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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

PURPOSE
This Specification defines minimum requirements for structural engineering design.

SCOPE / APPLICABILITY
This Specification defines specific criteria for the design and analysis of structures
and structural design of foundations.
These criteria include:
 regulations
 applicable codes and standards
 related specifications
 design criteria including loads and deflections
 materials of construction
This Specification applies to Company projects in Canada, USA, and Mexico.
This Specification does not apply for any purposes not specifically identified. This
Specification does not contain all requirements. It is the responsibility of the Designer
to identify (and comply with) all applicable jurisdictional, regulatory, and project
specific requirements.
Within this Specification, TransCanada is referred to as the Company.
Within this Specification, the following terms and definitions apply for requirements:
 Shall—expresses a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to
satisfy in order to comply with the standard. Shall is not a recommendation but a
requirement.
 Should—expresses a strong preference, recommendation or that which is
advised, but not required.
 May—expresses an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the
standard.
Wherein the Manufacturer’s literature, governmental or regulatory requirements
conflict with this Specification, the more stringent requirement shall govern.
Contact the Company Civil Engineer for clarification if required.

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

Table of Contents
1 GLOSSARY.............................................................................................................................................................. 4
2 GLOBAL REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................................................................................... 5
2.1 General Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Engineering Calculation and Drawing Requirements ............................................................................. 5
2.3 Environmental Condition Requirements ................................................................................................. 6
2.4 Soil Data Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 6
3 DESIGN LOAD DEFINITIONS AND REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................... 6
3.1 General Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 6
3.2 (D) Dead Load Requirements ................................................................................................................ 7
3.3 (L) Live Loads—Use and Occupancy Loading Requirements ................................................................ 7
3.4 (L) Live Loads—Vibration and Dynamic Loading Requirements ............................................................ 8
3.5 (L) Live Loads—Impact Loading Requirements ..................................................................................... 9
3.6 (L) Live Loads—Friction Loading Requirements .................................................................................. 10
3.7 (L) Live Loads—Transportation Loading of Preassembled Structures Requirements .......................... 11
3.8 (S) Snow Load Requirements .............................................................................................................. 11
3.9 (R) Rain Load Requirements ................................................................................................................ 11
3.10 (W) Wind Load Requirements .............................................................................................................. 11
3.11 (E) Earthquake Load Requirements ..................................................................................................... 12
3.12 (T) Thermal Load Requirements .......................................................................................................... 12
3.13 Frost Adhesion Requirements .............................................................................................................. 12
4 LOAD FACTOR AND LOAD COMBINATION REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................... 13
4.1 Canadian Requirements....................................................................................................................... 13
4.2 US Requirements ................................................................................................................................. 14
5 OTHER DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................................................... 15
5.1 Deflection Limit Requirements ............................................................................................................. 15
5.2 Stability Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 15
5.3 Material Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 16
6 FALL PROTECTION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................. 16
6.1 Jurisdictional Requirements ................................................................................................................. 16
6.2 Compatibility Requirements ................................................................................................................. 17

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

6.3 Anchor Point Requirements ................................................................................................................. 17


6.4 Guardrail Requirements ....................................................................................................................... 17
7 FOUNDATION REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................................................................... 18
7.1 Foundation Type Requirements ........................................................................................................... 18
7.2 General Foundation Design Requirements .......................................................................................... 18
7.3 Aboveground Storage Tank Foundation Design Requirements ........................................................... 19
7.4 Vibratory Equipment Foundation Design Requirements ...................................................................... 19
7.5 Other Foundation Design Requirements .............................................................................................. 20
7.6 Pig Launcher/Receiver Foundation Design Requirements ................................................................... 20
8 VARIANCES........................................................................................................................................................... 21
9 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES ......................................................................................................................... 21
10 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................................... 21
11 DOCUMENT HISTORY.......................................................................................................................................... 26
12 DESCRIPTION OF CHANGE................................................................................................................................. 26
13 APPROVALS.......................................................................................................................................................... 27

List of Tables
Table 3-1: Minimum Live Loads .....................................................................................................................................7
Table 3-2: Factors for Calculation of Impact Load Due to Lifting ...................................................................................9
Table 3-3: Factors for Calculation of Impact Load Due to Vibrating Equipment/Elevators...........................................10
Table 3-4: Coefficient of Friction ..................................................................................................................................10
Table 5-1: Deflection Limits..........................................................................................................................................15
Table 9-1: Roles and Responsibilities ..........................................................................................................................21
Table 10-1: External and Internal References .............................................................................................................21

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

1 GLOSSARY
Designer
A Professional Engineer registered with the authority having jurisdiction (or person
otherwise qualified by code or regulation), supervising or performing the design of
structural works, and the Engineer of Record for the structural work.
Drawings
Project drawings issued for construction that are a type of engineering document.
Self-straining load
A load (arising from contraction or expansion) resulting from temperature change,
differential settlements, creep or shrinkage in component materials, or combinations
thereof.

