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Ministry of Defence

Defence Standard 02-747


Issue 2 Publication Date 19 November 2004

Requirements For Nickel Aluminium


Bronze Castings And Ingots

Part 2

Nickel Aluminium Bronze Naval Alloy


Ingots and Sand Castings With Welding
Permitted To The Wetted Surface

Category 2
AMENDMENTS ISSUED SINCE PUBLICATION

AMD NO DATE OF TEXT AFFECTED SIGNATURE &


ISSUE DATE

Revision Note

This Issue of this Standard has been prepared to incorporate changes to text and presentation. The
technical content has been updated in line with current practice.

Historical Record

Defence Standard (Def Stan) 02-747 Part 2 Issue 1 dated 01 April 2000.
Naval Engineering Standard (NES) 747 Part 2 Issue 3 dated January 1995.
Naval Engineering Standard (NES) 747 Part 2 Issue 2 dated March 1987.
Naval Engineering Standard (NES) 747 Part 2 Issue 1.
DG SHIPS 348.
DEF STAN 02-747(PART 2)/2

CONTENT

DESCRIPTION Page

CONTENT 1

PREFACE 2

MAIN TEXT 3

SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 3

1 SCOPE 3

2 WARNING 3

3 RELATED DOCUMENTS 3

4 DEFINITIONS 5

5 ABBREVIATIONS 6

SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 6

6 CHEMICAL SPECIFICATION 6

7 HEAT TREATMENT 8

8 MECHANICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS 8

9 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION 9

10 RECTIFICATION OF DEFECTS 11

11 QUALITY ASSURANCE 14

SECTION 3 CORPORATE EXPERIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE 15

12 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 15

13 TECHNICAL NOTE 16

PROCUREMENT CHECKLIST - ANNEX A 17

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DEF STAN 02-747(PART 2)/2

PREFACE

Standards for Defence

Requirements for Nickel Aluminium Bronze Castings and Ingots

Part 2

Nickel Aluminium Bronze Naval Alloy Ingots and Sand Castings With Welding
Permitted To The Wetted Surface

a. This standard provides requirements for the physical characteristics, test methods and
acceptance standards of cast nickel aluminium bronze naval alloy ingots and sand castings
with welding permitted to the wetted surface. The complete standard comprises:

Requirements for Nickel Aluminium Bronze (NAB) Castings and Ingots


Part 1: Nickel Aluminium Bronze Naval Alloy Centrifugally Cast
Part 2: Nickel Aluminium Bronze Naval Alloy Ingots and Sand Castings with Welding
Permitted to the Wetted Surface
Part 3: Nickel Aluminium Bronze Commercial Alloy Sand Castings and Ingots
Part 4: Nickel Aluminium Bronze Naval Alloy Sand Castings with Welding Restricted
to the Non-Wetted Surface (Class I and II Castings Only).
Part 5: The Design and Manufacture of Nickel Aluminium Bronze Sand Castings

b. This standard has been produced on behalf of the Defence Materiel Standardization
Committee (DMSC) by the Defence Procurement Agency, Ministry of Defence (MOD)

c. This standard has been agreed by the authorities concerned with its use and is
intended to be used whenever relevant in all future designs, contracts, orders etc. and
whenever practicable by amendment to those already in existence. If any difficulty arises
which prevents application of the Defence Standard, the UK Defence Standardization
(DStan) shall be informed so that a remedy may be sought.

d. Any enquiries regarding this standard in relation to an invitation to tender or a


contract in which it is incorporated are to be addressed to the responsible technical or
supervising authority named in the invitation to tender or contract.

e. Compliance with this Defence Standard shall not in itself relieve any person from any
legal obligations imposed upon them.

f. This standard has been devised solely for the use of the Ministry of Defence (MOD)
and its contractors in the execution of contracts for the MOD. To the extent permitted by
law, the MOD hereby excludes all liability whatsoever and howsoever arising (including,
but without limitation, liability resulting from negligence) for any loss or damage however
caused when the standard is used for any other purpose.

