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‫‪Wuthering Heights‬‬

‫‪Emily Bronte‬‬

‫‪Warqaa Lowi‬‬

‫مالحظة‪:‬يرجى عدم االعتماد على معلومات الملزمة بشكل كامل مع الحرص على قراءة نص الكتاب كامالً‬
‫مع مالحظات المحاضرة ‪‬‬
ً‫يرجى عدم االعتماد على معلومات الملزمة بشكل كامل مع الحرص على قراءة نص الكتاب كامال‬:‫مالحظة‬
J ‫مع مالحظات المحاضرة‬

Warqaa Lowi
Chapter 1 | Summary
Summary

In 1801 the narrator, Mr. Lockwood, describes his first visit to the Wuthering
Heights estate located in the English countryside. He gives only a brief insight
into his character in the chapter, explaining that he was once infatuated with a
woman only to lose interest when she returned his affection. Mr. Lockwood has
just met his new landlord, Heathcliff, owner of both Wuthering Heights and
Thrushcross Grange, the estate across the moors Mr. Lockwood has rented. At
the main entrance, Mr. Lockwood sees "a wilderness of crumbling griffins and
shameless little boys" carved above the door, along with the date "1500" and the
".name "Hareton Earnshaw

Mr. Lockwood describes Heathcliff as "a dark-skinned gipsy in aspect, in dress


and manners a gentleman." Then Mr. Lockwood notices a dog and her puppies.
When he pets the dog, she growls at him, and Heathcliff warns, "She's not
accustomed to be spoiled—not kept for a pet." Left alone in the kitchen, Mr.
Lockwood makes faces at the mother dog and two sheepdogs that appear. The
dogs attack him, bringing even more dogs from other areas of the house that nip
at his heels and pull on his coat. Heathcliff and two servants, Joseph and Zillah,
have to rescue Mr. Lockwood from the dogs. Mr. Lockwood is angry about the
attack, but Heathcliff scolds him instead of apologizing, saying, "The dogs do right
".to be vigilant

Heathcliff offers wine to calm Mr. Lockwood. They make small talk about the
rental property, and Mr. Lockwood mentions wanting to visit the next day.
Heathcliff does not extend an invitation, but Mr. Lockwood decides to visit
.anyway

Analysis

In Wuthering Heights, the setting reflects the characters' violent emotions. Mr.
Lockwood, one of the book's narrators, claims the bleak, isolated, and brooding
Yorkshire countryside is a "perfect misogynist's heaven." For those who dislike
and wish to avoid other people, as Mr. Lockwood claims he does, this is the place
to be. Mr. Lockwood imagines a sympathy of emotion between himself and
Heathcliff, but his shallow flirtation will stand in stark contrast to Heathcliff's
.deep love
Property is power in the Victorian period, and Wuthering Heights will play a
central role in the plot. Mr. Lockwood observes the estate is aptly named
"Wuthering ... descriptive of the atmospheric tumult to which its station is
exposed in stormy weather." The "few stunted firs" and "range of gaunt thorns"
around the house suggest it is not an easy place for living things to grow or
survive. Excessive storms and wind "slant" the trees, which will come to
represent the characters of privilege as they are emotionally battered and
twisted by violence. Nonetheless, the house has been built to withstand
whatever wild weather it encounters. The ability or inability to withstand
dangerous, passionate emotions and situations is a central issue throughout the
.novel

Mr. Lockwood's choice of the word station is significant, connoting social class,
an issue that concerns multiple characters as they struggle to maintain or shift
their stations in society. Mr. Lockwood immediately notices Heathcliff's
.complicated social position; his skin color is at odds with his dress and manners

Symbolic animals make an important appearance in this chapter. When Mr.


Lockwood attempts to pet a dog and its puppies in the kitchen, assuming that
they, like most domestic dogs, are tame pets, he quickly learns that his
conventional expectations will not help him to understand the inhabitants of
.Wuthering Heights

Chapter 2 | Summary

Summary

Mr. Lockwood sets out across the moors toward Wuthering Heights, arriving just
as it begins to snow. Finding the garden gate locked, he jumps over it. Mr.
Lockwood pounds on the door, but no one answers. Finally, a young man
(Hareton) sees Mr. Lockwood and brings him in through the kitchen where he
meets "Mrs. Heathcliff" (Catherine). Everyone is rude to Mr. Lockwood, who now
believes that Heathcliff has "a genuine bad nature." No one will help Mr.
Lockwood back to Thrushcross Grange, although it is now dark and snowing
heavily, so he grabs a lantern to find his own way home. Joseph accuses him of
stealing the lantern and commands the dogs to attack. The dogs knock Mr.
Lockwood over, and his yelling and screaming give him a nosebleed, at which
Heathcliff laughs. Finally, Heathcliff allows Mr. Lockwood to spend the night at
.Wuthering Heights
Analysis

A typical Victorian gentleman, Mr. Lockwood expects to be welcomed at


Wuthering Heights with customary hospitality and good manners. He gradually
realizes, however, that the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights live by their own set
of rules, and his reliance on traditional social expectations fails miserably. True to
his era, he expects a beautiful woman like Catherine to be the "angel in the
house," a sweet, domestic goddess who is kind and welcoming, but Catherine is
.none of these things

In Wuthering Heights, the social world Mr. Lockwood knows is turned upside
down. Mr. Lockwood's own social niceties begin to give way as he finds himself in
a hostile environment, introducing the novel's theme of cyclical violence—in
other words, how violence creates violent people. Mr. Lockwood becomes
increasingly angry in response to the "disagreeable" companions who do not
pretend social civility (as he does), check their violent tendencies, or care to be
seen as helpful or sociable. In this way, he is the embodiment of artificial,
rational society. But Wuthering Heights infects Mr. Lockwood with its own dark
energy, reducing him to screeching like an angry lunatic by the end of the
.chapter

Chapter 3 | Summary

Summary

Zillah, a servant at Wuthering Heights, leads Mr. Lockwood to a bedroom


Heathcliff never allows anyone to sleep in. Mr. Lockwood takes his candle into
the bedroom cabinet (a bed inside of a closet) and finds a woman's name,
Catherine, etched repeatedly on the window ledge, with variations on three
different last names—Heathcliff, Linton, and Earnshaw. He also finds Cathy's
diary and some notes she has written in the margins of old books. In the diary,
Cathy writes about her childhood with Heathcliff. She details her brother
Hindley's domineering mistreatment of them (he is especially hard on Heathcliff,
whom he exiles from family life) and the servant Joseph's insistence on force-
feeding them the Bible. She describes how Heathcliff is waiting to sneak out at
.night to the moors with her as soon as she finishes writing in her diary
After reading the stories, Mr. Lockwood falls asleep and has two terrible
nightmares. In the first nightmare, Joseph chastises Mr. Lockwood for not having
a pilgrim's staff and hands him a weapon instead. They pass the Gimmerton
chapel, which looks as it does in real life, run down and without a clergyman; but
in the dream, a famous preacher, Jabez Branderham, preaches to a full
congregation. Inside the chapel and bored by the sermon, Mr. Lockwood, the
dreamer, "pinches" and "pricks" himself to stay awake when "a sudden
inspiration ... to denounce Jabez Branderham" seizes him. "Fellow-martyrs, have
at him!" Mr. Lockwood cries out, but the congregation attacks Mr. Lockwood, not
Jabez Branderham. Having no weapon now, Mr. Lockwood wrestles Joseph for
his weapon. The members of the congregation brawl with each other as the
preacher taps loudly on the "boards of the pulpit," and the sounds wake Mr.
Lockwood up. He realizes that a fir tree branch scraping against the window has
.created all the noise in his dream

In the second nightmare, Mr. Lockwood remembers the fir tree banging against
the window, so he breaks through the glass to silence the annoying scraping
sounds. However, instead of a tree branch, Mr. Lockwood's "fingers closed on
the fingers of a little ice-cold hand." He hears a voice sobbing, "Let me in—Let me
in," so he asks, "Who are you?" The ghost tells him she is Catherine Linton. The
ghost refuses to let go, and when she finally does, Mr. Lockwood piles the books
against the window and closes his eyes in terror. The books jump a bit on the
.ledge, and that causes him to wake up screaming

Heathcliff enters the bedroom. When he discovers Mr. Lockwood is sleeping


there, he threatens to kick Zillah out of the house for defying him. Mr. Lockwood
tells Heathcliff about his dream and refers to Cathy as "a little fiend" and "a
wicked little soul." Heathcliff is enraged, and Mr. Lockwood remembers reading
in Cathy's diary that they were good friends in their youth. Heathcliff then cries
.passionately for Cathy, opening the window to let her spirit in

The next morning, Mr. Lockwood refuses breakfast, desiring to leave as soon as
possible. Heathcliff walks him through the snow partway to Thrushcross Grange,
leaving Mr. Lockwood to find the rest of his way home by himself. After sinking in
snowdrifts up to his neck and losing his way several times, he arrives soaking wet
.and exhausted

Analysis

Mr. Lockwood's nightmare and Cathy's first appearance as a ghost in the novel
raise questions: Who is Cathy? How did she die? Did she indeed have three last
names, signifying two marriages? She terrifies Lockwood who thinks she is
demonic. From her first appearance in the novel, Cathy's identity is fragmented,
foreshadowing how she will be associated with shifting identities and allegiances
.as she is torn between her family, her husband's family, and Heathcliff

Cathy's appearance as a ghost adds another Gothic dimension to the story. She
crosses the boundary between the living and the dead. Wuthering Heights is a
haunted house both literally and metaphorically. Characters throughout the
novel are haunted psychologically by brutal childhoods, lost love, illness, or other
factors. Heathcliff's unusual response to Cathy's ghostly visitation, for example,
demonstrates how deeply she haunts his existence years after her death. Cathy's
ghost is a child, suggesting how deeply events in the novel are rooted in a
.traumatic past

Cathy's diary reveals a childhood full of repression, cruelty, and rebellion that will
haunt her and Heathcliff all their lives. These incidents cause the children to
become allies against their cruel mistreatment and against religion. The wild
landscape mirrors the characters' emotions as the children seek an escape on the
moors, where they feel free to be themselves, unmediated by authority: "We
".cannot be damper, or colder, in the rain than we are here

Mr. Lockwood's first nightmare of enduring a "four hundred and ninety" part
sermon reflects the way in which Cathy and Heathcliff shunned Joseph's type of
religious instruction. It is significant that Mr. Lockwood wrestles Joseph, as the
Biblical character Jacob wrestled with an angel, foreshadowing religious struggles
.for many characters

Heathcliff succumbs to tears as he begs Cathy's ghost to stay, rousing pity and
compassion in readers even after Mr. Lockwood has asserted Heathcliff's
"genuine bad nature." The explanation for how he came to be so "inhospitable"
and angry will be rooted in the story of his childhood and relationship with
..Cathy

Chapter 4 | Summary

Summary

Back at Thrushcross Grange, Mr. Lockwood finds out that Mrs. Dean, a servant,
has lived there for eighteen years and knows about Heathcliff and Cathy's past.
He entices her to keep him company and gossip about their neighbors at
.Wuthering Heights. Mr. Lockwood really wants to find out more about Cathy

Mrs. Dean begins at the point in the past when Heathcliff, a homeless orphan, is
brought home by Mr. Earnshaw from a trip to Liverpool. Before he leaves for his
trip, Mr. Earnshaw asks his children, Cathy and Hindley, what gifts they would
like him to bring back from Liverpool. Cathy wants a whip, and Hindley wants a
fiddle. Remembering the young servant in training, Mrs. Dean—called Nelly or
.Ellen at that time—he promises to bring her apples and pears

However, Mr. Earnshaw loses the whip, and the fiddle is crushed on the long
walk home with Heathcliff. Exhausted when he arrives, Mr. Earnshaw says the
trip nearly killed him. He tells his family to take Heathcliff as "a gift of God ...
though it's as dark almost as if it came from the devil." Mrs. Earnshaw calls
Heathcliff "a gipsy brat," but agrees to take him in. Cathy and Hindley,
disappointed at losing their gifts, treat Heathcliff badly, even spitting on him, but
.Cathy eventually befriends him, and he becomes Mr. Earnshaw's favorite

Ellen, the future Mrs. Dean, despises Heathcliff too, until Hindley, Cathy, and
Heathcliff get the measles. Ellen then steps wholly into her position as a servant
and cares for the sick children. Heathcliff's sweetness during his illness changes
her feelings toward him. Still, she wonders what Mr. Earnshaw loves so much
about Heathcliff to favor him over Hindley. Then she recalls when Mr. Earnshaw
bought two horses, one for Hindley and one for Heathcliff. Heathcliff picks "the
handsomest," but when it falls lame, he demands Hindley's horse. Hindly refuses
to trade, so Heathcliff picks a fight, provoking Hindley to violence, so he can use
his bruises as proof to make Mr. Earnshaw beat Hindley. Hindley gives Heathcliff
the horse, saying, "I pray that he may break your neck" and calls Heathcliff "imp
of Satan." Ellen persuades Heathcliff to take the horse and not tell on Hindley.
".Since he takes her advice, she mistakenly believes him "not vindictive

Analysis

The structure of Wuthering Heights changes in Chapter 4, leaving the present.


Through its second narrator, Mrs. Dean, it dives into the past. Mr. Lockwood's
character fades away and becomes peripheral to the story. The chapter also
establishes Mrs. Dean's social status. She quickly corrects herself when she says
"us" while referring to the Lintons—a wealthy family whose storyline hasn't
developed yet. The reader will come to learn Mrs. Dean is truly a part of the
family, but her station in life as a servant prevents her being acknowledged as
such by the other main characters. While the novel largely focuses on the upper
classes, their story is related by a narrator who is a servant, bringing into
question Mrs. Dean's trustworthiness. As the novel progresses, the reader will
need to consider Mrs. Dean's role in the other characters' lives, whether she is an
unreliable narrator, and what her true intentions are at different times as the
.story unfolds

The theme of good versus evil, symbolized by the fiddle and whip, develops in
Earnshaw's first words about the young Heathcliff. Which is Heathcliff, a gift or a
curse? Which will Heathcliff become, good or evil? Is he already evil when he
arrives? Does he turn the Earnshaws toward evil, or do they turn him into the
bitter, twisted man he eventually becomes? As this chapter reveals the roots of
discord between the main characters, it explores the source of Heathcliff's evil—
nature or nuture? Cathy, already "mischievous" and "wayward," adopts
Heathcliff as a playmate, but not before she and Hindley ridicule and shame him.
Is she to blame for Heathcliff's evil nature? Hindley, rejected by his own father,
who previously doted and spoiled him with gifts, turns violent against the
"usurper." Is Heathcliff truly a usurper at this point? Is Hindley's violence toward
Heathcliff the cause of Heathcliff's later vindictiveness? Heathcliff, described by
Mrs. Dean, is a contradiction from the start: he is a "lamb" with the measles, yet
there is evidence against him: an unknown background and a "sullen"
disposition. From the start Heathcliff inspires strong, opposing reactions of love
.and hate

Earnshaw's description of the dark "gipsy" child as demonic and his wife's
outrage at the boy's origins also highlight stereotypical assumptions about race
and class. Heathcliff is also a homeless, penniless orphan, the lowest of the low
.on Victorian England's social ladder

Chapter 5 | Summary

Summary

Mr. Earnshaw has taken ill and now sleeps by the fire in the sitting area of
Wuthering Heights. Dying has made him irritable, so everyone in the household
tries not to bother him. Mr. Earnshaw's anger is most stirred when anyone tries
to "impose upon or domineer over" Heathcliff, his favorite. Ellen, Joseph, and
Cathy humor Mr. Earnshaw, and "that humouring was rich nourishment to the
child's pride and black tempers." Hindley continues to scorn Heathcliff, which
.invokes his father's rage

The curate suggests Hindley leave for college. Wuthering Heights becomes more
peaceful in his absence, but Joseph stirs new discord. Constantly "sermonizing,"
he is relentless in "worrying [Mr. Earnshaw] about his soul's concerns." He
encourages Mr. Earnshaw to disapprove of Hindley, Heathcliff, and Cathy in
.order to gain more influence over the master of the estate

Mrs. Dean describes Cathy during this time as putting "all of us past our patience
fifty times and oftener in a day." Cathy is always "singing, laughing, and plaguing
everybody who would not do the same." At the same time, she praises Cathy's
sweet smile and "bonn[y] eye." The stricter Mr. Earnshaw becomes as he nears
death, the more Cathy "delights in provoking him." Her favorite way to bother
her father comes through showing him how Heathcliff does all of her bidding,
while he only does Mr. Earnshaw's bidding "when it suited his own inclination."
This leads to Cathy's father rejecting her and telling her, "I cannot love thee,
".thou'rt worse than thy brother

One warm, windy night, Mr. Earnshaw dies. Cathy, Mrs. Dean, and Heathcliff
"wail ... loud and bitter" together. Mrs. Dean must fetch the doctor. When she
returns, seeking solace for herself as much as to console the others, she peeps
through Cathy and Heathcliff's door, but they are calm and do not need her to
.console them

Analysis

The theme of pride versus humility develops as readers see the emotional
distance between the servants and upper-class characters in the novel. Joseph
turns Mr. Earnshaw against Cathy. Heathcliff's pride increases because he is Mr.
Earnshaw's favorite, as Ellen's place in the house diminishes. Ellen is sent to fetch
the doctor and excluded from finding comfort when she returns even though she
is just as upset about Mr. Earnshaw's death as Cathy and Heathcliff. This shift in
status and the characters' differing responses to it heavily influences their actions
.later in the story

Is Cathy good or not, and do Ellen's negative comments contain a bias against
Cathy, whom she also describes as liking to sing and laugh? Like Heathcliff,
Cathy's character is full of contradictions. Like Heathcliff, Cathy also suffers deep
rejection. Her father tells her he cannot love her, which hardens her, but she still
kisses his hand and sings to him as he lies dying. Cathy's father's last words to her
are: "Why canst thou not always be a good lass, Cathy?" In response, she laughs
and asks why he cannot always be a good man. Cathy struggles between acting
.as a "good lass" and being "bold, saucy" and having her own way

Chapter 6 | Summary

Summary

Hindley returns from college for Mr. Earnshaw's funeral, surprising the family by
bringing home a wife, Frances Earnshaw. Hindley's wife dislikes Heathcliff and
tries, but fails, to bond with Cathy. Hindley, more conscious of status than ever,
"became tyrannical," depriving Heathcliff of further education and forcing him to
become a servant working on the estate's farm. Yet, Hindley is also "entirely
negligent" in supervising them, unknowing that Cathy and Heathcliff sneak out to
.the moors every day

One night, Hindley locks Cathy and Heathcliff out of the house as punishment for
staying out too long. Mrs. Dean waits up for them, but Heathcliff returns alone.
Earlier, Heathcliff and Cathy, raced across the moors to spy on their neighbors,
the Lintons, at Thrushcross Grange. As they look through a window, curious to
see how Edgar and Isabella, the Linton children, live and if they have more
freedom, their laughter scares the children. Edgar and Isabella, who are in the
middle of a fight over a puppy, practically pulling it apart between them, wake up
their parents. Mr. Linton lets out a bulldog, and it bites Cathy on the ankle. A
servant calls the dog off and brings Heathcliff and Cathy into the house. Mr.
Linton, at first, thinks Heathcliff is a thief coming to rob him on rent day. Mrs.
Linton recognizes Cathy and then remembers Mr. Earnshaw adopted Heathcliff.
Still, the Lintons dislike Heathcliff and force him to return to Wuthering Heig

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.hts without Cathy

Analysis
The beginning of the chapter reinforces Cathy and Heathcliff's camaraderie and
their vow to "grow up as rude as savages." Out on the moor, they are free both
from harsh authority and from the differences in social status that otherwise
would keep them separate. But by the end of the chapter, Heathcliff must watch
from outside, looking through a window, as Cathy enjoys the comforts inside the
Linton home. This foreshadows many future situations in which Heathcliff will be
forced to watch Cathy lead a life of privilege from which he is excluded. This
chapter also introduces Edgar and Isabella Linton, who will play the foils—which
is a literary term for when opposites provide contrast—of Heathcliff and Cathy.
Thrushcross Grange also acts as a foil, representing social propriety as a contrast
.to the wildness and violence found at Wuthering Heights

Dogs appear at crucial moments throughout the novel, such as Mr. Lockwood's
earlier encounter at Wuthering Heights. The dogs often appear at moments
when a boundary of some kind is being crossed. For example, a dog bite signals
the start of a major shift in Cathy and Heathcliff's relationship. Her injury by the
Linton's bulldog immerses Cathy in the upper class society she shuns yet belongs
in. The dog bite also divides her from Heathcliff, who is sent home without her
because the Linton's disapprove of his "low" status and scowling. In fact, Mr.
Linton thinks Heathcliff might be better off dead for everyone's sakes. His
assumption is that Heathcliff's appearance foretells his future actions, and they
.are sure to be bad

Chapter 7 | Summary

Summary

After spending five weeks at Thrushcross Grange with the Lintons, Cathy returns,
transformed into a lady. Her meeting with Heathcliff is awkward. Cathy is glad to
see him, but he feels ashamed and insulted when she laughs at his "dirty,"
.unkempt appearance

The Linton family has accepted an invitation for a Christmas party at Wuthering
Heights with the condition that Heathcliff not attend. The night before the party,
Mrs. Dean reflects on Old Mr. Earnshaw's fondness for Heathcliff and how no
one cares for him now. Feeling guilty, she offers to help dress and clean him, so
he can impress Cathy. Heathcliff refuses Mrs. Dean's offer, and the next morning,
leaves the house early to spend the day on the moors. Later in the day, though,
he changes his mind, finds Mrs. Dean in the kitchen, and asks her to "make me
decent. I'm going to be good." While standing in front of a mirror, speaking of
Heathcliff's eyes, Mrs. Dean advises him to "change the fiends to innocent
angels, suspecting and doubting nothing, and always seeing friends when they
are not sure of foes." She urges him to pretend his family history is noble to give
".him "courage and dignity to support the oppressions of a little farmer

Mrs. Dean does not know at this time that Heathcliff is not allowed to join the
Christmas party, so when the Lintons arrive she encourages Heathcliff, dressed
up now, to emerge from the kitchen into the sitting area. Hindley is just coming
into the kitchen at the same moment, and seeing Heathcliff dressed up, mocks
him and threatens to beat him if he even comes downstairs during the party. Just
then, Edgar Linton peeks his head into the kitchen and makes fun of Heathcliff's
long hair. Embarrassed, Heathcliff flings a pot of hot applesauce on Edgar.
Hindley takes Heathcliff upstairs, beats him, and locks him in his room. Cathy
tries to enjoy the party after that, but she is too distressed by Heathcliff's
absence. Eventually, Mrs. Dean finds her in Heathcliff's locked bedroom—she
.had climbed up on the rafters then out onto the roof to get into his room

After the party, Mrs. Dean brings Heathcliff into the kitchen, since he has not
eaten much for two days now. Heathcliff tells Mrs. Dean he wants revenge on
Hindley: "I'm trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back ... I don't care how long
I wait." "It is for God to punish the wicked" Mrs. Dean pleads, trying to change
Heathcliff's mind. "No," Heathcliff says, "God won't have the satisfaction that I
"."shall

Mrs. Dean interrupts the story to converse with Mr. Lockwood, who speculates
that she seems more thoughtful than her role as a servant would lead others to
.believe

Analysis

Mrs. Dean is, as Mr. Lockwood rather condescendingly notes, wiser than her
social status as a servant suggests; she dispenses sane, constructive advice to
Heathcliff, and she is kind to him in this chapter, but her advice has to compete
with the terms of the cruel social world, which appears bent on rejecting him no
matter what he does. Heathcliff wants to clean up his appearance to impress
Cathy, but he believes, not without cause, that the deck is not stacked in his
favor. Again, the novel displays the tension between the will to be good and the
.struggle to do so in a heartless world

Mrs. Dean also acts as a moral compass as she elaborates on how "proud people
breed sad sorrows on themselves," a problem Heathcliff knows all too well. At
the same time, she urges him to imagine a lineage to be proud of. This attitude
suggests readers should consider variations of pride, some—such as lacking
humility in social situations—are wicked, and some—such as pride in one's self
despite class distinctions—are useful and harmless, considering Heathcliff has no
way of knowing his origins anyway. Either way, the advice Mrs. Dean gives
.Heathcliff in this chapter speaks volumes about her character's inner workings

During this chapter Heathcliff's personality undergoes a terrible transformation.