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

2 GLOBAL REQUIREMENTS
2.1 General Requirements
2.1.1 The Designer shall design and construct all structures in accordance with all
applicable documents referenced in section 10. Where a specific revision is required
by a regulatory requirement, the Designer shall use that revision. Otherwise, the
Designer shall use the most recent revision. Revisions listed in section 10 reflect the
revision of the document upon which this specification is based.
2.1.2 The Designer shall use Company standard details and general notes, where
applicable to the project.
2.1.3 For Mexican installations, the Designer shall follow the requirements for US
installations, unless noted otherwise.
2.2 Engineering Calculation and Drawing Requirements
2.2.1 The Designer shall use SI units for calculations, Drawings, and specifications for
Canadian and Mexican installations. The Designer shall use millimetres for
dimensions and metres for elevations and site coordinates.
2.2.2 The Designer shall use imperial units for calculations, Drawings, and specifications for
US installations. The Designer shall use feet and inches for all dimensions,
elevations, and site coordinates.
2.2.3 On engineering Drawings, the Designer shall show:
 design codes (with revision number)
 design live loads
 information specified in the Project requirements
2.2.4 The Designer shall specify materials and equipment in SI units for Canadian
installations and imperial units for US installations. The Designer shall specify
materials and equipment for Mexican installations based upon project requirements.
2.2.5 The Designer shall perform design calculations for structural steel, reinforced
concrete structures, and foundations using the:
 Limit States Design Method for Canadian installations.
 Load and Resistance Factor Design Method for US installations.
2.2.6 The Designer may perform hand calculations without approval from the Company
Civil Engineer.
2.2.7 The Designer shall use STAAD Pro or SFRAME for static and dynamic structural
analysis.
2.2.8 The Designer shall use DYNA for design of foundations subject to dynamic loads.
2.2.9 For pile analysis of piles subject to lateral loads, the Designer shall use:
 LPile software

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

 Brom’s method
 Pressuremeter method
 Other equivalent method described by the CGS Canadian Foundation
Engineering Manual
The Designer shall consider non-linear behavior of soil in the pile lateral load analysis.
2.2.10 The Designer shall obtain written approval from the Company’s Civil Engineer prior to
the use of other design and analysis software.
2.2.11 The Designer shall submit calculation/analysis packages and models to the Company
upon request.
2.3 Environmental Condition Requirements
2.3.1 The Designer shall use climatic data as required by the authority having jurisdiction. If
not available, use climatic data in accordance with:
 NBCC for Canadian installations
 IBC and ASCE 7 for US installations
 Manual de Obras Civiles de CFE for Mexican installations
2.3.2 Where applicable, the Designer shall investigate frost and flood effects for each site
and address the impact of these effects on the design.
2.4 Soil Data Requirements
2.4.1 The project should perform soil investigations and issue a geotechnical report to the
Designer. If a project involves support or foundation design of vibratory equipment, a
geotechnical report shall be produced.
2.4.2 The Designer shall follow the recommendations of site geotechnical reports and
addendums, unless otherwise approved in writing by the Company’s Civil Engineer.
2.4.3 Where the project does not provide a geotechnical report, the Designer shall explicitly
state geotechnical assumptions, performance, and quantitative measurement
provisions on Drawings.

3 DESIGN LOAD DEFINITIONS AND REQUIREMENTS


3.1 General Requirements
3.1.1 The loads specified in section 3 are minimum requirements. The Designer shall
address all potential loads that may occur, including, but not limited to:
 hydrostatic pressure
 upset conditions
 earth pressure
 buoyancy

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

 blast loads
3.2 (D) Dead Load Requirements
3.2.1 For the dead load (D), the Designer shall include the weight of:
 the structure
 permanent construction materials
 piping
 ducts, electrical trays, and conduits
 fixed equipment such as cranes, air-conditioning systems, process equipment
and machinery, and valves
 soil immediately above the foundation (for foundations only)
3.3 (L) Live Loads—Use and Occupancy Loading Requirements
3.3.1 Live loads (L) shall consist of loads superimposed on the structure due to intended
use and occupancy. For live loads, the Designer shall include:
 the weight of the content of equipment, vessels, tanks, and piping
 the weight of non-fixed equipment
 loads due to hydro test water
 vibrations and dynamic loads (see 3.4)
 crane loads
 impact loads (see 3.5)
 vehicular loads
 maintenance loads
3.3.2 The Designer shall design structures with minimum live loads in accordance with
Table 3-1.
Table 3-1: Minimum Live Loads

Minimum Uniform Distributed Minimum Concentrated


Structure
Live Load Live Load

Floors (including slab-on-grade) with: 12.0 kN/m2 (250 psf) 10.0 kN (2200 lb)
 Vehicle access, or
 Equipment laydown areas

Other floor areas (including slab-on- 4.8 kN/m2 (100 psf) 10.0 kN (2200 lb)
grade)

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

Minimum Uniform Distributed Minimum Concentrated


Structure
Live Load Live Load

Operating platforms and working areas 4.8 kN/m2 (100 psf) 10.0 kN (2200 lb)
without heavy equipment laydown

Personnel access platforms and walkways 3.0 kN/m2 (60 psf) n/a

Platforms (including walkways) that may 7.2 kN/m2 (150 psf) 10.0 kN (2200 lb)
be used for equipment laydown or repair