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DEF STAN 02-747(PART 2)/2

MAIN TEXT

Standards for Defence

Requirements for Nickel Aluminium Bronze Castings and Ingots

Part 2

Nickel Aluminium Bronze Naval Alloy Ingots and Sand Castings With Welding
Permitted to The Wetted Surface

SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1 SCOPE

1.1 This standard provides requirements for the physical characteristics, test methods
and acceptance standards of cast nickel aluminium bronze naval alloy ingots and sand
castings with welding permitted to the wetted surface.

1.2 In accordance with the classification of castings given in Def Stan 02-863, this
standard may be used for:

a. Propellers.
b. Class I and II castings which will not come into contact with sea water.
c. Large/complex Class I and II castings which may come into contact with sea
water providing that MOD contractual approval is granted.
d. Class III castings.

1.3 This standard does not cover the use of material for:

a. Submarine castings in first level systems.


b. Non first level submarine castings that may come into contact with seawater,
except as indicated in Clause 1.2c above.

2 WARNING

The Ministry of Defence (MOD), like its contractors, is subject to both United Kingdom
and European laws regarding Health and Safety at Work, without exemption. All Defence
Standards either directly or indirectly invoke the use of processes and procedures that could
be injurious to health if adequate precautions are not taken. Defence Standards or their use
in no way absolves users from complying with statutory and legal requirements relating to
Health and Safety at Work.

3 RELATED DOCUMENTS

3.1 The publications shown below are referred to in the text of this standard.
Publications are grouped and listed in alpha numeric order.

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DEF STAN 02-747(PART 2)/2

SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Designation Title

BS 375:1993 Specification for Refined Nickel


BS 6208:1990 Method for Ultrasonic Testing of Ferritic Steel
Castings Including Quality Levels
BS EN 1976:1998 Copper and Copper Alloys, Cast Unwrought Copper
Products
BS EN 1978:1998 Copper and Copper Alloys, Copper Cathodes
BS EN 1982:1999 Specification for Copper Alloy Ingots and Copper
Alloy and High Conductivity Copper Castings
BS EN 10002-1:2001 Tensile Testing Of Metallic Materials, Part 1: Method
of Test at Ambient Temperature
BS 2M 54:1991 Specification for Temperature Control in the Heat
Treatment of Metals
DEF STAN 03-1 Impregnation of Porous Castings
DEF STAN 02-729 Requirements for Non–Destructive Examination
Methods:
Part 1: Radiographic, Part 4: Liquid Penetrant, Part 5:
Ultrasonic
DEF STAN 02-771 Requirements Procedure and Inspection for Weld
Repair of Copper Alloy and Nickel Alloy Castings
DEF STAN 02-863 Requirements for the Classification, Dimensions,
Tolerances and General Standards of Acceptance for
Copper and Nickel Alloy Castings
DEF STAN 02-872 Procedures for First Level Nickel Aluminium Bronze
Castings, Part 2: Validation
DPT 1311 Validation Procedure for Existing Finished Machined
Castings

3.2 Reference in this standard to any related document means in any invitation to
tender or contract the edition and all amendments current at the date of such tender or
contract unless a specific edition is indicated.

3.3 In consideration of 3.2 above, users shall be fully aware of the issue and
amendment status of all related documents, particularly when forming part of an invitation
to tender or contract. Responsibility for the correct application of standards rests with
users.

3.4 DStan can advise regarding where related documents are obtained from. Requests
for such information can be made to the DStan Helpdesk. How to contact the helpdesk is
shown on the outside rear cover of Def Stans.

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DEF STAN 02-747(PART 2)/2

SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

4 DEFINITIONS

For the purpose of this standard the following definitions shall apply:

4.1 Acceptance Authority

Either the MOD department/IPT or prime contractor specified in the contract as being
responsible for design.

4.2 Approved Scrap

Scrap that is derived from nickel aluminium bronze, the composition of which has been
established with regard to the complete range of both the alloying elements and impurity
elements and is segregated and identifiable to the satisfaction of the Acceptance Authority.

4.3 Cast

The product of one furnace or crucible melt, or the product of a number of furnace or
crucible melts where such are aggregated and mixed prior to sampling.

4.4 Contractor

The Firm, Company, Organisation, or Establishment working within the scope of this
standard.

4.5 Ingots

A mass of metal of proportions to suit the Founder’s requirements.