Heathcliff has been able to withstand being beaten by Hindley and forced to
become a servant, but losing Cathy's friendship and respect is too much to bear.
While he has been relegated to outdoor labor, the difference in their social status
is painfully obvious, although her affection for Heathcliff has not changed.
Thwarted in his attempts to turn to the good, he embraces revenge in order to
dull his pain. Mrs. Dean's insistence on forgiveness fails to persuade him to
change his mind. Heathcliff makes the case that fulfilling his revenge is superior
to forgiveness. Due to an explosive mixture of pride and pain, Heathcliff has
.opted for an absolute path from which there appears to be no turning back

Chapter 8 | Summary

Summary

Mrs. Frances Earnshaw, wracked by consumption, gives birth to Hareton


Earnshaw and dies shortly after in Hindley's arms. The loss causes Hindley to
curse God, take up drink, and behave more cruelly than ever, causing all of the
.servants to flee and everyone else to avoid visiting

Mrs. Dean admits to not liking Cathy and trying to "bring down her arrogance,"
while Cathy and Heathcliff remain good friends, but only in private, as Cathy finds
herself torn between him and her new friend, Edgar Linton. One day, Cathy turns
on Heathcliff who appears unexpectedly just as Edgar is about to arrive for a visit.
Cathy continues to act out in frustration, pinching then slapping Mrs. Dean,
shaking baby Hareton, and hitting Edgar when he tries to intervene. Edgar
threatens to never return to Wuthering Heights, but Cathy convinces him to stay;
.they make up and confess their feelings of love for each other
Analysis

This chapter examines the connection between evil and violence and the cycles
they create when characters suffer pain and frustration, particularly the pain of
separation, and their responses set off chain reactions in which violence and evil
create more of the same. At the crucial moment when something resembling
peace is possible in the novel, the death of Hindley's wife causes him to spiral
back into his violent behavior. Mrs. Dean paints a dark picture for the reader to
show that evil creates violence and violence creates more violence, a core
message in the novel. Notice Mrs. Dean's verbiage throughout the chapter as the
novel continues to explore the effects of a negative environment on the
characters. Hindley descends into evil because he "neither wept nor prayed; he
cursed and defied: execrated God and man," Mrs. Dean tells the reader, and
thus, he becomes violent: Hindley's treatment of Heathcliff "was enough to make
a fiend of a saint." His evil behavior is shown to be infectious. It spreads
throughout Wuthering Heights—to all the characters—from Heathcliff seeming
"possessed of something diabolical at that period" to Joseph being the only other
servant to stay because he has such rich opportunities to reprove evil. Even the
curate refrains from coming to the house Mrs. Dean now describes as "infernal,"
and in the center of the action, Cathy is riled to violence, physically hitting
multiple characters. That hitting Edgar provokes him to confess his love is telling;
.it foreshadows later insights into Cathy and Edgar's relationship

Mrs. Dean's character is also quite different in this chapter. She is more angry
and spiteful, telling the reader she's been vexing and mocking Cathy on purpose,
.and she's happy when Cathy lashes out at Edgar and shows him her true colors

Cathy has her own problems, having "adopted a double character" as she is torn
between Edgar and Heathcliff. As the three last names that Mr. Lockwood sees
etched into Cathy's window ledge suggest, she suffers from a fractured sense of
identity. She acts one way with the Lintons, where she behaves in a ladylike
fashion. She also fails to defend Heathcliff when the Lintons belittle him. She acts
another way when she is at Wuthering Heights, where she and Heathcliff are
."unruly" together as always, and she underplays her attachment to the Lintons

Chapter 9 | Summary

Summary
Hindley, in a drunken state, threatens Mrs. Dean with a knife and dangles
Hareton over the stairs, claiming he will break the child's neck. The child
struggles, and Hindley drops him. Heathcliff, who has just walked in, instinctively
catches Hareton, but regrets missing an opportunity for revenge against Hindley
.by doing so

Later, Cathy asks Mrs. Dean's advice about love and then confides her
acceptance of Edgar Linton's marriage proposal. Mrs. Dean asks Cathy a series of
questions about her feelings for Edgar: "First and foremost, do you love Mr.
Edgar? Why do you love him? And now, say how you love him? There are several
other handsome, rich young men in the world ... what should hinder you from
loving them?" Mrs. Dean is unsatisfied with Cathy's reasons for marrying Edgar.
When Cathy says she wants to marry Edgar because "he is handsome and
pleasant to be with," Mrs. Dean responds, "Bad!" And when Cathy says, "Because
he is rich," Mrs. Dean replies, "Worst of all." Cathy admits she has already
accepted the proposal, so Mrs. Dean's opinion does not really matter. Cathy just
wants Mrs. Dean to say her choice is right. Mrs. Dean teases her and says,
"."perfectly right; if people be right to marry only for the present

During their conversation, Cathy describes a dream she had, in which she travels
to heaven and feels as though she does not belong there. Her longing to return
to earth makes "the angels so angry" they fling her "out into the heath on the top
of Wuthering Heights." Then they discuss Heathcliff, whom Nelly knows is
eavesdropping on their conversation; when Cathy asks, Nelly lies, saying that he
is in the stable. Cathy admits that although Heathcliff's dirtiness and low social
status are Hindley's fault, she feels that it would "degrade" her to marry him.
Heathcliff overhears this, and Mrs. Dean sees him sneaking out of the room. She
tells Cathy to be quiet, that Joseph has arrived with Heathcliff—just as Joseph's
wagon is heard on the road. Then Mrs. Dean admits Heathcliff may have heard
their conversation. Cathy is very upset, and confesses she really belongs with
Heathcliff, not Edgar Linton. She tries to explain how her choice of marrying
Edgar Linton could benefit Heathcliff. Then she passionately describes her
feelings, saying she believes she is Heathcliff, their souls are one, and "if all else
perished and he remained, I should still continue to be." She says her love for
Edgar is like "foliage in the woods: time will change it," but her love for Heathcliff
"."resembles the eternal rocks beneath

Joseph, Cathy, and Mrs. Dean look for Heathcliff, but no one can find him. Later,
a violent thunderstorm topples a tree and brings it crashing down onto the roof.
During the storm, Joseph kneels and prays, "beseeching the Lord to remember
the patriarchs Noah and Lot ... spare the righteous ... [and] smite the ungodly."
Fearing Hindley is dead, Joseph and Mrs. Dean check on him, shaking the handle
of his door. Hindley is drunk, but still alive, and he shouts at them from his room,
causing Joseph to reply, "a wide distinction might be drawn between saints like
".[Joseph] and sinners like his [Hindley]

Cathy wanders outside in the rain until after midnight, searching for Heathcliff,
but she does not find him. The next morning, still wet and shivering, Cathy is
wide-awake in the sitting room. Mrs. Dean scolds her for not going to bed, and
Hindley, arriving for breakfast, realizes Cathy is ill. Cathy's condition worsens
until she is overcome with delirium. The doctor is called for, and Mrs. Dean and
Joseph care for Cathy through many weeks of a long illness. Old Mrs. Linton visits
a few times and then takes Cathy to Thrushcross Grange with her, to nurse her
there. Mr. and Mrs. Linton catch Cathy's fever and die. Heathcliff does not
return, and the story skips ahead three years to when Cathy marries Edgar in the
Gimmerton Chapel and demands Mrs. Dean leave baby Hareton and move to
.Thrushcross Grange

Analysis

Hindley's position as antagonist to Heathcliff is further developed in this chapter.


Heathcliff heroically saves Hareton, moving the reader to hope for his ultimate
redemption as hero, but his regret at missing an opportunity for revenge
continues his status as an antihero, which is a protagonist who lacks heroic
qualities. This moment also establishes the bond that will develop between
.Heathcliff and Hareton

The novel explores ideas of love through Mrs. Dean's Socratic questioning of
Cathy. The method of using questions to explore assumptions, beliefs, and truths
by using logic comes from the Greek philosopher Socrates and is still used in
education and philosophy today. Mrs. Dean uses logic to conclude that Cathy's
love for Edgar is false. Cathy adds to the conclusion by confessing her passionate
feelings for Heathcliff. Mrs. Dean and Cathy's dialogue creates dramatic irony.
The reader (and Mrs. Dean) know Cathy is in love with Heathcliff and her reasons
for marrying Edgar are shaky at best, but Cathy is earnestly tossing in her own
confusion. In Wuthering Heights, there are many kinds of love, and each
character approaches love differently. The novel asks: What is the quality of
Cathy and Edgar's love? What of Cathy and Heathcliff's? What does it mean? Is
?there a higher quality of love, and if so, what is it

Mrs. Dean's reliability is called into question in this chapter: we do not know why
she pretends that Heathcliff is not listening, but the fact that she lies about this
suggests that she is willing to be dishonest, and also perhaps that she is trying to
.manipulate the situation
Again, Heathcliff and Cathy's differing class status is an issue, forcing them apart
and making it impossible for them to marry. Cathy truly believes by marrying
Edgar, she can remove Heathcliff from harm by using her new fortune to help
him leave Wuthering Heights. Unfortunately, Heathcliff does not stay to hear
Cathy's true feelings and motivations. Mrs. Dean presents the harsh social reality
.that once Cathy is married to Edgar she will have no power

Joseph's sermonizing takes on a deeper layer of significance in this chapter,


which is heavily laden with biblical references to Lot, Noah, Jonah, and scripture.
Whereas he has been mocked in previous chapters, he is somewhat validated for
his religious judgment in this chapter in the way Hindley's blasphemy at God
contrasts Joseph's moralizing. Most Victorian era readers attended church, and
they would have been familiar with the biblical references alluded to in the
novel. For example, Mrs. Dean compares Hindley to Jonah, a character who ran
.from his calling and duty by hiding in the belly of a fish

Chapter 10 | Summary

Summary

Since Mr. Lockwood is ill and will need bed rest until spring, he asks Mrs. Dean to
distract him by telling him more about Heathcliff and Cathy, whom he calls the
"hero and heroine" of the story. Heathcliff, in the present, has recently sent Mr.
Lockwood a pair of game birds and paid him a visit due to his illness. Mr.
Lockwood calls him "charitable" for this act. Referring to the past in the story
Mrs. Dean is telling, Mr. Lockwood wonders if Heathcliff will next finish his
".education and "come back a gentleman

Edgar and Cathy's marriage is going well to Mrs. Dean's "agreeable


disappointment ... [Cathy] behaved infinitely better than [she] dared to expect."
Isabella and Edgar dote on Cathy, and Edgar "had a deep-rooted fear of ruffling
her humour." When Heathcliff returns, the peace ends. Mrs. Dean finds him
waiting in the garden one morning. At Heathcliff's insistence, Mrs. Dean tells
Cathy someone is waiting to see her outside. When Cathy leaves, Mrs. Dean tells
Edgar whom the visitor really is. When Cathy returns, leaving Heathcliff outside
to wait, Edgar, annoyed, tells Cathy it is inappropriate, due to Heathcliff's low
station, for Cathy and Isabella to have tea with him in the parlor. Seeing how
happy Cathy is, Edgar tells her "try to be glad, without being absurd." Once
Heathcliff comes upstairs, he launches into the purpose of his visit: "to settle the
score with Hindley; and then prevent the law by doing execution on myself"—
which means he plans to kill himself after killing Hindley. He also says that
.Cathy's happiness at seeing him again has changed his mind—for the moment

Cathy and Edgar fight because she says, "Heathcliff is now worthy of a
gentleman's regard." Cathy, so ecstatic to have Heathcliff back, tells Mrs. Dean
that she has reconciled with "God and humanity! I had risen in angry rebellion
against Providence." Determined to be good now, she will make up with Edgar
.and be an angel

Time passes and it becomes normal for Heathcliff to visit Thrushcross Grange,
but Mrs. Dean worries Heathcliff plans to "work mischief under a cloak" and
harm the family. He has rented a space from Hindley at Wuthering Heights. Mrs.
Dean asks Cathy what she thinks about Heathcliff staying there. Cathy says
Hindley is greedy for the rent money, reckless about choosing his acquaintances,
and never troubles himself to wonder if he should trust Heathcliff, and that
.Heathcliff told her he chose to stay there to be near her, so it doesn't bother her

More time passes and Isabella gradually falls one-sidedly in love with Heathcliff,
which causes a fight one day with Cathy. Isabella is angry because Heathcliff and
Cathy ignore her during a walk on the moors. When Isabella confronts Cathy, she
doesn't spare Isabella's feelings, telling her she was superfluous and "we didn't
care if you kept with us or not." Later, to tease Isabella, Cathy tells Heathcliff
about her crush on him, in front of her, and the two women get into a physical
fight. During their fight, Isabella draws Cathy's blood with her nails, and
Heathcliff threatens to "wrench them off her fingers, if they ever menaced me."
He also says that if he were to marry Isabella he would turn her white face into a
rainbow of bruises from beating her. Privately, Cathy and Heathcliff talk about
Isabella's crush, and Heathcliff mentions he could use Isabella to own
Thrushcross Grange one day. To that, Cathy warns, "you are too prone to covet
".your neighbor's goods; remember this neighbor's goods are mine

Mrs. Dean determines to keep a close watch on Heathcliff. She also admits to
.preferring Edgar to Cathy because he is kind, trustful, and honorable

Analysis

Mr. Lockwood, as a removed narrator, functions in this chapter as an objective


observer. He supplies a viewpoint for readers to identify with during his cheery
prelude, in which he calls Heathcliff "hero" and Cathy "heroine." All seems well;
readers may expect a predicable happy ending, so Mr. Lockwood reflects the
same expectation. He guesses at the events to unfold, "Did he [Heathcliff] finish
his education ... and come back a gentleman?" just as readers may guess. As Mrs.
Dean jumps into the story, it does seem, at first, to be possible. Cathy and Edgar
"were really in possession of deep and growing happiness." Heathcliff is
transformed into a gentleman, and Cathy reconciles with God because she is so
happy to see Heathcliff again. Mrs. Dean provides the dropping of the other
shoe, so to speak. She has a foreboding presentiment. She notices Heathcliff's
comment about planning revenge and changing his mind, and she cautions in
specific ways that foreshadow events to come, including advising Cathy not to
praise one man to the other "unless you would like an open quarrel between
them." By admitting she favors Edgar, she reveals whose side she is on, which will
be important for the reader to know during events that take place in upcoming
chapters. Also, readers may wonder: Why is Mrs. Dean uncertain about
Heathcliff's intentions for the remainder of the chapter after she hears
Heathcliff's explicit plans for revenge? Again, she proves herself to be an
.unreliable narrator, swayed by her feelings about her subjects

Edgar's pride (believing Heathcliff is beneath him) is threatened by Cathy's


insistence they be friends and Edgar treat Heathcliff like a gentleman. Edgar's
pride causes him to break down and cry, which results in Cathy's drawing closer
to Heathcliff and the views and loyalty they formed together in their youth. With
Isabella's crush comes an exploration of a new type of love in the novel:
.unrequited love

Cathy's character shows even more inner conflict. She acts cruelly to Isabella
about her crush on Heathcliff. Then says she is trying to protect Isabella. Cathy
presents Heathcliff as a gentleman. Yet, later, she tells Isabella how cruel and
"wolfish" Heathcliff really is. Which is the truth? Cathy ignores Heathcliff's
attempt to take Wuthering Heights from Hindley, yet warns Heathcliff to not
even dare to take Thrushcross Grange. The chapter raises questions: Is Cathy
really trying to help Isabella? Does she love Edgar? If she knows what Heathcliff is
?up to, why doesn't she try to stop him

By the end of the chapter Brontë subverts the reader's expectations for a happy
ending and heroic Heathcliff. If the reader is unconvinced by Mrs. Dean worrying
and still holding hope that Heathcliff will find goodness, Cathy's words to Isabella
about Heathcliff's true nature seem designed for the hopeful reader when she
says, "don't imagine that he conceals depths of benevolence and affection
beneath a stern exterior!" Then Heathcliff himself says he would beat Isabella if
he were to marry her. The finishing touch comes at the end when Mrs. Dean
wishes he would leave, feeling that "an evil beast prowled between it and the
".fold, waiting his time to spring and destroy
Chapter 11 | Summary

Summary

One day, while walking out on the moors, Mrs. Dean sees the ghost of Hindley as
a child. Terrified, she also feels "an irresistible yearning to be at the Heights," so
she follows the spirit. The "apparition" reaches Wuthering Heights before Mrs.
Dean. Finally, as she stands looking through the gate, she realizes, the ghost is a
real child, Hareton, whom she has not seen for years. Hareton does not
recognize Mrs. Dean, who nursed him as a baby. He hurls rocks at her and curses
her, which makes her sad, not angry. Mrs. Dean finds out that Heathcliff has
taught Hareton to curse and protects him from "Devil daddy," Hindley. She also
learns that the curate is no longer teaching Hareton to read and write. Then
Heathcliff appears in the doorway. Terrified, Mrs. Dean runs all the way back to
.Thrushcross Grange

Heathcliff shows up later at Thrushcross Grange, and Mrs. Dean, peering out of
the window, happens to catch him embracing Isabella Linton. Cathy overhears
Mrs. Dean shouting "Judas! Traitor!" and looks out of the window too. They
watch Isabella "tear herself free, and run into the garden." When Heathcliff
comes inside, Mrs. Dean yells at Heathcliff. Cathy silences Mrs. Dean, saying, "To
hear you, people might think you were the mistress ... you want setting down in
"!your right place

Cathy demands that Heathcliff leave Isabella alone, and they fight over it.
Heathcliff protesting, "I have a right to kiss her ... I am not your husband: you
needn't be jealous of me." Cathy denies being jealous and says if Heathcliff likes
Isabella he should marry her, but Cathy is certain he does not like Isabella. Then
Heathcliff accuses Cathy of treating him "infernally" and threatens her: "If you
".fancy I'll suffer unrevenged, I'll convince you of the contrary

Mrs. Dean leaves Heathcliff "brooding on his evil thoughts" and runs to Edgar,
the master, to tell him exactly what she thinks about Isabella, Cathy, and
Heathcliff's low behavior. Edgar agrees, exclaiming "this is insufferable," and he
says it is "disgraceful that she should own him for a friend, and force his company
on me!" Edgar goes downstairs to kick Heathcliff out of the house, which leads to
a confrontation. Cathy takes Heathcliff's side and humiliates Edgar, telling him in
front of Heathcliff, "If you have not the courage to attack [Heathcliff], make an
apology, or allow yourself to be beaten ... I wish Heathcliff may flog you sick, for
daring to think an evil thought of me!" Cornered, because Cathy has locked the
front door from within and thrown the key in the fire, Edgar has no choice but to
fight Heathcliff after he pushes Edgar's chair. Edgar punches Heathcliff in the
throat and walks out the back door while he chokes. Obviously, Heathcliff will not
be able to visit Thrushcross Grange again. Cathy tells Heathcliff to leave before
Edgar comes back with men and pistols. "I'd rather see Edgar at bay than you,"
.she says

Heathcliff leaves and Cathy throws a fit. "I shall get wild," she tells Mrs. Dean,
"say to Edgar ... that I'm in danger of being seriously ill. I wish it may prove
true ... I want to frighten him." But when Edgar returns, Mrs. Dean exposes the
manipulation, believing, "a person who could plan the turning of fits of passion ...
".might, by exerting her will, manage to control herself

Edgar tries to make Cathy choose between him and Heathcliff, but not wanting
to choose, she tells him, "Your cold blood cannot be worked into a fever; your
veins are full of ice-water; but mine are boiling, and the sight of such chillness
makes them dance." For the next several days Edgar sulks in the library, unaware
.that Cathy has locked herself in her room and refuses to eat

Analysis

Doubling, the mirroring or reincarnating of one character in another, is a major


part of Wuthering Heights. Mrs. Dean's confusing Hareton for the ghost of
Hindley is the first double in the novel. It is significant that Hareton is no longer
.being educated because Hareton's character will repeat Heathcliff's childhood

The uproar between Cathy and Heathcliff suggests a deterioration of love and
friendship. The key to understanding why comes through Heathcliff's gripe: he is
angry about the past, perhaps, but more important is his dissatisfaction with his
current situation. His words are not the words of a man happy to visit Cathy from
.time to time, and his actions suggest he desires more

Cathy chooses Heathcliff over Edgar during their fight, yet Edgar tries to make
her choose between them later in the chapter. Was this internal choice
inevitable? Cathy suggests that her and Edgar's love lacks passion. And passion is
something Heathcliff and Cathy, being alike, need to survive. It is clear to Edgar
by the end of the chapter that a line has been drawn, and this is why he responds
by forcing her to choose. Because Cathy knows she will lose Edgar if she
verbalizes her choice, she manipulates the situation to escape the consequences.
At least it appears that way through Mrs. Dean's eyes. However, Mrs. Dean has
admitted to not liking Cathy and favoring Edgar, and she tells on Cathy in this
chapter, which makes a bad situation worse. This is another example of how the
.lower-class servants have power over their upper-class masters

Ideas of pride are explored throughout the chapter, beginning with Cathy's
.chastisement of Mrs. Dean for not acting in her proper place

Heathcliff's pride is ruffled before the chapter begins (the fight brings out his anger),
and Edgar's pride is instigated before the chapter ends. Cathy's pride causes her to
make herself sick rather than apologize, reflect, or speak the truth. Mrs. Dean's pride
adds to the strife, turning her impatient and cold-hearted toward Cathy. Pride leads
.all the characters astray, whether master or servant

Chapter 12 | Summary

Summary

Cathy and Edgar have still not spoken since their fight over Heathcliff. Edgar
continues to sulk in the library while Cathy is locked in her bedroom, refusing to
eat. Mrs. Dean "went about [her] household duties, convinced that the Grange
had but one sensible soul in its walls, and that lodged in [her] body." Finally,
Cathy requests something to eat, exclaiming "Oh I will die," then changing her
mind, fearing Edgar will not care if she does. Mrs. Dean, unable to "get rid of the
notion that she acted a part of her disorder," underplays Edgar's concern, saying
he's "tolerably well ... continually among his books" when Cathy asks about him.
Cathy begs Mrs. Dean to convince Edgar she is in danger of starving herself. Mrs.
Dean refuses and reminds Cathy that she ate tea and toast earlier. "If I were only
.sure it would kill him ... I'd kill myself directly," Cathy responds

Mrs. Dean narrates that Cathy cannot bear the idea of Edgar's indifference, so
"she increased her feverish bewilderment to madness and tore the pillow with
her teeth," begging Mrs. Dean to open the window. Mrs. Dean refuses, and
Cathy pulls the feathers out of her pillow, which reminds her of a childhood
memory—when she and Heathcliff saw a nest of "little bird skeletons." Cathy
does not recognize her own face in a mirror, and she sees visions: Mrs. Dean
gathering "elf bolts" and a face in the "black press." She speaks of the first night
she spent alone after the fight, describing how she lost seven years, going back to
the time when Hindley separated her from Heathcliff, and how she woke up in
the present "the wife of a stranger: an exile and outcast." She begs again for the
windows to be opened; she longs to run on the moors and be a child again. Mrs.
Dean refuses to open the window, saying "I won't give you your death of cold,"
but Cathy retorts, "You won't give me a chance of life, you mean." Then Cathy
remembers how she and Heathcliff use to play in the graveyard and ask the
.ghosts to come

Edgar, hearing Mrs. Dean struggle to keep Cathy calm, enters the bedroom, and
he realizes immediately that she has hidden Cathy's dangerous condition from
him, but he rushes to Cathy. She tells Edgar she will be dead by springtime: "They
can't keep me from my narrow home ... my resting place." Edgar wants to know
if this is all because she loves Heathcliff. "I don't want you," she tells Edgar.
"What you touch at present you may have; but my soul will be on that hilltop
before you lay hands on me again." Edgar blames Cathy's illness on Mrs. Dean,
and, still angry that her interference led to the fight, he tells her he will he will
dismiss her if she ever gossips to him again. Cathy, as delusional as she is,
understands that Mrs. Dean has betrayed her and calls her a witch. Mrs. Dean
.leaves to find the doctor, Kenneth

Outside, Mrs. Dean sees "a creature of the other world." Actually, someone has
hung Isabella's dog from a tree, and Mrs. Dean saves it. She hears the sound of
horses' feet, but there is no time to inquire. Reaching the village, Kenneth tells
her there are rumors that Isabella and Heathcliff are planning to run away
together. The next day, a servant confirms the rumor—Isabella has run off with
Heathcliff—and Edgar chooses not to send men to bring her back but disowns his
.sister for "disowning" him

Analysis

Chapter 12 uses imagery and symbolism to blend themes and to create the
chapter's foreboding tone, which reflects Cathy's madness and desire to die. The
imagery of death, the macabre, and the grave is presented to the reader to
heighten the sense of danger as what was once love between Heathcliff and
Cathy turns toward obsession. There's no longer any room in Cathy's heart or
.mind for Edgar; her love for Heathcliff is too consuming

The final image of a dog hanging from a noose is different from the other
imagery in the chapter. Something truly violent has happened. Dogs, as symbols,
appear when a boundary of some kind has been crossed. It suggests that
Heathcliff, who until now has hovered between his love for Cathy and the desire
for revenge, gives himself over to the latter. The violence against the dog
.indicates the loss of his remaining humanity

The symbol of ghosts evolves in this chapter as Cathy regresses to the past to
tend to the wounds left from Hindley's violence toward her and Heathcliff. And
she longs for the symbolic moors, for the freedom they represent, and for a time
when she had a strong sense of herself and her affections and feelings could be
expressed freely. Now, she is stifled by a husband she does not love and kept
separate from the man toward whom she is naturally drawn. Having failed to
choose her true destiny, Cathy searches for a sense of belonging, even as she
.knows intuitively her destiny is leading her to death

The symbolism of wind departs from its usual association with violence to
represent life-giving breath. Violence is shifted from its associations with natural
elements such as weather to Cathy herself when Mrs. Dean refers to "the
Earnshaws' violent dispositions," and in Cathy's self-harm, trying purposely to
.die, being a redirection of her desire to kill Edgar

The way Mrs. Dean narrates raises the question: Is Cathy's illness real, or is it a
show? She paints it both ways; she takes the blame, and she defends herself.
And at the end of the chapter, she chooses not to alert Edgar to chase Isabella,
which custom and honor would require him to do. Edgar risks dishonor and
scandal after all of his snobbery and dislike for Heathcliff, leaving the reader to
wonder why. This is not the first, but one of many times in the novel when Edgar
.will not stand up for himself or those he loves against Heathcliff

Chapter 13 | Summary

Summary

Cathy has recovered from the brain fever, but she will never be the same. Also,
.she and Edgar are expecting a baby

Mrs. Dean receives a letter from Isabella. In the letter, Isabella asks how Mrs.
Dean "preserved the common sympathies of human nature" while living at
Wuthering Heights, and she asks "Is Heathcliff a man ... or a devil?" Then she
describes her first night at Wuthering Heights, where, arriving without Heathcliff,
Joseph shoves a torch fire in her face, and Hareton threatens to sic his dog
Throttler on her. Inside, there is no servant to help her, so she wanders around
the house, eventually running into Hindley, who has long, shaggy hair now,
curses Heathcliff, and appears insane to Isabella. Hindley shows Isabella the
pistol he embellished with a spring knife on the barrel. He lurks outside
Heathcliff's bedroom door every night, planning to kill him if the door is ever
unlocked. The only thing really stopping him from killing Heathcliff is the chance
to get back his money and Wuthering Heights. Holding the gun, Isabella is struck
by how powerful it makes her feel, which astonishes Hindley, and he jealously
.snatches the gun away from her