Stairs, landings, and walkways 4.8 kN/m2 (100 psf) n/a

Handrails for buildings a 1.5 kN/m (100 lb/ft) in any 1.0 kN (200 lb) in any direction at
direction along the top of rail any point

Control room floors and electrical room 12.0 kN/m2 (250 psf) 4.4 kN (1000 lb)
access floors

Bulk storage areas: Light b 6.0 kN/m2 (125 psf) 10.0 kN (2200 lb)

Bulk storage areas: Heavy b 12.0 kN/m2 (250 psf) 10.0 kN (2200 lb)

Roofs 1.0 kN/m2 (20 psf) 1.3 kN (300 lb)

Notes:
a The Designer shall design fall protection guardrails and handrails using design loads in accordance with the

authority having jurisdiction’s occupational health and safety requirements.


b The definition of areas to be classified as “light” or “heavy” shall be a project based decision.

The Designer shall verify that the above loads meet minimum jurisdictional and
project specific requirements. In case of conflict, the Designer shall use the greater
value.
3.3.3 Crane live loads shall consist of the rated capacity of the crane. For design loads of
crane supporting structures the Designer shall follow:
 NBCC for Canadian installations
 IBC and ASCE 7 for US installations
3.4 (L) Live Loads—Vibration and Dynamic Loading Requirements
Vibration loads shall be defined as forces caused by vibrating equipment (e.g.,
pumps, blowers, fans, compressors).
3.4.1 The Designer shall perform a detailed dynamic analysis for structures supporting
vibrating equipment heavier than 8.9 kN (2000 lb) and greater than 150 kW (200 hp).
3.4.2 The Designer shall design structures to avoid a natural frequency in the range of 0.8
to 1.2 times the disturbing frequency of the equipment.
3.4.3 The Designer shall design structures to limit the amplitude of vibration to levels
acceptable for equipment function and human tolerance. Unless otherwise specified

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

by the equipment manufacturer, the Designer shall determine the acceptable


vibration amplitude in accordance with ACI 351.3R.
3.4.4 The Designer shall address the effect of fatigue in the design of vibrating structures.
3.4.5 The Designer shall determine the allowable stress range for fatigue in accordance
with:
 CSA S16 for Canadian installations
 AISC 360 for US installations
3.4.6 The Designer shall design members and connections subject to fatigue to minimize
stress concentrations and abrupt changes in cross section.
3.5 (L) Live Loads—Impact Loading Requirements
3.5.1 For structures carrying lifting devices (e.g., cranes, davits, and hoists) and other
moving loads which induce impact, the Designer shall increase the equipment load by
applying an impact load factor. For the impact load factor, the Designer shall use the
greater of the values given in:
 NBCC for Canadian installations
 IBC and ASCE 7 for US installations
 Table 3-2
Table 3-2: Factors for Calculation of Impact Load Due to Lifting

Impact Load Factor


Cause of Impact
Vertical Lateral Longitudinal

Hand operated cranes and monorails 1.10 a 1.20 b 1.10 a

Electrically operated cranes and monorails 1.25 a 1.20 b 1.10 a

Lifting load on lifting lugs or pad eyes and 2.00 N/A N/A
internal members framing into the joint where
the lifting lug is located

Notes:
a Apply to maximum wheel load on rail

b Apply to lifted load plus crane trolley weight and equally distribute to all rails

3.5.2 For structures supporting vibrating equipment which induce impact that have not had
a dynamic analysis, the Designer shall increase the equipment load by applying an
impact load factor. For the impact load factor, the Designer shall use the values given
in Table 3-3.

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

Table 3-3: Factors for Calculation of Impact Load Due to Vibrating Equipment/Elevators

Cause of Impact Impact Load Factor

Elevator 2.00

Light machinery 1.20

Heavy and reciprocating machinery 1.50

Motor turbine driven mechanical equipment supports 3.00

Screen and reciprocating units 4.00

3.6 (L) Live Loads—Friction Loading Requirements


3.6.1 The Designer shall obtain friction loads (caused by the expansion or contraction of
piping and equipment) from a stress analysis report.
3.6.2 To determine the friction load, the Designer shall use a coefficient of friction in
accordance with Table 3-4.
Table 3-4: Coefficient of Friction

Sliding Surfaces in Contact Coefficient of Friction

Steel to concrete 0.50

Concrete to soil 0.45

Steel to steel 0.30

Stainless steel to Teflon 0.15

Steel to graphite 0.10

Teflon to Teflon 0.10

Graphite to graphite 0.10

3.6.3 For pipe racks supporting multiple pipes, when a stress analysis is not available the
Designer may perform preliminary calculations as follows:
 A horizontal friction load equal to 10% of the total piping weight shall be applied
to local supporting beams.
 A friction load equal to 5% of the total piping weight shall be accumulated and
carried into the overall structure.
Note:
Under normal loading conditions with multiple pipes, torsional effects on the local
beam need not be considered because the pipes supported by the beam limit the
rotation of the beam to the extent that the torsional stresses are minimal.

