then indicate the necessary corrections to keep the airplane in the desired flight
path in respect to pitch.
E. HDG Mode
(1) In the HDG mode of operation, the selected heading error signal is fed to the computer
from the heading select synchro in the CDI. The signal is limited and becomes the bank
command signal. The bank error signal is fed from the vertical gyro. This signal is phase
detected and amplified before being mixed with the bank command signal to yield a
deviation signal, which is further amplified and converted to a dc signal before becoming
the bank steering command signal. The steering commands are limited to 30 degrees in
roll and 12 degrees in pitch. In the pitch channel, the pitch error signal and the manual
pitch command signals are mixed together to provide the pitch steering command signal.
The altitude error signal may be used in place of the manual pitch command signal. In this
case, the altitude error signal is mixed with the filtered and phase converted pitch error
signal, which is amplified and limited, before being mixed with the original pitch error
signal to produce the pitch steering command signal. In this mode of operation, the
COMPUTER warning flag monitors power to the computer, and gyro and compass inputs,
and the steering command display system (V-pointers).

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F. VOR/LOC Mode
(1) In the VOR/LOC mode, the bank steering command signal provides steering command
information to intercept and hold the selected VOR, or LOC course. The steering
commands are limited to 30° in roll and 12° in pitch. The action is similar for either course,
except that in LOC tighter coupling is provided. This is accomplished through logic circuits
that alter the various gains and limits of the associated circuits. In this mode, course rate,
VOR, or LOC deviation rate, and bank rate signals are applied to the complementary filter
to become a synthetic radio deviation damping signal which opposes the VOR, or LOC
deviation signal in order to prevent overshoot in following the command. The course cut
limiter combines the output signal from the complementary filter with the VOR, or LOC
deviation signal and the course error (phase reversed) signal to produce the bank
command signal. The action of the limiter permits interception of the selected course at a
fixed heading angle of 45° relative to the selected course.
(2) At approximately 8 to 10° from the VOR beam center, the computer will generate roll
commands due to high gain radio rate signals. The V/L beam sensor is activated by V/L
mode voltage with NAV FLAG, and VOR/LOC inputs. When the airplane is within 5° of a
selected VOR radial a "nav-capture" signal, generated at the V/L beam sensor, changes
the course cut limiter output and reduces the command intercept-angle from 45° to 17°. At
the same time however, differentiating circuitry in the computer is producing a damping
signal (radio rate) which initiates a roll command. If the airplane path follows the V-pointer
roll commands the resultant flight path will be a smooth flare-in to the course. At the same
time, the "nav-capture" signal activates a timer which, after a predetermined delay also
provides a "nav-capture" output and through an inverter produces a 0 volt level "track-off"
signal. The timer output is provided to maintain "nav-capture" switching during temporary
loss of a V/L beam sensor input and the "track-off" signal is used for gain switching in the
computer.
(3) When flying to a LOC course, "nav-capture" is generated when the airplane intercepts
within 2° of the LOC course, but there is no reduction of the course cut limiter output to
change the intercept angle from 45° to 17°.
(4) On VOR or LOC the bank command signal is mixed with the bank error signal to produce
the bank steering command signal. Pitch channel operation in this mode is identical to that
in the HDG mode.

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G. V/L Arm Submode
(1) In the V/L arm submode, the pilot is enabled to choose the angle of capture for a VOR or
LOC course through selection of a desired heading. This is different to VOR/LOC mode,
where an intercept angle of 45° is maintained by the course cut limiter. V/L arm submode
is engaged by turning the mode selector switch momentarily (3 seconds or more) to the
HDG position and then to the VOR/LOC position. When this is done, the V/L arm (amber)
indicator lights at the annunciator, and the system operates initially as in HDG mode.
When "nav-capture" is generated at the V/L beam sensor, the computer is automatically
switched to either the VOR, or LOC mode of operation. The annunciation changes from
V/L arm (amber) to V/L (green). At this time the COMPUTER warning flag will also begin
monitoring VOR information from the navigation unit. The identical COMPUTER warning
flag action takes place when capturing a LOC beam, except that the warning flag circuit
now monitors LOC inputs instead of VOR information. In this mode, pitch channel
operation is the same as that described for HDG mode.
H. GS AUTO Mode
(1) In the GS AUTO mode, bank channel operation is as described for V/L arm submode on
LOC, or LOC mode. In the initial phase of the GS mode, the GS arm (amber) indicator
lights at the annunciator providing a "GS flag" signal is generated by the GS receiver and
a "LOC freq" select signal is delivered from the VOR/LOC receiver. When the center of the
glide slope beam is reached, a "GS capture" signal is generated in the GS beam sensor
and the computer is automatically switched to the final approach phase. The COMPUTER
warning flag at this time begins monitoring glide slope information in addition to its other
inputs. At this time also, the GS (green) and GA arm (amber) indicators light in the
annunciator. In the final approach phase, the bank channel utilizes the same signals as
described for LOC mode and the roll commands are limited to 15°. At glide slope capture,
a pitch down bias causes an approximate 2° pitch down command. This bias is cancelled
after 14 seconds by the low pass filter which passes changing signals but shunts steady
state signals. After glide slope capture the localizer deviation pointer comes into view and
indicates deviation from the localizer beam at approximately twice the sensitivity of the
CDI bar. The complementary filter provides for crosswind correction. Its output is
combined with the LOC deviation signal to provide a damping signal. The difference
between these two signals becomes the bank command signal. The bank command signal
is then mixed with the bank