In the kitchen, Joseph sticks his fingers in the oatmeal, so Isabella offers to cook
it, but Joseph yells at her for making it lumpy. Meanwhile Hareton drinks the milk
they are supposed to share straight from the jar, getting his spit in it. Disgusted
and exhausted from traveling, Isabella tries to find a bedroom to eat and rest in,
but Joseph—angry at her for acting finicky—shows her there is nowhere for her
to sleep. Heathcliff keeps his bedroom locked, and no one is allowed inside.
Isabella throws the oatmeal on the floor, and Joseph leaves her there, hoping
Heathcliff sees her act that way, so he will beat her. Just then, Throttler comes in,
and Isabella realizes he's a dog from Skulker's litter, a puppy Old Mr. Linton gave
Hindley long ago. Throttler nuzzles Isabella and eats the oatmeal off the floor.
Then Isabella hides in Hareton's room until Joseph comes upstairs to put him to
bed. Finally, Isabella falls asleep in a chair by the fire. Heathcliff returns and
wakes her up, asking why she is sleeping there. When she says it is because our
bedroom is locked, he takes offence at the word our, saying "It is not, nor ever
.shall be" their bedroom to share

Analysis

Two central questions in the novel are brought back into the reader's mind:
What makes people good and what makes them become bad? And, how can
good come from a malevolent and abusive environment? Hareton supplies the
strongest example in the chapter when he threatens Isabella with a dog attack
from Throttler in response to her kindness—even the name of the dog
underscores the violent Wuthering Heights environment, just as the dog Skulker
alludes to Thrushcross Grange (throttle meaning to choke or strangle and skulk
meaning to hide in cowardice). And Hareton, by training and a bad environment,
.is shown to be like an attack dog

That Isabella grew up not in the environment of Wuthering Heights but in the
gentle environment at Thrushcross Grange is significant because it provides a
contrast and sets up a new situation for the reader to witness firsthand what
may become of good when it is surrounded by violence. Often in the novel,
major characters, in due course, enter into a battle between good and evil, pride
and humility, pity and judgment, and Isabella's first test happens when she holds
.Hindley's gun and it makes her feel powerful
Earlier in the novel, Isabella and Edgar became foils to contrast Cathy and
Heathcliff: Edgar and Isabella shown to be spoiled and petty while Cathy and
Heathcliff are portrayed as strong, free, and down to earth. In this chapter, the
use of Isabella as a foil changes. Cathy is more like Isabella was as a child, and
Isabella appears to have grown stronger and humbler than Cathy. Making the
connection, readers will be curious to see if Wuthering Heights changes Isabella
.as Thrushcross Grange has changed Cathy

Chapter 14 | Summary

Summary

Mrs. Dean visits Isabella at Wuthering Heights. Before she leaves she asks Edgar
to send a letter, forgiving Isabella. Edgar replies he's not angry, just sorry for her,
.and he never wants to see her again. Edgar's coldness depresses Mrs. Dean

When Mrs. Dean arrives, she is shocked to find Heathcliff "was the only thing
there that seemed decent, that he would certainly have struck a stranger as a
born and bred gentleman ... and his wife as a thorough little slattern!" They
discuss Cathy, and Mrs. Dean mentions she is nothing like the Cathy he knew and
that Edgar sustains his love for her by "the remembrance of what she once was,
by common humanity, and a sense of duty!" Heathcliff hates the idea of Edgar
having only duty and humanity to make him feel for Cathy. He asks Mrs. Dean
"Do you imagine that I shall leave Cathy to his duty and humanity?" Heathcliff
intends to visit Cathy, and he wants Mrs. Dean to help him. Mrs. Dean tells
Heathcliff a visit from him would kill Cathy. Heathcliff wants to know if Cathy
would suffer if Heathcliff were to "go to extremes"—meaning harm Edgar. Then
he tells Mrs. Dean what makes him different from Edgar is that he would never
harm Edgar as long as Cathy wanted to be with him. "If you don't believe me, you
.don't know me," he tells Mrs. Dean when she looks doubtful

Mrs. Dean says Cathy has forgotten Heathcliff, which makes him laugh: "for every
thought she spends on Linton she spends a thousand on me!" He says he was a
fool to think Cathy ever loved Edgar, and, "It is not in him to be loved like me:
how can she love in him what he has not?" Isabella tells Heathcliff to stop
speaking of Edgar that way, but Heathcliff reminds her that Edgar "turns you
adrift on the world with surprising alacrity." Mrs. Dean implores Heathcliff to
treat Isabella better, to remember she is a lady and accustomed to being waited
on. Heathcliff says Isabella is delusional ... that he never lied to her about who he
.is and that she has an "innate admiration" of brutality

When Isabella goes upstairs, Heathcliff persuades Mrs. Dean to sneak a letter to
.Cathy and arrange a visit at Thrushcross Grange in the near future

Analysis

This chapter provides a window into Heathcliff's emotional logic and moral
values as he describes how he would treat Cathy if he were Edgar, why Isabella
disgusts him, and what he understands about himself. As Mrs. Dean tries to
advise him on what is right and proper, he thwarts her with his own logic at
every turn. The reader learns that pity, duty, charity, and humanity, to Heathcliff,
are shallow emotions and motivations. Heathcliff does not say explicitly what
morality he believes in. Implicitly, his love for Cathy seems to be the basis for
Heathcliff's morality, the only thing about which he has strong feelings of right
.and wrong

Heathcliff is happy because he is certain Cathy loves him more than she loves
Edgar, he is better for her, and only he can match her depth of love, a direct echo
of Cathy's earlier "I am Heathcliff!" epiphany. The message for the love theme
here is that lovers must be alike in their natures for love to be true. The contrast
in the chapter between Heathcliff and Edgar also shows that Heathcliff has some
.qualities, he is capable of love, and he may not be a hero, but he is not the villain

Chapter 15 | Summary

Summary

Mr. Lockwood has heard Mrs. Dean's story and is retelling it in a condensed
.version

When Edgar's at church, Mrs. Dean gives Cathy a letter from Heathcliff. Before
she can get a response from Cathy, Heathcliff walks through the open doors of
Thrushcross Grange. Recognizing that Cathy is dying, he breaks down as they
hold and kiss each other, both crying and talking about Cathy's impending death.
Cathy says Heathcliff and Edgar have both broken her heart, and to Heathcliff she
says, "you have killed me—and thriven on it, I think." She wants to hold
Heathcliff until they are both dead. To Mrs. Dean, who refers to herself as a cool
spectator, it seems fitting "Cathy deem that heaven would be a land of exile to
".her," unless with death she loses "her moral character also

Upset by being blamed for her death, Heathcliff asks if she is possessed by a devil
to talk to him that way. Cathy also lashes out at Mrs. Dean: "Nelly, you think you
are more fortunate ... you are sorry for me ... I shall be sorry for you. I shall be
incomparably beyond and above you all." Excited, Cathy stands up, but the strain
makes her convulse. Heathcliff and she spring toward each other, and he
"foamed like a mad dog, and gathered her to him with greedy jealousy."
Heathcliff accuses her of being cruel, of leaving him, betraying her own heart,
because "degradation, and death, and nothing that God or Satan could inflict
would have parted us, you, of your own will, did it." Sobbing, Cathy tells him to
leave her alone. She is dying for whatever she did wrong. She forgives him and
asks that he forgive her. He says he can forgive her for murdering him, but not
.for killing herself

Mrs. Dean is nervous because Edgar will return soon, but Cathy won't let
Heathcliff leave. "Don't go," she cries, "It is the last time! I shall die! I shall die."
Edgar appears in Cathy's room; Heathcliff holding her in his arms, but Cathy has
fainted, so Edgar must tend to her instead of fighting with Heathcliff. Mrs. Dean
thinks to herself "Far better that she should be dead, than lingering a burden and
a misery-maker to all about her." Heathcliff slips out, telling Mrs. Dean he will be
.hiding in the garden tomorrow

Analysis

The narrator changes back to Mr. Lockwood, raising questions: Will he alter Mrs.
Dean's version of the story? What is the reason for the narrative switch? Is it out
of character for Mrs. Dean to wish Cathy dead as she does in this chapter? It is
impossible to know now that another character stands between Mrs. Dean and
.the reader

The themes of good versus evil and love run together in Chapter 15. The idea
that going against the heart and soul causes suffering is reinforced by Cathy and
Heathcliff's intense agony in the chapter. Then Heathcliff, the antihero himself,
questions if his beloved is evil, and he judges her, declaring everything is her fault
and her choice. The idea of "free will" is an important religious concept alluded
to in this chapter; it is central to the choice individuals make between good and
evil. The exploration of free will and people choosing their own suffering begins
.here, and it will continue as the story moves forward

An exploration of unrequited love began with Isabella, and now it is more fully
revealed in the exchange between Cathy and Heathcliff. Isabella suffered alone.
There is an emotional difference (and tone difference in the chapters) when both
.lovers have loved and lost equally

Chapter 16 | Summary

Summary

Cathy gives birth to Catherine prematurely and then dies, leaving Edgar without a
male heir. Edgar sinks into mourning. Mrs. Dean says of Cathy's corpse that "no
angel in heaven could appear more beautiful," and adds that Cathy was right
when she said, only hours before her death, she would be "incomparably beyond
and above us all." Believing Cathy's spirit is at "home with God," Mrs. Dean sees
in her corpse "a repose that neither earth nor hell can break," and she is
reassured of the eternal hereafter, "love in its sympathy," and "love in its
fullness." Mr. Lockwood comments that when Mrs. Dean originally told him the
story she asked his opinion about life after death, but he refused to answer,
.believing to do so would go against the established church

Mrs. Dean looks for Heathcliff to tell him the news of Cathy's death, and she finds
him still as a piece of timber beside an ash tree outside Thrushcross Grange. At
first, Mrs. Dean cries for Heathcliff, believing God has seen through his pride and
brought this humiliation and pain for a purpose. However, when Heathcliff
bashes his head against the tree and cries out for Cathy's spirit to haunt him, Mrs
Dean admits, "It hardly moved my compassion—it appalled me: still, I felt
".reluctant to quit him so

Then Mrs. Dean offers to sneak Heathcliff into the house to see the corpse. She
discovers he sneaked in on his own when she finds Edgar's blond hair on the
floor and Heathcliff's dark hair replacing it inside Cathy's locket. She entwines the
.locks of hair and describes Cathy's gravesite on the moors

Analysis

The focus in this chapter is on Mrs. Dean's views on love, pity, and religion.
Pointedly, Mrs. Dean stops her narration to ask Mr. Lockwood his views on life
after death, revealing a little more about his character: he either believes in the
conventionality of the established church, or he is unwilling to speak in depth
about religion or death. Either way, through his character, Brontë continues to
.expose him for a shallow gentleman-type from the city
Mrs. Dean pities Heathcliff for his loss, yet she judges him, entwining the themes
of pity versus judgment with pride versus humiliation. In her pity (her word) for
Heathcliff, Mrs. Dean thinks to herself, "You have a heart and nerves as same as
your brother men! Why should you be anxious to conceal them? Your pride
cannot blind God! You tempt him to wring them, till he forces a cry of
humiliation." Her ability to empathize is weakened by her instinct to judge—a
strong pattern playing out many times throughout the novel. The reader, here,
may pick up on the contradiction evolving through Mrs. Dean's character. She is
wholly able to describe the unusually intense love—which to her is selfish and
irreverent—between Cathy and Heathcliff. If she did not recognize what it is, she
would not speak of it the way she does throughout the novel, noting details such
as Heathcliff's "inner agony" and that he "trembled ... to his very fingerends."
Yet, she is always limited because the kind of love Heathcliff and Cathy share
frightens and appalls her. So, why is she so skilled in translating its nature to the
?reader

The novel continues its reach for ideas beyond good and evil initiated in the
previous chapter, as it moves away from the dualism of angels and devils and
good and evil toward the idea of something beyond or transcendent

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 17 | Summary


Summary
Isabella, who is pregnant, runs away from Wuthering Heights and shows up
unexpectedly at Thrushcross Grange, where the household is still in mourning
for Cathy. While Mrs. Dean bandages her neck, which is bleeding from a
knife Heathcliff flung at her, Isabella describes how Heathcliff, mourning for Cathy,
cries and prays to a senseless God—"like a Methodist," and he has confused God
with the devil.
Then she explains why she ran away: One night, when Isabella was sitting in the
parlor with Hindley, who was drunk and angry at the time, Heathcliff returned.
Hindley decided to lock Heathcliff out of the house and wanted to know if Isabella
would help him kill Heathcliff, mentioning that they both had a right to take revenge.
Hindley asked her, "Are you as soft as your brother," or "are you willing to endure to
the last, and not attempt a repayment?" She responded, "Treachery and violence are
spears pointed at both ends; they wound those who resort to them worse than their
enemies." Hindley disagreed; to him, "treachery and violence are a just return for
treachery and violence." Then he wanted to know if Isabella would just be quiet and
let him kill Heathcliff, but Isabella shouted, "I'll not hold my tongue!" through the
door and warned Heathcliff. Hindley cursed her, and she contemplated what a
blessing it would be if Heathcliff and Hindley killed each other. Then, feeling secure
with a door between them, Isabella mocked Heathcliff, telling him now that Cathy is
dead, he should stretch himself over her grave and die like a faithful dog. Hindley
stuck his arm and weapon (the gun with the knife on the end) out of the door to kill
Heathcliff, but he grabbed it, the spring fell back and sliced Hindley's arm instead.
Heathcliff smashed the glass in the door, got inside and beat Hindley, almost to
death. When Hindley passed out, Heathcliff bandaged the wound, and Isabella ran
for Joseph.
The next morning, Hindley came downstairs and Isabella told him what happened
because he couldn't remember. Heathcliff was there, but so deeply in mourning, his
face was sealed "in an expression of unspeakable sadness." (Then Mrs. Dean breaks
in to scold Isabella for delighting in "paying wrong for wrong." Isabella admits the
only way she can forgive Heathcliff is "if [she] may take an eye for an eye, a tooth for
a tooth.") Isabella finishes telling her story: That night, she continued to taunt
Heathcliff, but he was too absorbed in his anguish to notice, until she struck a chord
by saying Cathy was happy before he came back into all of their lives again.
Heathcliff's "eyes rained down tears among the ashes, and he drew his breath in
suffocating sighs." But Isabella pushed him further by taunting him, and he threw a
dinner knife at her, hitting her behind the ear. Terrified, Isabella, rushed out into the
snow across the moors to Thrushcross Grange.

After telling her story, Isabella leaves for Gimmerton. She settles south of London
and raises her child, Linton, by herself. Mrs. Dean explains that Isabella ends up
dying when the boy is 12 years old.

Meanwhile, right after Cathy's death, Edgar becomes a hermit, but he loves and


dotes on his daughter, Catherine. Mrs. Dean compares Edgar and Hindley: "They had
both been fond husbands ... and I couldn't see how they shouldn't both have taken
the same road, for good or evil." Hindley, she thinks, is the weaker man because
Edgar "displayed the true courage of a loyal and faithful soul: he trusted God; and
God comforted him."
Hindley dies six months after Cathy, and Heathcliff gets custody of Hareton by
threatening to take Linton from Isabella.

Analysis
Just as Isabella is a foil for Cathy's character in the novel, Isabella and Heathcliff's
relationship contrasts Cathy and Heathcliff's relationship. Although, there are
similarities as well: both relationships involve violence of emotion, cursing, and
inflicting pain. Ultimately, Isabella and Heathcliff's relationship serves as a contrast
because it is one-sided and Isabella saw a Heathcliff that was only an illusion while
Cathy saw Heathcliff for who he really is. In Chapter 14 Heathcliff describes the
delusional nature of Isabella's love, and the idea of distorted love is fortified in this
chapter by his tears and "unspeakable sadness" over Cathy's dying being more
prevalent than Hindley's violence and Isabella's malice. Heathcliff is revealed to be
not cold-hearted as much as he is monomaniacal in his love for Cathy, which is not
only the most important thing in his life, but the only thing that seems to motivate
his actions and influence his feelings.
Also, Heathcliff's humanity expands in this chapter as he openly weeps and mourns
the love of his life's death. He is not a stock character "devil" or villain; good and evil
will be something he must choose between, and, plot-wise, this is his character's
personal cusp between the two. He has revenged Hindley and holds Hareton's future
(and his own) in his hands. What choice will he make?
Ideas of good and evil are explored in the chapter when Mrs. Dean contrasts
"faithful" Edgar to "unfaithful" Hindley and she describes the difference faith makes
in each character's life: Edgar thrives, Hindley dives deeper into darkness. Then ideas
of violence and revenge are explored in the chapter when what has become of
Isabella (representing good and proper and Thrushcross Grange) under the influence
of the malevolent Wuthering Heights environment is revealed. This is Isabella's
moment of truth. Hindley is the one who presents the two moral tests for Isabella,
and both times, even though she says she wants revenge, her actions do not give in
to it. It is significant that Brontë details the nuances of Isabella's morality (ultimately
painting a well-drawn character, not turned evil, but truly changed: no longer weak
and definitely capable of feeling real hurt, hatred, and desire for revenge) because
through Isabella's story line, Brontë continues the exploration from the beginning of
the novel: what happens to "good" in a violent and negative environment? Where
ideas of good and evil are explored, ideas of violence and revenge are usually close
by, and the main events in the chapter—comparing Edgar and Hindley and Isabella's
storyline—are interrelated. Hindley resorts to violence, and he is repaid with
violence; and he dies violently.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 18 | Summary


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Summary
Twelve years later, Cathy's daughter, Catherine, is thirteen years old. Mrs.
Dean describes her personality as soft, mild as a dove, and not prone to furious
anger as her mother was. Catherine grows strong with only "trifling illnesses, which
she had to experience in common with all children, rich or poor." Her only fault is a
"perverse will, that indulged children invariably acquire."
Edgar never lets Catherine leave Thrushcross Grange. One day, he receives a letter
from Isabella. She is dying and wants Edgar to come to London, say goodbye, and
take over raising her son, Linton. Catherine takes the opportunity to explore beyond
Thrushcross Grange park. Telling Mrs. Dean she needs food to go out and explore
the Arabian Desert (really the moors), she jumps her pony over a low bush and winds
up meeting Hareton when their dogs get into a fight. When one of Catherine's dogs
returns with a swelled head and bleeding ear but no sign of Catherine, Mrs. Dean
searches frantically, finally finding her with Hareton (now 18) and Zillah, a servant, at
Wuthering Heights.
When Catherine, having a lot of fun with Zillah and Hareton, refuses to leave, Mrs.
Dean tells her she would want to leave if she knew who owned the house. The
conversation leads to Catherine figuring out that Hareton is not Heathcliff's son but a
servant. Embarrassed, Hareton refuses to fetch Catherine's pony. Hareton calls
Catherine a saucy witch, and she replies "How dare he speak so to me ... musn't he
be made to do as I ask him?" Zillah urges Catherine to be civil and reveals Hareton is
her cousin. The idea of a servant being her cousin makes Catherine cry. She can
hardly believe it, but Mrs. Dean consoles her: "people can have many cousins and of
all sorts ... without being any the worse for it." When Hareton returns with the pony,
seeing Catherine upset, he offers her a puppy, but she refuses it.

Analysis
A minor detail leads into an exploration of class distinctions when Mrs. Dean slides
into the narrative that Catherine has "to experience in common with all children ...
rich or poor." Mrs. Dean expounds on Catherine's high-quality nature, so it is
significant that Catherine's one fault is linked to her upper-class station, and it causes
the main action in the chapter—when she turns against Hareton for being a servant,
not a gentleman, in an echo of her mother's rejection of Heathcliff. Mrs. Dean's
narration paints a picture of beauty and peace, which turns ugly when social
distinctions are made.
The symbolism of dogs is woven throughout the chapter, and it supports the topic of
social distinctions between masters and servants:

 Catherine wants food for her imaginary horses and camels (actually dogs)
because she is pretending to cross the "Arabian Desert." This is dramatic irony.
The reader knows Wuthering Heights is across the "desert." There is a sense of
Catherine leaving behind her ignorance, and innocence, of the world, and the
dogs accompany her as she crosses the new boundary.
 Catherine's dog has a swelled head and bleeding ear. This foreshadows
Catherine's prideful reaction (swelled head), to something she hears (bleeding
ear) and does not like.
 Catherine and Hareton meet because of a dogfight. This creates a feeling of
doom and the sense that peace between Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross
Grange is impossible; they cannot coexist, nor ever be equal; it's as if rivalry
between them is as instinctual as a dogfight.
 Hareton tries to make peace by giving Catherine a puppy, but she refuses the
peace offering. In this way, the interchange involving the dogs represents the
characters' natures: Hareton is peaceful and happy-go-lucky, but Catherine is
stubborn and shunning him. On a literal level, the exchange helps complicate the
plot. Catherine's refusal of the peace offering lays the foundation for all that is to
come in the second half of the novel, and it is significant that a puppy is at the
center of the first moment between the two characters.
Wuthering Heights | Chapter 19 | Summary
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Isabella has died. Edgar returns with her and Heathcliff's child, Linton. Catherine,
excited to meet her real cousin (still upset at finding out Hareton, a servant, is her
cousin) encounters Edgar and Linton on the road. Linton is a physically weak and
peevish child used to pampering. He refuses to exit the carriage. Then, when he is in
the house, he is too delicate to sit on a chair but must recline on a sofa.
Mrs. Dean and Edgar worry that Heathcliff will want to take Linton. That very same
night, Joseph knocks on the door, demanding to take Linton to Wuthering Heights.
Edgar wants to fulfill Isabella's dying wishes, but he cannot think of a way to keep
Linton. Joseph and Edgar argue, but Edgar tells Joseph he will send Linton tomorrow.

Analysis
This chapter satisfies the reader's curiosity about what Heathcliff's son may be like,
and it establishes Linton's character as sickly and difficult. Unfortunately, Linton's
fate will bring him immediately to Wuthering Heights, a place the reader and Mrs.
Dean know will not be conducive to a happy childhood. Heathcliff's son, having none
of his strength or physical traits, and resembling a Linton, and named Linton—a
hated name to Heathcliff—complicates the plot and allows Heathcliff to continue to
be an antihero. The reader may wonder what the outcome would have been had
Linton been more like Heathcliff. It is impossible to know. Linton being the character
he is will serve to fuel Heathcliff's anger, desire for revenge, and despair over Cathy's
death.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 20 | Summary


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Linton is very unhappy the next morning when he finds out he has to live at
Wuthering Heights. Isabella never spoke of Heathcliff, so Linton has no idea he even
had a father. Mrs. Dean lies to him about Heathcliff and Wuthering Heights to coax
him to get dressed and ride across the moor.
Joseph and Heathcliff greet Linton when he arrives. Heathcliff is disappointed his son
looks like a puling chicken brought up on snails and sour milk, who doesn't resemble
Heathcliff at all, but he promises Mrs. Dean he will be kind to Linton. Heathcliff
admits he plans to own Thrushcross Grange one day, since Linton is the heir. He also
plans to continue his revenge by making Hareton serve Linton. Linton will be brought
up as a proper gentleman, and Heathcliff has even hired a tutor for Linton.

Analysis
In this chapter, Joseph and Heathcliff provide a few rare instances of humor in the
novel.
Everything about Linton (his demeanor, upper-class manners, and physical
appearance) associates him with the weaker but more civilized inhabitants of
Thrushcross Grange. Linton obviously does not belong at Wuthering Heights, and his
situation is an example of the doubling that occurs throughout the second half of the
novel. In this chapter, history repeats (always with a twist) the event of Heathcliff's
being brought from Liverpool to live at Wuthering Heights. Now it's his son, but
conversely, Linton is the exact opposite of Heathcliff in every way.

To carry suspense through the novel, Heathcliff tells Mrs. Dean (and the reader)
exactly how he will continue his revenge on Hindley and Edgar by using Linton
and Hareton.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 21 | Summary


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Mrs. Dean remembers a conversation she had in Gimmerton with Zillah, the servant
at Wuthering Heights. Zillah tells Mrs. Dean Heathcliff dislikes Linton and would
dislike him even more if he knew to what extent Linton pampers himself. Mrs. Dean
comes to the conclusion "that utter lack of sympathy had rendered young Heathcliff
selfish and disagreeable."
The story jumps ahead to Catherine's sixteenth birthday. Out on the
moors, Hareton and Heathcliff, whom Catherine has never met before, catch her
when she wanders onto his property. Catherine, remembering meeting Hareton a
few years earlier, wants to know if Hareton is Heathcliff's son. Heathcliff entices
Catherine to come to Wuthering Heights by telling her that Hareton is not his son,
but he does have a son and she knows him.
At Wuthering Heights, Catherine and Linton see each other for the first time since
they met. Catherine is astounded that he has been so close all this time, and that
Heathcliff is her uncle. "I thought I liked you," Catherine tells him. Then she asks if
she can visit Linton often, and Heathcliff has to tell her about his quarrel with Edgar:
"He thought me too poor to wed his sister ... his pride was hurt, and he'll never
forgive it." Catherine thinks her father is in the wrong, so she suggests Linton come
to Thrushcross Grange to visit instead, but Linton says four miles is too far for him to
walk. This disgusts Heathcliff, and he tells Mrs. Dean "I covet Hareton with all his
degradation ... I'd have loved the lad had he been someone else." Linton irritates
Heathcliff even more by ignoring Catherine and preferring to sit quietly, so Heathcliff
calls Hareton over and suggests he show Catherine around the farm.
When Catherine sees Hareton, she asks Heathcliff, "Oh, I'll ask you uncle ... that is
not my cousin, is he?" Catherine whispers something about Hareton in Heathcliff's
ear, embarrassing Hareton, but Heathcliff brushes it off, and they go play. Heathcliff
tells Mrs. Dean how Hareton is the better boy than Linton, and "he can sympathise
with all his feelings, having felt them myself." He explains how he taught Hareton to
hate everything beyond the physical, conditioning him to live in a state of ignorance.
Then Linton, regretting his decision to stay behind, catches up to Catherine and
Hareton just as Catherine is asking why it says "Hareton Earnshaw" above the door
(revealed in a previous chapter), but Hareton cannot read, so he does not know what
it says—and Catherine and Linton do not tell him. Instead, they tease him for not
being able to read, which causes Heathcliff to "cast a look of singular aversion" at
Linton and Catherine. Mrs. Dean decides she doesn't like Linton either, and she
doesn't blame Heathcliff "for holding him cheap."
Catherine returns to Thrushcross Grange and scolds her father for lying to her about
Linton living far away. Edgar explains why Catherine cannot return to Wuthering
Heights or contact Linton, but she writes to him anyway, until Mrs. Dean discovers
the letters and makes Catherine burn them.