4.6 Large/Complex castings

Castings which the Acceptance Authority considers are liable to require weld repair on the
wetted surfaces during manufacture.

4.7 Pinpoint Porosity

Any circular bleed out of less than 0.5mm diameter revealed during liquid penetrant
examination in accordance with Def Stan 02-729 Part 4.

4.8 Wetted Surface

A surface that will come into contact with sea water.

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DEF STAN 02-747(PART 2)/2

SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

5 ABBREVIATIONS

Designation Title

IPT Integrated Project Team


NAB Nickel Aluminium Bronze
NES Naval Engineering Standard

SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION

6 CHEMICAL SPECIFICATION

6.1 Ingots

6.1.1 Ingots for casting stock are to be cast from virgin metals as follows:

Nickel To the chemical composition requirements of BS375: Grade R99.9.

Iron Iron of high purity, 99.5% w/w, with a carbon content of less than
0.05% w/w.

Aluminium Commercially very pure Grade 99.90% w/w.

Copper Copper that complies with either BS EN 1976 (designation Cu-


ETP) or BS EN 1978 (designation Cu-CATH-2).

Manganese High purity electrolytic grade.

6.1.2 A full chemical analysis is required from a sample piece taken from each ingot. The
analysis is to conform to the chemical composition specified in Table 1.

Element Per Cent By Weight


Not Less Than Not More Than
Aluminium 8.9 9.6
Iron* 4.0 5.0
Nickel* 4.5 5.5
Manganese 1.0 1.4
Copper (by difference) Remainder
Impurities
Zinc - 0.05
Lead - 0.01
Tin - 0.05
Silicon - 0.05

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SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS

Element Per Cent By Weight


Magnesium - 0.05
Chromium - 0.01
Total Impurities - 0.20
* Nickel content is to be greater than iron content

Table 1- Chemical Composition of Ingots

6.2 Castings

6.2.1 Only the manufacturer’s own approved scrap as defined in Clause 4.2 may be
included in the cast. No other scrap is permitted. Following acceptance of the analysis from
the melt, no further additions are permitted prior to pouring into the mould.

6.2.2 All ingots used are to be of known quality in accordance with Clause 11.3.

6.2.3 A full chemical analysis is required from a sample piece taken from each cast. The
analysis is to conform to the chemical composition specified in Table 2.

Element Per Cent By Weight


Not Less Than Not More Than
Aluminium 8.8 9.5
Iron* 4.0 5.0
Nickel* 4.5 5.5
Manganese 0.75 1.3
Copper (by difference) Remainder
Impurities
Zinc - 0.05
Lead - 0.01
Tin - 0.05
Silicon - 0.10
Magnesium - 0.05
Chromium - 0.01
Total Impurities - 0.25
* Nickel content is to be greater than iron content

Table 2- Chemical Composition of Castings

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DEF STAN 02-747(PART 2)/2

SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION

7 HEAT TREATMENT

7.1 All castings and associated mechanical test pieces are to be heat treated at 675°C ±
15°C for a minimum period of six hours. The castings are to be supported as necessary
during the heat treatment to prevent excessive distortion. The furnace temperature must not
exceed 300°C when loading the castings or test pieces. After a minimum of six hours at
675°C ± 15°C the castings and test pieces are to be removed from the furnace and cooled to
room temperature in still air. Heat treatment of test pieces may be carried out separately
from the castings they represent.

7.2 Any necessary weld repairs, as allowed by Clause 10, should be carried out before
heat treatment. In the event that further weld repair is required after heat treatment, the
casting is to be heat treated for a second time. No further heat treatments are permitted.

7.3 Heat treatment of castings and test pieces shall be carried out in a furnace that
complies with the temperature control guidelines specified in BS 2M 54. The sulphur
content of the furnace atmosphere is to be less than 0.005g/m3 .

8 MECHANICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS

8.1 Tensile tests to BS EN 10002-1 are to be carried out on specimens prepared from
test bars made in accordance with BS EN 1982 Section 8.2.2. Test bars are to be taken from
the same melt as the castings they represent. It is advised that three tensile test specimens
are made to enable re-tests in the event of failure of the initial test specimen. The tensile test
result is to conform to the data given in Table 3.

