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Biology 118

Nov. 19, 2008


EXAM 4 - VERSION A

Mark your name, ID number & test version (A, B, C, D...) on your answer sheet.
You can keep this list of exam questions. You may write on it if you wish.
This form will be the only way you will know what answers you marked on the scantron.
Each question has only 1 correct answer. Indicate your choice on the answer sheet - scantron.
If you need clarification for a question, raise your hand & stay in your seat. I will come to you.
If you are stumped by a question, place a mark by it, and return to it later.

AV = atrioventricular ERV = expiratory reserve volume LV = left ventricle RV = right ventricle


BP or HP = blood (hydrostatic) pres. HP = hydrostatic pressure NE = norepinephrine RR = respiration rate
CO = cardiac output HR = heart rate OP = osmotic pressure SV = stroke volume
CRP = C-reactive protein IRV = inspiratory reserve volume RA = right atrium TV = tidal volume
COPD = chronic obstructive pulmon. disorder LA = left atrium RMV = respiratory minute vol. VC = vital capacity

1. The right ventricle pumps ________ volume of blood but at a _______ pressure than the left ventricle.
a. a larger – higher
b. the same – higher
c. a smaller – lower
d. the same – lower

2. Which blood vessel carries oxygenated blood?


a. Superior vena cava
b. Inferior vena cava
c. Pulmonary vein
d. Pulmonary artery

3. Trace the pathway of blood as it exits the LA: 1 – semilunar valve, 2 – aorta, 3 – AV valve, 4 – LV, 5 – coronary artery.
a. 1, 4, 3, 2, 5
b. 1, 4, 3, 5, 2
c. 3, 4, 1, 5, 2
d. 3, 4, 1, 2, 5

4. Stenosis (narrowing) of an AV valve can occur in older adults because of _______. It produces a(n) ________, and impedes blood flow.
a. atherosclerosis – heart murmur
b. tachycardia – heart murmur
c. bradycardia – AV block
d. atherosclerosis – AV block

5. Cardiac muscle cells are unique compared to skeletal muscle cells because cardiac cells have _______ that allow the heart to ________.
a. myoglobin – be highly aerobic
b. gap junctions – act as 1 motor unit
c. lots of mitochondria – be very efficient
d. longer myofibrils – have great strength

6. Starling’s law says that cardiac muscle tissue contracts more _______ when the diastolic blood volume is ________.
a. forcefully – lower
b. slowly – lower
c. forcefully – higher
d. slowly – higher

7. The fibrous skeleton of the heart is made of dense _________ fibers that separate the _________.
a. elastic – right & left ventricles
b. collagen – atria & ventricles
c. elastic – atria & ventricles
d. collagen – right & left ventricles

8. The cells of the primary pacemaker, or ______ of the heart, are _______ in diameter & depolarize more rapidly than normal cardiac muscle cells.
a. SA node – smaller
b. AV node – smaller
c. SA node – larger
d. AV node – larger
9. Given this information: SV = 200 ml/beat, mean BP = 100 mmHg, HR = 120 beats/min., CO = ________ ml/min.
a. 12,000
b. 6,000
c. 24,000
d. 2,400

10. Which disease or condition is the most likely to cause the ventricles to stop pumping blood?
a. Mild Atherosclerosis
b. Bradycardia
c. Atrial fibrillation
d. Ventricular fibrillation

11. In the heart, the _______ system releases the neurotransmitter NE, which causes _______ channels to open.
a. sympathetic - Na+
b. parasympathetic - K+
c. sympathetic - K+
d. parasympathetic - Na+

12. During ventricular diastole, the ___________.


a. atria may be contracting
b. AV valves stay closed
c. stroke volume is ejected into the arteries
d. semilunar valves are open

13. Diffusion of more _______ cardiac muscle cells increases the contractile force of the heart by increasing the number of ________.
a. Ca+2 out of – cross-bridges
b. Ca+2 into – cross-bridges
c. K+ into – sarcomeres
d. K+ out of – sarcomeres

14. The ______ fibers in an artery wall allow the arteries to stretch during ventricular systole as well as ______ during ventricular diastole.
a. collagen – recoil
b. collagen - contract
c. elastic – recoil
d. elastic – contract