Analysis
The chapter opens up with a reference to Linton as "young Heathcliff," alerting the
reader to the doubles in the chapter, making Linton a distorted mirror image of
Heathcliff as a child to reinforce ideas of pity versus judgment in the novel. (It is
important to note that pity is not used in the modern sense; it is more like having
sympathy for or empathy with than feeling sorry for someone.) Often characters
must choose between pity and judgment, and pity is typically shown to be a
virtue. Mrs. Dean doesn't judge Linton at first. Instead, she makes the lack of pity in
his life an excuse for his bad behavior. This jostles the reader's memory of the unfair
judgment (based on dark physical features) and lack of pity the Earnshaws had for
Heathcliff long ago, which flows directly into Linton and Catherine's judgment
of Hareton, also a double for Heathcliff—and history repeating.
Catherine, as a character, falls in the middle of the personality types of Linton and
Hareton. Physically active like Hareton and intellectually developed like Linton, she
appears to be, at first, a match for Hareton, and then, later, a match for Linton.
Matching in temperament is very important in the love and obsession theme
in Wuthering Heights, and Catherine's love could go either way at this point.
Heathcliff's "aversion" for Catherine comes only after she fails to recognize Hareton's
true value and chooses Linton's mean-spirited pride. The fact that Catherine and
Linton have a lack of sympathy for Hareton and they judge him for being unable to
read and write—for being lower class—makes it even worse. Heathcliff dislikes
Catherine because he has made Hareton in his own image. For Heathcliff, this
encounter is like the Cathy of his humiliating childhood happening all over again, and
it is significant that this event takes place on Catherine's birthday; it represents the
death and rebirth of Cathy, making Catherine's choice of Edgar-like Linton over
Heathcliff-like Hareton even more emotionally significant for Heathcliff.
The complex structure of the chapter creates an in-depth exploration of the value of
physical strength and genuineness (Hareton) versus intellectual power and upper
class pride (Linton and Catherine). The reader cannot help but feel sympathy for
Hareton when he cannot read his own name above the door. The reader cannot help
but like Hareton and despise Linton, seeing his bad effect on Catherine's character.
Soon after, Catherine and Linton's relationship grows through purely intellectual
activities. However, Mrs. Dean does not see real value or love between Catherine
and Linton because it isn't based on anything physical. The idea that love should
have a physical—not necessarily in a sexual sense—component is an unusual one in
Victorian England, which tended to privilege the intellect and spirit above things of
the body.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 22 | Summary


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One day in October when clouds "boding abundant rain" roll in, Mrs.
Dean and Catherine go for a walk on the moors. They discuss the possibility
of Edgar dying, and Mrs. Dean advises Catherine to "avoid giving him anxiety on any
subject ... you might kill him if you were wild and reckless ... and cherished ... a
fanciful affection for the son of a person ... glad to have him in his grave," referring
to Heathcliff and Linton. Catherine promises to "never—never—oh, never ... do an
act or say a word to vex him."
Catherine, "lightening into sunshine again" climbs up onto a wall to gather petals
from a rose tree. Catherine's hat falls off and she has to climb the wall to get it, but
she gets stuck on the other side because the ground is lower and rose trees and
blackberry bushes cover the wall. Mrs. Dean tries all of her keys to the door in the
wall, but none work. Then Mrs. Dean hears a horse and rider approach—it's
Heathcliff. "I sha'nt speak to you ... Papa says you are wicked ... Ellen says the same,"
Mrs. Dean hears Catherine say. Heathcliff denies hating Catherine then swears
Linton is dying because Catherine stopped writing to him. Mrs. Dean accuses
Heathcliff of lying, and then she breaks through the lock to get to Catherine.
Heathcliff urges Catherine to "be generous, and contrive to see him." Heathcliff
leaves and it rains.

Mrs. Dean says the news made Catherine's heart "cloudy now in double darkness ...
her features were so sad, they did not seem hers." Believing Heathcliff is telling the
truth, Catherine convinces Mrs. Dean to travel to Wuthering Heights the next day.

Analysis
Powerful imagery is used to reveal Catherine's character and show how she is
different from Cathy. Catherine is earthy and unselfish, able to empathize and think
ahead, whereas Cathy was impatient and fiery, allowing momentary circumstances
to make her ill. Catherine is a good listener, and she takes Mrs. Dean's advice; Cathy
was sassy with Mrs. Dean. Catherine and Cathy are not exact opposites; Catherine's
love of nature and animals reflects Cathy's character, and Catherine, like her mother,
is spirited and emotional by nature, acting out of natural affection rather than her
father's artificial mannerliness. Catherine's inherent goodness and empathy offer a
potential correction to the chaos that Cathy's selfishness unleashed.
The nature imagery in the chapter is used metaphorically. Thorns and stickers
represent Cathy's moral dilemma. Catherine is stuck, and Heathcliff uses guilt to
make her feel more stuck and to separate her from Mrs. Dean—represented by the
wall between them. In the previous chapter, Mrs. Dean describes Catherine's eyes as
"radiant with cloudless pleasure." In this chapter, the meeting with Heathcliff causes
Mrs. Dean to say Catherine's "heart was clouded in double darkness." A downpour of
rain signals the turn in the plot toward stormier times ahead.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 23 | Summary


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Catherine and Mrs. Dean cross the moors to visit Linton. The day
before, Heathcliff told Catherine that Linton is dying because she stopped writing her
letters to him. When they arrive, Linton tells Catherine not to kiss him because it
takes his breath away. He is angry he had to write to her because it tired him and
then his father blamed him, saying he is a "painful, shuffling, worthless thing"
because Catherine never visits. "Are you glad to see me?" Catherine asks many
times. Linton says he wants to marry her so she will take care of him. Catherine says
being brother and sister is better, that husbands and wives sometimes hate each
other. This leads to an argument about their fathers. Catherine defends Edgar and
Linton defends Heathcliff. Angry, Catherine shoves Linton's chair, causing him to
choke and cough.
Catherine apologizes, saying, "I couldn't have been hurt by that little push, and I had
no idea that you could, either." Linton does not accept Catherine's apology, but
when she tries to leave, he writhes on the floor in agony "determined to be as
grievous and harassing as he can be," according to Mrs. Dean. Catherine spends
another hour trying to make him comfortable, propping his pillows and reciting
poetry for him while he leans on her for support.
Back at Thrushcross Grange, Mrs. Dean catches a cold that incapacitates her for
three weeks. Catherine diligently nurses Mrs. Dean and her father during the day
and sneaks over to Wuthering Heights to care for Linton every night.

Analysis
Catherine and Linton's lack of passion contrasts with Cathy and Heathcliff's all-
consuming love. Catherine's visit mirrors an event from the past—when Edgar visits
Cathy and she has a violent tantrum and manipulates Edgar into staying afterward.
Edgar is the proper gentleman in the past encounter; Cathy the spoiled indulged
child. Here, Catherine is the nurse, and Linton is the spoiled indulged child. Further,
their physical interactions are cold, lifeless, and clinical; they disappoint Catherine,
who is eager for a romance. Linton's illness also reflects a difference from the past:
Cathy suffered from a broken heart. Linton is shown to be insufferable. The symbolic
ghost of the past lingers in the present when Linton and Catherine argue over their
fathers' different versions of the truth, and it creates a loose dramatic irony that
flows through the novel—the reader knows much more about the past than Linton
and Catherine. The reader gets a front row seat to the effects of different
combinations of mixed bloodlines and environments—nature and nurture—over
time, while the characters are unknowledgeable about where they come from and
what exactly is influencing their behavior.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 24 | Summary


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Michael, a servant who works in the stables, has been helping Catherine sneak out in
exchange for books. Mrs. Dean catches Catherine returning from visiting Linton at
Wuthering Heights. Catherine, distressed by lying, confesses all the details to Mrs.
Dean. At first, the visits go well, and Zillah makes everything comfortable for
Catherine and Linton. One night, Hareton tries to impress Catherine by showing her
that he can read his name above the door, but Catherine laughs at him when he
can't decipher the numbers. Then she goes inside to visit with Linton. Hareton, a
while later, bursts into the room and throws Linton on the floor. Then he shoves him
and Catherine into the kitchen. Linton screams that he'll kill Hareton for this, and
then chokes so violently, blood comes out of his mouth. Catherine runs for Zillah, but
when they return, Hareton is carrying Linton upstairs to his room. Joseph laughs at
Catherine and Linton, happy to see justice served in Hareton's realization that he is
the true master of Wuthering Heights. Catherine ignores Joseph and leaves on her
pony soon after. Hareton catches up to her out on the moors, trying to apologize,
but Catherine lashes him with her whip, and he curses and gallops away.
Catherine also tells Mrs. Dean about a quarrel she had with Linton over their
different visions of a perfect day. Then Catherine begs Mrs. Dean not to tell Edgar, so
she can continue to see Linton. Mrs. Dean promises to consider it, and then goes
directly to Edgar, telling him everything. Edgar forbids Catherine from visiting
Wuthering Heights.

Analysis
Catherine's character has a unique relationship with the servants in the novel,
and Brontë uses the difference between her and the other characters to explore how
pride is destructive but humility overcomes class prejudices and leads to justice.
Catherine sees the servants for who they are. She respects them, knows their hopes
and aspirations, helps them, and calls them by their first names. Slowly but steadily,
Catherine is becoming a character worthy of a happy ending. Giving Michael books
from Catherine's personal collection, not just those from the library, "satisfied him
better." This is a powerful clue for analyzing the meaning of Catherine's interactions
with the servants. Zillah's kindness provides imagery of the good will that flows when
class distinctions aren't interfering. Zillah prepares a "clean" room, a "good" fire, and
warm "wine," all of which have religious associations, entwining the central theme in
this chapter with the theme of good versus evil. Mrs. Dean, who, at times,
represents the moral compass and judge of the other characters' spiritual qualities
throughout the novel, has found Catherine to be an apt pupil for her moral teaching.
Later, in the kind of detail exemplifying Brontë's extraordinary craft, Catherine
sweetly gives Mrs. Dean credit for supplying the song she uses to charm Linton. It is
very rare for a servant to receive gratitude or credit in the novel.
The contradiction found in Catherine's behavior toward Hareton—that she cannot
give Hareton the kindness she gives to the servants—is the main point of the
chapter, as well as the result: violence. Hareton attacks Linton, as a way to rechannel
his violent feelings toward Catherine. Notably, developing the message about love in
the novel, Hareton carries Linton upstairs and tries to apologize, matching
Catherine's nature completely. Joseph supplies the idea of justice (his glee over
Hareton getting the first inklings of it), which is always hidden nearby when ideas
about pride, humility, judgment, and pity are being explored.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 25 | Summary


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In the present, Mrs. Dean encourages Mr. Lockwood to consider a romance
with Catherine. Then she rewinds the story to a little less than a year ago
when Edgar's death is imminent. Linton has been writing letters pressuring Edgar to
allow him to marry Catherine. Edgar considers the marriage, and Mrs. Dean
reassures him with the idea that Catherine will be rewarded in the marriage because
she does her duty. He has set aside a yearly income for Catherine, but the only way
for her to live permanently at Thrushcross Grange is through marriage with Linton,
the male heir. Edgar agrees to let Mrs. Dean accompany Catherine weekly to see
Linton out on the moors.
Analysis
Mr. Lockwood's romantic interest in Catherine is intended to throw the reader off
the trail, as the novel toys, again, with the reader's expectation for a conventional
happy ending.
A core message for the theme of good versus evil comes from Mrs. Dean's comment:
"People who do their duty are always finally rewarded." This connects to well-known
religious ideas of the time about the virtue of being a humble servant, alluded to
throughout Wuthering Heights.
What the readers know, but the characters do not, is that all because of Edgar's
insistence on Thrushcross Grange going to a male heir—even though Edgar could
make a clause in the will and leave it to his daughter—Heathcliff is leveraging a race
between Linton and Edgar's death and Linton and Catherine's marriage.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 26 | Summary


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Catherine sets out on her horse to meet Linton halfway between Wuthering Heights
and Thrushcross Grange, but Linton is so ill he only makes it a quarter of a mile away
from his home. Catherine is concerned for Linton; he's grown thinner and paler than
when she saw him last. He is withdrawn, confused, and snappish. He asks Catherine
to lie to her father and say he is healthy, and to not provoke Heathcliff's anger
against him. He begs Catherine to stay another half hour, and then falls asleep while
she looks for berries with Mrs. Dean. Catherine, eager to leave his sour company,
takes off on her horse as Heathcliff approaches.

Analysis
Continuing the loose and flowing dramatic irony in the novel, the reader knows
that Heathcliff is forcing Linton to meet with Catherine; Linton is too ill to love
anyone, let alone play the part of a romantic lover, and Catherine is too
inexperienced to fully realize it—although she does notice it seems like Linton is
being compelled. Their love is the opposite of the consuming, jealous love between
Heathcliff and Cathy. However, Catherine and Linton have more tenderness and
understanding between them. As Catherine tries to force a romantic interaction, she
becomes blind to Linton's illness. Linton explains the reasons for his behavior, a
major departure from Heathcliff and Cathy's inability to communicate with each
other in the past.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 27 | Summary


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Edgar Linton will die soon, and Catherine is always at his bedside. On the day she is
supposed to meet Linton, she doesn't want to go, but Edgar urges her, finding
comfort in knowing she won't be alone in the world after he dies. Mrs. Dean thinks
Edgar is mistaken in thinking Linton is like him in character just because they look
alike, "for Linton's letters bore few or no indications of his defective character."
When Linton arrives on the moors, he's angry Catherine is late: "Is your father not
very ill? I thought you wouldn't come." Catherine takes offense, urging him to tell the
truth, that he only pretends to like her. But that is not the problem. Linton is
terrified, but he won't say why. He'll only say he'll be killed if Catherine leaves him,
then he breaks down, sobbing and holding onto her skirt. When it looks like she will
stay, he says, "perhaps you will consent." Feeling Linton is hiding something from
her, Catherine asks, "You wouldn't hurt me, Linton, would you? You wouldn't let any
enemy hurt me?" Linton admits something is wrong; Heathcliff threatened him, but
he can't tell her why.
Heathcliff shows up and lures Catherine and Mrs. Dean back to Wuthering Heights,
using the excuse that Linton is too sick to walk on his own and too afraid to let
Heathcliff touch him. "Come then, my hero. Are you willing to return escorted by
me?" Heathcliff says sarcastically, but it's actually a ploy. Back at Wuthering Heights,
Heathcliff convinces Mrs. Dean and Catherine to come inside, and when they enter,
he shuts the door and locks it. Observing Catherine and Linton, Heathcliff says to
Mrs. Dean, "It's odd what savage feeling I have to anything that seems afraid of me!
Had I been born where laws are less strict and tastes less dainty, I should treat
myself to a slow vivisection of those two, for an evening's amusement."

Catherine's furious Heathcliff has locked her in when her father is dying. She wrestles
the key from his hand, biting and scratching, but he grabs her and hits her head. Mrs.
Dean attacks, calling Heathcliff a villain, but Heathcliff pushes her back. Meanwhile,
Linton is perfectly composed now that he is out of danger, which disgusts Mrs. Dean.
Then Linton explains Heathcliff's plan: he wants Catherine and Linton to marry
before Edgar dies.

When Heathcliff returns, Catherine begs him to let her go home. Catherine agrees to
marry Linton; she asks only to go home first, so Edgar knows she is safe. Heathcliff
says no and locks them in Zillah's room. The next morning, he lets Catherine out, but
Mrs. Dean is held prisoner for the next five nights.

Analysis
This chapter is the climax of the story-within-the-story in the novel.
Pointedly, Heathcliff calls Linton "hero" when Linton's laying a trap for his beloved,
which is not heroic at all. As the love interest in the second half of the novel, Linton,
morally weak and physically dying, is a failed romantic hero; he lacks the charismatic
energy necessary to bend the universe to his will, be a champion of individuality, and
overcome the dark forces of his father's hatred to be Catherine's champion. The
chapter is built to expose Linton for all that he really is: once the threat of violence is
gone, Linton turns back to his upper-class, spoiled nature. Catherine is emerging the
true romantic hero of the story-within-the-story. She physically fights Heathcliff, and
though he overpowers her, she does not give in to flaws that subsume other
characters. Since the beginning of her relationship with Linton, Catherine has been
the romantic pursuer, transgressing traditional (for the time the novel was written)
social boundaries of male and female.
Heathcliff's larger role of antihero in the novel is temporarily dropped to villain
status. Mrs. Dean literally calls him "villain" to make it clear, and the idea is woven
throughout the chapter; it hardly needs declaration. Whatever hope the reader had
of redemption for the antihero Heathcliff, it is annihilated in this chapter with his
gruesome, Gothic notion—when he suggests cutting into and eating the children
while they are alive, and for pleasure.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 28 | Summary


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Mrs. Dean, freed from imprisonment in Zillah's room, looks for Catherine. She finds
out from Linton that Catherine is still locked in his bedroom. Acting innocent and
sucking on a piece of candy, Linton tells Mrs. Dean, Heathcliff "says I'm not to be soft
... she's my wife ... it's shameful that she should wish to leave me" and that
Catherine wants all of Linton's money. Linton tells Mrs. Dean he will never let her
leave. He says everything that was hers is his now: "All her nice books ... her pretty
birds ... her pony Minny," and he told Catherine the same when she offered them to
him as a bribe to unlock the bedroom, so she can see Edgar before he dies. She even
offers her locket with Edgar and Cathy's pictures inside, but Linton says those are his
too, and he tears the locket from her neck. Heathcliff comes when Catherine
screams; he smashes the locket with his foot and hits Catherine on the mouth.
Linton admits it made him glad, until her mouth filled with blood. Mrs. Dean is
horrified by Linton's behavior, and she reminds him how kind Catherine was when
she did not have to be. Linton will not tell Mrs. Dean where the bedroom key is. Mrs.
Dean calls Linton a heartless, selfish boy, but she perceives "the wretched creature
had no power to sympathize with his cousin's mental tortures."
Mrs. Dean rushes out and runs across the moors to Thrushcross Grange. She sends
servants back to break Catherine out of Wuthering Heights. She tells Edgar a
softened version of what happened. Edgar tells Mrs. Dean to call Mr. Green, his
lawyer, to change the will. But unknowing the whole truth—that Linton is also dying
—Edgar only slightly makes changes to the will: Thrushcross Grange will be left to
any male children Catherine has.

The servants come back without Catherine, believing a lie Heathcliff tells. Mrs. Dean
plans to send more armed servants tomorrow, but Catherine shows up in the
morning. She sneaked out with a little help from Linton. Keeping Heathcliff's crimes
to herself, Catherine sits quietly with Edgar as he dies. Mr. Green finally shows up;
he works for Heathcliff now, and he fires all of the servants except Mrs. Dean;
Heathcliff allows Catherine to stay at Thrushcross Grange until after the funeral.

Analysis
The horror of Linton's behavior, mirroring Heathcliff's cruelty, is meant to arouse an
intense emotional response, as Linton surprises the reader with one shocking
revelation relishing violence and power over Catherine after another, all while he
pretends to be innocent. Women have limited legal rights, and even a man
like Edgar, gentle and loving toward his daughter, leaves her powerless in the world.
Linton may be weak, and thus superficially resemble the gentle Edgar,
but Brontë makes it clear that weakness is not the same thing as deliberate
gentleness, and Linton's weakness does not prevent his cruelty.
The limitations of Linton's and Catherine's understanding of their marriage create
another moment of dramatic irony: Linton is glad to have his cousin's possessions
and pony, like one child jealous of another's toy, and is oblivious to his father's larger
goal of revenge. Catherine, frantic to go home to her father, has no sense of the
permanent damage she has caused herself to gain a few moments at Edgar's
bedside.

The limitations of the law, which Heathcliff exploits for the purposes of revenge, are
on display in this chapter. Heathcliff is able to bribe a supposedly honorable lawyer,
and he uses inheritance law, which was intended to keep money and property within
families, as a way to control everything belonging to the Lintons.
Yet, Mrs. Dean pities more than judges at a place in the novel where if ever there
were a time to judge and cry out for justice, it would be now, driving deeper a core
message in the pity versus judgment theme. Here is the extreme example of a
"heartless" and "selfish" character, but pity still holds greater value than judgment.
Mrs. Dean's words reflect the heart of the theme: "You could pity your own
suffering; and she pitied them, too; but you won't pity hers!" Mrs. Dean, who
advocates pity throughout the novel, does not give in to revenge or violence.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 29 | Summary


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The night after Edgar's funeral, Heathcliff comes to Thrushcross Grange to
bring Catherine back to Wuthering Heights. Heathcliff says his presence is "as potent
on [Linton's] nerves as a ghost." Mrs. Deanasks if Catherine and Linton may move to
Thrushcross Grange, but Heathcliff says no because he plans to rent it to a tenant.
Catherine agrees to return to Wuthering Heights, declaring Linton is all she has left
to love in the world now. Heathcliff calls her a "boastful champion," then laughs at
her because he heard Linton telling Zillah how he would treat Catherine if he were as
strong as Heathcliff. "I know he has a bad nature." Catherine says. "He's your son."
But she can forgive Linton and love him.
When Catherine leaves to pack her things, Heathcliff tells Mrs. Dean he dug
up Cathy's grave last night, and she has not decomposed yet. He plans to be buried
in the same casket with her when he dies. He also tells Mrs. Dean about the time he
tried to dig up Cathy's grave right after she died. He stopped digging because he
heard Cathy's spirit sighing in his ear. Her ghost has haunted him ever since; but he
can only hear and feel her, and he longs to see her. That night, he says, "I ought to
have sweat blood then, from the anguish of my yearning—from the fervor of my
supplications to have but one glimpse." Heathcliff says Cathy has been a devil to him
in death as she was in life; she has killed him "not by inches, but by fractions of
hairbreadths."
When Catherine is ready to leave, she says goodbye, and Heathcliff tells Mrs. Dean
not to visit her at Wuthering Heights.

Analysis
Heathcliff calls Catherine a "boastful champion," reinforcing the idea of Catherine
being the romantic hero of the story-within-the-story.
Linton, a failed hero in Chapter 27, villainous in Chapter 28, has transformed into a
nervous wreck that "wakes and shrieks in the night by the hour." It is significant that
Heathcliff tells Mrs. Dean his "presence is as potent on [Linton's] nerves as a ghost"
moments before revealing Cathy's ghost is haunting him. This introduces the symbol
of ghosts in the chapter. Linton is following in his father's footsteps, yet, mirroring
Heathcliff's fate at a much faster clip. Linton, unlike Heathcliff in some ways, has little
concern for anything besides his own comfort, and it makes a powerful difference in
the kind of cruelty each inflicts on others. Ultimately, Linton is just a sick little boy
being tormented by his father while he is dying; his cruelty to Catherine is lessened
in the face of his mortality and unhappiness.
Neither Mrs. Dean nor the reader has been privy to Heathcliff's emotional interior
since the death of Cathy; he has simply functioned as an antagonist and villain. All at
once, the reader discovers the extent to which Cathy has been haunting Heathcliff.
The reader will wonder if he has gone mad. The passion that seemed like love when
Cathy was alive will now look like obsession or insanity. The biblical reference to
Jesus's experience in the Garden of Gethsemane, where Jesus yearns for God's
comfort so strongly he sweats blood, connects to Heathcliff's intensity in the
chapter, perhaps to show how troubled and obsessed Heathcliff is.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 30 | Summary


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Summary
It is about six weeks after Mr. Lockwood rents Thrushcross Grange. Mrs. Dean hasn't
seen Catherinesince Heathcliff took her to Wuthering Heights. Mrs. Dean runs into
Zillah on the moors, and Zillah gossips about what's happened since Catherine came
to live there:
The first thing Catherine does when she arrives at Wuthering Heights is to run
upstairs to check on Linton, without stopping to say hello to Zillah. Then Catherine
comes downstairs and requests a doctor or help for Linton because he'll die
otherwise, but Heathcliff tells her, "None here cares what becomes of him; if you do,
act the nurse; if you do not, lock him up and leave him." So Catherine nurses Linton
as best she can. She asks Zillah, Joseph, and Hareton for help, but they all fear
Heathcliff and refuse to help. Zillah explains to Mrs. Dean, "Though I thought it
wrong Kenneth should not be sent for, it was no concern of mine ... once or twice ...
I've seen her crying on the stairs'-top; and then I've shut myself in quick for fear of
being moved to interfere. I did pity her then, I'm sure; still, I didn't wish to lose my
place, you know."
The night Linton dies, Catherine is silent and exhausted. Heathcliff asks her how she
feels, and she tells him "you have left me so long to struggle against death alone,
that I feel and see only death." Zillah gives Catherine some wine, and Heathcliff
leaves her alone for a fortnight. When Catherine emerges from her room, she is
angry with everyone because of all she's gone through: "When I would have given
my life for one kind word ... all kept off." Zillah says, "The more hurt she gets, the
more venomous she grows."