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Page 17
Error signal to yield the bank steering command signal. The pitch channel uses the pitch
error signal and the glide slope deviation signal. Glide slope deviation information is
amplified, fed to the glide slope capture sensor and is mixed with the pitch error signal to
produce the pitch steering command signal. When the system receives a middle marker
signal or 200-foot radar altimeter signal, the computer switches to GS EXT and the ILS
EXT (green) indicator lights. In this mode, the glide slope deviation signal is attenuated
and the pitch steering commands are reduced approximately one half.
I. GS MAN Mode
(1) In this mode of operation, automatic sensing of the glide slope beam, through the GS
beam sensor is eliminated. A voltage from the mode selector switch, replaces the GS
capture signal, and loss of GS AUTO mode voltage deactivates the sensor. Also, the
annunciator will show GS. Other than this, the operation remains identical to that in GS
AUTO mode.
J. Altitude Hold Submode
(1) The altitude hold submode can be used in HDG, VOR/LOC and GS AUTO modes. If the
air data computer fails, a warning flag voltage switches off a transistor in the accessory
box. This opens the altitude hold circuit and the ALTITUDE HOLD switch returns to the
OFF position. In GS AUTO mode, as soon as glide slope capture is generated a transistor
is turned off in the altitude hold solenoid circuit and the ALTITUDE HOLD switch springs to
the OFF position. This enables glide slope deviation signals to be used in the pitch
channel instead of pressure altitude deviation signals.
K. Computer Flag Circuit Operation
(1) Figure 8 shows the schematic diagram of the computer flag circuit which provides a
ground to operate the computer flag in the FDI. The primary transistors in the circuit are
Q3 in the flight instrument amplifier and Q8 in the computer. If the various inputs to the
computer are correct and the computer is functioning properly, Q3 and Q8 will be
conducting to complete the computer flag solenoid circuit and pull the COMPUTER flag
out of view.
(2) The command monitor warning module in the instrument amplifier monitors the B+ supply
and the input signal to the roll command servo-amplifier and the pitch command servo-
amplifier. If the power supply to either of the amplifiers is defective, Q3 will be biased to
cutoff. Similarly if the input signal to either of the amplifiers indicates more than 4.5° of
error between the command signal and the V-pointer position signal, Q3 will be biased to
cutoff.

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(3) The roll monitor and pitch monitor circuits in the computer comprise transistor/diode logic
to monitor the various inputs. In the illustration, the input signals are read horizontally and
the relevant inputs for a specific mode are read vertically. The "x" indicates that the signal
voltage is present. For example, in the roll monitor block in VOR/LOC mode the input
signals which are essential to complete the AND gate are PITCH MONITOR, NAV FLAG
GYRO MONITOR, COMPASS MONITOR, HEADING POWER (28V DC) and ATTITUDE
POWER (38V DC).
(4) The pitch monitor signal is produced in the pitch monitor circuit from various inputs,
depending on the operating mode of the pitch channel which has been selected. If GS is
selected the computer will monitor ALT HOLD or MAN PITCH inputs in the pitch monitor
until the computer is switched to GS mode by a glide slope capture voltage. In GS AUTO
mode selection, although GS is selected, the computer will be in either MANUAL PITCH or
ALT HOLD before G/S capture.

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Page 19
Flight Director Computer Flag Schematic 173
H74871

34-62-0 Figure 8 Mar 15/66


Page 20
FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

727-200 Series

1. General
A. The flight director systems furnish the means to select a desired flight path, along with lateral
(bank) and vertical (pitch) steering commands, which if followed, will enable intercept and
tracking of the desired flight path. The desired flight path may be a magnetic heading, go
around after aborted approach, VOR course, or localizer (LOC)/glide slope (GS) approach
beams. In addition, altitude information obtained from the air data computer is converted to
pitch steering command information and utilized in holding the airplane at a desired altitude.
Time base glide slope gain programming is available for category II low weather minimum
instrument landing.
B. Two systems are installed, captain’s (No. 1) and first officer’s (No. 2). Each is comprised of the
following units: approach horizon (flight director) indicator (FDI), course deviation indicator
(CDI), flight instrument amplifier rack, flight director computer, flight director control panel, flight
director annunciators. A single air data computer supplies altitude signals to both systems.
Location of the units is shown in Fig. 1. The FDI, annunciator and CDI are shown in Fig. 2.
C. Each flight director computer receives input signals from its associated VOR/GS navigation
system (VOR, or LOC/GS deviation signals), and attitude reference system (bank and pitch
displacement/error signals). (See 34- 22-0, Attitude Reference Systems and 34-31-0, VOR/GS
Navigation Systems.) Selected heading error and course datum error signals are also fed to
each computer from its associated CDI. These error signals are developed with reference to
airplane magnetic heading (34-21-0, Compass Systems) when the desired magnetic heading,
or course is selected. The selected heading, or course error signals, in combination with the
radio deviation, bank, or pitch signals are fed t o the computer, which then develops the bank
and pitch steering signals. The bank and pitch steering commands are then displayed by the
steering command display system (V-pointers) in the FDI. The pointers are servo operated and
move in unison to indicate the desired attitude in bank and pitch. The airplane is then
maneuvered so as to align the pointers against the miniature airplane symbol. When the
pointers are aligned, the real airplane will be in the correct attitude to intercept, or remain on the
desired flight path. An overall simplified schematic of the systems is shown in Fig. 3.