15. In graph B, the net filtration pressure is ______ than normal at the start of this capillary, which may lead to _______.
a. higher – dehydration
b. lower – dehydration
c. higher – edema
d. lower – edema

16. The _______ are the primary regulator of blood pressure as well as control the flow into capillaries.
a. arteries
b. arterioles
c. veins
d. venules

17. The person with a _____ liter blood volume & plasma osmolarity of ______ mosmoles has the highest OP.
a. 4 – 280
b. 4 – 320
c. 5 – 300
d. 5 – 310

18. Blood flow in the veins of your legs is determined primarily by the contractions of ________ muscle tissue that is _______ the vein’s wall.
a. smooth – within
b. skeletal – within
c. skeletal – outside of
d. smooth – outside of

19. Which line on graph A, best describes the relationship between vessel radius on the X-axis & resistance to blood flow on the Y-axis?
a. V
b. Z
c. W
d. Y
20. A recent study of 129 children, ages 10-11, had their vascular (vessel) function tested by measuring the ability of their arteries to dilate with
exercise. Graph C shows that the highest vascular function tertile (top 1/3) was associated with a higher ______ & lower _______.
a. physical activity – % body fat
b. % body fat – cardiovascular fitness
c. % body fat – physical activity
d. cardiovascular fitness – physical activity

21. If you blood pressure = 115/75 mmHg, your _______ HP must be greater than ______ mmHg to open the semilunar valves.
a. atrial – 115
b. atrial – 75
c. ventricular – 115
d. ventricular – 75

22. Graph E shows that use of Rosuvastatin by individuals with high CRP, _______ the risk of heart attacks & strokes in _______ in this study.
a. increases – all groups
b. decreases – all groups
c. increases – white males only
d. decreases – white males only

23. At rest, an aerobically trained athlete will have a higher _______, but a lower _______ than an untrained individual.
a. diastolic BP - heart rate
b. resistance to blood flow - diastolic BP
c. cardiac output - stroke volume
d. stroke volume - resistance to blood flow

24. Sympathetic stimulation of the heart occurs if the baroreceptor firing rate ______. That sympathetic stimulation will ______ cardiac output.
a. increases – increase
b. decreases – increase
c. decreases – decrease
d. increases - decrease

25. Which part of the body receives a relatively constant blood flow both at rest & during exercise?
a. Heart
b. Skeletal muscle
c. Kidney
d. Brain

26. An atherosclerotic blockage of over ________ will begin to dramatically block blood flow.
a. 30%
b. 50%
c. 80%
d. none of these

27. Which part of the respiratory system lacks cartilage & is thus “collapsible”?
a. Bronchi
b. Bronchioles
c. Larynx
d. Trachea

28. The individual with vocal cords that are _____ mm thick and _____ mm long will have the highest pitch voice.
a. 3 – 10
b. 1 – 10
c. 3 – 12
d. 1 – 12

29. ________ will increase mucous production in the bronchi & bronchioles as well as cause these airways to constrict.
a. Air pollution
b. Sympathetic stimulation
c. Warm air
d. All of these
30. By comparison, alveolar walls are _______ than bronchioles & the alveoli lack _________ that is/are normally present in the bronchioles.
a. thicker – cilia & mucous
b. thicker – water
c. thinner – water
d. thinner – cilia & mucous

31. Trace the airflow during exhalation after air leaves the alveoli: 1 – bronchi, 2 – pharynx, 3 – nasal cavity, 4 – bronchiole, 5 – trachea, 6 – larynx.
a. 1, 4, 5, 6, 2, 3
b. 4, 1, 5, 2, 6, 3
c. 4, 1, 5, 6, 2, 3
d. 1, 4, 5, 2, 6, 3

32. Premature infants may lack ____________ so they have difficulty _________.
a. surfactant in the alveoli – inflating the lungs
b. surfactant in the bronchi – inflating the lungs
c. cilia in the bronchi – cleaning the airways
d. cilia in the alveoli – cleaning the airways

33. Which line on graph A, best describes atmospheric pressure on the Y-axis, if the X-axis is elevation from sea level to 20 miles high?
a. Z
b. V
c. W
d. X

34. A 25-year old ______ has the highest peak flow (liters/min.) of air because they have ______ airways and greater muscle strength on average.
a. normal female – larger diameter
b. asthmatic male – shorter
c. asthmatic female – shorter
d. normal male – larger diameter