8.2 Re-tests. Should the original test specimen fail to meet acceptance standards, two
further heat treated specimens from the same cast may be broken in accordance with BS EN
10002-1. Both tensile test results are to conform to Table 3.

Tensile Strength 0.2% Proof Stress Elongation


(N/mm2) (N/mm2) (Per Cent)
=620 =250 =15

Table 3 – Mechanical Properties


Note – The mechanical properties of actual castings may fall below the minima values
quoted for test bars in the above table. All design calculations must take this into
consideration. Please refer to Clause 13 for further information.

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DEF STAN 02-747(PART 2)/2

SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION

9 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION

9.1 Examination Procedure

9.1.1 Reference diagrams according to Def Stan 02-863 are to be provided by the purchaser
for all Class I and Class II castings to show Critical Test Regions and Test Regions which
are to be subjected to non–destructive testing.

9.1.2 The manufacturer is to subject Critical Test Regions and Test Regions to either 100%
radiographic or 100% ultrasonic examination. This examination is to be carried out after the
heat treatment specified by Clause 7.1. If subsequent weld repairs are required, the repaired
areas are to be further examined, in accordance with Clauses 9.2 to 9.7, after the additional
heat treatment specified in Clause 7.2. Re-examination of other areas is not a requirement in
this instance. The weld repaired casting must satisfy the requirements of Clause 9.7.

9.2 Dimensional Check.

9.2.1 All castings are to be fully dimensionally checked.

9.2.2 Dimensions are to comply with the component drawing, and the requirements of Def
Stan 02-863.

9.3 Visual–Optical.

9.3.1 All castings are to be 100% visually inspected, assisted where necessary, by the use of
x5 magnification optics. All imperfections are to be identified and recorded.

9.3.2 The finished condition of all surfaces is to be clean and free from cracks or linear
defects. Rounded forms of surface defects are unacceptable in Critical Test Regions and
Test Regions but may be acceptable in Non–Designated Regions at the discretion of the
Acceptance Authority.

NOTE Defects are deemed to be rounded when aspect ratio of length to width is 3:1 or
less.

9.3.3 The surface finish is to meet the standard specified in the contract documents and
drawings.

9.4 Liquid–Penetrant

9.4.1 It is recommended that 100% liquid–penetrant examination, in accordance with Def


Stan 02-729 Part 4, is carried out on all Class I and Class II castings before any machining
operations are commenced to prevent nugatory work.

9.4.2 Where practicable, a 100% liquid penetrant inspection is to be undertaken on all


surfaces of Class I and Class II castings with the surfaces examined in their finished
condition.

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SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION

9.4.3 Indications of cracks, hot tears or chain–like porosity and surface oxide inclusions in
linear formations are not acceptable.

9.4.4 Indications arising from porosity and surface oxide inclusions in non–linear
formations are to be assessed as follows:

1. Isolated pinpoint porosity is acceptable except in areas where sealing of


a housing against a running shaft is required, eg pump glands, propeller
shaft seals etc, and in flexible couplings.
2. Clustered pinpoint porosity and other defects are acceptable provided
that:

a. For a section thickness <50mm, the maximum size of any


indication is not to exceed 3mm diameter bleed out, and the
sum of the diameters of all indications in an area of 70 x 70mm
is not to exceed 24mm.
b. For a section thickness >50mm, the maximum size of any
indication is not to exceed 3mm diameter bleed out, and the
sum of the diameters of all indications in an area of 70 x 70mm
is not to exceed 36mm.

9.4.5 The indications identified in Clause 9.4.4 are acceptable providing that the immediate
area of the casting is acceptable when examined for sub–surface defects.

9.4.6 There may be instances where machined surfaces of castings manufactured to this
standard require more stringent acceptance standards than those specified in Clause 9.4.4.
Where necessary this requirement is to be clearly stated in the contract documents and is to
be the subject of discussion between the purchaser and the contractor prior to manufacture
of the castings.

9.5 Radiography

9.5.1 Radiography is to be carried out in compliance with Def Stan 02-729 Part 1. All sub–
surface imperfections are to be identified for subsequent assessment in accordance with the
acceptance standards.