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Flight Director System Component Location 106
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34-62-01 Figure 1 Sep 15/69


Page 2
106 Flight Director System Indicators
H74930

Sep 15/69 Figure 2 34-62-01


Page 3
D. Signal and/or power failure in a system, including failure of the steering command display,
along with similar types of failure in any one of the data supplying systems (VOR/GS
navigation, attitude reference, or compass systems), is monitored through a warning flag circuit
in the computer, and a warning then displayed by the COMPUTER warning flag in the FDI.
E. Test receptacles are provided for use with a test set for the check-out of signals and power in
the systems. (See Wiring Diagram Manual.)
2. Flight Director Indicator
A. The flight director indicator (Fig. 2) furnishes a pictorial display of airplane attitude in bank and
pitch, along with the bank and pitch steering commands. The bank and pitch steering
commands are superimposed over an artificial horizon. The artificial horizon is represented by a
horizon line on a moving tape. The horizon line displays the pitch attitude of the airplane, and is
read relative to the miniature airplane symbol. The bank marker index, connected by gearing to
the tape, is read against the bank scale to give airplane bank angle. The tape is positioned by
the bank and pitch servos, controlled by the bank and pitch attitude signals fed from the
associated attitude reference system. The tape has 3 short horizontal markings above the
horizon line to indicate 5, 10 and 15 degree pitch up. The horizontal grid lines below the horizon
line are calibrated for down pitch angles of -3, -10 and -20 degrees.
B. The steering command display includes the two V-pointers, the localizer deviation pointer and
the glide slope deviation pointer.
C. The two V-pointers flank the miniature airplane symbol and form a spread "V." They are servo
positioned, and controlled by the bank and pitch steering command signals fed from the
computer (Fig. 4). The airplane is maneuvered in response to the commands displayed by the
pointers. When the pointers are aligned alongside the miniature airplane symbol, the real
airplane will be in the correct attitude to intercept, or remain on the selected flight path.
D. The localizer deviation pointer at the lower part of the display indicates deviation from the
localizer beam and is in view only after capture of the glide slope. Pointer deviation to the left
indicates that the localizer beam is left of the airplane.
E. The localizer warning flag covers the localizer deviation pointer when the LOC receiver is not in
use or in the event of failure of the LOC receiver or signal.

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178 Flight Director System Indicators
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Mar 15/70 Figure 3 34-62-01


Page 5
F. A horizontal pointer at the left side of the FDI indicates airplane deviation from the center of the
glide slope beam. Pointer deflection above the center reference mark indicates that the center
of the glide slope beam is above the airplane. In HDG and VOR the glide slope deviation
pointer and flag are biased out of sight.
G. When in LOC, GS AUTO or GS MAN the GS flag becomes visible if the glide slope signal is
below usable level, or if the receiver becomes unserviceable.
H. The GYRO warning flag monitors the bank and pitch attitude display. It is spring-loaded to
become visible when the bank and/or pitch attitude channels are not operating properly, or
when power is lost to the attitude reference system, or the vertical gyro has not erected
properly. It is energized out of sight when the vertical gyro is operating correctly.
I. The COMPUTER warning flag monitors power to the computer, plus the various input warning
signals from the systems feeding signals to the computer in specific combinations, depending
upon the mode of operation of the computer. This is described under Operation. An adjustment
screw at the left lower corner of the FDI enables screwdriver adjustment of the vertical trim of
the horizon line with respect to the fixed miniature airplane symbol. The slip indicator, at the
bottom center of the indicator, is a conventional aid with a weighted ball in a liquid filled tube. It
enables the pilot to monitor airplane slip, or skid in turns.
3. Course Deviation Indicator
A. The course deviation indicator (figure 2) presents a plan view of the navigation situation. The
display includes airplane heading with reference to magnetic north, the selected magnetic
heading, and the selected radio course.
B. Magnetic heading of the airplane is displayed by the compass card which is read with respect
to the lubber line. The card is positioned through the heading servo, and controlled by the
heading signal fed from the compass system. This heading signal is also fed to the stators of
the heading and course select synchros in the indicator.
C. The heading cursor, which is ganged to the rotor of the heading select synchro, indicates the
selected magnetic heading, and is positioned by the HEADING knob. At the time the heading
cursor is positioned, the heading error signal, developed in the rotor of the heading select
synchro, is fed to the computer. Once set, the heading cursor rotates with the compass card,
giving a continuous display of selected heading, and any heading deviation. Heading
information is used in computing bank and pitch steering commands when the flight director
system is in heading mode.

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D. The central portion of the indicator is the deviation section. It contains the course arrow, course
deviation bar, course deviation scale and to-from arrows. The entire section rotates with the
compass card as the heading of the airplane changes. The various components of the section
perform their individual functions as follows:
(1) The course arrow points in the direction of the selected radio course, and is positioned by
the COURSE knob. At the time the course arrow is positioned to the selected course, the
selected course is also displayed in digital form on the course counter at the upper right
corner of the indicator. The course arrow is ganged to the rotor of the course select
synchro. The course error signal, developed in the rotor of the course select synchro, is
fed to the computer. The course error signal is used in generating bank and roll steering
commands when the flight director system is in a radio mode.
(2) The course deviation bar provides an indication of course deviation and moves
perpendicular to its length to provide the indication. The amount of course deviation is
read off the course deviation scale. When the bar completes the course arrow, the
airplane has no lateral displacement from the selected course. The bar is actuated by the
VOR or LOC deviation signal fed from the navigation unit.
(3) To-from indication about a VOR station is shown by the broad arrows. They operate only
when the associated navigation unit is tuned to a VOR frequency. The arrows appear
singly to indicate the direction to the station.
E. The miniature airplane in the center of the indicator simulates the position of the real airplane in
flight. It is compared against heading cursor, course arrow and course deviation bar positions,
to obtain the pictorial representation of the airplane heading, and any deviation from the desired
heading or course.
F. The VOR/LOC flag functions to indicate navigation unit malfunction. It appears whenever power
is turned off, or lost to the navigation unit, or whenever the VOR/LOC signal fails, or falls below
a certain predetermined value. The GS warning flag functions in a similar manner, but with
respect to the GS receiver. When the system is operating in HDG or the VOR submode, the GS
flag and pointer are biased out of sight.