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

3.6.4 Where a design is based upon preliminary calculations, the Designer shall either
verify and validate the final design against the stress analysis, or obtain approval from
the Company Stress Engineer for other methods of validating the design.
3.7 (L) Live Loads—Transportation Loading of Preassembled Structures
Requirements
3.7.1 The Designer shall design preassembled structures, buildings, and equipment for
loads imposed during lifting and transportation. The Designer shall take into account
the rigging method and support configuration during lifting and transportation.
3.7.2 The Designer shall design preassembled structures to withstand acceleration of:
 0.25G in the longitudinal and transverse directions
 0.50G in the vertical direction
where G is the acceleration due to gravity.
3.7.3 The Designer shall not take into consideration longitudinal and transverse impact
loading concurrently.
3.8 (S) Snow Load Requirements
3.8.1 The Designer shall determine snow (and associated rain) loads in accordance with:
 NBCC for Canadian installations
 IBC and ASCE 7 for US installations
 Manual de Obras Civiles de CFE for Mexican installations
3.8.2 For ice-sensitive structures, the Designer shall consider ice loads due to atmospheric
icing in accordance with:
 NBCC for Canadian installations
 IBC and ASCE 7 for US installations
Examples of ice-sensitive structures shall include lattice structures, overhead lines,
open catwalks and platforms, flagpoles, and signs.
3.9 (R) Rain Load Requirements
3.9.1 The Designer shall determine rain loads in accordance with:
 NBCC for Canadian installations
 IBC and ASCE 7 for US installations
 Manual de Obras Civiles de CFE for Mexican installations
3.10 (W) Wind Load Requirements
3.10.1 The Designer shall calculate wind loads in accordance with:
 NBCC for Canadian installations

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

 IBC and ASCE 7 for US installations


 Manual de Obras Civiles de CFE for Mexican installations
3.10.2 Additionally, the Designer shall calculate wind loads for pipe racks and vessels in
accordance with ASCE Wind Loads for Petrochemical and Other Industrial Facilities.
3.11 (E) Earthquake Load Requirements
3.11.1 The Designer shall calculate forces exerted due to seismic ground motions in
accordance with:
 NBCC for Canadian installations
 IBC and ASCE 7 for US installations
 Manual de Obras Civiles de CFE for Mexican installations
3.11.2 Additionally, the Designer shall perform seismic design of storage tank foundations in
accordance with API 650.
3.11.3 The Designer shall obtain the site classification for seismic site response from the
geotechnical report.
3.11.4 The Designer shall perform seismic design of non-building structures in accordance
with ASCE 7, Chapter 15.
3.11.5 For Canadian installations:
 The Designer shall determine the dead load used for earthquake load
calculations in accordance with NBCC.
 For building structures, the Designer shall apply seismic forces to act in any
direction except as permitted by NBCC.
3.11.6 For US installations:
 The Designer shall calculate seismic weight in accordance with IBC and ASCE 7
and include all dead, operating fluid, storage, and live loads likely to occur
during a seismic event.
 For warehouse areas, the Designer shall add 25% of the storage live load to the
dead load when calculating the total seismic force on the structure.
 For building structures, the Designer shall apply seismic forces to act in any
direction except as permitted by IBC and ASCE 7.
3.12 (T) Thermal Load Requirements
3.12.1 The Designer shall address thermal loads caused by the expansion or contraction of
structures due to a difference between the installation and operating temperatures.
3.13 Frost Adhesion Requirements
3.13.1 Where applicable, the Designer shall take frost adhesion into account for foundations.

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

3.13.2 The Designer shall obtain the adfreezing uplift pressure and depth of frost penetration
from the geotechnical report.
3.13.3 The Designer shall use local knowledge and best practices if no geotechnical report is
available.

4 LOAD FACTOR AND LOAD COMBINATION REQUIREMENTS


4.1 Canadian Requirements
4.1.1 The Designer shall perform ultimate limit states design of buildings and structures in
accordance with NBCC and the following load combinations:
Case 1 1.4D
Case 2 1.25D + 1.5L
Case 3 1.25D + 1.5L + 0.5S
Case 4 1.25D + 1.5L + 0.4W
Case 5 1.25D + 1.5S
Case 6 1.25D + 1.5S + 0.5L
Case 7 1.25D + 1.5S + 0.4W
Case 8 1.25D + 1.4W
Case 9 1.25D + 1.4W + 0.5L
Case 10 1.25D + 1.4W + 0.5S
Case 11 1.25D + 1.25T
Case 12 1.0D + 1.0E
Case 13 1.0D + 1.0E + 0.5L + 0.25S
where:
D = Dead load
L = Live load, except roof live load, including any permitted live load reduction
S = Snow load
W = Wind load
T = Self-straining load
E = Earthquake load and effects
4.1.2 For load cases causing uplift and overturning, the Designer shall replace 1.25D with
0.9De in the above load combinations where De is the empty dead load of the process
equipment, piping, and cable trays.