35. You inhale (inspire air) if your alveolar pressure = _______ mmHg & the atmospheric pressure = 550 mmHg.
a. 560
b. 555
c. 550
d. 540

36. Which muscle(s) contract(s) during a forceful, deep exhalation?


a. External intercostals
b. Diaphragm
c. Abdominal muscles
d. Neck muscles

37. The breathing pattern with _______ml/breath and _______ breaths per minute moves the most “fresh” air into your lungs per minute.
a. 500 – 60
b. 1000 – 30
c. 2000 – 15
d. All move equal amounts of fresh air.

38. Calculate VC given these data: TV = 400 ml, Dead air = 200 ml, residual volume = 1500 ml, IRV = 2400 ml, ERV = 3200 ml.
a. 6000 ml
b. 5600 ml
c. 7500 ml
d. 7700 ml

39. Which variable is kept relatively constant between rest & exercise, by negative feedback homeostasis?
a. SV
b. Systemic artery PCO2
c. RR
d. Systemic vein PO2

40. The PO2 is highest in the _______ at sea level because inhaled air gains moisture & mixes with _______ air already in the lungs.
a. atmosphere – fresh
b. alveoli – stale
c. alveoli – fresh
d. atmosphere – stale
41. If the systemic artery has a PCO2 = 30 mmHg, & skeletal muscle has a PCO2 = 60 mmHg, the PCO2 = _______ mmHg in the exiting vein.
a. 30
b. 45
c. 60
d. 90

42. Graph D shows that if skeletal muscle has a PO 2 = 40 mmHg & a PCO2 = ______ mmHg, hemoglobin will release the most oxygen.
a. 20
b. 40
c. 80
d. All give up the same amount.

43. Carbon monoxide is a dangerous gas because it displaces ____________ on the ____________ of hemoglobin.
a. oxygen – heme
b. carbon dioxide – heme
c. oxygen – globin proteins
d. carbon dioxide – globin proteins

44. If you hyperventilated prior to a shallow underwater dive, your lungs ______, but you can pass out because ______ triggers the impulse to inhale.
a. took in extra O2 – high CO 2
b. got rid of more CO2 – high CO 2
c. took in extra O2 – low O 2
d. got rid of more CO2 – low O 2

45. Which line on graph A, best describes RMV on the Y-axis if the X-axis is exercise level from resting to maximum?
a. V
b. Z
c. Y
d. W

46. Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported _______________.


a. as carbonic acid in plasma
b. attached to heme in hemoglobin
c. as CO 2 in plasma
d. attached to globin in hemoglobin

47. As part of a normal homeostatic response to alkalosis, the _________ system will be excited, causing airways to __________.
a. parasympathetic – dilate
b. parasympathetic – constrict
c. sympathetic – dilate
d. sympathetic – constrict

48. Individuals, who have emphysema, may suffer from __________ because the _______ of the lungs has increased.
a. alkalosis – residual volume
b. alkalosis – IRV
c. acidosis – residual volume
d. acidosis – IRV

49. A 30-year old male smoker has a ____ VC than a 30-year old male non-smoker. If the smoker quits, his VC returns to a non-smoker’s VC _____.
a. higher – volume
b. lower – volume
c. higher – rate of decline
d. lower – rate of decline

50. Statin drugs are well known to lower plasma cholesterol. In graph F, statin treatment reduced mortality in _______ patients, compared to no
treatment, but patients that had PAD (peripheral artery disease) in combination with COPD had ________ mortality than those who had only PAD.
a. PAD only - lower
b. all – higher
c. PAD only – higher
d. all – lower
Graph A Graph B

Graph C Graph D

Hopkins, ND et. al. 2008. Relationships between measures of fitness,


physical activity, body composition & vascular function in children. Graph shows % saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen under varying
Atherosclerosis (in press) PCO2 & PO2.
Graph E Graph F
Statin use and mortality was investigated in patients with peripheral
artery disease (PAD), ie. generalized atherosclerosis. The study
compared PAD patients who had COPD or who did not have COPD.

van Gestel, YRBM, et. al. 2008. Am J Cardiol. 102:192–196.

Ridker, PM, et al. 2008. NEJM 359(21):2195-2207.