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G. The GS pointer displays airplane position relative to the glide slope. It is read against the GS
scale to indicate position of the airplane with respect to the glide slope. A deflection up
indicates that the airplane is below the glide slope, and a deflection down that it is above the
glide slope. The pointer is actuated by the GS deviation signal. When the system is operating in
HDG or VOR submodes, the pointer and flag are biased out of sight.
H. The MILES counter at the upper left corner of the CDI is the DME indicator (Ref 34-45-0).
4. Flight Instrument Amplifier Rack
A. The flight instrument amplifier rack contains five separate servo-amplifiers, plus a dual (bank
and pitch) channel signal converter and a power and command monitor. The servo-amplifiers
furnish the servo actuating power required by the bank and pitch servos in the FDI, the heading
servo in the CDI, and the bank and pitch steering command servos in the FDI. The signal
converter functions to change the dc steering command signals to the ac signals required by
the steering command servos. The steering command signals control positioning of the
V-pointers in the FDI (Fig. 4). Error signals induced in the steering command synchros are fed
to the bank and pitch steering command servo- amplifiers, where after amplification, they are
fed back to actuate the bank and pitch steering command servomotors. The motors then
operate and drive in such a direction as to null out the induced error signals, at the same time
repositioning the pointers to display the new command. The OFF switching in two legs of the
position synchro provides the biasing to deflect the V-pointers out of view when the system is
OFF. The power and command monitor functions to monitor both power to, and an errors in,
the roll and pitch command servo loops. Warning is given through the computer warning flag.
When power is available and the servo errors are within tolerance, a transistor is switched on,
completing part of the circuit which holds the computer flag out of view. Threshold amplifiers in
each servo-amplifier module prevent weak or random signals from actuating the FDI servos.
5. Flight Director Control Panel
A. The flight director control panel enables switching of the computer to operate in any one of the
following modes: GA, HDG, VOR/LOC, GS AUTO, or GS MAN. It contains the mode selector
switch, altitude hold switch and manual pitch command knob.
B. The mode selector switch has the following positions: OFF, GA, HDG, VOR/LOC, GS AUTO, or
GS MAN. The switch has to be depressed in order to select GS MAN. The switch will
automatically return to the GA position from GS AUTO, or GS MAN position, when the autopilot
disconnect button on the pilot’s control wheel is depressed.

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C. The VOR/LOC ARM submode is selected by turning the mode selector switch to the HDG
mode and keeping it there for 3 seconds, before turning to VOR/LOC mode. When this is done,
the VOR/LOC arm (amber) indicator lights in the display annunciator, and remains in sight until
the display is switched to VOR/LOC by mode signals from the computer. This happens when
the appropriate beam is sensed. The circuit is shown in Fig. 4.
D. VOR/LOC mode may be selected directly from the heading F/L submode by rotation of the
mode selector to MAN GS from the VOR/LOC position prior to beam capture and then back to
VOR/LOC. At this time the VOR/LOC annunciator will illuminate green (engage).
E. When GS ARM submode is selected by turning the mode selector switch to AUTO APP, the GS
arm (amber) will appear at the annunciator. The mode and annunciation will automatically
switch to GS when the GS beam capture sensor is operated (Ref Operation). Alternatively, GS
mode can be obtained by turning the mode selector switch to MAN GS.
F. Altitude hold selection is provided by the altitude hold toggle switch, which is solenoid held in
the ON position. Selection is activated by placing the switch to ON in HDG, VOR/LOC or AUTO
APP modes. If the mode selector switch is in the AUTO APP mode and the glide slope has
been intercepted or if the selector switch is turned to MAN GS, the altitude hold switch
automatically returns to OFF.
G. The manual pitch command synchro, controlled by the manual pitch command knob supplies
the manual pitch command signal to the computer.
6. Flight Director Computer
A. The flight director computer provides the bank and pitch steering commands, which are
displayed by the V-pointers in the FDI. These signals are dc signals, and are fed first of all to a
dual channel signal converter in the flight instrument amplifier, where they are changed to ac
signals, before being fed to operate the bank and pitch steering command servos in the FDI.
B. INFORMATION CONCERNING RADIO DEVIATION, SELECTED MAGNETIC HEADING AND
BANK ANGLE ARE USED IN THE COMPUTATION OF THE BANK STEERING COMMAND
SIGNAL, AND INFORMATION CONCERNING PITCH ATTITUDE, GLIDE SLOPE DEVIATION,
OR ALTITUDE INFORMATION ARE USED IN THE COMPUTATION OF THE PITCH
STEERING COMMAND SIGNAL. From this division of the input signals, two signal flow
channels result in the computer: bank and pitch. The functioning of these channels is described
later under Operation and is shown in Fig. 4.

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EFFECTIVITY
MX XA-CUB THRU XA-FIE AND
XA-TAA THRU XA-TAC

Flight Director System Schematic 1 178


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34-62-01 Figure 4 (Sheet 1) Jun 20/78


Page 10
EFFECTIVITY
MX XA-CUE THRU XA-FIE AND
XA-TAA THRU XA-TAC

178 Flight Director System Schematic 1


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Jun 20/78 Figure 4 (Sheet 2) 34-62-01


Page 11
EFFECTIVITY
MX ALL EXCEPT XA-CUB THRU
XA-FIE AND XA-TAA THRU
XA-TAC

Flight Director System Schematic 1 178


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34-62-01 Figure 4 (Sheet 3) Dec 20/78


Page 12
EFFECTIVITY
MX ALL EXCEPT XA-CUB THRU
XA-FIE AND XA-TAA THRU
XA-TAC

178 Flight Director System Schematic 1


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Dec 20/78 Figure 4 (Sheet 4) 34-62-01