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

4.1.3 For liquids in tanks, the Designer may reduce the load factor from 1.5L to 1.25L for
Cases 2, 3, and 4.
4.1.4 The Designer shall address any other probable and realistic load combinations.
4.2 US Requirements
4.2.1 The Designer shall perform load and resistance factor design of structural members
(including underground structural members) in accordance with IBC, Section 1605,
using the following load combinations:
Case 1 1.4D
Case 2 1.2D + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
Case 3 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + 1.6H + 1.0(f1L or 0.5W)
Case 4 1.2D + 1.0W + 1.0f1L + 1.6H + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
Case 5 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0f1L + 1.6H + 1.0f2S
Case 6 0.9D + 1.0W + 1.6H
Case 7 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H
where:
D = Dead load
L = Live load (except roof live load), including any permitted live load
reduction
Lr = Roof live load, including any permitted live load reduction
H = Load due to lateral earth pressures, groundwater pressure, or pressure
from bulk materials
S = Snow load
R = Rain load
W = Wind load
T = Self-straining load
f1 = 1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads in excess of
4.8 kN/m2 (100 psf), and for parking garage live loads
= 0.5 for other live loads
f2 = 0.7 for roof configurations (such as saw tooth) that do not shed snow off
the structure
= 0.2 for other roof configurations
E = Combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake induced forces as
defined in ASCE 7, Section 12.4.2.

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TransCanada Engineering Specification

TES-CI-STDES-GLE Structural Design


Specification (CAN-US-MEX)
EDMS No.: 8040018 Rev.: 01 Status: Issued Effective Date: 2017-Jan-16
Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

4.2.2 Where the effect of H resists the primary variable load effect the Designer shall:
 Include a load factor of 0.9 with H where H is permanent.
 Set H to zero for all other conditions.
4.2.3 The Designer shall determine the structural effects of self-straining loads (T ) in
combination with other loads in accordance with ASCE 7, Section 2.3.5.
4.2.4 Where an ice-sensitive structure will be subjected to loads due to atmospheric icing,
the Designer shall use the load combinations of ASCE 7, Section 2.3.4.
4.2.5 The Designer shall address any other probable and realistic load combinations.

5 OTHER DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


5.1 Deflection Limit Requirements
5.1.1 The Designer shall limit structural deflections due to unfactored live loads to the
values shown in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1: Deflection Limits

Structure Deflection Direction Maximum Deflection

Cable tray supports Horizontal Height / 100

Vertical Length / 180

Pipe supports Horizontal Height / 200

Horizontal Height / 100


(Due to wind drift only)

Vertical Length / 180

Platforms and walkways Vertical Length / 300

5.1.2 For structures not listed in Table 5-1 the Designer shall ensure deflections do not
exceed the lesser of the limits prescribed in:
 NBCC and User’s Guide − NBC 2005, Commentaries A and D (for Canadian
installations)
 IBC Section 1604.3 (for US installations)
 Project specific deflection limit requirements
5.2 Stability Requirements
5.2.1 The Designer shall evaluate the stability of the structure against sliding, overturning,
uplifting, and stress reverse.
5.2.2 The Designer shall provide the required degree of stability by the dead load and
permanent anchorage only.

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5.3 Material Requirements


5.3.1 For all installations, the Designer shall specify materials in accordance with the
project requirements and:
 TES-CI-CIDES-GLE Civil Design Specification (EDMS No. 8040016)
 TES-CI-SPILE-GLE Driven Steel Pile Specification (EDMS No. 6459)
5.3.2 For Canadian installations, the Designer shall specify materials in accordance with:
 TES-CI-STEEL-GLE Structural Steel and Miscellaneous Metals Specification
(CAN) (EDMS No. 6488)
 TES-DV03-1000 Concrete Formwork (EDMS No. 6464)
 TES-DV03-2000 Concrete Reinforcement (EDMS No. 6465)
 TES-DV03-3000 Cast-in-Place Concrete (EDMS No. 6466 )
 TES-DV03-6100 Grouting of Heavy Machinery (EDMS No. 6468)
 TES-DV13-3420 Pre-Engineered Skid Building (EDMS No. 3690601)
 TES-DV31-6223 Bored Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles (EDMS No. 6460)
 TES-DV33-4621 Building Foundations and Underslab Drainage (EDMS No.
6461)
5.3.3 For US installations, the Designer shall specify materials in accordance with:
 TES-CI-STEEL-GLE Structural Steel and Miscellaneous Metals Specification
(US) (EDMS No. 4431061)
 TES-DV03-2000-US Concrete Reinforcement (EDMS No. 4431052)
 TES-DV03-3000-US Cast-in-Place Concrete (EDMS No. 4431054)
 TES-DV03-6100-US Grouting of Heavy Machinery (EDMS No. 4431055)
 TES-DV13-3420-US Pre-Engineered Skid Building (EDMS No. 8040019)
 TES-DV31-6223-US Bored Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles (EDMS No. 7331849)
 TES-DV33-4621-US Building Foundations and Underslab Drainage (EDMS No.
4431004)

6 FALL PROTECTION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


6.1 Jurisdictional Requirements
6.1.1 The Designer shall review and implement the requirements of:
 this Specification
 the jurisdiction’s safety codes