9.5.2 Radiographic Examination of Non–Designated Regions on a Sample Basis

In certain circumstances examination by radiography on a sample basis may be specified by


contract or drawings to establish that a satisfactory general quality of product is being
supplied. Typical examples are:

1. Lowly stressed Class II castings.


2. Sample positions on large Class II or Class III castings.
3. Batch supply of Class III castings.

9.5.3 Acceptance Standards are defined in Def Stan 02-863.

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SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION

9.6 Ultrasonic Examination

9.6.1 Ultrasonic examination is to be carried out in compliance with Def Stan 02-729 Part 5.
All sub–surface imperfections are to be identified for subsequent assessment in accordance
with the acceptance standards. Where ultrasonic examination is used the assessment of the
casting is to be confirmed by radiography of selected areas. A minimum of 10% of the total
area examined by ultrasonics is to be radiographed.

NOTE The grain structure of cast nickel aluminium bronze may preclude inspection by
ultrasonics. The suitability for ultrasonic inspection is to be assessed in accordance with BS
6208 Clauses 9.2 and 9.3.

9.6.2 Any defect that causes a signal greater than or equal to the signal produced by the
approved calibration standard is to be deemed unacceptable and the casting repaired or
rejected. Where the backwall echo is attenuated by 40% or greater, the examination by
ultrasonics is unacceptable and radiography in accordance with Clause 9.5 is to be
employed.

9.7 Pressure Tests

When stated in the contract the castings are to be subjected to the specified water pressure
test for a minimum period of 15 minutes. Certain castings may require longer periods of
pressure testing. When necessary this will be specified in the contract. Each casting is to
show no evidence of leakage.

10 RECTIFICATION OF DEFECTS

10.1 Defects

Any casting may be rejected for defects discovered during subsequent machining
notwithstanding that the casting had been passed previously as conforming to this standard.

10.2 Rectification of Dimensional Defects by Weld Deposition

10.2.1 Correction of casting dimensions and machining errors may be made by weld
deposition using an approved procedure for the material concerned and shall be within the
following limits:

1. Weld deposition thickness to be restricted to either:


a. 20% of contract drawing section thickness when section thickness
is between 12mm and 50mm.
b. A maximum of 10mm when section thickness is above 50mm.

2. Area of weld deposition in Critical Test Regions and Test Regions to be


restricted to 10% of the inner or outer surface area of the region, not
including flange thicknesses and webs, subject to any limitations
imposed by Clause 10.6.

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SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION

3. Area of weld deposition in non–designated regions is to be restricted to


20% of the inner or outer surface area of the region not including flange
thickness and webs.

10.2.2 Weld build–up exceeding the tolerance on contract drawing section thickness is
to be a reason for rejection.

10.3 Rectification of Surface Defects by Blending

10.3.1 Unacceptable surface defects may be excavated by an approved process,


providing the resulting depression does not reduce the contract drawing section thickness by
more than 5mm for section thickness over 50mm, or 10% of section thicknesses up to and
including 50mm. The excavation is to be smooth, and all sharp edges are to be removed.

10.3.2 The depression sides and ends are to be smoothly blended out by a minimum
radius of three times the maximum depth of blending and the edge formed with the surface
is also to be faired smooth. The remaining section thickness in way of the depression is to
be free from sub–surface defects as revealed by radiography or ultrasonics, in Critical Test
Regions and Test Regions. The total area subjected to blending, including the area affected
by the fairing, is not to exceed 10% of any designated region or 20% of any non–designated
region.

10.3.3 In some instances extensive blending of surface defect excavations is


unnecessary, and where approval is granted from the relevant acceptance authority, an
excavation prepared in accordance with Clause 10.3.1 may be acceptable without carrying
out the operations described in Clause 10.3.2.

10.3.4 Rectification by blending is not permitted where this encroaches on any bearing
or sealing surface.

NOTE Blending out of surface defects is preferable to weld repair whenever possible.