In the aftermath of Linton's death, Zillah encourages a romance between Catherine


and Hareton, to which Mrs. Dean objects. Zillah says, "You happen to think your
young lady too fine for Mr. Hareton ... but I own I should love well to bring her pride
a peg lower ... what will all her learning and daintiness do for her now?" Zillah also
tells Mrs. Dean that Heathcliff coerced Linton to sign a will leaving Thrushcross
Grange to him, but since Linton is a minor, he couldn't leave the land; it belongs to
Catherine. But having no money or friends, Mrs. Dean supposes, Catherine will not
be able take the house from Heathcliff. Mrs. Dean considers renting a cottage for her
and Catherine to live in, but she knows Heathcliff would never allow it.

Mrs. Dean's story has ended. Mr. Lockwood tells the reader he plans to go back to
London, so he's going to visit Wuthering Heights to tell Heathcliff he's leaving.

Analysis
This chapter continues to explore the negative aspects of division between social
classes. Neglecting to say hello causes distance between Catherine and Zillah, who
would have been a good ally for Catherine. Zillah judges Catherine rather than pities
her because she does not know, as the reader does, everything Catherine has
suffered and that Catherine is the humblest of the privileged characters—at least,
according to Mrs. Dean. The novel's structure, using the difference between Mrs.
Dean's narration and Zillah's viewpoint supports the judgment versus pity theme.
Catherine seems prideful, but really, she is in a terrible situation requiring a great
deal of inner strength. Also, the abusive and violent Wuthering Heights environment
strikes again with its tendency to have a negative effect on every character that lives
there.
Catherine's predicament—being Linton's sole caregiver, alone with the horror of
death—is a very Gothic scenario, and it continues the exploration of apathy
from Chapter 27. Heathcliff leaves Catherine to fend for herself or choose apathy.
Here, apathy equals violence—if the reader carries Catherine's alternate choice
through to its conclusion and envisions the horror of Catherine actually leaving
Linton to die utterly alone. Also, Zillah finds pity for Catherine at times, but she shuts
the door to shut out her feelings. This illustrates how fear is stronger than pity, and it
shows how fear creates apathy. Zillah is not entirely against Catherine; she is
unwilling to risk her job, but she does advise Catherine to pursue a relationship
with Hareton. This demonstrates the powerful impact servants have in their masters'
lives; how much servants are willing to risk for their masters, or how much empathy
they have for them, can alter their destinies or dramatically affect their emotional
wellbeing.
Zillah points out that Catherine is poorer than she and Mrs. Dean, highlighting the
reality for privileged women from the novel's time; under the wrong circumstances,
it is better to be a servant earning a wage than a woman of privilege under the rule
of a cruel male tyrant—husband or relative.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 31 | Summary


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Mr. Lockwood visits Wuthering Heights to tell Heathcliff he is going back to London.
Carrying a little note for Catherine, from Mrs. Dean, Mr. Lockwood waits at the
"jealous gate," always locked, until Hareton lets him in. Catherine is in the kitchen,
cooking, when Mr. Lockwood enters. Mr. Lockwood observes that she is sulky and
less spirited than when he saw her last; she hardly looks at him, and he comments,
"She's a beauty, it is true; but not an angel."
Now, in the parlor with Catherine and Hareton, Mr. Lockwood drops the note on
Catherine's lap. "What is that?" she asks loudly, and Hareton confiscates it.
Embarrassed (afraid they will think the letter is from him), Mr. Lockwood explains
that it's from Mrs. Dean. Catherine ignores Mr. Lockwood, but he urges her to speak
with him; Mrs. Dean will expect a reply of some sort. "Does Ellen like you?"
Catherine asks. "Yes, very well," Mr. Lockwood replies. Catherine tells him to tell
Mrs. Dean that she would write, but she doesn't have any paper—or books.
Mentioning books brings up an ongoing argument between Hareton and Catherine.
She teases Hareton, in front of Mr. Lockwood, about the way he sounds when he's
trying to read aloud. She accuses Hareton of spitefully stealing all of her books, and
when Hareton offers to give them back, she tells him they are debased and
"profaned in his mouth!" She never wants them back. Hareton, embarrassed, hits
Catherine, and Mr. Lockwood thinks, "The little wretch had done her utmost to hurt
her cousin's sensitive though uncultivated feelings, and a physical argument was the
only mode he had of balancing the account."

Hareton goes outside as Heathcliff returns. Catherine slips into the kitchen. They
discuss the rental agreement. Perceiving Mr. Lockwood is trying to get out of paying
the full year, Heathcliff tells him, "I never relent in exacting my due from anyone."
Mr. Lockwood promises to pay. During dinner, Mr. Lockwood wonders why
Catherine doesn't want to eat with him. He supposes "living among clowns and
misanthropes, she probably cannot appreciate a better class of people when she
meets them."

Mr. Lockwood would like to catch one more glimpse of Catherine before he leaves,
but Heathcliff walks him outside. Mr. Lockwood muses, "What a realisation of
something more romantic than a fairytale it would have been for Mrs. Linton
Heathcliff, had she and I struck up an attachment, as her good nurse desired, and
migrated together into the stirring atmosphere of the town!"
Analysis
The novel has repeatedly asked the Victorian reader to consider the value of pity and
the peril of judgment. Now, the reader enters the chapter with full knowledge of the
major joys, disappointments, injustices, and abuse—the greatest good, the worst
bad—Heathcliff, Hareton, and Catherine have delivered or suffered. The reader no
longer needs Mrs. Dean's explanations or Mr. Lockwood's observations as he walks
through the Wuthering Heights "jealous gate," always fastened. The knowledge of
the characters is unlocked, and the reader is free to choose between pity and
judgment while witnessing the characters' present day behaviors and interactions.
And now, the reader also has the ability to assess Mr. Lockwood's character
accurately. As the chapter progresses the reader will be able to measure Mr.
Lockwood's observations against the reader's own interpretations. When Mr.
Lockwood first met Heathcliff, Catherine, and Hareton, the reader saw these figures
through his eyes, and may have judged them to be uncouth and impolite, as he did.
Now, the reader parts ways with Mr. Lockwood: he knows their circumstances, but is
too pompous and oblivious to feel empathy for them, and he makes himself
ridiculous in the reader's eyes by imagining that it would be "more romantic than a
fairy tale" for him to carry Catherine off. The reader, knowing the characters'
backstories now, is much more likely to pity them and to empathize with their
unhappiness.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 32 | Summary


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A hunting trip brings Mr. Lockwood near Gimmerton, so he decides to visit
Wuthering Heights and pay the rest of his bill for renting Thrushcross Grange. He
arrives at Thrushcross Grange first. A servant he does not recognize answers the
door. "Are you the housekeeper?" he asks. She replies, "Eea, Aw keep the hause,"
and she tells him "Mistress" Dean works at Wuthering Heights now. The servant is
frantic because Mr. Lockwood arrived unannounced, so he is unable to ask her any
more questions.

When he arrives at Wuthering Heights, the gate is unlocked, so Mr. Lockwood has an
opportunity to eavesdrop on a conversation between Hareton and Catherine in the
kitchen. Catherine is teaching Hareton to read, and giving him slaps and kisses as
rewards or reprimands, which makes Mr. Lockwood bitterly jealous, since Catherine
is so beautiful.
Once inside, Mrs. Dean says Mr. Lockwood will have to pay his rent to Catherine. Or,
he can settle with Mrs. Dean, since she helps Catherine with the household finances
now. Mr. Lockwood is confused. Mrs. Dean explains that he must not have
heard; Heathcliff died three months earlier. As Mrs. Dean explains how he died, she
first explains how Catherine and Hareton became friends "by both their minds
tending to the same point." Mrs. Dean says she is glad Mr. Lockwood did not try to
win Catherine's heart. The "crown of all her wishes" is that Catherine and Hareton
will marry.
Analysis
This chapter is connected to the underlying meaning in the novel's title. Mrs.
Dean, Catherine, and Hareton have withstood the wuthering atmosphere
and Heathcliff's stormy violence and revenge. Also, the chapter contains a nod to the
servant's role in the lives of the privileged when Mr. Lockwood asks the new servant,
"Are you the housekeeper?" and her response—I keep the house—implies she does
so much more than dust and sweep. The reader has learned through observing Mrs.
Dean that a servant can love, protect, and serve with the fierce loyalty of a family
member, and servants wield a significant amount of power over their masters'
happiness and fate.
The motif of locked doors, walls, and windows signifying boundaries and social
isolation as characters search for where they belong, comes to its resolution: all the
doors, windows, and gates are unlocked. The dynamic between Catherine and
Hareton is significant in this context; they have crossed the boundaries between
them, symbolized by Catherine's blond ringlets intermingling with Hareton's brown
locks. Catherine and Hareton have made peace through books. Earlier in the novel,
the question of which is more valuable, physical strength and humility or intellectual
power is presented. Catherine and Hareton balance the two when Catherine drops
her false pride over being more educated than Hareton. This resolves the past
(when Hindley took Heathcliff's opportunity for education away). Hindley was the
true villain all along, and his cruelty set in motion a cycle of unhappiness. The
present generation has righted the wrongs of the past generation by rising above
pride. Happiness, love, and peace are rewards for their openness and humanity
toward one another.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 33 | Summary


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Summary
In the present, Mrs. Dean explains the events leading up to Heathcliff's death to Mr.
Lockwood.
One day, Catherine and Hareton infuriate Joseph by ripping up his currant trees to
plant a flower garden. Later Joseph complains to Heathcliff and threatens to leave.
He calls Catherine the devil's temptress and accuses her of casting a spell on
Hareton. He thinks Mrs. Dean's song about fairies is evil too. Heathcliff has recently
come home, and seeing Catherine and Hareton being peaceful and loving disturbs
him. He yells at Catherine for daring to alter Joseph's garden, or touch even a stick at
Wuthering Heights, but when she responds that he's stolen her money and
Hareton's and that Hareton will defend her now, Heathcliff grabs her by the hair.
Hareton begs him not to hurt Catherine, just this one time, and he tries to pry
Heathcliff's fingers out of Catherine's hair.
The next night, they all quietly eat dinner together, and after signaling for Catherine
and Hareton to leave the table, Heathcliff opens up to Mrs. Dean: "It is a poor
conclusion, is it not," he begins, and he continues, "I get levers and mattocks to
demolish the two houses ... now would be the precise time to revenge myself ... but
where is the use? I don't care for striking ... that sounds as if I had been labouring the
whole time only to exhibit a fine trait of magnanimity." Heathcliff tells Mrs. Dean he
has changed, and he feels strange. Hareton seems more like a personification of his
youth than a human being; Heathcliff tells Mrs. Dean that "Hareton's aspect was the
ghost of my immortal love; of my wild endeavours to hold my right: my degradation,
my pride, my happiness, and my anguish." Heathcliff's words worry Mrs. Dean. She
wants to know if he is afraid to die. Heathcliff says he is yearning to attain it with his
whole being.

Analysis
Joseph's view of women is revealed in this chapter, and the argument he has
with Catherine and Haretonabout destroying his garden is an allusion to the story of
Adam and Eve from the Old Testament. The idea of yoking, another biblical
reference in the chapter, relates to doing one's duty, so, here, Joseph is emphatically
denying to do what he knows is right in terms of his religious beliefs, making the
point that Joseph's skewed view of women is the source of his long-running
hypocrisy.
The past, represented symbolically by Cathy's ghost in the chapter, lives in the
present everywhere for Heathcliff, but nowhere as clearly as it does in Hareton's and
Catherine's eyes and burgeoning love. Hareton is Heathcliff. Catherine is Cathy.
Hareton and Catherine in the present are Heathcliff and Cathy in their childhood. All
are related through Cathy, and this inescapable truth disarms Heathcliff's final act of
revenge and softens him. However, the novel makes certain readers make no
mistake about what Heathcliff is. He wasn't secretly working the whole time toward
a happy ending. The past turning good in the present deflated him; or perhaps the
sight of love and friendship arising even in terrible circumstances allows Heathcliff to
see beyond his own selfish, warped love. Heathcliff remains an antihero, not a
romantic hero, and the themes of violence and revenge and good versus evil will end
with this moral conclusion.

Wuthering Heights | Chapter 34 | Summary


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Summary
A strange illness overtakes Heathcliff and changes his personality. He is restless; he
can't eat and he's unusually bright and cheerful. Mrs. Dean is curious why. Heathcliff
laughs and tells her, "Last night, I was on the threshold of hell. To-day, I am within
sight of my heaven." Mrs. Dean, perplexed, wonders if he's a ghoul or vampire, going
as far as to remember Heathcliff's whole life and how when Mr. Earnshaw brought
Heathcliff home, "the little dark thing was harboured by a good man to his bane."
She shakes off her thoughts as superstitious, then she sees a vision of Heathcliff's
grave, which comes true a few days later.
Meanwhile, Heathcliff's good mood confuses Hareton too. When Hareton tries to
talk to him, Heathcliff tells him to get away, go to Catherine, and "he wondered how
I could want the company of anybody else." Mrs. Dean has no luck coaxing Heathcliff
to eat. She finds him wandering around, talking to the air as if someone were there,
and clenching his hand when he reaches for food. Not being able to shake off her
bad feeling, she offers to find a minister to explain the Bible to him in case he dies,
but he says, "No minister need come; nor anything be said over me.—I tell you I have
nearly attained my heaven; and that of others is altogether unvalued and uncoveted
by me."
Mrs. Dean worries constantly about him until she goes to check on him one morning
when he sleeps late, and she finds him dead in Cathy's childhood bedroom. The
lattice is open and the rain falls on Heathcliff's corpse. The corpse's sneering grin and
wide-open eyes horrify Mrs. Dean. She tries to close his eyes, but they won't stay
shut. Joseph says Heathcliff looks wicked and the devil's taken his soul. Only Hareton
grieves profoundly for Heathcliff, holding his hand and kissing his face.
Mrs. Dean describes the funeral to Mr. Lockwood. Then she tells him about the
rumors and sightings of Heathcliff's and Cathy's ghosts. Even Mrs. Dean is afraid at
night now, and she tells of a boy with a lamb and two sheep who she discovered
crying on the moors one night. The sheep refused to walk toward the ghosts of Cathy
and Heathcliff.

Analysis
The structure of the chapter takes Heathcliff quickly through the steps necessary to
draw the conclusion that Heathcliff's love is entirely obsession and he has
chosen Cathy over redemption. It would have been tempting to imagine Heathcliff
being redeemed by Hareton and Catherine's happier reincarnation of his romance
with Cathy, but Brontë makes the issue more complex than that. Heathcliff is "within
the sight of my heaven," which suggests that he still lives in a moral universe
centered around his and Cathy's love, rather than any larger spiritual or moral code.
Since her death, Heathcliff has always longed for the company of Cathy's ghost, so it
will not be surprising when he rejects Mrs. Dean's offer to fetch a minister. It is
understandable what Heathcliff means by heaven when he says, "I tell you I have
nearly attained my heaven; and that of others is altogether unvalued and uncoveted
by me." Heaven means being with Cathy, and Cathy, while alive, made the same
choice. The novel seems to suggest, for Heathcliff, eternal damnation with Cathy is
better than being in heaven without her, and because of this choice, both are left
outside of heaven, doomed to wander the moors. It is up to the reader to decide
whether Heathcliff and Cathy have doomed themselves to an eternity of restless
unhappiness, or whether they have managed to create a version of happiness
uniquely suited to themselves and their turbulent love.
Wuthering Heights | Quotes
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1.
 Guests are so exceedingly rare in this house that I and my dogs, I am willing to own,
hardly know how to receive them. 

Heathcliff, Chapter 1
Heathcliff is referring to his dogs, but unbeknownst to Mr. Lockwood in this moment,
Heathcliff has treated the children in his care, Hareton and Catherine, similarly—he
both owns them and discourages their education, domestication, or highborn
manners, foreshadowing how the children will behave as nastily as the dogs when
Mr. Lockwood meets them.

2.
 Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves. 

Mrs. Dean, Chapter 7
Mrs. Dean's advice to Heathcliff carries a main message in the novel and reveals the
core of the theme of Pride versus Humility.

3.
 Wish and learn to ... change the fiends to confident, innocent angels, suspecting and
doubting nothing, and always seeing friends where they are sure of foes. 

Mrs. Dean, Chapter 7
Speaking of Heathcliff's eyes, Mrs. Dean delivers sage advice to the still receptive and
redeemable young Heathcliff, who is at a crossroads between developing into an
angel or devil, a good or evil person.

4.
Here! and here! ... In my soul and in my heart, I'm convinced I'm wrong! 

Cathy, Chapter 9
Cathy shares her intuition with young Mrs. Dean after accepting Edgar's marriage
proposal. Cathy's presentiment, visions, and intuition will increase as the plot twists
and turns from this point forward.

5.
 My love for Linton is like the foliage in the woods: time will change it ... as winter
changes the trees. My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneath ...
Nelly, I am Heathcliff! 

Cathy, Chapter 9
Cathy discerns between her temporal love for Edgar and her eternal love for
Heathcliff; comparing Heathcliff to an eternal rock has religious associations, and in
some ways, Cathy and Heathcliff's love has a religious quality to it. She feels as he
feels, and, in her perception, they share one being.

6.
 I'll go make peace with Edgar instantly. Good-night! I'm an angel! 

Cathy, Chapter 10
Cathy is so happy when Heathcliff returns that she reconciles with God and promises
to be good, and, in this instance, makes up with her husband after a fight. The motif
of angels and devils supports the theme of good versus evil throughout Wuthering
Heights.

7.
 You fight against that devil for love as long as you may: when the time comes, not
all the angels in heaven shall save him. 

Hindley, Chapter 13
Hindley wants to kill Heathcliff, but it will take away his chance to leave his son an
inheritance. The "devil" is both Heathcliff and an impulse stopping Hindley from
killing Heathcliff. This play on words emphasizes how much Hindley has gone over to
the dark side; he is referring to a good impulse—not to kill—as a "devil."

8.
 It is not in him to be loved like me: how can she love in him what he has not? 

Heathcliff, Chapter 14
Heathcliff mirrors Cathy's earlier confession of love, cementing the idea in the novel
of the two being of one soul, meant only for each other.

9.
 He has no claim on my charity. I gave him my heart, and he took and pinched it to
death, and flung it back to me. 

Isabella, Chapter 17
Isabella's "delusional love" contrasts with Cathy's "eternal" love connection with
Heathcliff. This is Isabella's moment of clarity, as she struggles to free herself from
false love.

10.
 Treachery and violence are spears pointed at both ends; they wound those who
resort to them worse than their enemies. 

Isabella, Chapter 17
Through Isabella's rejecting an opportunity for revenge, a core message about
violence is delivered to the reader, as her character contrasts with Heathcliff and
Hindley, and she is the one character who escapes Wuthering Heights.

11.
 One hoped, and the other despaired: they chose their own loss, and were
righteously doomed to enjoy them. 

Mrs. Dean, Chapter 17
Comparing Hindley to Edgar, Mrs. Dean "moralizes" on how Edgar's faith contrasts to
Hindley's despair. She makes an important distinction in mentioning each man chose
his path to redemption or destruction.

12.
 And we'll see if one tree won't grow as crooked as another, with the same wind to
twist it. 

Heathcliff, Chapter 17
The battering of the wuthering wind on trees symbolizes the effect of a violent or
negative environment on individuals, as Heathcliff intentionally seeks to lower
Hareton from his birthright as a gentleman into the position of an uneducated
servant.

13.
 One is gold put to the use of paving-stones, and the other is tin polished to ape a
service of silver. 

Heathcliff, Chapter 21
The contrast between Hareton and Linton's innate character traits reinforces a core
message about erroneous class distinctions. "Service of silver" signifies the tea
service performed daily by servants for unworthy masters.

14.
 He'll undertake to torture any number of cats, if their teeth be drawn and their
claws pared. 

Heathcliff, Chapter 27
Heathcliff strikes on the true nature of his son, Linton, whom Catherine has
erroneously made her hero. Brontë establishes Linton as an antihero like his father in
this chapter.

15.
 However miserable you make us, we shall still have the revenge of thinking that
your cruelty arises from your greater misery. 

Catherine, Chapter 29
Catherine has just told Heathcliff she is glad to have a better nature than Linton
because she can use it to forgive his bad nature. Her use of the word revenge here
actually extends the positive connotation of her earlier words. Using verbal irony,
she is both sympathizing with Heathcliff and comforting herself with the knowledge
he is miserable and lonely.

Brontë uses symbols as clues to help readers grasp the constructs of her extended
metaphors, and, by doing so, interpret the meanings of her symbols. However, with
the exception of the hair symbol, Brontë puts her symbols to dual purpose, using
them to serve also as instruments of pathetic fallacy, which is a literary device that
uses inanimate or natural objects to reflect human moods and emotions.

Ghosts
Ghosts symbolize lost souls, memory, and the past in Wuthering Heights,
and Brontë uses this symbol to support the themes of love and obsession and good
versus evil. Cathy's ghost lingers in Heathcliff's memory, supporting love and
obsession, and then it actively and vengefully pursues Heathcliff in the end,
supporting good versus evil.
When alive, Heathcliff and Cathy curse each other, creating spiritual anguish, turning
their love into obsession, so they will not be parted in death, nor lose each other to
the traditional heaven they both reject. When Heathcliff sees Cathy before she dies,
and she is angry he will continue to live when she is gone, he asks her, "Are you
possessed with a devil?" and after her death, he cries out, "May she wake in torment
... I pray one prayer ... Cathy Earnshaw, may you not rest as long as I am living ...
I cannot live without my soul!" In Cathy and Heathcliff's willful desire to haunt and
be haunted, the symbolism of ghosts cannot be extricated from ideas of good and
evil in the novel; by rejecting heaven, both characters become lost souls roaming the
earth.
Most of the main characters declare a belief in ghosts: Mrs. Dean, Joseph, Heathcliff,
Mr. Lockwood, and Cathy. The children of the main characters—Hareton, Catherine,
Linton—never speak of ghosts. The differentiation in viewpoints leaves doubt of the
reality of Cathy's ghost, and it reinforces the idea of Cathy's ghost symbolizing
memories and the past, for youth has no memory of anguish and loss to haunt the
present. Yet, the present is haunted by the past in a sense, unknown to the youth
but openly exposed for the reader, who knows more about the past than they do
and can see how it operates in the present. Through the structure of the novel,
Brontë places the reader alongside the ghost of Cathy, looking in from the outside,
aware of the past as she haunts the present.

Weather, Wind, and Trees


Brontë uses weather to produce tone, reflect the plot, and mirror characters'
emotions. The author's use of pathetic fallacy as a literary device is greatest in her
symbolism of the weather, wind, and trees, though it is used in other symbols as
well. Typically, storms and rain symbolize angry, violent, or passionate emotions, and
breezes and calm weather reflect peace, hope, and goodness. The use of pathetic
fallacy is so pervasive, the novel can be opened at almost any point in the narrative
and the weather will reflect perfectly the events and characters' emotions of that
particular chapter.
Wind and trees symbolize how the emotions of one character shape or disfigure the
growth of another character, as much as how the emotional and physical
environment plays a role in shaping or contorting a character's
disposition. Heathcliff is used as the mouthpiece to deliver the meaning of the
symbolism of wind and trees in Chapter 17 when he says to Hareton: "Now my
bonny lad, you are mine! And we'll see if one tree won't grow as crooked as another,
with the same wind to twist it."

The Moors
A moors are barren strips of land unsuitable for planting. They are used to symbolize
the idea of being between—between life and death and between good and evil with
Wuthering Heights acting as the physical manifestation of evil and Thrushcross
Grange representing good, and the moors between them. That being established,
for Heathcliff and Cathy, the moors are a place of freedom from their unhappy home
life and from the difference in their social circumstances, which keep them separate
at other times. Ultimately, Heathcliff and Cathy's love of roaming the moors reflects
their rejection of heaven and choice of roaming the between, neither on earth nor in
heaven.

Dogs
Dogs are used symbolically and as pathetic fallacy—to a lesser degree than weather
—to reflect plot, create tone, and mirror characters' emotions. Dogs represent
instincts, often protective or violent ones, juxtaposed with training and obedience,
such as with Hareton, who is turned into a loyal watchdog first by Heathcliff and then
by Catherine. Interactions with dogs also mark vital transitions either of plot or of a
character's perceptions—as when the unfriendly dog at the book's opening shows
Mr. Lockwood that he is in unfamiliar territory.
The core of the dog symbolism in Wuthering Heights is expressed by Isabella when
she calls Cathy a "dog in the manger," alluding to an ancient fable about a dog who
guards hay, useless and inedible to the dog, from a horse or oxen. The message in
the fable comments on the type of person who would rather see someone die than
give them something of no value to the person withholding it, exactly as Heathcliff
does to multiple characters, and as Cathy does to Heathcliff. Heathcliff's revenge is a
driving force, and acting as a "dog in the manger" is how he implements his revenge;
and Hindley's original crime against Heathcliff—taking away his opportunity to be
educated and have a better life—is also like being a "dog in the manger." In this
sense, dogs symbolize individuals treating other individuals as less valuable and less
worthy of happiness and fulfillment and more like possessions to own, control, and
abuse.