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6.1.2 The Designer shall take responsibility for the adoption and use of the design criteria
for fall protection systems.
6.2 Compatibility Requirements
6.2.1 The Designer shall ensure all components of fall protection systems are compatible
with each another and the environment in which they are used.
6.2.2 The Designer shall not specify combinations of equipment from different
manufacturers unless the manufacturer’s professional engineer is satisfied that:
 the connections are compatible
 there are no dangerous interactions between components
6.2.3 The manufacturer’s professional engineer shall provide written approval of
compatibility.
6.3 Anchor Point Requirements
6.3.1 The Designer shall design permanent anchor points for fall protection systems with a
minimum ultimate strength (per attached worker) of 22 kN (5000 lb) in any direction in
which the load may be applied.
6.3.2 The Designer shall design anchor points for temporary travel restraint systems with a
minimum ultimate strength (per attached worker) of 3.5 kN (800 lb) in any direction in
which the load may be applied.
6.3.3 The Designer shall design anchor points for temporary fall arrest systems with a
minimum ultimate strength (per attached worker) of either 22 kN (5000 lb) in any
direction in which the load may be applied, or two times the maximum arrest force.
6.3.4 The Designer shall specify that anchors are to be permanently marked with their
ultimate load capacities.
6.4 Guardrail Requirements
6.4.1 In areas accessible to workers, the Designer shall design guards or guardrails:
 Where a raised floor, open-sided floor, mezzanine, gallery, balcony, work
platform, ramp, walkway, or runway is 1200 mm (4 ft) or more above the
adjacent floor or grade level.
 On both sides of any walkway over or adjacent to any substance which is a
hazard if a worker fell in (or on) it.
 On both sides of any walkway over machinery or work areas.
 Around the perimeter of any open container or containment area such as an
open vat, bin, tank or pit which:
 Is 1200 mm (4 ft) or more in depth.
 Has sides that do not extend at least as high as required for a guardrail
above the adjacent grade or work surface.

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6.4.2 The Designer shall design guardrails with:


 A horizontal top member 1070 mm (3 ft 6 in.) above the walking surface. Where
required by site specific conditions, the Designer may specify horizontal top
members with a height between 1020 mm (3 ft 4 in.) and 1070 mm (3 ft 6 in.).
 A horizontal intermediate member spaced midway between the top member and
base.
 Vertical members at both ends of horizontal members.
 Intermediate vertical members not more than 3000 mm (9 ft 10 in.) apart at their
centres. In British Columbia, the Designer shall specify intermediate vertical
members not more than 2400 mm (7 ft 10 in.) apart at their centres.
6.4.3 The Designer shall specify toe boards in areas where either guardrails are installed,
or materials can fall more than 1200 mm (4 ft).
6.4.4 The Designer shall design toe boards:
 Not less than 140 mm (5.5 in.) in height above the walking surface on all sides.
 With a space between the bottom of the toe board and the walking surface not
more than 6 mm (0.25 in.).
6.4.5 The Designer may omit toe boards at access openings.
6.4.6 Where material is to be stacked or stored on platforms, walkways, or near floor
openings, the Designer shall design the toe board height at least 450 mm (1 ft 6 in.)
or higher, if appropriate. The Designer may specify solid or mesh panel toe boards.

7 FOUNDATION REQUIREMENTS
7.1 Foundation Type Requirements
7.1.1 The Designer shall select the type of foundations to be used in accordance with the
recommendations in the geotechnical report, foundation loads, soil conditions, local
construction practice, and other project considerations (such as project schedule).
7.1.2 The Designer shall specify deep foundations (designed and constructed to avoid frost
heaving) when frost heaving may occur and the supported structures or equipment
cannot tolerate settlement or upward movement.
7.2 General Foundation Design Requirements
7.2.1 The Designer shall design foundations so that the total movement and differential
settlements resulting from applied loads does not exceed the:
 superstructure tolerance
 operational limits specified by equipment vendors
 operational limits specified for piping and other building services

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7.2.2 The Designer should minimize differential foundation movement between connected
structures to minimize stress at connections.
7.2.3 When skid buildings and their stair landings are on different types of foundations, the
Designer shall take measures to maintain the stair platforms at design elevation.
7.2.4 The Designer shall design foundations for both short term and long term settlement of
fill materials. The Designer shall take into account downdrag force on the piling and
recommendations from the geotechnical report.
7.2.5 The Designer shall address groundwater effects during foundation design.
7.2.6 The Designer should avoid locating driven piles within 1.5 m (5 ft) of known
underground pipes or cables. Prior to locating driven piles within 1.5 m (5 ft) of known
underground pipes or cables, the Designer shall obtain approval from the Company
Damage Prevention department.
7.3 Aboveground Storage Tank Foundation Design Requirements
7.3.1 The Designer shall design tank foundations such that the short-term settlement, long-
term settlement, and differential settlement meet tank and piping integrity
requirements.
7.3.2 For aboveground welded steel oil tanks, the Designer shall follow the design
tolerances of API 650.
7.3.3 Tank foundations may consist of an earth foundation with or without a ring wall. For
large tanks, tanks with heavy or tall shells, and/or tanks with self-supported roofs, the
Designer shall consider the effect of substantial loads imposed on the foundation
under the shell. When there is uncertainty whether an earth foundation will support
the shell load, the Designer shall specify a concrete or crushed stone ring wall
foundation.
7.4 Vibratory Equipment Foundation Design Requirements
7.4.1 The Designer shall design foundations for vibratory equipment for imposed cyclic
loading, unbalanced forces, and unbalanced moments. The Designer shall:
 Obtain load information, anchorage details, and the basic form of the foundation
block from the equipment manufacturer.
 Ensure the ratio of shallow foundation mass to vibratory equipment mass is at
least:
 3.0 for centrifugal machinery
 5.0 for reciprocating machinery
 Analyze foundations by recognized dynamic methods, using soil parameters
(including shear wave velocity, dynamic shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, and
internal damping factor) from the geotechnical report.