Page 13
C. The computer also contains two power supply circuits, termed attitude and heading power. The
inputs however are connected together, and power to the computer is from a single source.
The computer also contains a warning flag circuit plus several logic circuits. The logic circuits
are used in switching of the computer to the various modes of operation. Some of these logic
circuits are controlled from the flight director control panel, and others are controlled internally
in the computer. The COMPUTER warning flag is actuated by a warning flag signal fed from the
warning flag circuit. This circuit in addition to monitoring all of the various input warning signals,
also monitors the V-pointers and power to the computer.
7. Air Data Computer
A. The air data computer is a device for detecting changes in static pressure altitude, as supplied
from the airplane static system. Once altitude hold is selected, any deviation in pressure
altitude will result in an error voltage being supplied to the computer pitch channel. The pitch
command output positions the V-pointers to visually show the airplane attitude necessary for a
smooth return to the desired pressure altitude. The air data computer is described in Chapter
34-12-0, Air Data Instruments.
8. Operation
A. Before the flight director systems can be operated, the attitude reference, compass and
VOR/ILS navigation systems must be operational (Fig 3). Closing the circuit breakers shown
provides power to the systems.
B. When power is applied to a system, if the mode selector is in OFF position, the V-pointers and
the COMPUTER warning flag in the FDI move out of sight. In this mode, as well as in all other
modes, the COMPUTER warning flag monitors power to the computer. Turning the mode
selector switch to the GA mode, or any one of the other modes causes the V-pointers to come
into sight.
C. In the bank channel, the bank error signal (which is developed in the vertical gyro when the
airplane is banked) is compared against the computed bank command signal to yield the bank
steering command signal. Similarly, in the pitch channel, the pitch error signal, or altitude error
signal is compared against the computed pitch command signal to yield the pitch steering
command signal. The system schematic is shown in Fig. 4. On this schematic, the controlling
inputs that alter gain and control switching of the circuits in the various modes are shown. For
example: the gain of the V/L beam sensor is changed when operating in the VOR/LOC mode
when LOC frequency is selected. Switches are shown, but in the computer, transistors handle
the switching.

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D. G/A Mode
(1) The GA (Go-Around) mode of operation is used for an aborted approach. When initiated,
the steering commands to the FDI are such that when the pilot centers the command bars
with the airplane symbol, the real airplane will be in a wings level and an 10-degree
pitchup angle. The system will automatically switch to GA, from either of the glide slope
modes, by depressing the autopilot disconnect switch on the control wheel. This energizes
the switch release solenoid and permits the mode selector to spring back to the GA
position. If the selector switch is in GS AUTO position, the system must have developed
glide slope capture to enable the release to GA position. When the flight director system is
in GA mode, the FD APD annunciators show GO AROUND and the computer produces
steering commands in the bank and pitch channels. In the bank channel, the computer
receives bank error signals from the vertical gyro which are directed through the flight
instrument amplifier as bank steering commands to the FDI. The V-pointers indicate the
corrections necessary to keep the airplane level in a lateral plane. In the pitch channel, the
computer receives and mixes pitch error signals from the vertical gyro and a 10 degree
preset pitchup bias to produce pitch steering command signals. These steering command
signals are supplied through the flight instrument amplifier to the V-pointers in the FDI.
The V-pointers then indicate the necessary corrections to keep the airplane in the desired
flight path in respect to pitch.
E. HDG Mode
(1) In the HDG mode of operation, the selected heading error signal is fed to the computer
from the heading select synchro in the CDI. The signal is limited and becomes the bank
command signal. The bank error signal is fed from the vertical gyro. This signal is phase
detected and amplified before being mixed with the bank command signal to yield a
deviation signal, which is further amplified and converted to a dc signal before becoming
the bank steering command signal. The steering commands are limited to 30 degrees in
roll and 12 degrees in pitch. In the pitch channel, the pitch error signal and the manual
pitch command signals are mixed together to provide the pitch steering command signal.
The altitude error signal may be used in place of the manual pitch command signal. In this
case, the altitude error signal is mixed with the filtered and phase converted pitch error
signal, which is amplified and limited, before being mixed with the original pitch error
signal to produce the pitch steering command signal. In this mode of operation the
COMPUTER warning flag monitors power to the computer, and gyro and compass inputs,
and the steering command display system (V-pointers).

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F. VOR/LOC Mode
(1) In the VOR/LOC mode, the bank steering command signal provides steering command
information to intercept and hold the selected VOR, or LOC course. The steering
commands are limited to 30 degrees in roll and 12 degrees in pitch. The action is similar
for either course, except that in LOC tighter coupling is provided. This is accomplished
through logic circuits that alter the various gains and limits of the associated circuits. In
this mode, course rate, VOR, or LOC deviation rate, and bank rate signals are applied to
the complementary filter to become a synthetic radio deviation damping signal which
opposes the VOR, or LOC deviation signal in order to prevent overshoot in following the
command. The course cut limiter combines the output signal from the complementary filter
with the VOR, or LOC deviation signal and the course error (phase reversed) signal to
produce the bank command signal. The action of the limiter permits interception of the
selected course at a fixed heading angle relative to the selected course of 45 degrees on
MX XA-CUB thru XA-FIE and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC and 30 degrees on ALL EXCEPT MX
XA-CUB thru XA-FIE and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC.
(2) At approximately 8 to 10 degrees from the VOR beam center, the computer will generate
roll commands due to high gain radio rate signals. The V/L beam sensor is activated by
V/L mode voltage with NAV FLAG, AND VOR/LOC inputs. When the airplane is within
5 degrees on MX XA-CUB thru XA-FIE and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC and 3 degrees on ALL
EXCEPT MX XA-CUB thru XA-FIE and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC of a selected VOR radial, a
"nav-capture" signal, generated at the V/L beam sensor, changes the course cut limiter
output and reduces the command intercept-angle from 45 to 17 degrees on MX XA-CUB
thru XA-FIE and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC and 30 to 20 degrees on MX ALL EXCEPT
XA-CUB thru XA-FIE and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC. At the same time however, differentiating
circuitry in the computer is producing a damping signal (radio rate) which initiates a roll
command. If the airplane path follows the V-pointer roll commands the resultant flight path
will be a smooth flare-in to the course.
(3) On MX XA-CUB thru XA-FIE and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC, the "nav-capture" signal activates
a timer which, after a predetermined delay also provides a "nav-capture" output and
through an inverter produces a 0-volt level "not-track" signal. The timer output is provided
to maintain "nav-capture" switching during temporary loss of a V/L beam sensor input and
the "not-track" signal is used for gain switching in the computer.