Hair
Blond hair, or light hair, symbolizes Thrushcross Grange, the Linton family, indulged
privilege, good and angels, weakness, gentleness, education, and the matching
dispositions of Edgar and Isabella, and then later, Catherine and Linton.
Black hair, or dark hair, symbolizes Wuthering Heights, the Earnshaw family, privilege
thwarted or taken down in status, evil and devils, strength, passion, rejection of
education, and the matching dispositions of Heathcliff and Cathy.
The symbol is made complete at the end of the novel in Chapter 32 when Mr.
Lockwood, observing Catherine and Hareton, sees Catherine's blond hair dangling
and mingling with Hareton's dark hair, representing love overcoming good and evil
and a restored peace and unity.
Brontë's themes slowly build then converge, becoming intrinsically and logically
intertwined midway through the novel. By the end, each logical argument contained
within each theme unravels from the other themes and concludes.

Good versus Evil


An exploration of religious-based ideas of good and evil create the primary theme
in Wuthering Heights, and the themes of judgment versus pity, love and obsession,
and violence and revenge, which are also religiously rooted, support it. The four
lesser themes indicate individual choices, which add up to either good or evil. Pity,
humility, love and forgiveness—the opposite of revenge—add up to choosing good;
judgment, pride, obsession, and violence add up to choosing evil. The first half of the
novel explores the idea of natural inclinations toward one or the other—good or evil
—through a repetition and juxtaposition of devil and angel imagery and biblical
references as the narrator, Mrs. Dean, wonders if Heathcliff and Cathy are, or will
turn out to be, good or evil. During this section, Brontë explores how an
environment might influence characters toward good or evil. Ideas of freewill and
personal choice to suffer begin in the middle of the narrative around the time
when Hindley renounces God and spirals into villainy. Once Brontë's complex
argument is in place and ideas of natural character tendencies, role of environment,
and freewill are established, the second half of the novel shows individual
characters, who lean toward the good—Catherine, Isabella, Hareton, Edgar, and Mrs.
Dean—battling evil represented by Heathcliff. Then the theme culminates with
Heathcliff's ultimate choice between good and evil. His choice locks him out of
heaven and casts him into a hellish state, condemned to spiritually wander the
moors with Cathy, who also rejected heaven and religion when she was alive.
Mrs. Dean's character is the representative of the good qualities of love, pity,
humility, and forgiveness. Heathcliff and Cathy represent the evil choices of violence,
revenge, pride, selfishness, judgment, and obsession. Joseph's character stands in
the middle, representing religious hypocrisy, as he believes he is good, but having no
qualities of love or the good established in the novel (pity, humility) serves to create
an environment on the side of evil instead of good.
Judgment versus Pity
Brontë differentiates between biblical judgment, as reserved for the divine, and
personal judgment between individuals, which is always accompanied with a choice
between judgment and pity. Generally, a lack of pity leads to pain, injustice, and
suffering for the person judged, making the thematic statement that to judge others
is harmful to them, unjust, and not a right reserved for human beings. Repeatedly,
the reader is provoked to feel pity over judgment for the characters,
even Heathcliff and Hindley, and shown the disturbing results of an absence of pity,
such as Linton's treatment of Catherine and his ensuing horrible death.
Commentary on class distinctions is woven into the judgment versus pity theme. The
servants are always expected to feel sympathy for their masters. Masters are
inclined to judge, and are usually portrayed to lack pity. When servants lack pity at
times—Zillah toward Catherine and Mrs. Dean toward Cathy—the judged characters
devolve into mean-spirited, selfish, or destructive behavior, demonstrating the ill of
judgment and the benevolent power of pity.
Pride versus humility is a thematic extension of judgment versus pity: the prideful
are judgmental and the humble are sympathetic, or in other words, capable of pity.
However, the results are different in that judgment injures the judged individual, the
individual acted upon, whereas pride brings sorrow to the prideful, the individual
taking wrong action. Further, humility, manifested in serving and doing one's duty,
brings reward to the humble, whereas pity is not linked to reward. The conclusion of
the theme plays out in Catherine's story line; having completed her duty in caring for
the dying, once she is humble enough to drop her pride toward Hareton, she is
rewarded by having Thrushcross Grange and happiness restored to her with the
added bonus of love.

Violence and Revenge


Through Hindley and Heathcliff's relationship, Brontë begins a complex argument
about the effects of physical violence. Her first point is to show how abuse creates
abusive, vengeful individuals when they do not forgive and turn violent to lessen
their pain. Isabella represents the wise individual who understands the true nature
of violence and its consequences. She delivers the message for the theme when she
says violence wounds the person who chooses it. Next, through Linton's relationship
with Heathcliff, Brontë shows how apathy is created by violence and the fear of
violence, again, by a desire to avoid pain. Through Hareton and Linton, Brontë
demonstrates how neglect and apathy can be violent. In this way, attributes, such as
the ones Heathcliff hates—duty, compassion, charity, and kindness—become
opposites of violence, actions with which to fight the evils of violence and revenge.

Love and Obsession


In the first half of Wuthering Heights, through Heathcliff and Cathy, Brontë suggests
that to go against one's heart and soul is against love and equivalent to death, since
Cathy dies for making the wrong choice. Then she shows how making love an
obsession by choosing human love over Godly, heavenly love becomes love turned
evil and idolatrous—with several references to Cathy and Heathcliff making each
other an "idol." This is the core of the love and obsession theme; it requires the
entirety of the novel to make its point. However, Brontë explores other facets of love
throughout. Mr. Lockwood represents superficial attitudes toward love, beneath
which lurks cowardice. Isabella represents delusional, false love, also idolatrous,
which she escapes by seeing that what she thought was love was actually violence
and hatred. Catherine and Hareton represent love's power to overcome pride and
evil, laden with the idea that to love moderately leads to happiness.

Belonging
The setting of the two opposing households, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross
Grange, combined with the symbolism of the moors between them and Cathy's
wandering ghost highlights the devastating isolation individuals feel while searching
and seeking a sense of belonging. Human beings, Brontëdemonstrates through this
theme, must align with their true destinies, whether they—figuratively speaking—
encounter walls they must climb over, discover windows and doors barred and
locked, or set out on a journey to explore. They innately know where they belong;
visions, presentiments, and dreams will guide them, and the development of a good
character will lead them to the persons and places in which they can at last feel a
sense of peace and unity.

What is the significance of Heathcliff and the servants' reactions to the dogs
attacking Mr. Lockwood in Chapter 1 of Wuthering Heights?
As it would be expected for the wealthy owner of two estates to keep a guest safe,
Heathcliff and his servant Joseph's slow and unconcerned reaction when the dogs
attack reveals antipathy, bordering on cruelty, establishing a sense of danger and
chaos. The dog attack happens just after Mr. Lockwood describes Wuthering Heights
as a wind-and-storm-battered location. This connects to how the narrator describes
the servant quelling the dogs as "the storm subsided magically ... heaving like a sea
after a high wind," since the servants, throughout the novel, will continuously
attempt to repudiate (Joseph), shelter (Mrs. Dean), and ameliorate the abuse the
main characters will bestow upon each other or be forced to endure.

What evidence in Chapter 3 of Wuthering Heights confirms that the ghost of Cathy is


real?
The events in the chapter suggest the ghost is real even if it appears in a nightmare.
Mr. Lockwood sees a ghostly image, "a glare of white letters ... as vivid as spectres"
before he falls asleep. The ghost of Cathy speaks her own name, using Linton, which
Mr. Lockwood notes is not the name he focused his attention on earlier. Cathy's
spirit also tells Mr. Lockwood that "I've been a waif for twenty years," information
impossible for Mr. Lockwood to know. It could be argued Cathy has not been dead
that long, but the spirit does not use the words gone or dead,she purposely uses the
word waif, and she did suffer being reduced to a waif—a homeless child, a thin
person, or something unclaimed—which has connotations of both illness and
homelessness, years before she dies. The only hint the ghost is a figment of Mr.
Lockwood's imagination comes after Heathcliff accuses him of being "mad to speak
so." Mr. Lockwood's fear of insulting Heathcliff causes him to make the excuse of
"reading it [etching on the ledge] often over produced an impression which
personified itself." Previously Mr. Lockwood did not doubt at all the house is
haunted and "swarming with ghosts and goblins." The final confirmation of Cathy's
ghost actually existing comes from Heathcliff opening the lattice and begging her to
come in.
 Cathy Mr. Lockwood Heathcliff Ghosts

What does Heathcliff's reaction to abuse in Chapter 4 of Wuthering Heightssuggest


about his character as a child?
Mrs. Dean says Heathcliff "would stand Hindley's blows without winking," and when
she pinched him he would act as if it happened "by accident." He does not appear to
be naturally violent, allowing others, including Cathy, who spit on him, to injure him
and refraining from striking back. She also conjectures Heathcliff is already used to
"ill-treatment" by the time Mr. Earnshaw brings him to Wuthering Heights. Yet, he
adapts quickly to his new environment and learns to manipulate to get what he
wants. Even though Mrs. Dean suggests he will become vindictive later, he seems at
first to be struggling to survive in an abusive environment where he is despised by
almost everyone.

 Mrs. Dean Cathy Heathcliff Hindley Mr. Earnshaw Violence and Revenge


What is the thematic significance of Hindley and Heathcliff's fight over the horses in
Chapter 4 of Wuthering Heights?
Heathcliff's "hold" of Mr. Earnshaw's "heart" and using it to claim the best horse for
himself ties in with the theme of judgment versus pity. Hindley, having no pity, loses
his father's love and wreaks his father's judgment; Heathcliff gains love by being
pitiful and escapes Mr. Earnshaw's judgment for his manipulative behavior.
(Heathcliff manipulates Hindley in taking the "handsomest" horse and then taking
Hindley's horse when the handsome horse "fell lame.") Since the very first moment
Mr. Earnshaw saw Heathcliff, "he was determined he would not leave it as he found
it." Mr. Earnshaw is the only member of the family moved to pity for the homeless
child Heathcliff. Hindley's malice toward Heathcliff isolates him from his own father,
who loves and pities Heathcliff. The fight over the horses between the two boys
represents how a lack of pity for Heathcliff and lack of justice for Hindley leads to
both of their being emotionally twisted in ways impossible to straighten later,
ensuring only tragedy for both characters.

 Heathcliff Hindley Mr. Earnshaw Judgment versus Pity

What is the difference between Joseph and young Mrs. Dean's viewpoints in Chapter
5 of Wuthering Heights?
Mrs. Dean, as a young girl, at the time of Mr. Earnshaw's death, believes Joseph is a
self-righteous hypocrite, who believes everyone is evil except for him. This leads
Joseph to vexing Mr. Earnshaw—to the point of illness in young Mrs. Dean's opinion
—and turning him against his children. Mrs. Dean sees Cathy, Hindley, and Heathcliff
differently than Joseph does. She sees Cathy as high-spirited, not evil. Heathcliff she
describes as smitten with Cathy, a follower, willing to do her bidding. Mrs. Dean
understands how Mr. Earnshaw's rejection hardens Cathy against her father and
against Joseph's moralizing. There is a significant difference in how the two
characters view death. Joseph scolds young Mrs. Dean, Cathy, and Heathcliff for
crying for Mr. Earnshaw because he believes it is sacrilegious to mourn when
someone has died. Joseph is a hardened man while Mrs. Dean is a child and still has
a child's outlook even though she has the responsibilities of an adult.

 Mrs. Dean Joseph Good versus Evil

How does Hindley's new wife, Frances Earnshaw, affect the plot in Chapter 6
of Wuthering Heights?
Hindley seems to have matured while away at college. However, Frances Earnshaw's
dislike of Heathcliff provokes Hindley's old hatred, resulting in Heathcliff's lowered
status and loss of education. There are several significant instances throughout the
novel, during which darkness has the opportunity to turn to light, and this is one of
those moments when happiness and peace are thwarted by a lack of compassion,
allowing judgment to win over pity. It is significant that Mrs. Dean suspects Frances
Earnshaw of low birth and describes in detail how the she delights over the estate, as
well as her efforts to win Cathy's love with gifts. This signals a desire to advance her
station in life. As in numerous instances in the novel, climbing the social heights
requires putting others in a position below.

 Frances Earnshaw Hindley Heathcliff Mrs. Dean Judgment versus Pity

What can be learned from how Mr. and Mrs. Linton treat Cathy differently from
Heathcliff when they are both caught snooping in Chapter 6 of Wuthering Heights?
Mr. and Mrs. Linton take pity—in the sense of sympathy and compassion—on Cathy
for being a girl from a wealthy family in mourning for her father's death. Heathcliff is
judged for cursing, and he is stereotyped by the Lintons as a "gipsy" and a thief for
having dark skin and hair. Heathcliff mentions seeing the Linton family in church, yet
they do not "see" him as a true member of the Earnshaw family even with prior
knowledge of Mr. Earnshaw adopting him. They judge him by their standards,
reserving no pity for someone below their own station. This moment of humiliation
for Heathcliff leads to all of the major conflicts that follow in Wuthering Heights,
showing just how powerful choosing to judge rather than seek true understanding
can be.
 Mr. Linton Mrs. Linton Heathcliff Cathy Judgment versus Pity

How does Brontë use the two narrators conversing in the present in Chapter 7 as a
device to reveal character and illustrate bigger ideas in Wuthering Heights?
There are two distinct parts to Chapter 7: Mrs. Dean's story about Cathy, Heathcliff,
and the Linton children, and Mrs. Dean's conversation with Mr. Lockwood. The two
parts are connected, since they both focus on class distinctions. In the first part of
the chapter Mrs. Dean reveals her true feelings about the class distinctions of her
society. She gives Heathcliff the advice to heal his injured pride by considering the
possibility that he could have come from a noble bloodline. Then she points out that
Heathcliff is physically stronger than Edgar. This sheds light on her perceptions of
privileged children: how she feels disdain for their physical weakness. In describing
Edgar as the type of child who "cried for mamma at every turn ... and trembled if a
country lad heaved his fist at you ... and sat at home all day for a shower of rain,"
Mrs. Dean shows what she values: a strong underdog type like Heathcliff over a
pampered privileged child, leaving the reader to wonder if she too felt the sting of
bearing her own low station in society. In the second part of the chapter Mr.
Lockwood tells Mrs. Dean she does not possess the "manners" "peculiar" to her
class, signaling to the reader that (1) servants do not typically show their wisdom to
their wealthy masters, (2) Mr. Lockwood considers himself superior to Mrs. Dean, (3)
it does not occur to Mr. Lockwood that he is being condescending, or (4) that Mrs.
Dean is intelligent enough to know that he is being condescending. Though she
laughs in response, Mrs. Dean tells Mr. Lockwood she has read all the books in the
library and "sharp discipline" has taught her wisdom. The reader is left to connect
the first part of the chapter to the second part of the chapter, to come to the
conclusion that upper-class members of society do not necessarily deserve the
privilege they enjoy, and they are not automatically better and smarter than their
servants; they just think they are, and the current society supports the false notion
that they are.
 Mr. Lockwood Mrs. Dean Heathcliff

What is the thematic significance of Mr. Lockwood's comments on marriage in


Chapter 7 of Wuthering Heights?
After admitting the country lifestyle of Wuthering Heights would be a good
environment for finding "a love for life," since there is less chance of distraction from
"frivolous, external things," Mr. Lockwood describes his personal view of love. By
describing love past a year as "almost impossible" and confusing Mrs. Dean with his
superficial views about love being a boring "single dish" or "a table laid out by french
maids," meaningless yet full of variety, Mr. Lockwood's comments provide an
antithesis for the love and obsession theme that develops in the novel. Cathy and
Heathcliff's intense love would be impossible for a character like Mr. Lockwood to
truly comprehend or ever experience. However, his more normal and casual attitude
helps the reader to fully grasp the exploration of the types of love that occur
in Wuthering Heights. He is the lightest on the scale of passion; Cathy and Heathcliff
are the heaviest.
 Mr. Lockwood Love and Obsession

Is Mrs. Dean an unreliable narrator in Wuthering Heights?


First, an unreliable narrator, by definition, is untrustworthy due to a mental
condition or a seriously skewed perspective, such as Montresor in "The Cask of
Amontillado" by Edgar Allan Poe. Mrs. Dean is no Montresor. She is not obsessed by
her subjects, nor does she consistently lie, manipulate, or skew the truth. Her
agenda, if she has one, changes as circumstances change, in relation to the other
characters, which is very natural and human. Brontë draws her to be a fully
developed character, and because she is human, with biases, opinions, and
preferences, at times she is unreliable. It is only because of her narration that the
reader knows she can be manipulative or spiteful: she tells Mr. Lockwood her
negative feelings, hinting at her culpability in negative plot events, and she relates
how her perspective changes over 23 years. Admitting faults makes her trustworthy
more than it makes her unreliable. However, it is important for the reader to
recognize that Mrs. Dean is not an objective narrator; her version of the truth is
subjective. In addition, her narration is problematic because Mr. Lockwood's
personality interferes, and it is impossible for the reader to know to what extent. It's
also problematic because Mrs. Dean reveals hardly any personal information about
her own life outside of her life as a servant. For instance, the reader only discovers at
the very end of the novel that Mrs. Dean rents her own cottage. The reader will
never know when or why she lives there. Mrs. Dean only hints at her discontent with
being a servant. Without "seeing" her apart from Mr. Lockwood and the privileged
characters, it is impossible to know if she has a dual nature, acting differently in
different environments. She does slide different speech styles into the narration
when she describes her conversations with Joseph and Zillah, but she is still relating
the story to Mr. Lockwood, and she keeps with a certain level of formality in the
narration. In the end it is impossible to categorize her wholly as an unreliable
narrator.
 Mrs. Dean Mr. Lockwood
Characters
Joseph Zillah 

How does Cathy's illness in Chapter 9 of Wuthering Heights change her character?


In previous chapters, Mrs. Dean repeatedly mentions hoping something will "check"
Cathy's inclinations toward arrogance, but her illness actually increases her sense of
entitlement and selfishness. The doctor tells the servants and Hindley that vexing
Cathy is dangerous, and she takes the notion to the extreme, considering "it was
nothing less than murder" to be contradicted, thus confusing needs and wants with
something analogous to survival. Hindley, who was previously quick to control Cathy
and act parental toward her, now indulges her as the doctor orders. Just after
recovery, Cathy's personality is made complete, and she is now someone who must
have her own way, as evidenced in her demand that Mrs. Dean accompany her to
Thrushcross Grange despite the narrator's tears and protestations.

 Cathy Mrs. Dean Hindley

What does Cathy mean when she says Edgar's soul "is as different from a moonbeam
as lightning, or frost from fire" in Chapter 9 of Wuthering Heights?
Cathy is using imagery to contrast Edgar's temperament with her and Heathcliff's
temperament. She says she and Heathcliff are like lightning and fire, which are both
dangerous, hot-tempered, and wild. The heat of fire is also indicative of the
passionate love Heathcliff and Cathy feel. Lightning signifies Cathy's unpredictability
and Heathcliff's angry streak. Edgar, on the other hand, is like a moonbeam, which
signifies a weak, gentle, and reflective character. Cathy's description of his character
as being like frost implies Edgar is cold or rigid, unfeeling or reserved in
temperament. It suggests he lacks passion. The comparison also alludes to Edgar's
physical appearance, as his hair is blond and his skin is pale like the moon's duller
light.

 Cathy Edgar Heathcliff Love and Obsession Hair

In Chapter 9 of Wuthering Heights, what do the pony and ensuing storm represent in
connection to Heathcliff's leaving Wuthering Heights?
When Joseph returns from looking for Heathcliff, he mentions seeing the gate wide
open and "miss's" pony gone, having trampled a few rows of corn in the fields.
Joseph is referring to Cathy's pony, the same black pony she receives when she stays
with the Lintons after their dog bites her on the ankle. It is likely Heathcliff, who is
always in the barn and brushes the pony immediately when Cathy returns, let the
pony out of the barn in angry haste. At least, it is meant to represent Heathcliff's
departure, along with the night being too dark for searching. Heathcliff is often
referred to as dark in the novel, physically and emotionally. The storm verifies Mrs.
Dean's earlier hesitation to hear Cathy's dream, fearing "something from which I
might shape a prophecy, and foresee a fearful catastrophe." The storm produces an
angry mood to match Heathcliff's rage and create a sense of doom. It is like an
orchestral accompaniment to Cathy's choice of Edgar, thus ignoring her own heart
and her own intuition. Either wind or lightning knocks over the tree, and both have
symbolic associations with Heathcliff, as Cathy compares him to "lightning" only
hours before the tree falls.

 Joseph Cathy Heathcliff Edgar Love and Obsession Weather, Wind, and Trees

How does Mrs. Dean's character change in Chapter 9 of Wuthering Heights?


Mrs. Dean, now in her early twenties, is stronger, bolder, and angrier than she has
been in previous chapters. She makes fun of Hindley when he puts a knife between
her teeth and threatens to kill her. She openly dislikes Cathy, and shows that she is
intellectually and morally superior to Cathy, as well as more mature in matters of
love. She agrees with Joseph that the storm feels like "judgment," which she
associates with Hindley being a "Jonah" by running from his fatherly duty. Previously,
she mocks Joseph's sermonizing. Generally, Mrs. Dean has grown more religious,
also shown in her unwillingness to hear Cathy's dreams. Her feelings of being a
"foster-sister" to Hindley and Cathy have dissipated as her role of servant has
solidified.

 Mrs. Dean Hindley Joseph Cathy Good versus Evil Weather, Wind, and Trees

In what way, if any, is Mrs. Dean responsible for Cathy's death in Wuthering Heights?
Mrs. Dean is so worried that Heathcliff means harm to Cathy, Edgar, and Isabella that
she riles Edgar up to start a fight with Heathcliff, which spurs Cathy to make herself
sick. Cathy accuses Mrs. Dean of being a "traitor" when Mrs. Dean fails to pity Cathy
and assist in softening Edgar toward her. Then she calls Mrs. Dean a witch when
Cathy realizes the truth. It is difficult for Mrs. Dean to feel pity for Cathy's insanity
because she feels so strongly that Cathy is faking her illness for attention, and out of
pity for Edgar, Mrs. Dean lets Cathy alone to make her own choices. Cathy, not
having the benefit (as the reader does) of knowing Mrs. Dean's true feelings, expects
Mrs. Dean to always be working for her benefit. However, Mrs. Dean thinks Cathy is
arrogant, that she made the wrong decision when she chose Edgar, and that she is in
the wrong in her marriage with Edgar and the way she treats Isabella. Mrs. Dean
knows they humor Cathy, even though Cathy believes she yields to them for their
happiness. Mrs. Dean never tells Cathy the truth, but she often judges Cathy
privately. Mrs. Dean's absence of pity at a crucial moment, justified as it may be,
leads directly to Cathy's illness and subsequent death, as a lack of pity usually has
negative results in Wuthering Heights.
 Cathy Mrs. Dean Edgar Judgment versus Pity

Why does Heathcliff think Isabella is a dishonor to the Linton name in Chapter 14
of Wuthering Heights, and what does Heathcliff's view of Isabella reveal about his
character?
Isabella's love for Heathcliff disgusts him because he can abuse her and she will
continue to love him. The fact that Heathcliff hung Isabella's dog and she still agreed
to run away with him makes him suspect she has an "innate admiration" for
brutality. He says it took the "labour of Hercules" in the form of incessant cruelty to
make her hate him. He sees her devotion in the face of ill treatment as degrading
behavior for a woman of her social status. Mrs. Dean's comment earlier in the
chapter corroborates Heathcliff's viewpoint when she notices circumstances "altered
their positions" and Heathcliff seems like a gentleman compared to Isabella, who
appears a "thorough little slattern." Isabella has degenerated by being in the harsh
environment of Wuthering Heights. It is significant that Isabella matches Heathcliff's
negative character traits much more than Cathy ever did, yet Heathcliff thinks
Isabella is not a good love match for him. It also shows that he really believes he has
become a gentleman.

 Isabella Heathcliff Cathy Love and Obsession

Why is it significant that Mrs. Dean asks Heathcliff if he understands what the
word pity means in Chapter 14 of Wuthering Heights?
When Heathcliff cries out "I have no pity! I have no pity!" it implies he feels anguish
over lacking pity, which actually suggests a kernel of pity within him. The way he
elaborates on his inner nature, saying "the more worms writhe, the more I yearn to
crush out their entrails," conveys the idea that Heathcliff does know the difference
between right and wrong; he is capable of experiencing guilt from all the pain he is
constantly inflicting. He calls his own instincts "moral teething," and he says he
"grinds with greater energy in proportion ... to the increase of pain" he produces in
his victims. This implies anguish on a biblical level, as gnashing and grinding of teeth
references a hellish state for the spirit cast away from God after biblical judgment.
Then Mrs. Dean asks the significant questions that elevate the conversation to a
thematic level. She wants to know if Heathcliff understands "what the word pity
means" and if he has ever felt "a touch of it" in his life. This seems purposely
constructed to make the reader consider whether a person for whom no pity has
been shown can ever feel it for another person. It forces the reader to consider that
Heathcliff's character might represent the answer to the question. Having lived a
brutal life, his ability to empathize with others is stunted. Heathcliff's lack of
empathy causes him pain, but it is as if he cannot help himself or be a better person.

 Heathcliff Mrs. Dean Judgment versus Pity Good versus Evil

What does Heathcliff mean by "infernal selfishness" in Chapter 15 of Wuthering


Heights?
Cathy, clearly dying, has no pity for Heathcliff. She accuses him of killing her and
enjoying it. She mentions, "How strong you are!" and bitterly asks, "How many years
do you mean to live after I am gone?" She is dying, and she is speaking in a way that
will cause him maximum pain long after her death. Her words convey intense anger
that he will live on and she will be gone. In this moment, Heathcliff wanted to believe
Cathy will be at peace in death, but she says, "I shall not be at peace," and takes
away any chance to feel comfort Heathcliff is hoping for. He, still living, will have to
bear her last words and her accusations, which will cause him torment. This is what
makes him accuse her of "infernal"—meaning hellish—selfishness.