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7.4.2 The Designer shall isolate foundations for compressors, pumps, and other rotating or
reciprocating equipment from floors and other foundations with expansion joints and
isolating materials.
7.4.3 The Designer shall design machinery foundations and foundations subject to dynamic
loads for serviceability limits states performance in addition to strength requirements.
7.5 Other Foundation Design Requirements
7.5.1 The Designer shall design foundations and pedestals inside buildings to be a
minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) above the high point of the floor unless otherwise dictated
by equipment elevations.
7.5.2 The Designer shall design the high point of building floor slabs to be a minimum of
150 mm (6 in.) above the high point of the exterior finished surface.
7.5.3 The Designer shall specify anchor rods sleeves in foundations for:
 vertical vessels
 pumps
 compressors
 shop assembled heaters
 free standing stacks
 where recommended by the equipment manufacturer
7.5.4 The Designer shall specify anchor rods with two nuts for:
 crane columns
 the base of structures having vibrating and reversal loads
7.5.5 When specified by the equipment manufacturer, the Designer shall specify two nuts at
anchor rods for equipment.
7.6 Pig Launcher/Receiver Foundation Design Requirements
7.6.1 The Designer shall design foundations for pig launchers/receivers for a lateral load
due to pig winching, applied to the foundation(s) closest to the barrel. The loads shall
be:
 35 kN (7900 lb) for NPS 18 and smaller pipe
 55 kN (12000 lb) for NPS 20 to NPS 30 pipe
 75 kN (17000 lb) for NPS 34 and larger pipe
7.6.2 The Designer shall not combine the pig winch load case with other lateral support
loads.
7.6.3 The Designer shall not consider the serviceability limit states of pile deflection for the
pig winch load case.

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8 VARIANCES
Any deviation shall follow the Company Management of Change (MOC) Variance
Procedure. External vendors shall contact the Company Project Engineer for variance
approval.

9 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


Table 9-1 below outlines the roles and responsibilities required for the use of this
Specification.
Table 9-1: Roles and Responsibilities

Role Responsibilities

Project Manager (PM) The Project Manager (PM) is responsible for ensuring:
 Civil Engineering is consulted to determine requirements for a site
geotechnical report.

10 REFERENCES
This document relies on a number of references to regulation, industry codes and
standards, general industry guidance as well as internal references. These
documents are detailed below in Table 10-1. Use the latest document revision, unless
otherwise approved by the Company.
Table 10-1: External and Internal References

Document No. Title

Regulatory Codes (Canada)

NBCC National Building Code of Canada

NEB OPR SOR/99-294 National Energy Board, Onshore Pipeline Regulations

SOR/86-304 Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulations

Environment Canada, Inland Water Regulations

Canadian Labour Code

User’s Guide – NBC 2010 Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B)

National Fire Code of Canada

Alberta Building Code (Alberta only)

Alberta Fire Code (Alberta only)

Directives (or other requirements) of the Authority having Jurisdiction

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Document No. Title

Other applicable federal, provincial, and territorial acts, regulations, and codes
related to:
 Building
 Fire
 Occupational health and safety
 General safety
 Safety

Regulatory Codes (US)

IBC-2012 International Building Code (IBC)

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulations

Applicable federal, state and Authority having Jurisdiction Occupational Health


and Safety – General Safety Regulations

Industry Codes and Standards (Canada)

CSA A23.1/A23.2 CSA Group (CSA) – Concrete Materials and Methods of Concrete
Construction/Test Methods and Standard Practices for Concrete

CSA A23.3 Design of Concrete Structures

CSA A23.4 Precast Concrete - Materials and Construction

CSA A3000 Cementitious Materials Compendium

CSA G30.5 Welded Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement

CSA G30.15 Welded Deformed Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement

CSA G30.18 Carbon-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement

CSA G40.20/G40.21 General Requirements for Rolled or Welded Structural Quality Steel / Structural
Quality Steel

CSA S6 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

CSA S16 Design of Steel Structures

CSA S136 North American Specification for the Design of Cold Formed
Steel Structural Members

CSA W59 Welded Steel Construction (Metal Arc Welding)

CSA W186 Welding of Reinforcing Bars in Reinforced Concrete Construction

CSSBI 30M Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute (CSSBI) – Standard for Steel Building
Systems

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Document No. Title

Canadian Institute of Steel Construction (CISC) Code of Standard Practice for


Structural Steel

Canadian Portland Cement Association (CPCA) Concrete Design Handbook

Industry Codes and Standards (US)