10.4 Rectification of Surface and Sub–Surface Defects by Welding

Unacceptable surface defects which cannot be blended out within the limitations of Clause
10.3 and unacceptable sub–surface defects may be repaired by welding using an approved
procedure for the material concerned in accordance with Def Stan 02-771 and within the
following limits:

1. Area of excavation in Critical Test Regions and Test Regions is to be


restricted to 10% of the surface area of the region, not including flange
thicknesses and webs, subject to any limitations imposed by Clause
10.6.
2. Area of excavation in non–designated regions is to be restricted to 20%
of the inner or outer surface area of the region, not including flange
thicknesses and webs.

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SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION

10.5 Limits on Individual Sub–Surface Repairs

Any individual repair in Critical Test Regions shall not exceed 5% of the test area
containing the defect. In Test Regions any individual repair shall not exceed 10% of test
area containing the defect.

10.6 Limits on Combined Weld Repairs

The total combined area of weld repairs from all causes, eg dimensional correction, surface
and sub–surface defects is to be within the following limits:

1. Total weld repair area of Class I and Class II castings is not to exceed
10% of the surface area of the casting, excluding flange thicknesses and
webs.
2. The total weld repair area of Class III castings is not to exceed 20% of
the surface area of the casting excluding flange thicknesses and webs.

10.7 Impregnation

10.7.1 Impregnation will not be accepted as a recovery procedure for Class I castings.

10.7.2 Impregnation is recognised as a recovery procedure for Class II and III castings
with the following limitations:

1. The procedure shall be in accordance with Def Stan 03-1.


2. Class II castings may be impregnated, but only with the prior written
approval of the Acceptance Authority.
3. Class III castings may be impregnated, with the prior approval of the
Acceptance Authority.
4. The area of leakage necessitating remedial action does not exceed 10%
of;

a. the Test Region containing the defect in Class II castings.


b. the total area pressure tested in non–designated regions in
Class II and Class III castings.

10.8 Special Repairs

Where the repairs necessary to meet the acceptance standards are more extensive than are
permitted by this specification and if it is considered that effective economical repair is
possible the contractor’s repair proposals, in accordance with Def Stan 02-771 may be
submitted to the Acceptance Authority for decision.

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SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION

11 QUALITY ASSURANCE

11.1 Identification of Ingots

Each ingot is to be attributed to a unique cast number to positively identify it with respect to
its quality assurance documentation.

11.2 Identification of Castings

11.2.1 Each casting is to be clearly identifiable during manufacture and be permanently


marked for identification during service life with the following details:

1. Pattern or Ship’s Identity Number plus 02-747 Pt2.


2. Class of casting, ie CI, CII, CIII.
3. The legend ‘NAB’.
4. The unique cast number which can be related to the quality control
documentation.
NOTE Castings subject to validation in accordance with DPT 1311/ Def Stan 02-872
Part 2 are to be marked in accordance with that specification in addition to the requirements
of this Clause.

11.2.2 The markings detailed in Clause 11.2.1 are to be stamped, engraved or vibro–
etched in the position indicated on the drawing. Markings are to be as conspicuous as the
nature of the casting allows and provision is to be made for transferring identification
markings during manufacture so that traceability is maintained throughout the service life of
a casting. The markings are not to be made on the highly stressed region, eg Critical Test
Regions of the casting.

11.2.3 Where difficulty is being experienced in satisfactorily applying identification


symbols, this is to be resolved by consulting the Project Manager.

11.3 Quality Assurance Documentation

11.3.1 Each consignment of ingots is to be accompanied by Quality Assurance


Documentation providing the results of the melt control analysis and the results of the
chemical analysis specified in Clause 6.1.2.

11.3.2 Each consignment of castings is to be accompanied by Quality Assurance


Documentation giving the actual results of the tests carried out and a certificate of
compliance with this standard.

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SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION

11.4 Packaging

Except where otherwise stated in the contract, packaging is to be in accordance with the
contractor’s normal practice subject to the affixing of a trade warning label and the addition
of the following identification details on each package or case:

1. Description of castings.
2. Quantity.
3. Contract Number.

SECTION 3 CORPORATE EXPERIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE

12 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

12.1 In the 1960s shock tests on gunmetal hull valves showed failures. Nickel
aluminium bronze (NAB) was selected as a replacement alloy for submarine hull valves and
all first level systems.

12.2 NAB was initially produced to DGS 8452. DGS 8520F was later introduced as a
higher strength variant with tighter compositional limits.