 Cathy Heathcliff Judgment versus Pity Love and Obsession Good versus Evil

In Chapter 16 of Wuthering Heights why does Heathcliff want Cathy to haunt him


after she dies?
Cathy and Heathcliff both identify their own feelings and souls with the other. They
believe they can communicate when separated from each other and that they are
each other in spirit, so the idea of Cathy being in a different emotional state, one of
peace, is unbearable to Heathcliff. He also alludes to feeling guilty at having been
partially the cause of her death, and he believes he should be punished for his
actions. "The murdered do haunt their murderers," he says to Cathy's spirit. She did
accuse him of killing her before she died, and he is grappling with her last words.

 Cathy Heathcliff Love and Obsession Ghosts

What does the locket that Cathy's corpse wears represent in Chapter 16
of Wuthering Heights?
Heathcliff ripping out a lock of Edgar's hair from the locket around Cathy's neck
shows his possessiveness and jealousy over Cathy. It also represents Heathcliff's
passionate belief that Cathy was meant to be his wife, not Edgar's, and vice versa, as
Cathy did reject Edgar in the end and admit to Heathcliff she is dying for whatever
she did wrong. Mrs. Dean's twisting the two locks together and placing them back
inside the locket represents the relationships and intertwining destinies between the
members of the household of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange, as well as
the associations of dark and light, being entwined creating a sense of peace.

 Cathy Heathcliff Mrs. Dean Edgar Love and Obsession Hair

What does Cathy's gravesite location imply in Chapter 16 of Wuthering Heights?


Cathy is buried in a corner of the churchyard overlooking the moors. Cathy is not
buried with the Lintons, near the chapel, nor with her own family, the Earnshaws,
which surprises the servants. No reason is given for this choice of burial location, but
it suggests Cathy never found her true destiny and place of belonging while alive,
and she will not find it in death either. It forebodes and foreshadows the wandering
and forlorn spirit she will become. Not being buried by the chapel reflects how Cathy
rejected religion and heaven; being buried by the moors and not with the Lintons
reflects how she felt torn between the expectations of upper-class society and her
love for Heathcliff, since they spent all of their free time together on the moors
when they were children.

 Cathy Belonging Ghosts

What is significant about the fact that only servants attend Cathy's funeral in Chapter
16 of Wuthering Heights?
Isabella, Heathcliff, and Hindley do not attend Cathy's funeral. A lack of mourners
who are related to Cathy or truly love her signifies the discord and doom created by
Cathy's choosing to go against her heart and Heathcliff's diabolical leanings toward
revenge: not having a proper relationship, there is no hope for a proper goodbye. It
also signifies the futility of Cathy's ambitions to be an upperclass, wealthy lady.
Besides Edgar, only servants attend her funeral—this is the sad culmination of all
Cathy's ambitions. When Cathy was alive, she expected servants to obey her, like
her, and care about her, yet she was oblivious to Mrs. Dean's true feelings, and she
failed to recognize Mrs. Dean's humanity and humility because of her pride. Yet Mrs.
Dean loyally attends Cathy's funeral, cries for her, and tells the story of her life. This
is a poignant moment in the novel, showing the humanity and dignity of servants
who are not given the dignity they perhaps deserve in return.

 Cathy Mrs. Dean Heathcliff Love and Obsession Violence and Revenge Belonging

How does Isabella feel about Heathcliff when she leaves him in Chapter 17
of Wuthering Heights?
Isabella is in conflict, fighting the love she still feels for Heathcliff even as she escapes
Wuthering Heights. Her words suggest her jealousy toward Heathcliff's love for
Cathy, which significantly surfaces and spills over in front of Isabella after Cathy's
death, despite how it makes Isabella feel. Isabella uses Heathcliff's pain to taunt and
mock him, which implies agonizing feelings of jealousy. Right after she tells Mrs.
Dean that "he has extinguished my love," Isabella admits she can remember the love
she had for Heathcliff and can "dimly imagine that I could still be loving him." Then
she cries out "No, No!" She does not let Hindley kill Heathcliff, and she does tell the
truth when Joseph threatens to ask the magistrate to investigate Heathcliff for trying
to murder Hindley. Even though she has found the strength to leave, she does still
imply love and desire for him.

 Isabella Heathcliff Cathy Mrs. Dean Hindley Joseph Love and Obsession

How does Brontë leave the possibility open to suspicion that Heathcliff kills Hindley
in Chapter 17 of Wuthering Heights?
It is doubtful, but not impossible, that Heathcliff actually murders Hindley at the end
of Chapter 17. The situation in which Hindley dies is exactly like the night Isabella
recalls in detail for Mrs. Dean when Hindley locked Heathcliff out of the house.
Heathcliff reacted brutally to being locked out and almost killed Hindley that night.
This shows Heathcliff capable enough of violence, yet, he stops himself, and when he
calms down he tends to Hindley's wounds. The night Hindley died, Heathcliff says
Hindley had intended to drink himself to death. Joseph does not dispute Heathcliff's
statement, and they did wait until the morning to break in, but Joseph does say he
wishes Heathcliff ran for the doctor because Hindley was not anywhere near death
when Joseph left. Heathcliff pays for Hindley's funeral and attends it, looking
mournful, but Mrs. Dean implies Heathcliff is faking mourning, and she explicitly says
she saw something like "exultation" in Heathcliff's mood. There is a tremendous
amount of evidence to arouse suspicion that Heathcliff kills Hindley.

 Heathcliff Hindley Hareton Joseph Mrs. Dean Isabella Violence and Revenge

What is the significance of the imagery Mrs. Dean uses to describe Hareton in
Chapter 18 of Wuthering Heights?
Mrs. Dean discusses Hareton's character in relation to natural elements, such as
crops and soil, which ties in with the weather, wind, and tree symbolism throughout
the novel. Trees represent children, and the wind represents the characters—and
often violent experiences—that shape the children's personalities and lives. Had
Hareton, who has "good" qualities "lost amid a wilderness of weeds," grown up in
"wealthy" soil, Mrs. Dean comments, he might "yield luxuriant crops." The
symbolism is specifically tailored for Hareton, as he works mostly as a farmer, and
Heathcliff has not physically abused him. Heathcliff takes revenge by never
correcting Hareton or teaching him how to read and write, hence Mrs. Dean's use of
"wilderness of weeds."

 Hareton Mrs. Dean Heathcliff Violence and Revenge Weather, Wind, and Trees

What is the significance of Joseph's interaction with Hareton as described by Mrs.


Dean in Chapter 18 of Wuthering Heights?
Mrs. Dean says that she has heard gossip that Joseph "pets" and "flatters" Hareton
because he is the remaining "head of the old family." This moment is the first inkling
given of Hareton's possibility of turning into a sympathetic character with heroic
qualities. Joseph also allows Heathcliff to "ruin" Hareton because he believes
Heathcliff will go to hell for it. This is a complete contradiction, and as Joseph is
sometimes shown to be a religious hypocrite, his conflicted dealings with Hareton
reflect his paradoxical behavior. Considering how close Joseph and Hareton will
become in the future, it is almost humorous, and aptly so, that Joseph accidentally
protects Hareton by trying to injure Heathcliff in this way. Mrs. Dean says that had
Joseph "instilled into him a pride of name ... and of his lineage ... he would have
fostered hate" between Hareton and Heathcliff.

 Mrs. Dean Hareton Joseph Heathcliff Good versus Evil

In Chapter 21 of Wuthering Heights what does it mean that Heathcliff is willing to tell


Mrs. Dean his plan for Catherine to marry Linton?
Heathcliff tells Mrs. Dean that he wants Catherine and Linton to marry, and he's
"acting generously to [Edgar Linton]: his young chit has no expectations ... she'll be
provided for at once as joint successor with Linton." Mrs. Dean, who does not trust
Heathcliff, reminds him that if the sickly Linton should die, Catherine will inherit
Thrushcross Grange. Heathcliff is honest in telling Mrs. Dean Thrushcross Grange will
be his because there is no clause in the will. This is the first clue that Heathcliff plans
revenge. Mrs. Dean adds she was foolish to believe him, hinting at events to come in
the story. However Heathcliff clearly does not fear that anyone can stop him from
being successful in getting what he wants. Catherine could get Thrushcross Grange if
a clause is placed in the will, so there is significant risk in exposing his plan. It is
possible Heathcliff's desire for revenge is losing steam, or he is partly sincere when
he says he is being generous because Catherine will be provided for.

 Catherine Heathcliff Mrs. Dean Linton Violence and Revenge

In Chapter 21 of Wuthering Heights does Heathcliff lie to Catherine or tell the truth


when he explains why he and Edgar Linton are enemies?
Heathcliff tells Catherine that Edgar thought he was too poor to wed Isabella and
their marriage hurt Edgar's pride. Edgar tells Catherine it was "because Mr. Heathcliff
dislikes me; and is a most diabolical man, delighting to wrong and ruin those he
hates." The truth is rooted in their childhood experiences. Isabella and Edgar and the
older Mr. Linton and Mrs. Linton despised and degraded Heathcliff the very moment
they met him, and they sent him home without Cathy because they thought he was
unworthy of entering their household. In this sense Heathcliff is telling the truth.
However, Heathcliff did injure Isabella as revenge for the childhood experiences the
Lintons made him suffer, so Edgar is also telling the truth, but not the whole truth.

 Heathcliff Catherine Edgar Mr. Linton Mrs. Linton Violence and Revenge


Why does Catherine believe Heathcliff's version of the truth in Chapter 21
of Wuthering Heights over Edgar and Mrs. Dean's explanations of the disputes
between the households?
Catherine believes Heathcliff because she has just caught Mrs. Dean and her father
in a lie, which is that they kept Linton's whereabouts from her for several years. This
happens soon after Heathcliff cleverly sets up the whole situation to look as though
he has nothing to hide: he brings Catherine to Wuthering Heights so she can see her
cousin Linton again, and then when she wants to regularly come back and visit,
Heathcliff casually tells her that he and Edgar do not get along. The fact that
Heathcliff will allow Catherine to be friends with Linton and spend time at Wuthering
Heights makes him appear the nobler and more morally just man. She also, as Mrs.
Dean explains, cannot understand the capacity for hatred and slow revenge
Heathcliff harbors because none of those negative traits are in her own personality.
Unlike the reader, without access to the past and the real history between Heathcliff
and Edgar, Catherine is in no position to understand the truth her father is trying to
tell her.

 Catherine Heathcliff Edgar Mrs. Dean Linton Violence and Revenge

How does Heathcliff feel about Hareton in Wuthering Heights?


Heathcliff definitely has strong feelings of approval toward Hareton when he says,
"Twenty times a day, I covet Hareton ... I'd have loved the lad had he been someone
else." This is coming very close to a feeling of love—to say he would have loved.
Heathcliff's actions in Chapter 21 also suggest paternal feelings of love toward
Hareton. When Catherine whispers something "uncivil" into Heathcliff's ear about
Hareton, Heathcliff spares Hareton's pride, pretending not to remember exactly
what Catherine says; he lies, saying it is "something very flattering." He also advises
Hareton how to act with Catherine to make her like him. Heathcliff's feelings of
repulsion toward his own son indirectly suggest Heathcliff loves Hareton—by way of
contrast—because the repulsion for Linton clarifies the qualities Heathcliff admires,
and these are qualities Hareton possesses. At the end of the book, Heathcliff sees
Catherine teaching Hareton to read, and seems moved rather than upset;
immediately after, he tells Mrs. Dean that he no longer feels the same desire for
revenge, suggesting that Heathcliff finds the possibility of redemption for himself in
Hareton's happiness with Catherine.

 Heathcliff Hareton Catherine Linton Belonging

What is the significance of the contrasting imagery between Linton's and Catherine's
versions of a perfect way to spend a day in Chapter 24 of Wuthering Heights?
The contrasting imagery accompanying Linton's and Catherine's descriptions of what
each believes would be the "most perfect idea of heaven's happiness" serves the
purpose of reflecting the characters' dispositions and highlighting how they are not
really suited for each other. Linton's perfect day includes seeing only one type of
bird; Catherine, who is more curious, desires many types of birds. There is no
movement in the imagery associated with Linton's ideal, but Catherine's trees are
"rocking," the "wind blowing," and the clouds are "rapidly moving," reflecting how
Linton is sickly and cannot suffer to move around much, but Catherine likes to be
active. When Catherine mentions wishing for a variety of birds, she lists the cuckoo
bird among her preferences. This connects back to Chapter 5 when Mrs. Dean tells
Mr. Lockwood that Heathcliff's history is a "cuckoo's." A real cuckoo bird will invade
another bird's nest, lay its eggs, and leave the responsibility of hatching and raising
its chicks to the other bird. This is an apt reflection of Heathcliff's character and
Wuthering Heights as a whole. Catherine does not mention the unusual breeding
habits of the cuckoo bird. The other meaningful interpretation in the contrasting
imagery between Catherine and Linton comes through in the contradiction of lovers
fighting over the "perfect idea" of how to spend time together.

 Catherine Linton Heathcliff Mrs. Dean Mr. Lockwood Love and Obsession

What do Catherine and Linton's interactions during the game they play in Chapter 24
of Wuthering Heights mean in relation to the past?
Catherine suggests they use the toys with the initials H. and C., standing for
Heathcliff and Cathy, no doubt, to match their own names, which effectively links the
event in the present with the past. Therefore, when Linton demands the better toy,
this recalls when Heathcliff, used to being pampered by Mr. Earnshaw, demands the
better horse from Hindley. Throughout the novel, history repeats itself, but it
contorts, reflecting the personalities of the characters in the next generation. This
device creates dramatic irony, so that the reader knows more than the characters. It
almost serves as a special effect, as in a film, and it adds to the quality of the novel as
a ghost story. Just as Cathy's spirit is at the window early in the novel and is thought
to be watching throughout, the view is of the ghost, lingering and capable of seeing
more than is possible in one lifetime.

 Catherine Linton Heathcliff Mr. Earnshaw Cathy

Why is Catherine hateful to Hareton in Chapter 24 of Wuthering Heights?


The most obvious reason Catherine is hateful to Hareton is because she can tell he
likes her and wants to be near her, but she is trying to show loyalty to Linton. Under
the surface, she is attracted to Hareton because they are similar and both share a
love of animals and exploring nature, but she perceives him as inferior to her
socially, and she is offended by his ignorance—the bond they share is one of
physicality and nature, not of intellect. They have shared memorable moments of
kindness, and before Catherine knew Hareton was related to her, she was happy to
meet him. Further, Catherine is ignorant of the past; she cannot, as Mrs. Dean
advises her, understand the idea of his ignorance being an injustice, not an innate
character flaw. Catherine is not a good judge of character. She is equally blind to
Linton's faults, as she is to Hareton's qualities.

 Catherine Hareton Linton
How do the female characters in Wuthering Heights find ways to empower
themselves?
The female characters in Wuthering Heights live in a time period when women had
very little political, personal, or financial power. Yet each female character finds her
own way to gain influence or some type of personal power over the male characters.
Unfortunately Cathy is the most tragic character because she exerts power through
injuring herself. Because she possesses an innate power to arouse love and desire in
Edgar and Heathcliff, it follows that her weapon against them is to make herself
disappear. Isabella's power corresponds to the male characters in the same way. She
arouses disgust in Edgar and Heathcliff, and once she realizes the truth, she uses
their negativity and apathy to empower herself by running away and freeing herself
from them. Mrs. Dean empowers herself more craftily than Isabella and Cathy; she
makes herself indispensable as a servant, acts "in her place" most of the time, and
works her influence in hidden ways; it also helps that she has childhood roots with
Hindley, Heathcliff, and Edgar, and she helps to raise all of their children, further
securing her position by stepping into the role of a mother. Catherine empowers
herself by pleasing her father naturally, standing up fearlessly to Heathcliff's bullying
and threatening, and aligning with Hareton against Heathcliff. She also uses Joseph's
own superstitious fears against him, causing him to fear her in return, even though
she does not actually practice witchcraft, which shows how savvy she is in protecting
herself.
 Catherine Linton Mrs. Dean Weather, Wind, and Trees

What does Catherine's agreement to marry Linton in Chapter 27 of Wuthering


Heights suggest about her character?
Even though Catherine tells Linton, "I love papa more than I love you," she is
desperate to not disturb her dying father, so she yields to Heathcliff, showing heroic
qualities under pressure in maintaining a calm demeanor to reach her noble goal.
She is being set up as a character willing to do her "duty" when demands are made
on her. Mrs. Dean says she gives in to "indulgent tenderness." She shows patience,
forbearance, and vigilance in sickness, all qualities with strong religious associations.
Linton begs her, "Leave me, and I shall be killed!" Perceiving what Linton's confusing
implications are leading to when he asks, "You will not go then? ... perhaps
you willconsent" before she truly grasps his evil plan, Catherine responds, "To stay!
tell me the meaning of this strange talk, and I will!" This suggests she already knows
what Heathcliff is forcing Linton to do and why, and it is actually her choice to go
back to Wuthering Heights—to save her cousin. She does not fully realize how
dangerous Heathcliff actually is or how cruel Linton really is, but, still, Catherine's
character shows through her actions that she is willing to be brave, merciful, and
dutiful whether Linton deserves help or not.
 Catherine Linton Heathcliff Mrs. Dean

What are Linton's true feelings toward Catherine in Wuthering Heights?


Linton's terror is more prominent than his love, but he does show love for Catherine
at times, such as when "her magnamity provoked his tears," he kisses her hand, begs
for her forgiveness, and passionately displays self-hatred for his cowardice and
betrayal. Also, the first thing he says when he sees Catherine is "Is not your father
very ill? I thought you wouldn't come." This subtly suggests he harbored a hope she
would not come, and then he would not have to betray her. Later, when she asks
him, "You wouldn't injure me ... you wouldn't let any enemy hurt me, if you could
prevent it?" her words include trust in him, and Linton does tell her the essence of
the truth, enough to warn her, which can only be motivated by some genuine
fondness or love for her, considering how terrified he is of his father's abuse.

 Catherine Linton Love and Obsession

How is Linton's behavior in Chapter 27 of Wuthering Heights related to the theme of


violence and revenge?
As soon as the threat of violence is alleviated, Linton turns callous and perverse in a
way typical for the "indulged" children in Wuthering Heights, conveying a core
message about violence in terms of apathy: as long as the violence is happening to
someone else, all is well. Linton's demand for a new cup of tea because Catherine's
tears have fallen into his cup makes this point very effective. Catherine is taking
abuse on his behalf, but he will not drink her tears, meaning share kindly in her
sorrow. Linton's change in mood from "intense anguish" outside of Wuthering
Heights to what Mrs. Dean describes as "the little wretch's composure" once he felt
safe illustrates the power of fear to create apathy toward violence and produce
cowardice incapable of standing up to violence.
 Catherine Linton Mrs. Dean Violence and Revenge

Why does Heathcliff ask Catherine, "How do you feel?" right after Linton dies in
Chapter 30 of Wuthering Heights?
Heathcliff is not inclined to ask other characters the nature of their feelings, so it is
particularly noticeable when he asks Catherine how she feels. Since in the previous
chapter Heathcliff has been utterly consumed by Cathy's death and living in painful
torment from his pursuit of seeking a visible glimpse of her ghost, it is likely the
intention is to continue the idea of Heathcliff's obsession with death by having
Heathcliff ask a strange and out-of-character question. He is at least curious about
Catherine's feelings for some reason. That Heathcliff's relentless cruelty toward
Catherine abates briefly after she answers the question suggests he has found some
satisfaction in Catherine's response. She says she has felt so "alone" for so long with
death, she can "see only death" and feels "like death." Contented that she feels as
he does toward death, Heathcliff leaves Catherine alone and orders Zillah to wait on
her. In an earlier chapter, Heathcliff blames Catherine for Cathy's death. Perhaps he
feels satisfied from having exacted revenge by making her feel as he did.

 Heathcliff Cathy Linton Zillah Catherine Violence and Revenge Ghosts


How is Zillah similar to or different from Mrs. Dean in Chapter 30 of Wuthering
Heights, and how do the differences or similarities relate to bigger ideas in the
novel?
In the past, Mrs. Dean tries to help young Heathcliff clean up and impress Cathy the
same way Zillah wants to help Hareton impress Catherine. In the past, Mrs. Dean
wants Cathy's arrogance to be checked, so her pride will diminish the same way
Zillah says about Catherine, she "should love well to bring her pride a peg lower" in
the present. They are alike except Zillah sees Catherine as Mrs. Dean saw Cathy.
Since Zillah is looking in from the outside, in a sense, judging Catherine without
knowing as much about her as Mrs. Dean or the reader, the juxtaposition here leads
the reader to wonder if perhaps Mrs. Dean gave an incomplete or unfair assessment
of Cathy in the past. Maybe she judged her unfairly the way Zillah unfairly judges
Catherine. However, there is one point that comes through powerfully since Mrs.
Dean and Zillah both corroborate it: however different Catherine is from her mother,
she is exactly like Cathy—repeating Cathy's treatment toward Heathcliff—when it
comes to Hareton—through both Mrs. Dean and Zillah's eyes. Through the servants'
juxtaposed perceptions, Catherine's one true flaw as seeing herself superior to
Hareton stands out prominently.

 Mrs. Dean Zillah Cathy Hareton Catherine

In Chapter 31 of Wuthering Heights how has Catherine's character changed since the


first time Mr. Lockwood meets her before his illness?
When Mr. Lockwood enters, Catherine is in the act of preparing vegetables for
dinner. The last time Mr. Lockwood saw Catherine she was awkwardly attempting to
make tea. This suggests she is more comfortable in Wuthering Heights than she was
previously. Catherine carves "birds" and animals out of the turnip parings, which is a
significant contrast to the previous occasion when she threatens Joseph that she will
make "wax modells" of everyone in the house to use to practice magic. This suggests
Catherine is less angry and rekindling her true, kind nature, even if slowly. She
actually speaks to Hareton, as if they are becoming friendlier when she dreamily
wishes to be riding her horse and spending time outside, telling him she's bored.
Catherine is still uninterested in Mr. Lockwood and socializing with an outsider. In
the beginning of Wuthering Heights, Catherine fought with Joseph, but in Mr.
Lockwood's second visit, she chooses to eat dinner in the kitchen with Joseph, and
the way Heathcliff gives her permission implies it is a preferred dining choice,
suggesting she and Joseph have moved closer to being civil to each other. She does
fight with Hareton and degrade him ruthlessly, so, in this way, Catherine's character
has not grown or changed since Mr. Lockwood first met her.
 Catherine Mr. Lockwood Joseph Heathcliff Hareton

What do Mr. Lockwood's observations of Catherine and Hareton suggest about his
character in Chapter 31 of Wuthering Heights?
The first observation Mr. Lockwood makes upon seeing Catherine is that she is
beautiful but not "amiable," leading to his conclusion she is not an "angel." Since Mr.
Lockwood has learned from Mrs. Dean all Catherine has been through, his
observation suggests that he is apathetic to Catherine and generally lacks empathy.
However, he empathizes greatly with Hareton later on when Catherine humiliates
Hareton about trying to learn to read. Also, Mr. Lockwood shows himself to be a
hypocrite. He chastises Catherine for looking down on Hareton, yet, later, when
Catherine chooses not to have dinner with him, Lockwood inwardly calls Hareton "a
clown," looking down on him for being uneducated—the same crime he chastises
Catherine for committing. He approves when Hareton hits Catherine for having "a
saucy tongue," reinforcing Mr. Lockwood's violent side, which has been hinted at in
earlier chapters. However, Mr. Lockwood's approval of violence seen first hand
mixed with his desire for Catherine and understanding of her life story takes his
mean streak to another level. Mr. Lockwood is also prideful and conceited, believing
Catherine is not interested in him because she is beneath him, not because of flaws
or unattractiveness in his character.

 Mr. Lockwood Catherine Hareton

How do Mr. Lockwood's descriptions of the scenery reflect and foreshadow events in
Chapter 32 of Wuthering Heights?
As Mr. Lockwood nears Wuthering Heights, he passes a grey church that "looks
greyer," and he says "the lonely churchyard lonelier;" this foreshadows how he will
feel by the end of the chapter. The first live being he sees is "a moor-sheep cropping
the short turf on the graves." This detail foreshadows Heathcliff's death and Mr.
Lockwood's hearing about it from Mrs. Dean. In Chapter 4 Mrs. Dean refers to
Heathcliff as an uncomplaining "lamb" when he is very young and has the measles.
Considering the vast number of biblical references in Wuthering Heights, Brontë
intends for the reader to associate Heathcliff with ideas of sacrificing for the greater
good, or perhaps being a lost soul. On Mr. Lockwood's journey between Thrushcross
Grange and Wuthering Heights his descriptions change to sun and moon imagery,
reflecting the idea of the beginning and ending of the novel: "the glow of a sinking
sun behind, and the mild glory of a rising moon in front," casting a tone of hope.
Then Mr. Lockwood says, by the "beamless amber light"—introducing the idea of
light associations—"I could see every pebble on the path, and every blade of grass,
by that splendid moon." This foreshadows the light, or happiness, Mr. Lockwood will
soon witness between Cathy and Hareton, and how all will be clear (see every
pebble) as the novel comes to its end (the sun sets) and the moon rises.
 Mr. Lockwood Mrs. Dean Heathcliff Catherine Hareton

Why does Mr. Lockwood enter the house through the kitchen after spying on
Catherine and Hareton in Chapter 32 of Wuthering Heights, and what does it suggest
about his character?
Mr. Lockwood's character has not changed much since learning about the journeys
of the Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange characters, but his choice to not
risk injuring the love he sees growing between Catherine and Hareton suggests some
character growth. However, that he thinks his presence would cause injury to their
happiness proves Mr. Lockwood is still conceited. He admits to being "curious and
envious" as he watches Catherine and Hareton interact romantically, and Mr.
Lockwood "bites his lip in spite" at throwing away his opportunity for romance. This
suggests a strong attraction to Catherine and a lingering fear of love. In an earlier
chapter Mr. Lockwood explains the event leading him to retreat to the country, and
it involved his lack of courage in exposing his feelings to a woman.