ACI 201.2R American Concrete Institute (ACI) – Guide to Durable Concrete

ACI 211.1 Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight and Mass
Concrete

ACI 212.3R Report on Chemical Admixtures for Concrete

ACI 301 Specifications for Structural Concrete of Buildings

ACI 302.1R Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction

ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete

ACI 350 Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures

ACI 360R Guide to Design of Slab-on-Ground

AISC 303 American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) – Code of Standard Practice for
Steel Buildings and Bridges

AISC 325 Steel Construction Manual

AISC 341 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings

AISC 360 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings

ASCE 7-10 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) – Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures

ASTM A6 ASTM International (ASTM) – Standard Specification for General Requirements


for Rolled Structural Steel Bars, Plates, and Sheet Piling

ASTM A36 Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel

ASTM A500 Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel
Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes

ASTM A992 Standard Specification for Structural Steel Shapes

ASTM C33 Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates

ASTM C94 Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete

ASTM C260 Standard Specification for Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete

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Document No. Title

ASTM C494 Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete

ASTM C1157 Standard Performance Specification for Hydraulic Cement

AWS D1.1 American Welding Society (AWS) – Structural Welding Code - Steel

AWS D1.4 Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel

COE CRD-C621 US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) – Specification for Non-Shrink Grout

ACI Manual of Concrete Practice

Metal Building Manufacturers Association (MBMA) – Metal Building Systems


Manual

Industry Codes and Standards (Mexico)

Manual de Obras Civiles de CFE

Industry Codes and Standards (Canada and US)

ACI 351.3R Foundations for Dynamic Equipment

API 650 American Petroleum Institute (API) – Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage

ASTM A53 Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated
Welded and Seamless

ASTM A307 Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts, Studs, and Threaded Rod 60 000
psi Tensile Strength

ASTM A325 Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi
Minimum Tensile Strength

ASTM A490 Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Alloy Steel, Heat Treated, 150 ksi
Minimum Tensile Strength

ASTM A497 Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Deformed, for
Concrete Reinforcement

ASTM F1554 Standard Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105- ksi Yield Strength

CMAA 70 Crane Manufacturers Association of America (CMAA) Specification for Top


Running Bridge & Gantry Type Multiple Girder Electric Overhead Traveling
Cranes

CMAA 74 Specification for Top Running and Under Running Single Girder Electric Overhead
Cranes Utilizing Under Running Trolley Hoist

FEMA-350 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Recommended Seismic Design


Criteria for New Steel Moment-Frame Buildings, June 2000

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Document No. Title

ASCE Wind Loads for Petrochemical and Other Industrial Facilities

Canadian Geotechnical Society (CGS) Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual

CISC Handbook of Steel Construction

Internal References – Documents Referenced by this Specification (Canada and US)

EDMS No. 8040021 TES-CIVIL-GEO Specification for Facility Geotechnical Investigation (CDN-US)

EDMS No. 8040016 TES-CI-CIDES-GLE Civil Design Specification

EDMS No. 6459 TES-CI-SPILE-GLE Driven Steel Pile Specification

Internal References – Documents Referenced by this Specification (Canada)

EDMS No. 6488 TES-CI-STEEL-GLE Structural Steel and Miscellaneous Metal Specification
(CAN)

EDMS No. 6464 TES-DV03-1000 Concrete Formwork

EDMS No. 6465 TES-DV03-2000 Concrete Reinforcement

EDMS No. 6466 TES-DV03-3000 Cast-in-Place Concrete

EDMS No. 6468 TES-DV03-6100 Grouting of Heavy Machinery

EDMS No. 3690601 TES-DV13-3420 Pre-Engineered Skid Building

EDMS No. 6460 TES-DV31-6223 Bored Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles

EDMS No. 6461 TES-DV33-4621 Building Foundations and Underslab Drainage

Internal References – Documents Referenced by this Specification (US)

EDMS No. 4431061 TES-CI-STEEL-GLE Structural Steel and Miscellaneous Metal Specification (US)

EDMS No. 4431032 TES-DV03-1000-US Concrete Formwork

EDMS No. 4431052 TES-DV03-2000-US Concrete Reinforcement

EDMS No. 4431054 TES-DV03-3000-US Cast-in-Place Concrete

EDMS No. 4431055 TES-DV03-6100-US Grouting of Heavy Machinery

EDMS No. 8040019 TES-DV13-3420-US Pre-Engineered Skid Building

EDMS No. 7331849 TES-DV31-6223-US Bored Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles

EDMS No. 4431004 TES-DV33-4621-US Building Foundations and Underslab Drainage

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Next Review Date: 2020-Jan-16

11 DOCUMENT HISTORY

Rev.
01 Description Effective Date
Revised document 2017-Jan-16
Rationale Statement Responsible Engineer
This document was revised in order to address the following requirements:
 Reformatting of specification TES-STRU-DES.
Nora Zhao
 Addition of fall protection requirements.
 General updates.
Impact Assessment Summary Document Owner
Nora Zhao

12 DESCRIPTION OF CHANGE
Section Description of Change
Regulatory
N/A N/A
Industry Standards
N/A N/A
General
Section 6 Addition of fall protection requirements.

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