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(4) On ALL EXCEPT MX XA-CUB thru XA-FIE and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC,
the "nav-capture" signal turns off the HDG V/L signal. This activates a timer which, after a
minimum of 60 seconds delay provides a "track" signal provided that the bank angle is
less than 3 degrees. When both of these criteria are met, the computer is latched into the
track mode until another mode is selected. The output is provided to maintain "nav-
capture" switching during temporary loss of a V/L beam sensor input and for gain
switching in the computer.
(5) On MX XA-CUB thru XA-FIE and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC,
when flying to a LOC course, "nav-capture" is generated when the airplane intercepts
within 2 degrees of the LOC course, but there is no reduction of the course cut limiter
output to change the intercept angle from 45 to 17 degrees.
(6) On MX ALL EXCEPT XA-CUB thru XA-FIE and XA-TAA thru XA-TAC,
when flying to a LOC course, the point at which beam capture occurs varies with airplane
speed. At higher airplane speeds, beam capture occurs farther from beam center to
produce an earlier roll command and to prevent overshoot. At NAV capture, the course cut
limiter angle is reduced from 30 to 20 degrees but the bank limit angle is not changed.
(7) On VOR or LOC the bank command signal is mixed with the bank error signal to produce
the bank steering command signal. Pitch channel operation in this mode is identical to that
in the HDG mode.

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G. HDG V/L Arm Submode
(1) In the HDG V/L arm submode, the pilot is enabled to choose the angle of capture for a
VOR or LOC course through selection of a desired heading. This is different from
VOR/LOC mode, where an intercept angle of 45 or 30 degrees (as applicable) is
maintained by the course cut limiter. The submode is engaged by turning the mode
selector switch momentarily (3 seconds or more) to HDG and then to VOR/LOC. When
this is done, the VOR/LOC arm (amber) light comes on, and the system operates initially
as in HDG mode. When nav-capture is generated at the V/L beam sensor, the computer is
automatically switched to either the VOR, or LOC mode. The annunciation changes from
VOR/LOC arm (amber) to VOR/LOC (green). At this time the COMPUTER warning flag
will also begin monitoring VOR information from the navigation unit. The identical
COMPUTER warning flag action takes place when capturing a localizer beam, except that
the warning flag circuit now monitors LOC inputs instead of VOR information. In this mode,
pitch channel operation is the same as that described for HDG mode.
H. GS AUTO Mode
(1) In the GS AUTO mode, bank channel operation is as described for V/L arm submode on
LOC, or LOC mode. In the initial phase of the GS AUTO mode, the GLIDE SLOPE arm
(amber) indicator lights at the annunciator providing a GS flag signal is generated by the
GS receiver and a LOC freq select signal is delivered from the VOR/LOC receiver. When
the center of the glide slope beam is reached, a glide slope capture signal is generated in
the GS beam sensor and the computer is automatically switched to the final approach
phase. The COMPUTER warning flag at this time begins monitoring glide slope
information in addition to its other inputs. At this time also, the GLIDE SLOPE (green) and
GO-AROUND arm (amber) indicators light in the annunciator. In the final approach phase,
the bank channel utilizes the same signals as described for LOC mode and the roll
commands are limited to 15 degrees. At glide slope capture, a pitchdown bias causes an
approximate 2 degrees pitchdown command. This bias is cancelled after 14 seconds by
the low pass filter which passes changing signals but shunts steady-state signals. After
glide slope capture the localizer deviation pointer comes into view and indicates deviation
from the localizer beam at approximately twice the sensitivity of the CDI bar. The
complementary filter provides for crosswind correction. Its output is combined with the
localizer deviation signal to provide a damping signal. The difference between these two
signals becomes the bank command signal. The bank command signal is then mixed with
the bank error signal to yield the bank steering command signal.

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Page 17
The pitch channel uses the pitch error signal and the glide slope deviation signal. Glide
slope deviation information is amplified, fed to the glide slope capture sensor and is mixed
with the pitch error signal to produce the pitch steering command signal.
I. GS MAN Mode
(1) In this mode of operation, automatic sensing of the glide slope beam, through the GS
beam sensor is eliminated. A voltage from the mode selector switch, replaces the GS
capture signal, and loss of GS AUTO mode voltage deactivates the sensor. Also, the
annunciator will show GLIDESLOPE engaged (green).
J. Time Base Glide Slope Gain Programs
(1) Lower weather minimum (LWM) (category II) time base glide slope gain programming is
utilized at airfields at which category II LWM landing facilities are available.
(2) The purpose of glide slope gain programming is to reduce the pitch steering channel gain
(by resistance-capacity time-constant circuitry) and keep the aircraft in the glide slope
beam despite beam irregularities and reduced beam width close in to the airfield. This
pitch channel gain is the ratio of pitch command to glide slope deviation. The various gain
parameters are preset to specified values. Pitch channel gain is automatically reduced by
signal trips from the radio altimeter and marker beacon receiver systems.
(3) Prior to commencement of gain program No. 1, with the mode selector set to GS AUTO,
the pitch channel operates at a gain 1 level which is initiated by selection of GS AUTO
mode. Subsequent to glide slope beam capture, and upon receipt of a 1500-foot radio
altimeter signal trip, the pitch channel gain is reduced by gain 1 over a 120-second period
to nominal gain. This gain is then maintained until either a middle marker or 200-foot radio
altimeter trip executes commencement of gain 2. The pitch channel gain is then further
reduced from nominal gain to gain 2 over a 7.5-second period, and this gain figure is now
maintained until either the aircraft has landed, or go-around mode is selected.
(4) With GS MAN mode selected prior to gain 2, pitch channel gain is reduced immediately to
nominal gain, eliminating gain 1. However, gain 2 will still follow as described above.