 Mr. Lockwood Catherine Hareton Love and Obsession

What is the purpose of Mrs. Dean and Joseph's religious banter in Chapter 32
of Wuthering Heights?
Mrs. Dean is singing a song called "Fairy Annie's Wedding" when Joseph condemns
her, saying he'd rather hear Catherine and Hareton swearing at each other and
fighting than have them listen to Mrs. Dean's advice, which most likely refers to
Catherine and Hareton getting married—alluded to by the wedding song. Brontë is
reinforcing the idea of religious hypocrisy, which Joseph represents throughout the
novel, through Joseph confusing love with wickedness, encouraging hateful
behavior, and being generally mean and nasty. Mrs. Dean's reply to "read your Bible
like a Christian" has a double meaning. It can be taken as though she is telling him to
stop yelling and go read, or to read his Bible accurately and truly understand the
meaning contained within it. There is another connection to the idea of Joseph's lack
of religious understanding later when Joseph lays "dirty bank notes" on top of a
Bible, alluding to religious ideas about not placing money above God.

 Mrs. Dean Joseph Catherine Hareton Good versus Evil

What is the figurative significance of Catherine and Hareton's garden in Chapter 33


of Wuthering Heights?
The garden serves as a metaphor for the uniting of the two houses of Wuthering
Heights and Thrushcross Grange in Catherine "importing" plants from her childhood
home to Hareton's home. Hareton being involved in the process reinforces the idea
of union. Catherine, persuading Hareton to "make that mess at her bidding!"—as
Mrs. Dean puts it—adds another layer of meaning to the garden as a metaphor for
the transfer of power over Hareton from Heathcliff to Catherine. Hareton, who is
raised to be like a watchdog for Heathcliff, becomes Catherine's symbolic dog when
he protects her later at dinner. However, Catherine ultimately sets Hareton free by
understanding he loves Heathcliff as a father, so she relinquishes the power she has
and they become equals. Brontë also draws a comparison between the story of
Adam and Eve, alluding to it in references to the supplanted trees being the apple of
Joseph's eye. Joseph is like the snake; Catherine and Hareton like Adam and Eve; and
like Adam, Hareton is willing to take the blame for the destruction of the garden.
 Joseph Catherine Hareton Weather, Wind, and Trees
How does Mrs. Dean's role in the lives of the Lintons and Earnshaws change
throughout Wuthering Heights?
Mrs. Dean begins as a poor child, yet is treated like a foster sister. Next she turns
into a typical servant, working grueling hours with no power over her life and forced
to bend to the whims and desires of all her masters; everyone is her master, but she
educates herself with books in the library. She raises Hareton but must give him up,
and she raises Catherine but must give her up, as she is only a servant. From all of
her years earning wages there comes a moment when she can afford her own
cottage and even rescue Catherine, but she stays. This reflects her change into a
person who has power over her own life; she stays because she doubts Heathcliff
would allow Catherine to live with her, and rather than save herself as she could, she
chooses to be close to the child she loves. Next, she is referred to as mistress,
implying she has become more than just a servant, and she is given the post of
mistress at the family's table, treated finally as worthy of consideration. Around the
same time she sees Hareton and Catherine as "in a measure, my children." She is
truly like family by the end of the novel.

 Mrs. Dean Hareton Catherine Heathcliff

Why can't Heathcliff eat or rest in Chapter 34 of Wuthering Heights?


One of the reasons Heathcliff cannot eat or rest is because he is distracted by his
obsession with Cathy. The first time Heathcliff tries to eat he sees something outside,
so he leaves. Catherine, Hareton, and Mrs. Dean see him walking to and fro in the
garden. It is most likely Cathy's ghost he is seeing, as this is the source of his "joy"
and "glittering, restless eyes" throughout the chapter. However, there is another
implication that Heathcliff longs to die, and this is making him unable to eat or rest
when he tells Mrs. Dean that "My soul's bliss kill's my body, but does not satisfy
itself." Another possibility is the actual ghost of Cathy is stopping him from eating
and purposely trying to kill him so they can be together. The first clue comes when
he says he is hungry yet "seemingly, I must not eat," as if someone or something is
ordering him or forcing him. This happens again later. In fact, every time Mrs. Dean
entreats Heathcliff to eat and he attempts to touch the food, "his fingers clenched
before he reached it," as if something is physically stopping Heathcliff from eating.

 Heathcliff Catherine Cathy Hareton Mrs. Dean Ghosts

How and why does Heathcliff's attitude toward Catherine transform


throughout Wuthering Heights?
When Heathcliff first meets Catherine he behaves gruffly when she is haughty, but
he is kind to her also, perhaps to entice her to come to Wuthering Heights and see
Linton, but it is only after she is mean to Hareton that Heathcliff begins to dislike her
personally, as well as for being Cathy and Edgar's daughter. His dislike turns to
violence and abuse when she defies him and acts unafraid of him. During this time,
leading up to Heathcliff forcing Catherine to marry Linton, Heathcliff blames her for
Cathy's death, and he sees her as an extension of her father and a means to hurt
Edgar. After Linton's death when Heathcliff sees a transformation in Catherine—a
surge of depth after experiencing death—he withdraws from actively tormenting
her. Around the time she and Hareton become friendly, Heathcliff begins to see
Cathy in Catherine, saying to her at dinner, "What fiend possesses you to stare back
at me, continually, with those infernal eyes?" Considering Catherine is never
associated with devils, hell, or evil, and that Heathcliff accused Cathy of possessing
"infernal selfishness," it is very subtle, but the implication is that Heathcliff, led by
insanity or not, sees Cathy's ghost when he looks at Catherine. The implications
increase as he nears death. In a way, this change in Catherine, this infusion of
strength, which coincides with Heathcliff's changing perception, aids Catherine in
defeating Heathcliff's hatred. Near the very end, before Heathcliff dies and Hareton
has just come from checking on him, Hareton tells Mrs. Dean, "He wondered how I
could want the company of anybody else"—meaning Catherine. Once Heathcliff truly
sees Cathy in Catherine and himself in Hareton, he loses the will to complete his
revenge.

 Heathcliff Cathy Catherine Hareton Mrs. Dean

How does the second half of Wuthering Heights, after Cathy's death, differ from the
first half of the novel?
In the second half of the novel, the tone gradually lightens, incorporating a few
humorous moments along the way, as Mrs. Dean's narration is more lighthearted.
However, there are still intense and abusive events interspersed throughout the
second half, such as Catherine's imprisonment in Wuthering Heights and Heathcliff's
and Linton's deaths. Brontë's use of pathetic fallacy also changes in the second half:
there are not as many storms and more bright skies. In the first half of the novel the
moor is used to symbolize uncivilized wildness, freedom from social distinctions, and
freedom from the abuse that Heathcliff and Cathy suffer at home; in the second half,
they serve more as a literal setting than a symbol; many more scenes actually
happen on the moors, as Catherine and Mrs. Dean look for birds' eggs or travel to
meet with Linton in the sunny heat of summer. Linton, being the stranger brought to
Wuthering Heights in the second half of the novel, contrasts when Heathcliff arrives
in the first half, and he and Hindley engage in a dark and violent battle of wills.
Linton is too physically and emotionally weak to be taken as a serious threat. A
particularly noticeable moment is when, in Chapter 32, Linton throws a temper
tantrum to keep Cathy from leaving by sliding off his chair and thrashing about on
the floor for attention; Heathcliff never indulged in frivolous or childish behavior, and
his temperament made the tone in the first half much more menacing. Another
aspect creating a stark difference between the two storylines is found in Catherine's
nature as opposed to Cathy's nature; having been primarily raised by a gentle father
and a humble servant, Mrs. Dean, Catherine is ultimately able to rise above her
attitude of superiority over Hareton, whereas Cathy's attitude created feelings of
injustice and discord among Heathcliff and the servants in the first half of Wuthering
Heights. Generally, in the second half of the novel Catherine's predominantly good
qualities diminish the sense of doom that began the novel.
 Catherine Cathy Linton Mrs. Dean Heathcliff Hindley Edgar
In what ways does the novel suggest that Cathy and Heathcliff communicate with
each other even when they are apart in Wuthering Heights?
There are more instances to suggest Cathy and Heathcliff can communicate
telepathically or spiritually, so to speak, than not, in Wuthering Heights. In Chapter
12 when Cathy is delirious, looking out of the window toward Wuthering Heights,
she acts as though Heathcliff is speaking to her though he is not there, telling Mrs.
Dean, "He's considering—he'd rather I'd come to him!" Even if this takes place when
Cathy seems insane, digging further back in the narrative to when she is sane, Cathy
seems to know Heathcliff ran away after overhearing her conversation with Mrs.
Dean long before she should. Almost immediately, Cathy begins "pacing" and
"fretting" while Mrs. Dean thinks Heathcliff is simply hiding in the hayloft as he
always does. Cathy cannot be "persuaded with tranquility," and she "kept wandering
... in a state of agitation ... heedless of [Mrs. Dean's] expostulations and the growling
thunder ... she remained, calling at intervals ... and then crying outright." This
suggests intense connection between Cathy and Heathcliff. Once Cathy is dead, the
thread is lost until Heathcliff describes how he has been able to feel her spirit for 18
years even though he cannot see her. Whether he has gone mad or not, it seems, at
the end, as if she is with him in spirit as he goes insane. And afterward, the very last
image of them, as seen with the child with the lambs, is of the two of them together.
As much as Brontë demonstrates that the two characters have an extraordinary love
and connection between them, the whole plot, in the end, rests on the times when
they are out of sync with each other. Cathy spoke about Heathcliff, unknowing he
was right there listening, and she said hurtful things about him. Also, Cathy finds
happiness in the beginning of her marriage, living at Thrushcross Grange, and in her
friendship with Isabella. And as much as she loves Heathcliff, she often perceives him
as being beneath her, and she cultivates her relationship with Edgar right under
Heathcliff's nose, knowing how deeply it hurts him.
 Heathcliff Cathy Mrs. Dean

Describe the narrative structure of Wuthering Heights as well as its purpose.


The narrative structure of Wuthering Heights is layered. The novel is Mr. Lockwood's
journal in which he records the story he hears from Mrs. Dean. In so doing Mr.
Lockwood filters Mrs. Dean's story through his perspective as a man who erringly
judges Heathcliff to be "a capital fellow" and who believes that Catherine might ever
have a romantic interest in him. In the instances where Mrs. Dean is not present to
give a first-hand account, she introduces information provided by eyewitnesses or
documents, even allowing other characters to narrate for brief periods. Mrs. Dean
provides several clues that reveal her status as an unreliable narrator. First Mrs.
Dean characterizes herself as a gossip, and she goes to great lengths to assert that
she is a self-educated, well-read woman: "You could not open a book in this library
that I have not looked into." This detail suggests that some of Mrs. Dean's narration
may be informed by the drama or symbols of her personal reading material, such as
when she suggests to Heathcliff, "Who knows but your father was Emperor of China,
and your mother an Indian queen?" Mrs. Dean also enjoys the double status of both
narrator and character so her accounts of her own actions may be more favorably
portrayed than occurred in reality. By presenting the narrative in a layered chorus of
voices, Brontë achieves achieves the effect of allowing readers to know more than
any one narrator as they navigate the world of Wuthering Heights.
 Mrs. Dean Mr. Lockwood

Heathcliff
The antihero of Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff's story begins when Mr. Earnshaw
returns from a trip to Liverpool and introduces the homeless boy he found on the
street to his children, Hindley and Cathy. Mr. Earnshaw names the boy Heathcliff
after a son who died, and he favors the orphan over his own son, Hindley, who
comes to loathe Heathcliff, while Heathcliff and Cathy become inseparable. When
old Mr. Earnshaw dies, Hindley, now master of Wuthering Heights, forces Heathcliff
to become a servant, enduring humiliation, physical violence, and degradation.
Heathcliff and Cathy are in love, but when Cathy chooses to marry Edgar Linton, a
wealthy neighbor, Heathcliff runs away, only to return three years later as a
handsome, wealthy gentleman. However, while he appears more gentrified on the
surface, Heathcliff is secretly plotting revenge on the Earnshaw and Linton families.
When Cathy dies in childbirth, all that Heathcliff seems to have left is his thirst for
revenge, an obsession that shapes his character throughout much of the rest of the
novel. Treated cruelly by Hindley then devastated by Cathy's death, Heathcliff
becomes a master of cruelty himself, treating others as pawns in his game of
vengeance and creating pain and terror wherever he goes. When Heathcliff
recognizes the growing love between Hareton and Catherine, his resolution to exact
his revenge finally falters. Hopelessly haunted by his love for Cathy, he gives up his
final plan for revenge and embraces death in order to reunite with her.

Cathy
Heathcliff's best childhood friend and true love, Cathy is also often peevish and
selfish. She goes mad from events that result from her decision to go against her
heart and soul and choose Edgar Linton over Heathcliff. She dies very young while
giving birth to her only daughter, Catherine, and her memory and ghost haunt
Heathcliff for the rest of his life, as he seeks revenge for all the wrongs inflicted upon
him in their childhood.

Catherine
Catherine is a kind, sweet, even-tempered child and young woman, unlike her
mother, Cathy. She lives a sheltered childhood with her father, Edgar, at Thrushcross
Grange. However, when she meets her cousin Hareton, she despises him for being
an uneducated servant. She falls in love instead with her sickly, bookish cousin,
Linton, who betrays her when his father, Heathcliff, threatens him. Linton and
Catherine marry, and Catherine is forced to care for him as Linton dies soon after.
With her inheritance stolen from her by Heathcliff, Catherine remains at Wuthering
Heights until intense loneliness causes her to seek her cousin Hareton's
companionship. While teaching him to read and write, the two cousins fall in love.
Upon Heathcliff's death, rightful ownership of Wuthering Heights and Thruschcross
Grange are restored to Hareton and Catherine.

Mrs. Dean
Mrs. Dean is the main narrator of Wuthering Heights as she tells the long, involved
history of Heathcliff to Mr. Lockwood. Mrs. Dean grows up with Cathy, Hindley, and
Heathcliff, as a foster-sister and servant. Her foster-sister status dissolves and
changes solely to the role of servant, but she remains a caring, important, confidant
to Cathy throughout her marriage to Edgar, and she helps raise Hareton and, later,
Catherine from birth. More than just a servant, she plays the role of mother,
protector, judge, and conscience to all the major characters in the novel.

Edgar
Edgar is a snobbish boy who grows up to be a kind-spirited gentleman as an adult
and, later, master of Thrushcross Grange. He marries Cathy and remains devoted to
her. However, due to a physical fight with Heathcliff after a fit of jealousy, he aids in
Cathy's demise. Fearful of Heathcliff after Cathy's death, Edgar seeks to protect his
daughter, Catherine, from their cruel neighbor's attempts to exact revenge and take
ownership of Thrushcross Grange. Edgar fails to do so, and he dies unable to prevent
Heathcliff from carrying out his plan for revenge.

Hareton
Hareton's mother dies at birth, and his father is eaten alive by grief. As a result,
Hareton falls into Heathcliff's clutches and is unknowingly turned against his father
and all the trappings of upper class society. He lives a simple life, completely
unaware he is brutish and should have been raised as a gentleman. Meeting
Catherine arouses a desire to be such a man, but her mockery of his attempts at self-
improvement drive him further away from the norms of society and educational
pursuits. He gives up and acts as if he despises Catherine. When fate, or Heathcliff's
revenge, forces him and Catherine to live at Wuthering Heights together, Hareton
gives in when she asks to reconcile with him. The girl he has always loved and
admired teaches him to read and write, and they fall in love. When Heathcliff dies,
Wuthering Heights is restored to Hareton, its rightful owner.

Hindley
Hindley is the true villain of Wuthering Heights. His jealousy and malice drive him to
physical violence and degradation of Heathcliff, which spawns Heathcliff and Cathy's
thwarted love and spurs Heathcliff's destructive plans for revenge. Hindley aids in his
self-destruction by renouncing God when his wife dies and becoming a careless
alcoholic and abusive father. He loses Wuthering Heights, his son Hareton's love, and
his son's inheritance to Heathcliff.

Summary
In 1801 a gentleman from the city, Mr. Lockwood, rents Thrushcross Grange, an
estate located deep in the wild English countryside of Yorkshire. He sets out to meet
his landlord, Heathcliff, who lives at Wuthering Heights, an estate across the moors.
Intrigued by the odd behavior of the residents at Wuthering Heights, who appear to
have no respect for social customs, Mr. Lockwood returns the next day, arriving as it
begins to snow. The weather forces Mr. Lockwood to spend the night there in a
bedroom, which turns out to be haunted by a ghost named Cathy. Mr. Lockwood's
screams bring Heathcliff into the room. Strangely, Heathcliff cries out for Cathy's
ghost to come inside.
The next morning Mr. Lockwood makes his way through the snow back to
Thrushcross Grange. Struck with an illness requiring him to stay in bed, Mr.
Lockwood draws Mrs. Dean, a servant, into telling Heathcliff's life story. Having
served at Wuthering Heights since childhood, Mrs. Dean eagerly launches into the
tale, beginning when Heathcliff is first brought home by Mr. Earnshaw from a trip to
Liverpool. Mr. Earnshaw has found the homeless orphan boy on the street there,
taken him to Wuthering Heights, and named him Heathcliff after his son who died. In
Mrs. Dean's narration, Mr. Earnshaw's wife and children, Cathy and Hindley, despise
Heathcliff immediately for being a dark-haired "gipsy" with an ill-natured
temperament.
Mr. Earnshaw's favoritism toward Heathcliff drives Hindley to violence and hatred,
but Cathy and Heathcliff become friends, running wild on the moors and playing and
studying together. Hindley is sent to college but returns with a wife when his father
dies. As new master of Wuthering Heights he uses his power to turn Heathcliff into a
servant, but Cathy shares her studies with Heathcliff, and they continue to play
together on the moors.

One night Cathy and Heathcliff sneak over to Thrushcross Grange to spy on the
wealthy, blond and blue-eyed Linton children, Isabella and Edgar, curious to see how
they live. A dog bites Cathy, and the children are caught. The Lintons take Cathy in
but send Heathcliff home, rejecting him because of his lower class status and "gipsy"
background. When Cathy returns five weeks later, she has transformed into an
upper-class woman, with proper manners and elegant clothes. She and Heathcliff
become distant as Cathy and Edgar grow closer. Cathy accepts Edgar's marriage
proposal even though she confesses her deep love for Heathcliff to Mrs. Dean.
Heathcliff overhears only part of their conversation and runs away in humiliation.
Cathy is distraught over his disappearance. Three years later, right after Cathy
marries Edgar Linton, Heathcliff returns. He has transformed into a wealthy,
attractive man with the manners and appearance of a gentleman.
Heathcliff has returned to wreak revenge for all the wrongs done to him in
childhood. Hindley's wife has died, leaving him to raise their child, Hareton. Hindley
has cursed God and become an abusive alcoholic. Through gambling with Hindley,
Heathcliff takes control of Wuthering Heights and manipulates Hareton to love him
more than his own father.
Heathcliff visits Cathy at Thrushcross Grange, and they become close friends again,
confessing love for each other, but also respecting Cathy's marriage to Edgar. All
seems well until Edgar's sister, Isabella, develops a one-sided crush on Heathcliff,
who uses her to wreak revenge on Edgar for his childhood snobbery. Heathcliff
marries Isabella and spitefully abuses and degrades her. Cathy is driven to madness
when Heathcliff is forbidden to visit her because of a fight between him and Edgar.
Pregnant with Edgar's child, Cathy fades into gloom and darkness. She and Heathcliff
have one last passionate meeting in which they berate each other for not staying
together. Cathy dies later that night after giving birth to her daughter, Catherine.
Soon after Cathy's death, Isabella runs away and has Heathcliff's baby. She raises
their son, Linton, alone, near London. Edgar raises Catherine alone at Thrushcross
Grange. Hindley dies, and Heathcliff raises Hareton alone at Wuthering Heights.
Continuing his vengeance even after Hindley's death, Heathcliff raises Hareton to be
an uneducated servant instead of an upper-class gentleman according to his station,
forcing on Hareton the degrading existence that Hindley forced on Heathcliff as a
young man.

As a child, Catherine meets Hareton one day when they are both out on the moors,
and their dogs fight. Catherine likes Hareton until she finds out that he is a servant
and her cousin. When Catherine is almost thirteen, Isabella dies, and Linton comes
to live at Thrushcross Grange, but Heathcliff demands to raise his own son and forces
Linton to live at Wuthering Heights. Linton is a sickly, pampered child. Heathcliff uses
him to gain control of Thrushcross Grange as Edgar is dying by forcing Linton and
Catherine to marry. Soon after their marriage, Catherine nurses Linton as he dies.

Afterward, she and Hareton, whom Catherine has always despised, finally become
friends. Haunted by Cathy's memory for eighteen years, Heathcliff loses his will to
live and declines into an early death; he is found lying beside an open window in his
room as the rain pours in. Heathcliff fails to deliver the final blow to make his
revenge complete. Catherine and Hareton regain their estates, Thrushcross Grange
and Wuthering Heights respectively. As Mr. Lockwood finds out, they are now free,
have fallen in love, and plan to marry.
Introduction

1Mr. Lockwood sees Cathy's ghost at Wuthering Heights.


Rising Action

2Heathcliff is adopted into the Earnshaw family.


3Hindley forces Heathcliff to become a servant.
4Heathcliff runs away because Cathy says something mean.
5Heathcliff returns to take revenge.
6Heathcliff and Edgar's fight causes Cathy's illness.
7Heathcliff marries Isabella.
8Cathy dies and Isabella leaves.
9Heathcliff takes control of Linton to continue his revenge.
10Heathcliff makes Linton and Catherine marry; Linton dies. Climax

11Heathcliff dies without completing his revenge.


Falling Action

12Mr. Lockwood returns; Catherine owns Thrushcross Grange.


13Catherine and Hareton become friends and fall in love.
14How Heathcliff dies is revealed to Mr. Lockwood.
Resolution

15Catherine and Hareton will marry on New Year's Day.

Character Description

Heathcliff, who later becomes obsessed with Cathy and revenge, is a brooding
Heathcliff
child adopted into the Earnshaw family. Read More
Cathy Earnshaw is a passionate, headstrong young woman, torn between her
Cathy
need for social status and her love for Heathcliff. Read More

Catherine, the daughter of Cathy and Edgar Linton, evolves past her mother's
Catherine
stubbornness to become a well-rounded romantic heroine. Read More

Ellen Dean, a servant who has spent most of her life working for the
Earnshaws, is the primary narrator, who tells the history of Heathcliff, Cathy,
Mrs. Dean
Catherine, and Hareton to Mr. Lockwood while he is convalescing from an
illness. Read More

The son of Mr. and Mrs. Linton, who becomes Cathy Earnshaw's husband and
Edgar
the father of their daughter, Catherine. Read More

Hareton, the son of Hindley and Frances Earnshaw, evolves past a lifetime of
Hareton
abuse and neglect to become a romantic hero. Read More

Hindley is the eldest Earnshaw child, Cathy's brother, who is jealous of his
Hindley father's affection toward Heathcliff. He turns into an alcoholic gambler. He is
the father of Hareton by marriage to Frances Earnshaw. Read More

Frances Earnshaw, Hindley's wife, has a bubbly and optimistic personality.


Frances
When she dies from consumption, Hindley never emotionally recovers. They
Earnshaw
have a son together, Hareton.

Mr. Earnshaw is the family patriarch, who wreaks havoc on his progeny by
Mr. Earnshaw
bringing Heathcliff into the family. He is Cathy and Hindley's father.

Mrs. Earnshaw, Cathy and Hindley's mother, dislikes Heathcliff and ignores
Mrs. Earnshaw
Hindley's abuse of him.

Mr. Green is Edgar's lawyer, who takes a bribe from Heathcliff and doesn't
Mr. Green make it to Edgar's bedside in time to fix the will and protect Catherine from
Heathcliff's plan to own Thrushcross Grange.

Edgar Linton's sister, Isabella falls in love with Heathcliff, who does not return
Isabella her love but uses her to exact revenge on the Linton family. She and Heathcliff
have a son, Linton.

Joseph is a cruel and angry Wuthering Heights servant, who stirs up trouble
Joseph
and mean-spiritedness by moralizing and judging.

Kenneth Kenneth is the family doctor of both the Earnshaw and Linton households.
Linton inherits weakness and cruelty, the worse characteristics of both of his
Linton
parents, Isabella and Heathcliff. He dies a terrible death at a young age.

Mr. Linton is Edgar and Isabella's father. He hates Heathcliff, accuses him of
Mr. Linton being a thief, and refuses to acknowledge his acceptance into the Earnshaw
family.

Mrs. Linton is Edgar and Isabella's mother. Like Mr. Linton, she rejects
Mrs. Linton
Heathcliff and refuses to acknowledge his acceptance into the Earnshaw family.

Mr. Lockwood is one of the novel's two narrators. He comes from the city and
Mr. Lockwood
rents Thrushcross Grange from Heathcliff.

Michael is a servant in the stables at Thrushcross Grange. He helps Catherine


Michael
sneak out to see Linton when she is a teenager.

Zillah is a servant at Wuthering Heights. She knows Hareton and Catherine


Zillah since they were children, and she works for them and against them at different
times throughout the novel.

ً‫يرجى عدم االعتماد على معلومات الملزمة بشكل كامل مع الحرص على قراءة نص الكتاب كامال‬:‫مالحظة‬
J ‫مع مالحظات المحاضرة‬

Warqaa Lowi (section A)

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