12.3 In the early 1970s material to these specifications were found to suffer from severe
selective phase corrosion. Considerable research into this corrosion problem and the
underlying metallurgy of this generic alloy was conducted at AML (Admiralty Materials
Laboratory) and CDL (Central Dockyard Laboratory). It was established that
electrochemical differences between the various metallurgical phases present within the
casting led to localised dissolution of specific phases. Some studies showed that corrosion
initiated in the copper rich alpha phase but spread to the κIII phase after an induction period.
Research effort was focussed on identifying a heat treatment to modify the microstructure in
such a way as to ensure that the κIII phase did not form a continuous network through the
material.

12.4 In 1975, a new specification DGS 348 was introduced, which incorporated a
specific heat treatment. As a consequence of this history there evolved a number of
distinctly different NAB specifications in common use.

- DGS 8452 - original commercial alloy,


- DGS 8520F – higher strength variant by compositional restrictions,
- DGS 348 – higher strength variant incorporating heat treatment for better corrosion
performance.

12.5 These specifications were later changed to the Naval Engineering Standards Series
as NES747.

- Part 2 – Naval alloy – from DGS 348


- Part 3 – Commercial alloy – from DGS 8452

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SECTION 3 CORPORATE EXPERIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE

12.6 The corrosion performance of NAB weld repairs was found to be particularly poor.
The weld metal was principally of a matching composition to the cast, but its
microstructure, and that of the modified heat affected zone, was found to be susceptible to
selective phase corrosion. To overcome these problems in seawater system components it
was proposed that all weld repaired castings be post weld heat treated in the same manner as
in DGS 348. However, it was later found that the heat treatment of weld repairs did not
provide sufficient improvement in corrosion performance. As a consequence the weld repair
of certain castings was not permitted on the wetted face. To specifically cover this
application, NES 747 Part 4 was written based on the Part 2 alloy but with this welding
restriction.

12.7 These NES 747 documents were transferred to the Defence Standard Series in 2000
as Def Stan 02-747. Apart from minor reformating, there was no technical amendments
between the last issue of the NES 747 Parts and the first issue of Def Stan 02-747 Parts.

12.8 Def Stan 02-747 Part 2 Issue 2 is a redrafted standard using the Def Stan template.
This redrafted document attempts to clarify some of the areas of confusion, together with
addressing technical issues raised by interested parties, users and commercial suppliers.

13 TECHNICAL NOTE

13.1 It should be noted that the mechanical properties listed in Table 3 within this Def
Stan 02-747 Part 2 document relate only to the requirements placed on material from test
bars for the purposes of ensuring compliance with this standard. They do not relate directly
to the expected mechanical properties of actual components. All design calculations should
take into account that actual components, particularly those with a large section thickness,
are likely to exhibit properties that are somewhat lower than those listed for test pieces in
Table 3. A test program examining the mechanical properties of actual NAB components
has revealed that a proof stress of 220 MPa is a more realistic estimate for large castings
manufactured to this standard (DERA Report DERA/MSS/MSMA1/CR003200). It should
also be noted that BS1400 calls for a factor of 1.4 to be used when determining the
minimum expected proof stress of copper alloy sand castings in relation to typical test bar
results. In the case of NAB this would relate to a value of 180 MPa.

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DEF STAN 02-747(PART 2)/2

ANNEX A
PROCUREMENT CHECKLIST
Notes:

1. This Check List is to ensure that certain aspects of this standard are
consulted when preparing a Statement of Requirements for a particular
application.
2. Clauses where a preference for an option is to be used or where specific
data is to be added are included in the Check List.
3. Each item is to be marked either
3 = included
NA = not included

Check No. Check Clause No. 3 or NA


1 Approval for castings to be used 1.2
in contact with seawater.
2 Surface finish to be specified. 9.3.3
3 Liquid penetrant acceptance 9.4.6
standards for machined surfaces.
4 Radiographic examination of 9.5.2
non-designated regions on a
sample basis.
5 Pressure tests. 9.7
6 Blending of surface defects. 10.3.3
7 Impregnation of castings. 10.7.2
8 Packaging. 11.4

17
DEF STAN 02-747(PART 2)/2

Intentionally Left Blank

18
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