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K. Altitude Hold Submode
(1) The altitude hold submode can be used in HDG, VOR/LOC and GS AUTO modes. If the
air data computer fails, a warning flag voltage switches off a transistor in the accessory
box. This opens the altitude hold circuit and the ALTITUDE HOLD switch returns to the
OFF position. In GS AUTO mode, as soon as glide slope capture is generated a transistor
is turned off in the altitude hold solenoid circuit and the ALTITUDE HOLD switch springs to
the OFF position. This enables glide slope deviation signals to be used in the pitch
channel instead of pressure altitude deviation signals.
L. Computer Flag Circuit Operation
(1) Figure 5 shows the schematic diagram of the computer flag circuit which provides a
ground to operate the computer flag in the FDI. The primary transistors in the circuit are
Q3 in the flight instrument amplifier and Q8 in the computer. If the various inputs to the
computer are correct and the computer is functioning properly, Q3 and Q8 will be
conducting to complete the computer flag solenoid circuit and pull the COMPUTER flag
out of view.
(2) The command monitor warning module in the instrument amplifier monitors the B+ supply
and the input signal to the roll command servo-amplifier and the pitch command servo-
amplifier. If the power supply to either of the amplifiers is defective, Q3 will be biased to
cutoff. Similarly if the input signal to either of the amplifiers indicates more than 4.5
degrees of error between the command signal and the V-pointer position signal, Q3 will be
biased to cutoff.
(3) The roll monitor and pitch monitor circuits in the computer comprise transistor/diode logic
to monitor the various inputs. In the illustration, the input signals are read horizontally and
the relevant inputs for a specific mode are read vertically. The "x" indicates that the signal
voltage is present. For example, in the roll monitor block in VOR/LOC mode the input
signals which are essential to complete the AND gate are PITCH MONITOR, NAV FLAG
GYRO MONITOR, COMPASS MONITOR, HEADING POWER (28V-dc) and ATTITUDE
POWER (38V-dc).
(4) The pitch monitor signal is produced in the pitch monitor circuit from various inputs,
depending on the operating mode of the pitch channel which has been selected. If GS is
selected the computer will monitor the HDG inputs in the pitch monitor until the computer
is switched to GS mode by a glide slope capture voltage. computer is switched to GS
mode by a glide slope capture voltage. In GS mode, although GS is selected, the
computer will be in either MANUAL PITCH or ALT HOLD before G/S capture.

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Flight Director Computer Flag Schematic 178
T49636

34-62-01 Figure 5 Jun 20/78


Page 20
MX

NAVIGATION WARNING SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

EFFECTIVITY

ALL EXCEPT XA-SEM and 727-200

1. General
A. The navigation warning system provides a warning indications through actuation of warning
lights, after a comparison has been made between output signals as fed from each of the
following No. 1 and No. 2 systems: compass, attitude reference, and VOR/GS navigation. The
signals compared are heading (compass), roll and pitch (attitude reference), and localizer
deviation and glide slope deviation (VOR/GS navigation).
B. The system consists of a comparator warning unit, plus two annunciator panels. The
annunciator panels contain the warning lights, which light to give a warning indication, and also
serve to identify the system malfunctioning. AC power to the comparator warning unit is also
monitored through warning lights on the annunciator panels. The lights labeled MON PWR,
light on loss of ac power to the unit. A test button is provided, and is used to check functioning
of the various channels in the system. Provision is made for indication of radar altimeter system
faults. Location of the components is shown in figure 1.
2. Operation
A. The system is armed when the COMPARATOR circuit breakers at the P18 load control center
are closed. Refer to figure 2. The heading, and the pitch and roll warning channels operate in a
similar manner. Taking the heading warning channel as an example: Two differential resolvers
are used for the comparison. The comparison signal is obtained from the resolver in the
captain’s CDI. The other resolver is in the first officer’s CDI. From the transmitter portion of the
captain’s resolver, heading is transferred to the control transformer portion of the first officer’s
resolver. Here, a comparison is made between heading as sensed by both compass systems.
Any variation in heading produces an output through the transmitter portion of the first officer’s
resolver to the comparator warning unit. This warning signal is fed to a rectifier and filter time
delay circuit before being fed to the threshold detector. The filter and time delay prevent
nuisance warnings during short duration errors. The threshold detector senses only signals
exceeding a certain predetermined value before providing an output to activate the HDG
warning lights. Roll and pitch signals are monitored in the same manner. The roll modifier circuit
functions to desensitize the heading warning signal as a function of bank angle in order to
prevent unnecessary actuation of the HDG lights. This is necessary due to differences in the
dynamic response of the two compass systems when the airplane is banked.

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Page 1
Navigation Warning System Component Location 178
H74325

34-63-0 Figure 1 Dec 20/72


Page 2
178 Navigation Warning System Schematic
H74955

Dec 20/72 Figure 2 34-63-0


Page 3
MX

B. When glide slope capture is generated in the computer of the captain’s flight director system, a
trigger signal is applied which changes the threshold level in the heading, roll and pitch
channels. When triggered, the threshold level is reduced from 4 to 3 degrees in pitch and roll
and from 6 to 4 degrees in heading. The trigger signal, designated APPROACH TRIGGER in
the diagram, also activates the altimeter channel when altimeter comparison is made to
operate.
C. Localizer and glide slope deviation are compared separately in two comparators. The signals
are modified and amplified before being fed to threshold detectors. The operations performed
on the localizer and glide slope deviation signals are identical. If the output from either
comparator (localizer, or glide slope) exceeds a certain predetermined value, the appropriate
threshold detector will provide an output to the associated warning lights. In order to prevent
operation of the comparators, other than when the deviation signals are present, they are
activated by mode signals. When both navigation units are in the ILS mode, 28 volt dc is
applied to both comparators (provided the DEVIATION switch is in the No. 1 position). After a
suitable time delay, the comparators become active. In the case of the glide slope comparator,
in addition to the navigation units being in the ILS mode, the glide slope high-level (Super) flag
signals must be present. With the super flag signals present, the glide slope comparator will be
activated. The glide slope super flag signals appear only when glide slope receivers are
activated, and glide slope signals of a predetermined value are present to them.
D. The warning lights remain lighted for as long as a fault condition exists. The lights can be
dimmed by pushing on them. The lights will remain dimmed until the fault is cleared at which
time they are automatically reset to their original (bright) condition.
E. The comparator warning unit and the lights may be tested by pressing the test button. When
the button is pressed, all the warning lights will light, indicating that the comparator warning unit
is functioning. If a comparator warning unit manufactured prior to unit No. MCN 756 is installed,
the monitor power light will not be lighted by pressing the test button unless the unit has been
modified per Collins Service Bulletin No. 1.
F. A switch and several test lights are provided on the comparator warning unit for system test
purposes. (See figure 1.)

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NAVIGATION WARNING SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
MX

EFFECTIVITY

XA-SEM and 727-200

1. General
A. The navigation warning system provides a warning indication through actuation of master
warning lights and a group of system warning lights, after a comparison has been made
between output signals as fed from each of the following No. 1 and No. 2 systems: compass,
attitude reference, and VOR/GS navigation. The signals compared are heading (compass), roll
and pitch (attitude reference), and localizer deviation and glide slope deviation (VOR/GS
navigation).
B. The system consists of a comparator warning unit, an annunciator panel, a sounder and two
master warning lights. The annunciator panel, located on the forward electronic control panel,
contains the system warning lights, a dim switch, a test/reset switch and a master disconnect
switch. Each annunciator panel switch has an integral indicator light. The master warning lights,
on the main instrument panels, are illuminated when any of the system warning lights are lit by
a system fault. Location of the components is shown in figure 1.
2. Operation
A. The system is armed when the COMPARATOR circuit breakers at the P18 load control center
are closed. (See figure 2.) The heading, and the pitch and roll warning channels operate in a
similar manner. Taking the heading warning channel as an example: Two differential resolvers
are used for the comparison. The comparison signal is obtained from the resolver in the
captain’s CDI. The other resolver is in the first officer’s CDI. From the transmitter portion of the
captain’s resolver, heading is transferred to the control transformer portion of the first officer’s
resolver. Here, a comparison is made between the heading displays. Any discrepancy between
heading displays produces an output through the transmitter portion of the first officer’s resolver
to the comparator warning unit. The absence of a null between the two displays, with respect to
each other, is shown in the diagram as an input to the "null" block. If a power failure occurred,
the H’C’ rotor would indicate a misleading null between the instruments and no warning would
occur. The HC rotor, therefore, monitors power at the instruments to provide a warning input to
the threshold detector. This warning signal is rectified and filtered before being fed to the
threshold detector. The threshold detector senses only signals exceeding a certain
predetermined value before providing an output to activate the master warning and the

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Dec 20/72 34-63-01
Page 1
Navigation Warning System Component Location 178
H74331

34-63-01 Figure 1 Jun 15/66


Page 2
178 Navigation Warning System Schematic
H73945

Dec 20/72 Figure 2 34-63-01


Page 3
COMP system warning lights. Roll and pitch signals are monitored in the same manner. The
roll/pitch modifier circuits function to desensitize the heading warning signal as a function of
bank/pitch angle in order to prevent unnecessary actuation of the COMP light. This is
necessary due to differences in the dynamic response of the two compass systems when the
airplane attitude changes.
B. Localizer and glide slope deviation are compared separately in two comparators. The signals
are modified and amplified before being fed to threshold detectors. The operations performed
on the localizer and glide slope deviation signals are identical. If the output from either
comparator (localizer, or glide slope) exceeds a certain predetermined value, the appropriate
threshold detector will provide an output to the associated warning light. In order to prevent
operation of the comparators, other than when the deviation signals are present, they are
activated by mode signals. When both navigation units are in the ILS mode, 28 volts dc is
applied to both comparators. After a suitable time delay, the comparators become active. In the
case of the glide slope comparator, in addition to the navigation units being in the ILS mode,
the glide slope high level (Super) flag signals must be present. With the super flag signals
present, the glide slope comparator will be activated. The glide slope super flag signals appear
only when glide slope signals of a predetermined value are present to the glide slope portion of
the navigation units.
C. A system warning light will remain lit when triggered by a comparison discrepancy. The master
warning lights and sounder are disconnected from a channel which indicates a system fault, by
depressing the master disconnect switch. The system light remains on, the master warning
lights go out and the sounder stops operating but remains armed to receive a fault signal from
any of the other warning amplifiers. The system warning light can be reset by pushing the
test/reset button and, if the fault has cleared, the light will go out. The lights can be dimmed by
actuating the dim switch alongside the test/reset button.
D. The comparator warning unit, master warning lights, sounder and system warning lights may be
tested by pressing the test button. When the button is depressed, all the warning lights will light.
E. The warning lights may be tested individually to ensure that they are operational. They are of
the push-to-test type, and are supplied dc for this purpose directly from the comparator warning
unit.
F. A switch and several lights are provided on the comparator warning unit for system test
purposes. (See figure 1.)

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